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ARAIN PEOPLE

The nucleus of this caste was probably a body of Hindu Saini or Kamboh cultivators who were converted to Islam at an early period. In Delhi, the Arain or Raeen recall their migration, at the time of Akbar, from a place called Montgomery, in Punjab. Traditionally, they were gardeners, but the majority of the Arain have now taken np business or established small-scale industries. They favour modern medicare and family planning. In Punjab, the Arain are called Rain and they are also termed as Baghban. The Raeen, although traditionally a cultivating community, are also in banks, the armed forces, as teachers, and in administrative services. A large number are working in Saudi Arabia as electricians, mechanics, drivers and helpers. Besides their faith in Allah, the Raeen propitiate local deities, like Lakhdata and Khwaja (deity of water). They are interlinked with all Muslim communities through commensal and connubial norms. They have patron- client (jajmani) relationships with the Lohar, Chamar and Nai (Muslim Haj- jam).

People of India
FTT ID: 41495

Identity of the People Alternate name : In Punjab, the Arain are called Rain and they are also termed as Baghban. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 408,960 : They were mainly distributed in the , Punjab, Gwalior, Bihar, Orissa and Rajputana. In Punjab, concentrated in the districts of Sangrur, Patiala, Ludhiana and Jallandhar. : Arain is their mother tounge and they use the Bengali script. The Language is Hindi with others. : The community professes Islam They offer their Friday prayers :it tine local mosques and also offer prayers at the tornb of Baba Haider. : The majority are engaged in horticulture and gardening. : They are non-vegetarian, and wheat and rice comprise their staple cereals. : Both parallel and cross-cousin marriages are permissible. The marriage symbol for women is the nose-ring (keel). Divorce as well as the remarriage of the divorced and widowed persons are permitted. : The share wells and other sources of water with the neighboring communities and burial grounds with other Muslim groups. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (1,917,743), Haryana - (181,964), Uttar Pradesh - (47,764), Delhi - (12,269), Jammu & Kashmir - (9,280), Chandigarh (2,540), Himachal Pradesh - (2,309)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 1 of 57

ARORA PEOPLE
Aroras (or Aror-vanshis) are an urban mercantile community of the Punjab and Sindh. The Arora people are of similar origin to Khatri in that they are from the Kshatriya caste and are thus of warrior ancestry. They are a group of Indo-Aryans who remained in the Indus Valley throughout most of their history. However, the Arora people were separated from the Khatri in their move to the city of Aror, which is believed to be at the request of the Brahmin community led by Pasurama. The Arora people were originally Hindu, but over their history they have accepted Sikhism and Islam. The Arora community has suffered many divides in its past. After moving to Aror, they were conquered by the Arabs and thousands of Aroras are said to have been slaughtered during the Islamic invasions of India. Aroras suffered extreme violence and massacres during the Partition of India.

People of India
FTT ID: 41280

Identity of the People Alternate name : Arora are also known as Rora Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 3,978,160 : They reside in Punjab (India), Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Jammu, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Gujarat and other parts of the country. : They speak the lndo-Aryan languages Punjabi or Hindi, and use the Devanagari and Gurmukhi scripts. : There are follow Hinduism, Islam and Sikhism. Some of them follow the Arya Samaj faith. : The Arora are employed in private and government service in various capacities. Some are self-employed in business, trade and industry. : They are non-vegetarian in general, but some are strictly vegetarian and avoid onion, garlic and masur dal as well. Wheat, rice and maize form their staple diet. : Vermilion, gold bangles and bindi are the marriage symbols for women, but these are not strictly followed. Intercommunity marriages with the Khatri are common. : Intercommunity linkages exist in the form of the accepting and exchanging of water and food with communities like the Khatri, Bhatia, Bania, Brahman, and Jat. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Haryana - (1,666,943), Gujarat - (396,352), Himachal Pradesh - (304,767), Punjab - (238,623), Uttar Pradesh - (29,866), Chandigarh (13,801), Rajasthan - (13,361), Jammu & Kashmir - (8,255), Maharashtra - (4,973), Madhya Pradesh - (1,816), West Bengal - (1,480)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 2 of 57

BAIRWA PEOPLE
The BAIRWA are sometimes known as Berwa. The Bairwa are divided into different exogamous clans, namely Mehar, Jatwa, Marmat and Tatwara. They are generally treated low in society. In some places they are said to be both Rajputs and Bhuinhars, and do not rank high among either'. Ancestral property is equally divided among the sons. The Bairwa women enjoy equal status with the men and participate in rituals, and in the religious, social and political activities. A number of them earn and contribute to the family income.A person from their own community acts as the sacred specialist. Social control is maintained by their registered society, the Delhi Bairwa Maha Sabha. All India Berwa Samaj deals with social reforms and publishes a monthly paper. Pitridev is worshipped as a family deity. Boys and girls generally study up to the primary level. The Bairwa avail of the modern medical facilities from health centers.

People of India
FTT ID: 41402

Identity of the People Alternate name : Berwa and Berwar or Birwar Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location Language Religion : 817,578 : The Berwa are mainly concentrated in Jaipur district, Rajasthan : They speak the Indo-Aryan language Rajasthani. Hindi is also spoken by them and they use the Devanagari script. : Holi, Diwali, Dassehra, Makar Sankrani. They have special reverence for Ram Dev, Beejasan, Inder Raja, Bhainrav, Jujhar, Teja and Paboo. : Agriculture and the domestication of animals, Bairwa serve in government and private organizations. They are specially skilled in making mats and ropes. : They are non-vegetarian but do not eat beef. Rice and wheat are the staple cereals taken. : Adult marriage is practised and polygyny is allowed. Vermilion (sindoor), borla, hari kanthi, bangles (lac) and toerings are the symbols of married women. : They consider themselves lower in the local hierarchy and place themselves in the Sudra varna. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No

Status of Resources Statewise Population Rajasthan - (794,599)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 3 of 57

BANIA PEOPLE
The Bania call themselves Aggarwal. Some preferred to affix their names to titles such as Gupta, Dalmia, Modi, Singhania, Sriram and Bajaj. The people of other communities refer to them by titles such as ' Bania',' Sahukar', 'Lala', 'Seth' or 'Kirar' and view them as moneyed people as they have originally been the bankers and moneylenders to other communities, particularly the agricultural classes. Bania is a term derived from vanik, meaning a trader, as the community has been traditionally engaged mainly in trade and commerce. Traditionally, women did not have the right over the ancestral property; they were given secondary status compared with their male counterparts in all walks of life. They participate in all the social, ritual and religious activities of the family but do not have any control over money or family assets except some personal ornaments. Women are exceptionally devoted to their husbands and take great pains to ensure their happiness and comfort.

