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Exercise 8 Simple Muscle Contraction 3 Phases AB - lag phase or latent phase - (shortest) 0.00sec, usually less than 0.

.01sec - brief period that exists between the application of the stimulus and the start of contraction BC - contraction, 0.05sec - peak - shortening of the muscle occur CD - relaxation period, 0.05 sec - Occurs when Ca+ is transported back in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Single muscle contraction= 100vib/sec (tuning fork)= 0.10 sec 10vib (result) Neuromuscular junction - formed when several branches of axons form a single muscle fiber - also called synapse - connection between a muscle fiber and nerve "All or none" law of muscle contraction - refers to the action potential that influences a muscular fiber to stimulation Exercise 9 Summation A- First baseline B- Second baseline; first peak C- Second peak AB- first contraction BC- second contraction CD- relaxation Summation - a result of addition of the excitatory and inhibitory effects of many stimulus applied to a neuron - when a stimulus is applied in rapid succession, increase strength of muscle contraction occurs - what happens during summation? o When you apply a single stimulus, Ca+ ions are released causing the muscles to contract but when two rapid successive stimuli are applied before relaxation occurs, the muscle again will contract Treppe - forms a staircase muscle contraction Tetanus - sustained contraction when the muscle is stimulated repeatedly such that the interval between the stimuli is less than the contraction time 1. complete/fused- sustained contraction without partial contraction, 80-100times per sec contraction

2. incomplete- sustained contraction with partial relaxation, 20-30times per sec contraction

Refractory period - time which an excitable cell cannot respond to a stimulus that is usually adequate to evoke an action potential Absolute refractory period - time during which a second action potential cannot be initiated, even with a very strong stimulus Relative refractory period - period which a second action potential can be initiated but only on a supramaxinal stimulus Exercise 10 Isotonic and Isometric Contractions A. Isometric contraction (equal distance) o length of muscle does not change but the amount of force increases as contraction occurs o eg. holding an object, standing B. Isotonic contraction (equal tension) o length of the muscle changes but force is constant o eg. walking, running, dancing: movements of the upper limb exhibit predominant isotonic contractions 1. Concentric isotonic contraction o contractions in which muscle tension increases as the muscle shortens o eg. bicep curling, straightening the arm, moving the hand from side to side 2. Eccentric isotonic contraction o contractions in which tension is maintained as the muscle lengthens o eg. person letting a heavy weight down slowly a person using his hamstring muscles when running downhill, overloading the bicep so that it straitens, contractions of quadriceps muscle when descending the stairs Exercise 11 Pithing Pithing - destruction of CNS to render the frog free from pain Signs of successful pithing - needle has destroyed branches of the sciatic nerve - frog's legs to extend forward and quiver a few moments - with the withdrawal of needle, frog should remain limp throughout the experiment Exercise 12 Muscle-Nerve Preparation Purpose of teasing thigh muscles: to expose the sciatic nerve Exercise 13 Applications of the Different Forms of Stimuli Different forms of stimuli A. Mechanical stimulus- single muscle contraction B. Thermal stimulus 1. Hot water- single muscle contraction 2. Cold/iced water- single muscle contraction C. Chemical stimulus- series of muscle contraction D. Electrical stimulus 1. Direct current- single muscle contraction

With the permission of Ma'm Salvador. Prepared by 2AMT Class Secretary.

Set-up: battery connected to simple key and electrode/stimulator simple key connected to battery and electrode/stimulator electrode/stimulator connected to battery and simple key

2. Indirect current- series of muscle contraction


With the permission of Ma'm Salvador. Prepared by 2AMT Class Secretary.

Set up: battery connected to simple key and inductorium simple key connected to battery and inductorium inductorium connected to simple key, battery and electrode/stimulator

Subthreshold stimulus - does not cause action potential and no contraction occurs Threshold stimulus - produces action potential, contraction occurs Exercise 15 Complex Coordinated and Uncoordinated Reflex Reflex: RIPPU- Rapid. Involuntary. Programmable. Predictable. Unconscious. motor response to a specific stimulus Reflex arc eg. Blink reflex 1 receptor 1 receptor: Sensory organ (Eye) 2 sensory neuron 2 Sensory/afferent neuron: Optic nerve 3 interneuron/association 3 interneuron: brain 4 motor neuron 4 motor/efferent: occulomotor nerve 5 effector (muscle/gland) 5 effector organ: levator palpibrae superioris or orbicular is oculi- closes the eye Spasmodic movement - strychnine solution: destroys enzyme acetylchlorinesterase - acetylchlorinesterase: stimulates excitatory neurotransmitter inhibitor, binds with amino acid glycine which is another neurotransmitter for relaxation and contraction equilibrium hence the muscle will remain contacted in the diaphragm Complex reflexes - both flexors and extensors may be stimulated hence also sends signals to the other unit which is contralateral to extend for the preservation of life Exercise 35 The Effect of Temperature on Cardiac Contractions intact muscle - 70beats per min in hot ringer's solution - increases (84beats per min) in cold ringer's solution - decreases (40beats per min) effects of: o Ca- increase vigor o K- decrease vigor effects of: o sympathetic cardia- increase o parasympathetic cardia- decrease o tachycardia- abnormal excessive rapid heartbeat which is over 100beats/min

o bradycardia- slow heart beat under 60beats/min contraction: high temperature- increase heart rate low temperature- decrease heart rate *human: 60-80beats/min

With the permission of Ma'm Salvador. Prepared by 2AMT Class Secretary.