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Pharmaceutics Exam 1

1. The fig on the right presents the ADME time course of a drug in the body. Which curve
describes the drug concentration change at the drug absorption site? Check graph.

2. Which of the following statements are true?


a. Pharmacokinetics is the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drug
and their mechanisms of action.
b. Pharmacodynamics is the mathematics to elucidate the time course of drug
concentration in the blood.
c. Pharmacokinetics is the quantitative study of ADME after drug administration via
various routes
d. Bioavailability is how much an active drug ingredient is available at the site of
absorption
e. Absolute bioabailability refers to the availability of a drug product as compared to
another product

3. The following states are true except: Two pharmaceutical equivalents have the same…
a. Two pharmaceutical equivalents have the same active ingredient(s)
b. Same dosage form
c. Same route of administration
d. Same release mechanism
e. Same strength or concentration

4. The following factors can cause low bioavailability of an oral drug product except:
a. Insufficient time in GI tract
b. Fast degradation in the GI tract
c. Fast drug absorption in the GI tract
d. Intestinal secretion of drug by transporters
e. First-pass metabolism by liver

5. Which of the following examples is a drug delivery system intended for local delivery?
a. Transdermal delivery of nicotine from a patch
b. Transdermal delivery of nitroglycerin froma patch for chest pain
c. sublingual delivery of nitroglycerin for chest pain
d. Oral delivery of antacid suspension to neutralize excess gastric acid
e. oral delivery of acetaminophen for muscle pain

6. Which of the following routes of administration has hepatic first pass effects
a. peroral drug delivery
b. transdermal drug delivery
c. intravenous injection
d. topical delivery
e. vaginal delivery
7. Which of the following routes is used for local effect only?
a. sublingual route
b. pulmonary route
c. rectal route
d. otic route
e. nasal route

8) According to overtone’s rule:


a. The cell membranes are composed of protein transporters that transport water
molecules
b. The cell membranes are compsod of protein transporters that transport ionic
molecules
c. the cell membranes are composd of lipids which are diffusible by hydrophilic
molecules
d. the more ionic a molecule is, the greater its membrane permeability
e. the more lipophilic a molecule is, the greater its membrane permeability

9. Which of the following transported do not need ATP to provide energy?


a. primary transporters
b. secondary transporters
c. facilitative transporters
d. solute carrier transporters (SLC)
e. P-glycoproteins

10. The following statements are true except:


a. the polarized cells have two discrete regions of plasma with the same compositions
and functions.
b. the polarized cells on the biological barriers have apical and basolateral domains.
c. polarized cells are found in the intestine & BBB tissues
d. Therapeutic index is the ratio between min toxic concentration and minimum
effective concentration
e. Therapeutic index is the bigger the better

11. The Pglycoprotein is located at


a. both sides of the GI tract epitheliu cell
b. b. the basolateral side of the GI tract epithelium cell
c. c. the basolateral site of the GI tract blood vessel
d. The apical side of the blood vessel epithelium cell at blood brain barrier
e. Both sides of the blood vessel epithelium cell at blood brain barrier

12. The BCRP belongs to the transporter family of


a. ABCA
b. ABCB
c. ABCC
d. ABCD
e. ABCG
13. Which of the following transporters are efflux pumps?
MRPs

14. Which of the following statements is true?


a. concerted transport across polarized cells uses efflux pumps on both apical and
basolateral domains to move drugs out of the cells
b. Concerted transport across polarized cells uses influx pumps on both apical and
basolateral domains to move drugs into the cells
c. Concerted transport across polarized cells uses transporters on both apical and
basolateral domains to move drugs in the same direction

15. The following are steps of concerted transport except:


a. Uptake
b. Export
c. sedimentation
d. phase one metabolism
e. phase two metabolism

16. The following types of metabolism are conducted by CYP450 enzymes except:
a. oxidation
b. hydrolysis
c. introduce NH2 group
d. Introduce OH group
e. Introduce CH3 group

17. The followings are phase II metabolism EXCEPT


a. reduction
b. acetylation
c. glucuronidation
d. sulfate conjugation
e. glycine conjugation

18. The following substances may inhibit drug metabolism except:


a. Tobacco
b. Grapefruit juice
c. Drugs with a pyridine group
d. Drugs with a quinoline group
e. Drugs with an imidazole group

19. The following statements are true Except


a. the induction of drug metabolism reduces the drug bioavailability
b. the induction of drug metabolism may cause drug-drug interactions
c. the induction of drug metabolism shortens the drug action
d. The induction of drug metabolism leads to drug accumulation
e. the induction of drug metabolism may be caused by food effects
20. Which skin layer usually determines drug percutaneous absorption:
a. stratum cornea
b. epidemic cellular layer
c. dermis layer
d. hypodermis layer
e. none of the above