People of India
FTT ID: 41358

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Bania call themselves Aggarwal and comprise a subsection of Vaishya division of Manu's four-fold varna classification (Lakshmanna, 1973). Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 1,277,896 Location : Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Delhi, quite a few migrated to far off places and are today found in varying numbers in almost every state of India especially Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Assam and West Bengal. : They speak Punjabi language. Although there may be some regional variation in the dialects of the language spoken at home. : They celebrate their festivals according to the lunar calendar; festivals such as Janamashtami or Krishna Jyanti, Ganesh Chaturthi, the Ramanavami and Navaratri or Dussehra. Diwali is one of the most important religious festivals : They carried on flourishing business there and exercised complete economic domination over the majority of other communities. : They are strictly vegetarian. It has been only a few decades since a few urban males have started taking eggs and sometimes meat. The staple food of the community is chapati made of wheat flour. : They have not specialized in any plastic or graphic art or craft. : The Aggarwal Banias consider Brahmans their religious guilts. They accept them as priests in temples, go-between in marriages and leaders in prescribing and conducting rituals. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (1,277,896)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 4 of 57

BARHAI PEOPLE
The common surnames used by them are Bhardawaj, Vishwakarma and Sharma. The Barhai claim descent from Lord Vishwakarma, son of Brahma. According to their belief, there were five sons of Vishwakarma and were described differently by Vishwakarma. Those who were engaged in the woodwork (carpentry) were known as Barhai; those who were engaged in the ironwork (black smith) were called Lohar; those who specialized in goldwork (gold smithy) were known as Sunar; those who specialized in preparing the metal utensils were called Thatera/Kasera; and the ones who specialized in making earthen pots came to be known as Kumhar. The Barhais perceive that their distribution is at national level. The Barhais send their children for schooling up to the middle class for both the boys and the girls. Boys generally drop out to support the earnings of the family while girls drop out due to social problems and partly because the schools are not available in the localities nearby

People of India
FTT ID: 41249

Identity of the People Alternate name : The common surnames used by them are Bhardawaj, Vishwakarma and Sharma. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 8,727,509 : They are found in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat states. : The Barhais speak Hindi/Hindustani, besides Bhojpuri, within their community as well as with the people of other communities. The script is Devanagari. : The Barhai are Hindu by religion. They worship Hindu avatars and deities. The main emphasis is placed on Vishwakarma and Shankar Bhagwan. : The Barhai are traditional carpenters and are also called Panchali Brahman, Chowrasia, Jangid.Brahman, Khati Koiash, Lite andTarkha. : The Barhai are regular non-vegetarians. Their staple food comprises wheat and rice. : Endogamy at the community level is the marriage rule of the Barhai. Child marriages followed by gauna at the time of puberty still exist.. Monogamy is the general form of marriage. Dowry is taken in cash and kind. : They accept kachcha as well as sidha food from other communities. Kachcha food is accepted from all communities except those which fall below the category of Shudra. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (2,016,841), Maharashtra - (251,285), Madhya Pradesh - (141,157), Orissa - (19,787)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 5 of 57

BATHUDI PEOPLE
According to some the Bathudi were 'a small aboriginal tribe of uncertain origin found in the Tributary States of Orissa'. They use surnames such as Nayak, Giri, Bishal, Rout, Khawli, Banson, Patra, Mundiyar, Khandai and Sangiya and titles like Nayak, Pradhan, DashChatiya, Chowkhiya, Dehri and Dakua. The Bathudi are mostly cultivators who also work as labourers for contractors in forest, road and irrigation projects. Some make ropes from grass (sabui), while others work as casual labourers and petty businessmen. The forest is their other economic resource. They now collect and sell forest produce. The Bathudi have their own community council (jati samaj) which deals with intercommunity social affairs. They also collect gold dust from the Suvarnarekha river. Though they are agriculturalists, very few are landowners. Some of them also work as labourers at construction sites.

People of India
FTT ID: 41580

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Bathudi are also known as Bathdi, Bahutuli or Bathuhuli in Orissa. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location : 214,032 : The Bathudi live in West Bengal. They believe that they are the original settlers of the Bhanjubhum and Keonjhargarh districts of Orissa, East Singbhum and "West Singbhum districts of Bihar and of the Midnapore district of West Bengal. : They speak the Bengali language and use its script. : The Bathudi follow their traditional belief system as well as Hinduism and worship Sarna (sal grove) or Gramthan. Mangla Thakur is their family deity. Now khiya festivals and worship Kalimuhi, Sitala and Manasa. : The Bathudi work as agricultural laborers for communities like the Utkal Brahman, Karan and Teti. They also prepare ropes from the sabui grass. : They are non-vegetarian but do not consume pork and beef. Rice is their staple cereal. : Adult marriages settled through negotiation or by mutual consent are the norm and bride price is prevalent. Marriage symbols include vermilion and iron bangles (kattri). Polygamy is permitted in special cases. : They inter dine with the Brahman and Karan and maintain jajmani relations with the Brahman and Vaishnava. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa - (218,643), West Bengal - (6,119)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 6 of 57

BHARIA BHUMIA PEOPLE


A forest-dwelling community of Madhya Pradesh, they have been identified as Bharia Bhumia, Bhuinhar Bhumia, Bhumi Paliha, and Pando. According to the historians relate a legend of their origin which says Arjun (one of the Pandavas) produced some men by pressing bharr grass. These men were the ancestors of the Bharia. Today they prefer to be called Bharia Thakur. Historians describe the Bharia as short to below medium in stature and lean in body mass. The Bharia have various clans which regulate marriage alliances. These clans are Bhardia, Bijaria, Amolia, Bagothia, Pachalia, Thakari; Angaria, Nahhal, Chalthia, Raotia and Gadaria. Clan exogamy is observed when entering into a marital alliance. They are free to marry the daughters of their maternal uncle or paternal aunt. The literacy rate among the Bharia Bhumia is 6.7 per cent. They are reluctant to visit government medical facilities fearing the cost of the medicine.

