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How to write a research report?

Research is a process of investigation, an examination of a subject from different points of view.


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Its not just a trip to the library to pick up a stack of materials, or picking the

first five hits from a computer search. Research is a hunt for the truth. It is getting to know a subject by reading up on it, reflecting, playing with the ideas, choosing the areas that interest a person and following up on them. Research is the way a person educate himself. There are different types of research on the basis of investigation and analysis, such as, scientific, artistic, historical research, descriptive, explanatory research etc. Writing a research paper is the most important part of conducting a successful research. Every effort will be demolished if it could not be expressed in a good manner. Considering the importance of writing a research report here have the research proceedings pointed out and described understandably. The research proceedings: 1. Select a topic that interests you: Writing the paper itself is not difficult if the topic is already available. Researchers are not provided with the topics because that is the first step in the research that they have to do. Selecting a topic is possibly the most difficult part of doing research. Is it too big? Is it too narrow? Will I be able to find enough data on it? Start by choosing a topic that the researcher likes or is curious about. He or she is going to be working on it for quite a while, so should try and find one that's interesting and that he/ she can reasonably cover in the time and space available. Researchers are not provided with the topics because that is the first step in the research that they have to do. Here are some suggestions for the steps to choose a research topic: [1] Ask yourself what the research paper is all about. It should argue, not just narrate. The research topic should be clear on what it should do. Research the topic. The Internet is a good source. The topic must pose a challenge to you as the writer.

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

Visit some sites about research papers and books. They will provide you with research ideas. Think also about the things that interest you. All you need to focus on your imagination. List as many topics as you can and make a shortlist of the ones that interest you and those topics that are arguable. 2. Introduction Start the report with a paragraph to present the investigated problem, the importance of the study, objectives, and an overview of your research strategy. It is better to label this section. The levels position must be identified in the paper. 2.1 Basic Information Figure out the most basic things of the research, which are not the part of the research but is important to know for doing the research consecutively. 2.2 Background of the research It is important to know about the reason, why the research is conducting by spending lots of time, energy, money etc. So in this subsection the clear background must be disclosed for the readers. 2.3 Importance of the topic The topic of the research must be valid and important for a specific or an overall social or academic field. In this subsection it should be disclosed that, the areas where the research is important and what are the significant effects of doing the research. This subsection creates a perspective for looking at the problem. 2.4 Literature review It is important because it shows what previous researchers have discovered. It is usually quite long and primarily depends upon how much research has previously been done in the area you are planning to investigate. If you are planning to explore a relatively new

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

area, the literature review should cite similar areas of study or studies that lead up to the current research. Never say that your area is so new that no research exists. It is one of the key elements that proposal readers look at when deciding whether or not to approve a proposal. [2] 2.5 Hypotheses After forecasting all the probable outcomes, we have to write down those in this section. 2.6 Objectives Objectives refer to the purpose of the research. The purpose is a single statement or paragraph that explains what the study intends to accomplish. 3 Research Method

This section describes the basic research plan. It usually begins with a few short introductory paragraphs that restate study material, data collection method, and methods of analyzing data.

3.6 Study Material Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Define the population Draw a representative sample from the population Do the research on the sample Infer results from the sample back to the population The location where the study had been done. The field of the study. Such as- Scientific research, Social research etc. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories or in the field.
Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. In bio-sciences we frequently work with solutions - refer to them by name and describe completely, including concentrations of all reagents, and pH of aqueous solutions, solvent if non-aqueous. [3] 3.2 Methods of collecting data 3.2.1 Techniques of selecting samples It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study. Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study. This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn. [4 Here have some popular techniques of sampling: Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an nth name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every nth record is selected from a list of population members. Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to random sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population that shares at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females, or managers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and their actual representation in the population.

