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## 1 Introduction to Signals and Systems

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 A Little Philosophy Basic Concepts Mathematical Modeling Signals and Systems Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and Systems Organization of the Material How to Use MATLAB with This Book

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2 3 5 7 14 14 16

Real Functions
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Continuous-Time Functions Common Functions Discrete-Time Functions Homework for Chapter 2

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19 22 28 32

## Review of Complex Variables

3.1 3.2 3.3 Complex Numbers Complex Functions Homework for Chapter 3

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36 42 49

## Review of Matrix Theory

4.1 4.2 4.3 Basic Definitions and Elementary Operations Vectors Homework for Chapter 4

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54 60 65

Introduction to Signals
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Definition of a Signal Time Scaling, Time Shifting, and Limits of Signals Signals Defined on Intervals Digital Waveforms Signals as Sums of Sinusoids Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 5

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68 76 84 90 95 98 99

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Contents

Introduction to Systems
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Definition of a System System Representations Electrical Networks Mass-Spring-Damper System Proof-Mass Actuators Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 6

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107 111 116 120 124 128 130

## Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Introduction to Fourier Series Three Representations of a Fourier Series Computational Formulas for the Fourier Series Coefficients Definition of the Fourier Transform Properties of the Fourier Transform and the Generalized Fourier Transform Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 7

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135 142 149 159 165 174 178

## Spectral Content of a Signal

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 Amplitude and Phase Spectra Energy and Power Signals Energy Spectral Density Power Spectral Density Power Calculations for Periodic Signals Spectral Content of a Signal: An Example Static Nonlinearities MATLAB Experiments Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 8

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189 200 204 213 215 223 232 239 243 245

## The Laplace Transform

9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 Definition of the Laplace Transform Properties of the Laplace Transform Partial Fraction Expansion Laplace Transform Solution to Differential Equations Relationship to Fourier Transforms Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 9

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256 262 268 274 279 282 286

Contents

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## Transfer Functions and State Space Representations

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 The Transfer Function Block Diagrams Examples of Block Diagrams Block Diagram Reduction All-Integrator Block Diagrams and State Space Representations Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 10

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293 306 311 317 324 336 339

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## Introduction to Realization Theory

11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Calculation of a Transfer Function from a State Space Representation Two Realizations Equivalent Dynamical Systems State Equations from Physical Laws Multivariable Systems Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 11

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357 365 373 378 386 393 394

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## The Convolution Representation and the Fourier Transfer Function

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 The Convolution Representation Graphical Convolution The Relationship Between the Convolution Integral and Other System Representations The Fourier Transfer Function Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 12

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406 412 417 423 427 429

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Properties of Systems
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Definition of the System Properties Discussion of Properties of Systems BIBO Stability BIBO Stability of Transfer Functions Representations Properties of System Representations Static Nonlinearities

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439 446 452 457 465 469

and

State Space

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Contents

13.7 13.8

473 475

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## The Frequency Response Theorem

14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 The Frequency Response Theorem Using Laplace Transforms The Frequency Response Theorem Using Fourier Transforms The Frequency Response Function Graphical Interpretations of the Frequency Response Function The Bandwidth of a System Ideal Filters Introduction to Filtering Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 14

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487 492 496 502 511 519 524 535 537

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## Signal and System Analysis in the Frequency Domain

15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 Introduction to Signal and System Interaction Interpretation of the Frequency Response Theorem Propagation of a Pulse Train Through a Network Propagation of Energy Signals Through a System Tracking for Linear Motors Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Division Multiplexing Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 15

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553 561 568 579 586 591 596 597

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Bode Plots
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 Introduction to Bode Plots Bode Plots of Constants and Real Poles and Zeros Bode Plots of Two Complex Poles and Zeros Graphical Construction of Bode Plots Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 16

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617 620 630 640 648 650

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## Introduction to Discrete-Time Signals and Systems

17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 Introduction to Discrete-Time Signals Introduction to Sampling Coding and Quantization Digital-to-Analog Converters Introduction to Discrete-Time Systems Introduction to Digital Filters

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656 660 665 670 673 677

Contents

17.7

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## The z-Transform and the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform

18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 The Two-Sided z-Transform Properties of the Two-Sided z-Transform The One-Sided z-Transform Discrete-Time Fourier Transform Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 18

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686 693 700 703 711 716

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Sampling
19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 Fourier Transform of a Sampled Signal Reconstruction of Signals from Their Samples Aliasing and the Nyquist Sampling Theorem Zero-Order Hold An Example Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 19

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725 730 734 742 746 754 755

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## Spectral Content of Discrete Signals

20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 Discrete-Time Energy Signals Discrete-Time Power Signals Computing the Fourier Transform: The DFT Examples of the DFT Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 20

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765 773 781 788 797 800

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## Discrete-Time System Representations

21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 21.6 21.7 21.8 Discrete Convolution Difference Equations and Transfer Functions Block Diagrams and Network Structures DTFT Transfer Function Discrete State Space Representations Network Interconnection Structures Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 21

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810 816 824 833 835 844 849 849

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## Properties of Discrete-Time Systems

22.1 Properties of Systems

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Contents

## 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7

Properties of System Representations BIBO Stability Relationships Between System Representations Continuous-to-Discrete System Transformations Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 22

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## Frequency Domain Analysis of Discrete-Time Systems

23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 Frequency Response Theorem for Discrete Systems Relationship to Continuous-Time Signals Classification of Frequency Response Functions IIR Filter Design Linear Phase FIR Filters System Response to Arbitrary Input Signals Chapter Summary Homework for Chapter 23

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897 908 911 916 924 934 942 944 957 961

Nomenclature Index