People of India
FTT ID: 41539

Identity of the People Alternate name : A forest-dwelling community of Madhya Pradesh, they have been identified as Bharia Bhumia, Bhuinhar Bhumia, Bhumi Paliha, and Pando. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 281,219 Location Language Religion : The Bharia are mostly distributed in Seoni and Chindawara districts of Chatishgarh state. : They speak a local dialect of Hindi both at home as well as with others. They use the Devanagari script. : They are Hindus and worship deities like Hanuman. They also worship most of the Gond deities like Baradeo, Buradeo and Nagbaba. Their important festivals are Holi, Diwali, Bhujalia, Akhati, Shivratri and Rakhi. : Most of the Bharia are landless and therefore are wage earners. Part of their livelihood is derived from collecting and selling firewood. : They are non-vegetarians who abstain from beef, but eat pork. What and maize are their staple cereals. They use linseed or palm oil for cooking and enjoy drinking tea without milk. : Clan exogamy is observed when entering into a marital alliance. They are free to marry the daughters of their maternal uncle or paternal aunt. Adult marriage has replaced child marriage and marriages are usually arranged through negotiations. : The Bharia are closely associated with the Gond and participate in each others festivals and rituals. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh - (176,274), Orissa - (9,455), Maharashtra - (1,068)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 7 of 57

BHAT PEOPLE
The Bhat are originated in Rajasthan and migrated to the adjoining states after the downfall of the kingdoms. The Bhat are called Rai and two sub-groups exist the Brahma Bhat and Jage or Raj Bhat. Their common musical instruments are khartal, dholak and chimta. There are also white collar workers within the community including doctors, teachers, and engineers. They favor education, modern medical care and family planning. Historians say there is no reason to doubt that they are an offshoot of the Brahmans. There are Muslim Bhat, In Jammu and Kashmir are converts from Hinduism to Islam. They make use of all the modern facilities available to them: education, drinking water, media, communication, electricity and banking.

People of India
FTT ID: 41323

Identity of the People Alternate name : Bharata, Dasaundhi, Kablji and Rai are their titles. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location : 2,093,284 : They were distributed in the United Provinces, Rajputana, Western India states, Central India, etc. Presently they are distributed in West Bengal, Bihar, Hirnachal Pradesh, Haryana and Maharashtra. : They speak Pahari among themselves and Hindi with others. They use the Devanagari script. : Their religion is Hindu. : There are both landowners and landless among them. The landholders are cultivators. : They used to be vegetarian, but seem to be changing to non-vegetarian. Their staple cereals consist of wheat and maize. : They make use of all the modern facilities available to them: education, drinking water, media, communication, electricity and banking. : Intercommunity linkages are maintained with local artisans, sacred specialists, barbers, gardeners, washermen, potters, agriculturists and with business communities. NT : No Audio Cassettes : No Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No

Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (643,225), Rajasthan - (201,295), Bihar - (171,113), Gujarat - (129,701), Madhya Pradesh - (129,660), Andhra Pradesh - (61,661), Haryana - (48,436), Himachal Pradesh - (48,413), Maharashtra - (46,373), West Bengal - (40,243), Karnataka (11,774), Orissa - (7,105), Jammu & Kashmir - (3,536), Chandigarh - (1,305)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 8 of 57

BHISTI PEOPLE
The Bhisti trace their origin to those who supplied water during the Holy War as Bhista and Saqqa. Many of them are converts from Hinduism and some persons still follow a combination of Hindu and Muslim practices. The traditional caste council does not exist though statutory panchayats exists to plan and implement welfare and development programs Their attitude towards formal education is partly favorable for boys and unfavorable for girls. Boys generally study up to secondary level while girls do not study. Modern medical care is favored and accepted, but they make use of both modern and traditional medicine. Their attitude is not favorable towards family planning. They listen to radio, watch television and visit the cinema. They avail of the facility of public distribution for essential commodities through fair price shops.

People of India
FTT ID: 41446

Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim - Religious group : 620,200 : They are mainly found in Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. : They speak Urdu and use Urdu script within the family and kin group. They speak Hindi and use Devanagari script with others. : The Bhisti follow Islam. They have faith in Jind Pir. Their sacred specialists are faqir and maulvi who perform all rites. : The Bhisti are a landless community who are traditional water carriers but their present occupations are labour and government service. They have direct links with the daily market. : They are non-vegetarians and eat mutton, chicken, eggs and beef. Their staple food consists of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, maize, barely as cereals, and gram, tur, urad, moong, masur, peas and beans as pulses. : Both parallel and cross cousin marriage is in practice. Junior sororate and junior levirate are permissible. The mode of acquiring mates is through negotiation. : They have linkages with the people of all other communities in the locality. They accept water, kachcha and pucca food from all other Muslims excluding the Shias. They accept sidha food from Shia Muslims. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (425,848), Rajasthan - (25,890), Madhya Pradesh - (7,484), Gujarat - (1,819), Maharashtra - (1,260)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 9 of 57

BHOTTADA PEOPLE
The term Bhottada is derived from the words bhu meaning land and tara meaning chase. They have two subgroups the Bada and Sana. The Bhottada families are usually of the extended type and the sons inherit the property equally upon the fathers death except for the eldest son who inherits a larger portion. The eldest son also becomes the head of the family. The number of nuclear families has risen in recent years. In addition to carrying out their household responsibilities, the women play an important role in agriculture, religious, ritual and social activities. The teachers, administrators and defense personnel from the community help to forge intercommunity linkages. Political leadership has emerged among them at the national level.The literacy level among the Bhottada in 1981 was 10.53 per cent. A nutritional program is functional in most villages. Many of the Bhottada depend on private moneylenders and shopkeepers in times of need.

