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. . .

spmih vecim, raise wi-w-i dabmtee~esgqd*

Fbdly, how did C

m 4Iac.i4


resource, its m e ? An imlporWhilemanynqpd-~


s ~ of tnmcy, or perhaps Juan de Zirate Chac6nfs & e

b t e and recover his own encomiemh r& d such an endeavor, and thus discouraged orbs a cam&m~ from investing the time and the resources.


qp& @]mf hdia.m 356

has suggested, the Spanish conquest o dm f *me of h most dynamic mavemeats of p q d a e


Whih no wmk

611 c

o l d New G m

colonial period, the growth & REe welfare and prosperity of their &&e fields and harvested their fruits. h b m &amhe, convents and monasteries, brid$es,

were addressed i Spain, and in 1564, n And& Venero de Leiva, received ofkid
risingly, given the rehtiveb weak

was never enforced." attempted t reach a co o Granada's e n c o m e h ~

bk who made the atduous journey did so in adkb mmk, a d mantas in the mining areas. T e p d h , QT h &l8em, were thea used to help meet their cmmm&fs
rsd &b%ty of Muiaca cornunities i " that &e overall number of in Tunja and i ViUa de n

159% d h:.lfminisestor of indios r n i t a y ~ ~ ~ondb, x jupn klPmoms, Catillo, and Amador Phez set rnfa mrnr'epfda of Iguaque to retrieve s o m Mm h v e served in Villa de Leivas alquiler g e d . en were met by Wars's ad Camiflo, as well as the local priest, Antolrio the reason for their visit and o f d a d the Ltmdi;ms who were required to save the Villa i Leiva. Cadb k

it as a thteat to the stability, and o his excmkndandaf0 a f Perhaps k d q h h the d t y of the

The Chwn's second major

i some pueblos, tho lack of d m n

n. i

with their wives and children) shodd be seat

e tbreat of the mita, more than


fol. %a,

e 1 . por desthwi6n de ca m kjas, F=, ~ a t AGNC, ,

de sw


dC%-hlwota+mpmtsctor~- lo
Arm R. .

K r m ~ ~ i e . p o r * ~ ~ ~ ~ d @
a -


w e

fled to other regions. , plsbb of OCELvita, told Rodrlgua that htrhr & cvrpitanfa were a few old men; he t d d d @bbrln ladresistance to the mitu) that bhe grormg atagi m l y had been sent t La9 Lab nevg m t m d o oftheir
d d t ev e wb -

eoth the uIqui/er gmoral and the mita p w d (o b ; l ' b Qar m indhm in early colonial Tunja. However, -c ) l n of tbae policiea should not be overemphae~. m ( b ~ o a , u p ratd be wrong t assume that either policy played n rok i & o . &wm of Muiau o~mmunities.~ total number of Wm i*dr~ The im aaha the rniro or the olquiler general represented on$ a w I, pwti#a of the province's overall population, In addition to the I n d h d o served in the alquiler, the tots] n u m b pmM.11~ sever exceeded more than a few hundred per year! swh as these, then, one wonders why migration a ummon feature of early colonial Tunja. It d ~ u l d recognized that the mov be s Eastem Highlands was not entirely ample, it was common for Muisclt


l there is evidence t Baggest that SW& ~ , a



r k

the precise ma%amts t &om e one region or town to


the stability of Muisca caciccxzgos and,

stability ofthe entire colony. In 1569, the thoindividual caciques and encornen subjects whom they discovered living in o k

ed as far away as Quito, Eethe vast majority of the missing Indians

for example,


iego de Ri&als eampigil provsd tam; less than ten years law, the C r m a p

k 1
s w

mabus played sol


281 ofthcm whirl w ~ & j h l m i ffam Chi ~;


BPUV-s-i.-iq rc(lld.aot~less~trily~cb*&~*w~-evm--

receive a s s sil b mcomnderos, some of whom bad &o r lsrtrJaregr W m t In&-. For aemrple, P* J

k w

him to ignore his f d n s and to nat rei mig Cbiramita who were said t have o r i g b t d o ofT a When Valtima refused the reqoEIt @ @,& Indim i question, MaIchah od n him io the church until he changed

Plld captahs had diff1cuIty sephtimg


por Jusepe de Valtl

rning to Tinjach or remainink

thpt she return).
ydpe de Valtierra, juez de comisic U F a d o Caciques c hdios, leg. 3, 4 r0 ds Valtima, juez de camisio~. ~ . - J do Caciques e hdios, leg. 3, no. 367 b V & h a jucz de comisibn jmisdicl Mipun e hdios, leg. 3, no.36,fols comisi6n, jWisdicci0n de Vdtierra, juez d me Indi0s, leg. 3, no.36, folm 790r


i the pueblo. Sao e x p l d to n


away, ten or twehre bohius in the rmddte J

-- - -.=s@Wel?cr, d U s ~ b j e c t s l o - ~ ~ = ~ 1 m frOm Bqack &@#&& acSrr to uphold Enriqumk origbpl ad-7s local f ~ the r e v & , r ~w~ t view the relocation pw o rm of Enriquez's assip d &-&G h a of Crown officials in the regioa. h @ with the resgumdo of Nobsa, the assignment g bad chosen a poo~ \ocatim for the h&am t o hgimeza and Tibasosa botb refused t move o d e n c i a ' s president was forced C ~ I W ~


U L b -


'''@'ia econdmic4 6748.

Feturned to their old pueblos,

at the inhabibants

at Gmvitebas had not 4

who h& little n m ** ' axmomic realities, a180 cwleELgd w . ~ ~ ~ r v d o The d system. w-o f makes ell of these theories highly conj-, hf internal conflict. F c-~c, a dc during his 1635-1636 general i s ~ l & nm ~ tha( lands in Samacti had been complacty wnpod by am, leaving Indians from C h a w withnu aag Fdermore, the visitador reported that the catl exclusive access to the best lamb in tle y mcases, I dm who retuned from their ni y m in mines found that their old l I a & d p;~l &&&rdiesbhdlnmd~*- v..dala .

ld competition between a -

m s influence and resources could help him rec trusnt Indians who disappeared fiom his emumi&, SpDlsb t m c ~ ~ ~ r and Muisca caciques and o s , bm recognized the risk posed by uncontrdkd the benefits of athacling migrants), and it wouM
'a's hidims against excessive

thnrt T#s Tndian be&ebroleb~

report, Emit, T*@h, . 1~t041,

in A w l w