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. This non probability method is often used during preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost or time required to select a random sample. Judgment sampling is a common non probability method. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling. For example, a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city, even though the population includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. 3.2.2 Methods of survey In primary data collection, researchers collect the data themselves using methods such as interviews and questionnaires. The key point here is that the data they collect is unique to them and their research and, until they publish, no one else has access to it. There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include: Questionnaires A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. There are two types of Questionnaires Closed questions can make analyzing the data relatively easy, but they restrict the responses. For example, on many courses students are given a standard list of features (e.g. lectures, books, assessment, tutorial support) and asked to indicate on a five point scale how satisfied or dissatisfied they are with the feature. These are highly structured closed questions. The same form may have a space for the student to make any comments he or she

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

wishes to make on the course. This is an open question which will produce almost completely unstructured data. Although the open question produces data that is difficult to organize and code, it allows subjects to respond freely and express shades of opinion rather than forcing them to have structured opinions. Interviews An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. Focus group interviews A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.[5] Observation Observation is an activity of a living being (such as a tribes), consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments. Case-studies A case study is a research methodology common in social science. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. [6] E-mail Email the Questionnaire to unclosed receivers along with the request of replying or responding. Beside these there are various ways of collecting data for research, such as- diaries, critical incidents, portfolios, door-to-door visits etc. 3.3 Methods of analyzing data The analysis plan should be described in detail. Each research question will usually require its individual analysis. Thus, the research questions should be applied one at a
Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

time, followed by a description of the type of statistical tests that will be performed to answer that research question. State what variables will be included in the analyses and identify the dependent and independent variables if such a relationship exists. Decision making criteria should also be stated, as well as the computer software that will be used. 3.4 Limitations In this section we have to mention the limitations of the research which interrupt the research work. Disclosing these may help the next researchers. 4. Prospects of Secondary data sources Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user or and the data is collected from the sources beyond primary source. Common sources of secondary data for research include censuses, surveys, organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research. Primary data, by contrast, are collected by the investigator conducting the research. Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and, particularly in the case of quantitative data, provides larger and higher-quality databases than would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. In addition to that, analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential, since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. [7] This section it must be disclosed that the micro perspective and macro perspective of secondary data sources. 5. Result, Discussion and Findings Discuss the findings in this section that, do the findings support existing theories. Explain why you think you found what you did. Present plausible reasons why the results might

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

have turned out the way they did. If there has any cause and effect and graphs and charts, discuss separately as they give the individual significance and easiest way of recommendation. 6. Conclusion and Recommendation Present recommendations based on the findings. Avoid the temptation to present recommendations based on your own beliefs or biases that are not specifically supported by your data. Recommendations fall into two categories. The first is recommendations to the study sponsor. Actions do you recommend they take based upon the data. The second is recommendations to other researchers. There are almost always ways that a study could be improved or refined. What would you change if you were to do your study over again etc? These are the recommendations to other researchers. 7. References List references in a standard format. APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used format. Example: For Published books or textbooks Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of Book. volume number(issue number if available), Page number. For Article from an Online Periodical Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/ [9] For Online Scholarly Journal ArticleAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. doi:0000000/000000000000 [9]

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

8. Appendix or Notes If there have any addition to a document, such as a book or legal contract, a systematic list of books and other works, a list of words or phrases with pointers of related materials including questionnaire. This is added to the end of a research paper or an article, containing information that is important to, but is not the main idea of the main text. 9. Abbreviations Abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, AIUB. If there is any Abbreviation like AIUB in the research paper, we have to disclose it in this section by writing the full form of that like- American International University Bangladesh. 10. Glossary If there have any local term used in the paper, in the section it should be disclosed. Example: Gram Sarker- Village government.

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

How to write a research report?

References: 1. http://www.howtodothings.com/education/how-to-choose-a-researchpaper-topic 2. http://www.statpac.com/research-papers/research-proposal.htm#chapter-2 3. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/tools/report/reportform.html 4. http://www.statpac.com/surveys/index.htm#toc 5. Henderson, Naomi R. (2009). Managing Moderator Stress: Take a Deep Breath. You Can Do This!. Marketing Research, Vol. 21 Issue 1, p28-29. 6. Shepard, Jon; Robert W. Greene (2003). Sociology and You. Ohio: Glencoe McGraw-Hill. pp. A-22. ISBN 0078285763. 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secondary_data 8. http://brent.tvu.ac.uk/dissguide/hm1u3/hm1u3text3.htm 9. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ 10. http://www.usg.edu/galileo/skills/unit01/infoage01_03.phtml

Hazra Sabbir Hossain

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