People of India
FTT ID: 41510

Identity of the People Alternate name : The term Bhottada is derived from the words bhu meaning land and tara meaning chase. They are also known as the Bhotora, Bhottara and Dhottada. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 354,487 Location Language Religion : The Bhottada may be founding the Koraput and Kalahandi districts of Orissa. : Their mother tongue is Basturia and they speak Oriya and use the Oriya script. : The Bhottada profess both their traditional tribal religion and Hinduism. They have family and village deities. Their sacred specialist is called pujari or disari and he may belong to their community or another community. : They are both a land-owning and landless community. Agriculture is their traditional occupation and it continues to be the primary one. Their children are also wage laborers. : They are non-vegetarians and eat meat, fish and pork. Rice is their staple cereal. Groundnut and mustard oil are used for cooking. : Monogamy is the usual practice among the Bhottada, however ploygyny is permissible. The marriage rituals are performed both at the brides and the grooms homes and the marriage feast is hosted by the grooms family. : Political leadership has emerged among them at the national level. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No

Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa - (388,761), Karnataka - (1,533)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 10 of 57

BINJHAL PEOPLE
The term Binjhal might have been derived from the words bin, meaning without, and jhal, meaning sweat, signifying hard working people. These days they use Bariha, their title, as their surname. They are also called Binjliar or Binjhwar after the Vindhya and Satpura hills of Madhya Pradesh from where they migrated to their present habitat in the Sambalpur district of Orissa, where they are mainly concentrated. According to historians, the Binjhal are short of stature, with a long head, a broad nose and a short face. A majority of the families are now of the nuclear type and the eldest son inherits the parental property as well as the status as head of the family. According to the 2001 census, 20.86 percent of them were literate. They use both indigenous and modern medicines. Family programs have had a significant impact on them and they have made use of the nutrition programs for their children.

People of India
FTT ID: 41648

Identity of the People Alternate name : These days they use Bariha, their title, as their surname. They are also called Binjliar or Binjhwar after the Vindhya and Satpura hills of Madhya Pradesh Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 141,145 Location Language Religion : Their present habitat in the Sambalpur district of Orissa, where they are mainly concentrated. : They speak the Sambalpuri dialect of the Oriya language and use the Oriya script both within their group and outside of their group. : They worship deities like Jagannath, Narsinghnath, Ramji, Bindhyabashini, Karamsani, Kali Dungran, Baralgudha and Ghasim Devi. Dol, Rathajatra, Dussehra and Karma are their major festivals. : Traditionally the Binjhal have been dependent on hunting, gathering, fishing, settled cultivation, animal husbandry, etc : They are non-vegetarians who eat fish, egg and mutton. Rice and wheat are their staple cereals and mustard oil is used for cooking. : Marriage by negotiation, mutual consent and elopement, are common among them. Monogamy is the rule of the society. The present practice of dowry in cash and kind has replaced the earlier practice of bride price. : They do not inter-dine with their neighbors accept for uncooked food items from them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa - (146,321)

Status of Resources Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 11 of 57

CHHIMBA PEOPLE
The term `chhimba' is derived from `chhippa' or `chhappa' because traditionally they were calieo printers. The Chhimba trace their origin to Baba Namdev. Some of them also claim to be the descendents of the Suryavanshi Rajput. Both Sahajdhari (clean shaven) and Keshdh Chhimba are reported among them. A majority belongs to the Sikh religion, but there are a number of Chimbe who belong to Radha Soami or Namdhari sects. The Chimba are also known as Chhimba, Chhimbe, Chhimpi or Tank Kshatriya. All sons get equal shares in the parental property, while succession is by the eldest son. The Chimba are stampers, dyers and tailors. The Chhimbe, are almost synonymously identified with the Dhobi (washerman).They are a little different from the traditional Lallari or Pharera. They maintain putative kinship relations with other communities mental programmes have made a considerable impact on them.

People of India
FTT ID: 41377

Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as Chhippa, are almost synonymously identified with the Dhobi (washerman). Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 1,003,333 Location Language Religion : Distributed in Punjab, Chandigarh & Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, : They speak Punjabi and use Gururmukhi script. : Besides their patron deity, Guru Namdev, they have deities like, Nabahi Devi and Hari Devi. : Traditionally, the Chhimba were earlier involved in washing clothes and in calico-printing. They are currently engaged in cultivation,rearing of cattle, sheep and goats. : They are non-vegetarian, but do not eat pork and beef. : Married women wear vermilion, bangles, bindi and toe-rings as marriage symbols. Marriage includes the taka, mundri, sagai, sagan, shantiyajna and duphvea. : Since the Brahman and Rajput does not accept water and cooked food from the Chhimba at the latt ersgatherings, they are served food cooked by a Brahman/Rajput . The Chhimba do not eat and drink with the Chamar, Julaha, Dumna etc. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (164,699), Haryana - (88,419), Himachal Pradesh - (11,058), Rajasthan - (2,841), Chandigarh - (1,950), Uttar Pradesh (1,700), Bihar - (1,214)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 12 of 57

DARZI PEOPLE
The Darzi, also known as Khayyat, are tailors. The term darzi is derived from the Persian word darzan (to sew). The Darzi trace their origin from Hazrat Idris and hence they have started affixing the title Idrisi. They believe that Hazrat Idris was a teacher from whom their ancestors learnt the art of tailoring. The Darzi of Mirzapur attributes their origins to 'Paighambar Mansoor' who was instructed by Allah to create a group of people for sewing of cloth and save others from the cold regions. The Darzi are endogamous. The elderly people are respected and the children loved, irrespective of sex. Joking relations are between bhabhi and devar, and with sail and bahnoi, sala and salhaj, etc. Conflicts and contradictions are generally resolved through familial compromises. Sons as well as daughters have rights of inheritance in paternal property. Eldest son gets succession. The Darzi are utilizing modern medical facilities available in their area. They are aware of the family welfare programme but do not accept direct sterilization.

