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Extended Heat Transfer-I Extended Heat Transfer-II

• Consider a slab fuel with volumetric • Addition of fins reduce convective resistance by
heat generation. If it is cooled by an increasing A
efficient media, then the temperature 1
profile is as shown in the dotted line R conv =
hA
• If the heat transfer coefficient is poor, • Heat transfer by addition of surface area is called
then the fluid temperature drop will extended heat transfer or fin heat transfer
be more and the centerline
temperature will also increase as x • Heat transfer in Fin is by both convection and
shown by the dark line conduction
• This will lead to unacceptably high • Though strictly not one dimensional, it can be
temperature. One way of reducing approximated by one dimensional heat transfer
the temperature would be by • Since it is a model used for analysis, we shall
attaching fins to the outside surface derive the fin equation from basics

Governing equations for Fins-I Governing equations for Fins-II

• In general, let the fin be of varying cross d  dT 
 kA  − hP(T − T∞ ) = 0
section as shown x dx  dx 

hP∆x (T − T∞ ) • If k of the fin is constant, then,

d  dT  hP
dT dT d  dT  A − (T − T∞ ) = 0
− kA − kA +  − kA  ∆x dx  dx  k
dx dx dx  dx 
∆x
• If the fin is prismatic, then, A is independent of x
d 2T hP
• In steady state, heat in should be equal to heat out ⇒ − (T − T∞ ) = 0
dx 2 kA
dT  dT d  dT   • Defining (T-T∞) = θ, and (hP/kA) = m2, we have
− kA −  − kA +  − kA  ∆x  − hP∆x (T − T∞ ) = 0
dx  dx dx  dx   d 2θ
In out out ⇒ − m 2θ = 0
dx 2

Governing equations for Fins-III Governing equations for Fins-IV

• The governing equation is a second order differential • This is expressed as
equation and its solution can be expressed as dT dθ
⇒ =0⇒ = 0 at x = L
mx − mx dx dx
θ = C1e + C2e
• Boundary condition at x = 0, gives
• The Boundary condition for the above equation is
θ b = C1 + C 2
usually idealized conditions
• Boundary condition at x = L, gives
• At the base of the fin, the temperature is usually
specified as Tb 0 = C1me mL + C 2 (− m)e − mL

⇒ θ = θ b = Tb − T∞ at x = 0 ⇒ 0 = C1e mL − (θ b − C1 )e − mL
• The commonly used boundary condition at the tip is e − mL e − mL
⇒ C1 = θ b C 2 = θ b − C1 = θ b − θ b
what is known as insulated tip boundary e mL
+e − mL
e mL
+ e − mL

1
Governing equations for Fins-V Fins
e mL
⇒ C 2 = θb
e mL
+ e − mL

e − mL e mx + e mL e − mx
∴ θ = θb
e mL + e − mL
e − m (L − x ) + e m ( L − x )
= θb
e mL + e − mL
cosh m( L − x )
θ = θb
cosh mL

Fin Heat Transfer -I Fin Heat Transfer -II

• We Studied the case of Fin with insulated tip and • Total heat transferred by the fin is given by
0.995
obtained the solution as 1 dT dθ
mL q = − kA = − kA 1
cosh m( L − x ) θ 1
dx x =0 dx x =0
θ = θb
cosh mL θb 2 dθ Sinh (m(L − x ) )(− m) ∴
q

3 = θb θ b hPkA
• The parameter mL is non-dimensional 4 dx cosh mL mL=3
0
and decides the character of the fin 0
dθ Sinh (mL ) mL
∴ = −θ b m = −θ b mTanh (mL )
• mL=1 is kind of under-designed fin and mL=5 will dx x =0 cosh(mL )
be a over designed fin with material waste, mL=3 is dθ hP
considered a good number for fin design ∴ − kA = kAθ b mTanh (mL ) = kAθ b Tanh ( mL )
dx x =0 kA
• Let us get more information by obtaining the total
heat transfered ∴ q = θ b hPkA Tanh ( mL)

Fin Heat Transfer -II Fin Heat Transfer -III

• As the boundary conditions are modified, or
• Another measure used is the fin efficiency ηf
variable area fins are concerned, the subject gets
more complicated and will be left to specialists Heat transferred with fin
ηf =
• However, to help non-specialists use complex Heat transferred with entire fin at base temperature
results and interpret them, some simple parameters
are defined. θ b hPkA Tanh (mL ) kA Tanh (mL ) Tanh (mL )
ηf = = =
• The first one is fin effectiveness εf θ b hPL hP L mL
Heat transferred with fin q with fin • The value of ηf is generally dependent on the
εf = =
Heat transferred without fin q without fin non-dimensional parameter mL and expressions
• For the case we have analysed are available for complex geometries.
θ b hPkA Tanh (mL ) kP • The definitions of P and A have to be carefully
εf = = Tanh (mL ) understood. This you can do in the homework
θ b hA hA

2
Fin Heat Transfer -IV Fin Heat Transfer -V
• The real interest in
engineering is not a • Heat transferred by the unfinned area
single fin but a fin array q uf = hA uf θ b
such as the ones shown
• Total Heat transferred
q t = q f + q uf = NhA f θ b ηf + hA uf θ b
• Let us now define the following areas
• In terms of electrical analogy
• Auf is the total area that is not finned (unfinned) 1
q uf hA uf
• Af is the each fin surface area (perimeter x Length)
• Heat transferred by the fins can be given by
qt qf 1
q f = NhPLθ b ηf = NhA f θ b ηf NhA f ηf
θb

Fin Heat Transfer -VI

• Many times the fins are not metallurgically bonded
but shrink fitted or bonded with adhesives
• This adds contact resistance
• This can easily be accommodated using electrical
analogy
1
q uf hA uf

qt qf R ′′
1
NhA f ηf
NA cf
θb