21. Which of the following can be found in the stratum corneum?


Keratins, lipid, water ---- all of the above (I, II, and III)

22. Which of the following routs rae usually considered the minor route for transdermal delivery
a. intercellular penetration route
b. diffusion between the cells
c. transcellular penetration route
d. diffusion across the cells
e. transappendageal penetration

23. All the following will affect the percutaneous absorption except:
a. hydration of the skin
b. the drug molecular weight
c. the application method
d. The blood flow rate variations
e. The pH of skin surface and drug preparation

24. The following compounds have been used as skin penetration enhancer except:
a. Azone
b. propranolol
c. Polyethylene glycol
d. Dimethyl acetamide
e. dimethyl sulfoxide

25. Which of the following statements is true?


a. dermatological products are not for external use
b. dermatological products are not epicutaneous dosage forms
c. Dermatological product are for topical applications
d. Dermatological products are percutaneous drug delivery systems
e. Dermatological products are transdermal drug delivery systems

26. The following subjects can be used as experimental models for percutaneous drug
absorptions except:
a. Human
b. Snakeskin
c. Animal model
d. Excised animal skin
e. hypodermic cell culture
27. Which of the following is true?
a. Electrophoresis applies electro current o deliver ionic drug molecules across the skin
b. Iontophoresis applies ultrasound to enhance the percutaneous drug absorption
c. Sonophoresis applies electro current to delvier negatively charged drug molecules
across the skin
d. Phonophoresis applies electro current to deliver positively charged drug molecules
across the skin
e. None of the above

28. Transdermal drug delivery systems are usually controlled release device because:

a. the drug absoprion rate is constant during the administration period


b. the drug release rate is constant during administration period.
c. the drug bioavabilability is constant during the administration period
d. the drug amount in the reservoir is constant during the administration period
e. the drug diffuse rate through the skin is constant during the administration period

29. The system shown on the right is: a membrane controlled TDDS

30. The two layer transdermal delivery system combines:


a. drug adhesive & drug matrix
b. backing layer and drug matrix
c. backing layer and release liner
d. drug adhesive and release liner
e. release rate controlling layer (membrane) with liner

31. Which transdermal delivery system uses the stratum corneum to control the drug absorption
rate?
a. Drug in adhesive transdermal delivery system
b. Membrane controlled TDDS
c. Monolithic TDDS
d. Membrane controlled Multi Layer TDD
e. None of the above

32. Which of the following products is the first FDA approved transdermal drug delivery system:
a. clonidine
b. nitroglycerine
c. nicotine
d. SCOPOLAMINE!!!

22. Which of the following ointment bases are oil in water emulsions?
a. Oleaginous bases
b. Hydrocarbon bases
c. Absorption bases
d. Water removable bases
e. Water soluble bases
34. Which of the following is not an oligeanous base?
a. Petrolatum USP
b. White Petrolatum USP
a. Hydrophilic petrolatum USP
c. Yellow Ointment USP
b. White Ointment USP

35. In the following formulation which components serves as an aqueous base?


a. White petrolatum
b. Stearyl alcohol
c. SLS
d. Propylene glycol
e. Methylparabin

36. Which of the following preparation technique requires heating the materials?
a. incorporation
b. fusion.
c. levigating
d. pulverization by intervention
e. roller mill

37. According to the two-layer membrane skin model on the right, the transdermal permeability
coefficient P of a drug through the skin is expressed as some gay equation. When a drug diffuses
across the skin, the path lenths are ls = 350 um, ly = 150 um. The diffusion coefficients are Ds =
10^-7 cm2/sec and Dy = 10^-10 cm2/sec. The partition coefficient of this drug is 10. Calculate
the transdermal permability coefficient of this drug. 6.67 x 10^-10 cm/sec
Use the equation: P = (DyDs) / [(KlvDs) + (lsDv)]

38. In a transdermal DDS, a drug passes through a 1 mm thick rate controlling membrane with a
diffusion coefficient of 4.23x 10^-7 cm2/sec. The oil water partition coefficient (K=So\Sw) of
the drug is 2.03. The area exposed to the drug reservoir is 2 cm2, and the concentration of the
drug is 0.5 mg/mL. Calculate the diffusion rate of the drug through the membrane of the system
8.58*10^-6 mg/sec

39 and 40 are apparently too complicated and won’t be repeated on the final exam.