People of India
FTT ID: 41271

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Darzi, also known as Khayyat, are tailors. The term darzi is derived from the Persian word darzan (to sew). Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 4,476,724 Location Language Religion : They believe that they are widely distributed in Azamgarh, Faizabad, Jaunpur, Sultanpur and Mirzapur districts of Uttar Pradesh. : The Darzi here speak Awadhi, Urdu and Hindustani. : The Darzi observe the festivals of Id-uI-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha, Ramzan, Bara-wafat and Shab-e-Barat. Muharram is of importance for the Shia Darzi. : A majority of the people of this community earn their livelihood by traditional occupations of tailoring : The Darzi are non-vegetarian. They eat beef and buffalo meat but not pork. Wheat, rice, gram, kodo, sawan, maize, barley and jowar form their staple food. : Monogamy is the general form of marriage, but polygyny is permitted. Dowry is also given but only in kind. Residence after marriage is patrilocal. : Since the Darzi are an occupational community, they have linkages with the people of all other communities of the village. They are invited by the people of other communities on different occasions, e.g. marriage, birth and other functions. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (1,193,219), Maharashtra - (599,792), Gujarat - (398,036), Andhra Pradesh - (345,955), Madhya Pradesh - (311,596), Karnataka - (222,515), Rajasthan - (98,537), Tamil Nadu - (97,000), Bihar - (95,066), Punjab - (32,728), Haryana - (24,106), Orissa (23,671), Goa - (7,649), Himachal Pradesh - (6,310), West Bengal - (6,241), Assam - (1,420)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 13 of 57

DHIMAR PEOPLE
A prominent community, the Dhimar live in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Bihar. Etymologically, the word dhimar is a corrupt form of dhiwar which has originated from the Sanskrit word dhiwarasya, meaning fisherman. The Dhimar claim that they are mentioned in tile epics and that Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva, created them. The Dhimar women supplement family income by working as maidservants or agricultural labourers. Their modern linkages are with government agencies like the Fisheries Development Corporation. A few Boys study up to the college level, but girls drop out after the primary level. The Dhimar utilize modern medicare and have a positive attitude towards family planning. Those practicing agriculture use chemical fertilizers along with cow dung. They avail themselves of the facilities of fair-price shops, banks, etc.

People of India
FTT ID: 41310

Identity of the People Alternate name : In Rajasthan called Dhivar, and Kir or Keer also Jalchattri and Jal Kshatriya. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 2,538,372 : A prominent community, the Dhimar live in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Bihar. : They speak Chhattisgarhi and use the Devanagari script. Some of them speak Hindi : Their main deities are Mahamai and Mahadev. They worship their nets on Diwali or Vishwakarma puja. Dussehra, Navakhana, Hareli, Phagun, etc. are their main festivals. : The traditional occupation of the Dhimar is fishing. Agriculture nd cultivation of water-nut are their other occupations. : Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food habits are reported among them. Their staple diet is rice and wheat followed by maize, gram, pulses, etc : They practise adult marriage settled through negotiation, and monogamy is the rule. Dowrys given in cash and kind. : They receive the services of the Nai (barber), Dhobi (washerman) and Brahman oriest). They participate in the village fairs. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh - (815,074), Maharashtra - (419,231), Orissa - (134,300), Uttar Pradesh - (11,518), Rajasthan - (3,500), Gujarat (1,418)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 14 of 57

DHOLI PEOPLE
The Dholi, a community of musicians and drummers, are named after their traditional musical instrument called a dhol. They are also called Nagarchi (which could be the name of a special drum). They trace their origin from the Rajputs. Dholis have the social linkages with Rajputs, Garuda Brahman and many other communities through receiving and rendering of services. They avoid commensality with Nayaks, Meghwals, Harijaris, etc., whom they perceive as inferior to them in social order. They exchange water and cooked food with the Muslim Dholis but do not maintain connubial relation. They have access to schools, panchayat ghat, etc. Earlier they had brit (patron-client relationship) with Rajputs and other communities and used to live on their patronage. Now they offer their services on a contract basis.

People of India
FTT ID: 41654

Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also called Nagarchi (which could be the name of a special drum). Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location Language Religion : 137,550 : Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Assam and West Bengal : They speak Marwari at home and are also conversant in Hindi. They use the Devanagari script. : The community profess Hinduism and worship Hanuman, Goddess Kali, Bheri, etc. in villages. There are temples of Bheru and mati, who are worshiped as village deity. Holi, Diwali, Rakshabandhan are their major festivals. : The Dholis traditionally play the dhoI (the drum). Dhimal (a percussion instrument), change (string instrument) andjirg (brass plates) are their other musical instruments played on various occasion. : Tile Dholi are non-vegetarian in food habit. They abstain from beef. Their staple foods are wheat and maize. Wheat is preferred in summer and maize in winter season. They take pulses like moong and moth. : Marriag is arranged by the parents. Monogamy is the prevalent practice. Polygyny is allowed. Boria (ornamental rings on the anklet) are the marriage symbols for the women : They maintain direct link with the market to produce their daily requirements. Mode of transaction is cash. Dholis have the social linkages with Rajputs, Garuda Brahman and many other communities through receiving and rendering of services. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan - (109,646), Madhya Pradesh - (58,064), Gujarat - (16,832), Assam - (7,502), West Bengal - (1,242)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 15 of 57

DHUND PEOPLE
The Dhond Abbasi is a tribe which claims descent from Dhond Khan (a nickname of Shah Wali Khan) and Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. Because of this the language of the tribe is sometimes called Dhondi/Kareali. They also came to India as traders and merchants from Egypt and then exported commodities like fabrics, perfumes and diamonds. They established a colony near Delhi in 1232 AD. Sardar Tolak Khan who came to Kashmir in the time of first Kashmiri king Budh Saha, was known as Zain-ul-Aabedin and settled in Ponch now the Bagh district of Azad Kashmir.

People of India
FTT ID: 41707

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Dhond Abbasi is a tribe which claims descent from Dhond Khan (a nickname of Shah Wali Khan) and Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad. Because of this the language of the tribe is sometimes called Dhondi/Kareali Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 111,596 Location Language Religion : The tribe is spread throughout Circle Bakote, Poonch District, Bagh (Azad Kashmir) and the Murree Hills area. : The Dhund speak the Dhondi/Kareali language. : Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. : They also indulge themselves in agriculture, sheep rearing, cattle rearing and other cottage industries. : Their nutritious diet consists of maize bread, whey, jungle roots and fruits. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings, the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir - (2,840)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 16 of 57

DOOM PEOPLE
The Dom are spread in thirty-nine districts of different states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and have 182 segments. The Dom are also called Bhangi or Dhangad, but they claim to be Bansmalik, meaning bambooworkers; bamboo-basketry is one of their traditional occupations. The three subgroups among them are Maghaiya or Bansmalik, Bansphor, and Leder. Earlier, Dom was used as the surname, but now they use Ram, Malik and Prasad. The Dom are landless. The Dom are believed to be the descendants of Raja Ben or Vena, from whom one of the Dom groups, Benbasi, has got its name. The Dom or Domb are distributed in almost all parts of Orissa, but their major concentration is in Cuttack district. The community name Domb is said to be derived from the word dumba, meaning devil. They accept and exchange food and water from and with some communities of equivalent rank.

