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Description Logics

Description Logics and Logics

Enrico Franconi
franconi@cs.man.ac.uk
http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/franconi
Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester
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Tense Logic: (point ontology)

Tense logic is a propositional modal logic, interpreted over temporal structure

T = (T, <), where T is a set of time points and <is a strict partial order
on T.

Mortal _ LivingBeing LIVES-IN.Place

(LivingBeing | (2
+
LivingBeing))

Satisability in /Lc
US
the combination of tense logic with K
m
over a
linear, unbounded, and discrete temporal structure has the same complexity
as its base (PSPACE-complete).

Satisability in /LcQ1
US
with ABox the combination of tense logic with
/LcQ1 with ABox over a linear, unbounded, and discrete temporal
structure has the same complexity as its base (EXPTIME-complete).
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HS: Interval Temporal Propositional Modal Logic

Ho is a propositional modal logic interpreted over an interval set T

<
, dened
as the the set of all closed intervals [u, v]
.
= x T [ u x v, u ,= v
in some temporal structure T .

Ho extends propositional logic with modal formul R) and [R] where

R is a basic Allens algebra temporal relation:
i j
before (i, j)
meets (i, j)
overlaps (i, j)
starts (i, j)
during (i, j)
finishes (i, j)

Mortal
.
= LivingBeing after). LivingBeing

structures.

Therefore, Ho /Lc is undecidable.

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Decidable Interval Temporal Description Logics

Ho

No universal quantication, or restricted to homogeneous properties:

2(=, starts, during, nishes).

3

x TN(

x).
@x

Logical implication in the combined language Ho

/Lc is decidable
(PSPACE-hard); satisability is PSPACE-complete.

Logical implication in Ho

T is NP-complete.

Useful for event representation and plan recognition.

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The Block World Domain
1 2 1 2
Initial State
Approach
1
2 2
1
Grasp
Final State
-
- -
-
Holding-Block(OBJ1)
Clear-Block(OBJ2) ON(OBJ1, OBJ2)
Clear-Block(OBJ1) Clear-Block(OBJ1)
Stack(OBJ1, OBJ2)
w
x y
v z

Stack
.
= 3(x y z v w) ( nishes x)( meets y)( meets z)(v overlaps )(wnishes )(v meets w).
((OBJECT2 : Clear-Block)@x
(OBJECT1ON = OBJECT2)@y
(OBJECT1 : Clear-Block)@v
(OBJECT1 : Holding-Block)@w
(OBJECT1 : Clear-Block)@z)
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L
n
FOL fragments

L
n
is the set of function-free FOL formulas with equality and constants, with
only unary and binary predicates, and which can be expressed using at most
n variable symbols.

Satisability of

L
3
formulas is undecidable.

Satisability of

L
2
formulas is NEXPTIME-complete.
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The DL description logic
/Lc1 + propositional calculus on roles,
+ the concept (R S).

The TL description logic and

L
3
are equally expressive.

The TL

description logic (i.e., TL without the composition operator) and

L
2
are equally expressive.

Open problem: relation between TL including cardinalities and

c
n
counting quantiers to

L
n
.
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Guarded Fragments of FOL
The guarded fragment GF of FOL is dened as:
1. Every relational atomic formula is in GF
2. GF is propositionally closed
3. If x, y are tuples of variables, (x, y) is atomic, and (x, y) is a formula in
GF, such that free() free() = x, y, then the following formulae are
in GF:
y. (x, y) (x, y)
y. (x, y) (x, y)
The guarded fragment contains the modal fragment of FOL (and Description
Logics); a weaker denition (LGF) is needed to include temporal logics.
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Properties of GF

GF and LGF have the tree model property

Many important model theoretic properties which hold for FOL and the modal
fragment, do hold also for GF and LGF

time complete)

Bounded-variable or bounded-arity fragments of GF and LGF (which include

Description Logics) are in EXPTIME.

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