People of India
FTT ID: 41456

Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Domra, Domahra, Dumna and Dombo Identity : Scheduled Castes Population Location : 550,091 : The Dom are spread in thirty-nine districts of different states like Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh and have 182 segments. : They speak the Indo-Aryan languages Dogri, Bhojpuri , Magahi, Pahari and Punjabi at home. : They specially revere Shiv, Rama, Krishna, and Vaishno Devi. They visit pilgrim centres and worship community deities (kuldevta) stich as Mall Mara and Shibji Jogi. : The Dom are landless, and their traditional occupations are weaving, scavenging, drum-beating and sweeping. Their women are engaged in sweeping as well as in weaving mats. : They are non-vegetarian, and rice is their staple cereal. : Reportedly, they used to marry even within their own gotra, but now marriage wirhin the same gotra is not allowed. : They accept and exchange food and water from and with some communities of equivalent rank NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir - (153,715), Himachal Pradesh - (83,477),

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 17 of 57

FAQIR PEOPLE
A fakir or faqir (Arabic: poor' Lit: poverty) The word is usually used to refer to either the spiritual recluse or eremite or the common street beggar who chants holy names, scriptures or verses. When used referring to somber spiritual miracle-makers, fakir is applied primarily to Sufi, but also Hindu ascetics. Many stereotypes of the great fakir exist, among the more extreme being the picture of a near-naked man effortlessly walking barefoot on burning coals, sitting or sleeping on a bed of nails, levitating during bouts of meditation, or "living on air" (refusing all food). It is also used, usually sarcastically, for a common street beggar who chants holy names, scriptures or verses without ostensibly having any spiritual advancement. It has become a common Urdu and Hindi word for a beggar. When applied to Hindu mystics, the term is essentially a non-Indian word for Sadhus, Gurus, Swamis, or Yogis. One of the groups of Faqir affix the title Shah. The development programmes, viz., education, family planning and health facilities have not left any significant impact on the life of Faqir. They do not send their children to schools for modern education. Identity of the People Alternate name : The Faqir are beggars and also known as Sain. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population Location Language Religion

People of India
FTT ID: 41283

: 3,736,982 : The Faqir are distributed in Azamgarh, Basti, Faizabad, Gonda, Gorakhpur, Jaunpur and Sultanpur districts of Uttar Praclesh. : They speak Urdu and Hindi and the script used by them is Urdu. : The Faqir, like other Muslims, observe the festivals of Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul-Zuha, Ramzan, Barawafat and Shab-e-Barat. : The Faqir are giving up their traditional occupation of begging and collection of charity. They are turning towards agriculture and other occupations. Un : The Faqir are non-vegetarian. They consume beef (cow as well as buffalo) but do not eat pork. Their staple food is wheat and rice, : The mode of acquiring mates is through negotiation. Monogamy is the general form of marriage but polygyny is permitted. Bride-price is taken in kind only. : Since their traditional occupation is begging, they have linkages with the people of almost all communities of the village. They accept ail sorts of things given to them by the villagers, like food grains, clothes and cooked food, etc. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (511,473), Rajasthan - (129,059), Madhya Pradesh - (122,463), Haryana - (119,358), Gujarat - (81,411), Bihar (77,479), Maharashtra - (32,775), Himachal Pradesh - (20,003), Chandigarh - (7,329).

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 18 of 57

GADARIA PEOPLE
In Uttar Pradesh, the Gaderia derive their synonym Baghela from the Baghela river which flows at the border of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Also referred to as Beghela or Pal, the Gadaria are largely shepherds and blanket-weavers. The name Gaderia is derived from the word gadar, meaning sheep. They live all over the north-western parts of the country and use the title Pradhan. In Haryana, The Gaderia claim that during the time of Lord Rama they were pushed into the jungles, where they took to rearing goat and sheep. They inhabit all the districts of Haryana. The processing of sheep hair to prepare wool is done exclusively by women. The literacy rate among them is low. Only a few are employed in government and private service. The basic facilities that have been extended to them are made use of.

People of India
FTT ID: 41273

Identity of the People Alternate name : Also referred to as Beghela or Pal, the Gadaria are largely shepherds and blanketweavers Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4,345,440 Location Language Religion : The name Gaderia is derived from the word gadar, meaning sheep. They live all over the north-western parts of the country and use the title Pradhan. In Haryana, : They speak a dialect which is an admixture of the Haryanvi and Rajasthani languages, and use the Devanagari script : Some of them belong to the Radha Soami sect. They worship Sati idols, Talokpara (clan deity) and Lallanwala Pir (Sakhi Sarwarvillage deity). : They are now mainly engaged as labourers in masonry work, while some are involved in animal husbandry. : They are vegetarian; some of them avoid even onion and garlic. Their staple cereal is wheat. T : They practise clan and village exogamy. Consanguineous marriages are prohibited. Divorce is not permitted. : Traditional patron-client (jajmanl) relationships are maintained with servicing communities, such as the Dhobi, Nai and Mehtar. NT : No Audio Cassettes : No Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (6,323,035), Madhya Pradesh - (964,870), Rajasthan - (395,579), Bihar - (383,513), West Bengal - (13,865), Maharashtra - (4,403), Orissa - (3,725), Tripura - (1,761), Gujarat - (1,068), Haryana - (1,000)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 19 of 57

GARASIA PEOPLE
According to some the Girasia means the hill-living people (girt means hills, sia means dwelling). According to another the name Girasia is a derivative of the word girahua meaning degraded. Family among the Girasia is either extended or nuclear. Interpersonal relation in a family is cordial. Girasias have a typical fernale dress consisting of ghagra and an upper garment called jhuta. It is tied around the waist, contains knots in the front part at regular intervals instead of buttons. During festival or on any other occasion they dress up with all ornaments. Girasia men also wear silver bangle on one hand. The patel (headman) is the chief of the ponch. He settles disputes, negotiates bride-price etc. The office of patel is hereditary, and it goes to his eldest son. The offender is either excommunicated or a cash fine is imposed. The statutory panchayat is to implement the various developmental programmes.

People of India
FTT ID: 41610

Identity of the People Alternate name : According to another the name Girasia is a derivative of the word girahua meaning degraded, Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 169,946 Location Language Religion : Aravallis, Sirohi, Pali, Udaipur of Rajathan state. : Girasias have their own language in which the speak among themselves. Their language does not have a script of its own. : The Girasiya profess Hinduism and Lord Siva, Abu Mata (Golden Abu), Ambaji etc. are their deities. Bhopa is their sacred specialist who is their priest and medicine man. : Land is the main economic resource of the Girasias. They primarily subsist on agriculture and most of them possess lands. Working as wage Iabourers is their subsidiary : The Girasia are non vegetarian and eat mutton, chicken, pork rabbit and poultries. The principal cereal in their diet is makki (maize). wheat is also consumed. : Community endogamy and kutum exogamy are the rule, Post puberty marriage is the practice. Marriage by negotiation is the common mode of acquiring matchs. The other common practice is nahoio (marriage by development). : They have a large variety of songs meant for specific occasions. In fairs and festivals both men and women dance with the accomplishment of drum NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : No "JESUS" Film : No

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan - (189,315), Gujarat - (12,893)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 20 of 57

GARODA PEOPLE
The Garo trace their descent from the great saint Gargacharya, the brother of Sankaracharya, the guru of Asur According to them during the time of Aurangazeb when Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam, some Brahmans started living in jungle to save their religion and life. Those who went to the jungle lost their tradition and culture and were now known as Garo, Garoda,Guru, Guruwa or Pandiya. They are a priestly, astrologer community in the service of lower Hindu castes. The status of women among the Garo is inferior in comparison to that of men. Women assist in supplementing family income. Literacy level is low among them. They also send their girls to school. Traditional attitude towards health and medical care have changed and now a majority of them avail of modern medicare.

People of India
FTT ID: 41623

Identity of the People Alternate name : Those who went to the jungle lost their tradition and culture and were now known as Garo, Garoda,Guru, Guruwa or Pandiya. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 155,886 Location Language Religion : They are distributed in the districts of Mehasana, Sabarkanta, Banskanta, Panchmahal etc. : Within their kin group and with neighboring people they comnmnicate in Gujarati. They use Gujarati script. Some of them are proficient in Hindi also. : The community has their own clan dieties such as Shitla, Amba,Chamunda, Kalka, Khodiarmata, Meldimata, Laxmi, Saraswati.Ganga, Yanmna etc. : Majority of them do not have cultivable land. Traditionally they do the work of a Brahman priest in the houses of lower castes such as Vankar, Chamar, Kha!pa, Nadia, Turi, Tirgar etc. : The Garo are strictly vegetarian consuming various kinds of pulses and vegetables available in the market. Their staple food is maize, wheat, rice, and jowar. : Marriage by negotiation is the most prevalent .mode of acquiring mates. Monogamy is the common form of marriage but serial polygyny is also permitted. : As a priestly class they attend to the life cycle rituals of lower casts groups but they do not interdine with them. In turn other. higher castes such as Brahman and Rajputs also do not interdine with them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Gujarat - (78,362), Rajasthan - (41,220)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 21 of 57

GAUDA PEOPLE
A widely distributed community, in Orissa, the Gauda trace their origin to the Jadava bansa, especially that of Magadha. They have four subgroups, namely Nanda, Magadha, Juria and Loria. Mainly distributed in Balangir and in the adjoining areas of Orissa, they have migrated from the Magadharea. The Gauda have a number of surnames, such as Hati, Sandha, Bag, Nag, Bagarti and Chandan. A landowning community, the secondary occupations of the Gauda include cow-herding, supplying water, and agricultural labour. Women take part in all the agricultural operations except ploughing. Children too work to augment the family income. The community has professionals and political leaders in the legislative assembly. The Gauda use modern family planning methods, as well as the facilities of media, communication, banking & irrigation.

People of India
FTT ID: 41476

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Gauda have a number of surnames, such as Hati, Sandha, Bag, Nag, Bagarti and Chandan. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 462,871 : A widely distributed community, in Orissa, Mainly distributed in Balangir and in the adjoining areas of Orissa, they have migrated from the Magadharea. : Oriya, an Indo-Aryan language, is their mother tongue. The same language and its script are used for intergroup communication as well. : The Gauda mainly worship Krishna and their sacred centers include Puri, Brindaban and Harishankar. They participate in fairs and in festivals like Dussehra, Rathajatra, Naukhia and Ganesh Puja with others. : A landowning community, the secondary occupations of the Gauda include cow-herding, supplying water, and agricultural labour. : The Gauda are non-vegetarian, and rice is their staple cereal. : The marriage symbols for women are a vermilion mark on the fore head, toe-rings and glass bangles. : They accept water and cooked food from the Brahman, Karanand Kulta communities NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Orissa - (1,421,510), Karnataka - (32,123), Andhra Pradesh - (7,230), Tripura - (5,142), West Bengal - (3,684), Assam - (2,457), Goa (1,200)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 22 of 57

HALWAI PEOPLE
A community of confectioners and sweetmakers, They are spreact in the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. 'The Halwai take this name from halwa, a sweetmeat made of flour, clarified butter and sugar, coloured with saffron and flavoured with almonds, raisins and pistachio nuts.' The Halwai are an urban based population. Their family deity is Krishna. They confine themselves only to confectionery, i.e. making and selling of sweets. At present, the sweetmeat shop owners employ skilled workers, mostly from their own community, though others are also employed for this purpose. Traditionally a community business, trade, service and are now doctors, engineers and sweetmeat sellers. Their services are of economic, social and ritualistic importance. Their attitude towards formal education and traditional and modern medicines is favourable.

People of India
FTT ID: 41337

Identity of the People Alternate name : They have several subdivisions with territorial names such as Kanaujia from Kanauj and Jaunpuria from Jaunpur. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1,845,402 Location Language : They were predominantly distributed in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and the Uttar Pradesh. : Their mother tongue is Urdu, Awadhi and they use the Devanagari script. Hindi is used for intergroup communication. In Bihar, They speak the Maithili language but are also conversant with Hindi and use the Devanagari script : Their family deity is Krishna. They are Hindu and have a specific role in festivals and festivities as suppliers of sweets. : The Halwai are an urban based population. They confine themselves only to confectionery, i.e. making and selling of sweets they also practice agriculture. : They are vegetarian, and their staple cereal is wheat. : The symbols ot marriage for women are vermilion on the forehead, inherited by both sons and daughters. : At present, the sweetmeat shop owners employ skilled workers, mostly from their own community, though others are also employed for this purpose. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population West Bengal - (507,582), Uttar Pradesh - (502,662), Bihar - (502,417), Orissa - (4,932), Madhya Pradesh - (4,333), Maharashtra (1,853), Andaman & Nicobar Islands - (1,530)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 23 of 57

JHIWAR PEOPLE
They also called Dhiwar, Jhinwar, Kahar, Kashyap Rajput and Mallah, they inhabit various northern states of the country. According to some, a Jheewar was a 'true village menial', who received customary dues and performed customary service, such as supplying baskets to the cultivators and drinking water to the men in the fields at harvest time and other occasions. The females have tattoo marks on their body. In Punjab, the Jheewar are also known as Mehre, but these days they prefer to call themselves Kashyap Rajput. They are divided into two broad religious divisions, the Hindu and the Sikh Jheewar; they are further divided into clans. The Jheewar trade in mutton, fish and carry out many other miscellaneous jobs. Jheewar have utilized various development programmes concerning education, health and family planning. Industrialization in the area has offered new job opportunities to them.

People of India
FTT ID: 41334

Identity of the People Alternate name : Also called Dhanwar, Dhiwar, Jhinwar, Kahar, Kashyap Rajput and Mallah. In Punjab, the Jheewar are also known as Mehre, but these days they prefer to call themselves Kashyap Rajput. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1,926,444 Location Language Religion : They inhabit various northern states of the country. Like Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. : They speak Punjabi and use the Gurmukhi script though many of them are conversant with Hindi and use the Devanagari script. : They celebrate the local festivals of Lohri, Baisakhi, Holi, Diwali, Dussehra and Gurupurab. Sheranwali Mata is specially revered : In Jheewar mostly subsist on running flour mills (chakki) and fishing. Now they have taken up other occupations like stone-cutting, agriculuture and road-construction labour. : There are both vegetarians and non-vegetarians among them. : Monogamy is the rule for marriages which are negotiated by the elders. Divorce and widow remarriage are discouraged by these people. : They accept and exchange food and water .with all ides except the Chamar, Chuhra and Dhobi. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Punjab - (596,603), Haryana - (124,101), Himachal Pradesh - (51,639), Delhi - (46,809), Jammu & Kashmir - (36,418)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 24 of 57

KACHHI PEOPLE
The Kachhi are called by different synonyms such as Shakya, Murao, Murai and Koeri. They are believed to be the descendants of King Ichhvaku, the ruler of Kapilvastu. Some of described them as a tribe of opium-growers and market gardeners. Traditionally, they had maintained the joint family system but now they prefer nuclear family. The rule of inheritance goes in favor of male children and property is equally divided among sons. But the succession is in favor of eldest member of the family. The widow gets a share of her husband's property. The daughters also get the share in the property except in agricultural land. They use both modern and traditional Medicare. Tube wells and canals are the source of irrigation. Cow dung cakes and fuel wood are the main fuels used for cooking.

People of India
FTT ID: 41278

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Kachhi are called by different synonyms such as Shakya, Murao, Murai and Koeri. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4,119,125 Location Language Religion : Most of the Northern states like Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Orissa. : They speak Hindi and the script used is Devanagari. : About 90 per cent of them follow Hinduism, and the rest Buddhism. Vishahari Devi is the main village deity. : Land is the main natural resource and agriculture is the major economic activity. Majority of the people of this community are engaged in cultivation (specially vegetables). : A majority of them are pure vegetarian. Their staple food is wheat, rice and maize. Among pulses, arbarand red gram is commonly used. : Monogamy is the general form of marriage. Sindurznd bichhia are the marriage symbols. Dowry is given in cash and kind. After marriage, the wife resides at her husband's house. : Inter-community relations in various socio-economic sectors are governed by factors like hierarchical status, occupational specialties. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (4,303,729), Madhya Pradesh - (2,629,430), Rajasthan - (388,827), Maharashtra - (7,423), Orissa - (3,199), Gujarat (3,123), Bihar - (1,156)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 25 of 57

KAMPA PEOPLE
Kampa denotes a bush of thorns. In fact, the name Kampa is derived from the word Kapu meaning a watchman. The Kampa belong to Nagasa gotra and have a number of lineages which regulate their marriage alliances. Some of their lineages are Telkunchi, Dondari, Bodam, Duguri and Sapari. The Kampa use surnames such as Pradhan, Choudhury, Padhi, and Patra. Their traditional caste council helps in the main tenance of traditional customs and norms. They engage the services of a priest from the Panda Brahmau for performing their life-cycle rituals. Although they prefer indigenous medicines, they are gradually adopting modern medicines and family planning methods. Some of them have responded favorably to the loan facilities and various developmental programs launched by the government. Their traditional caste council helps in the maintenance of traditional customs and norms.

People of India
FTT ID: 41666

Identity of the People Alternate name : Some of their lineages are Telkunchi, Dondari, Bodam, Duguri and Sapari. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 130,437 : They are mainly found in northern part of Andhra Pradesh state. : Oriya, an Indo-Aryan language, is their mother tongue. The same language and its script are used for intergroup communication as well. : Being Kampa by religion, the Kahar worship all gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon. : The traditional and present occupation of the Kampa is agriculture. Besides settled cultivation, they are also engaged in business and service in government private organizations. : The Kampa are non-vegetarian. They take fish, eggs, and meat besides all seasonal vegetables and fruits. : A man can marry his father's sister's daughter, mother's brother's daughter or elder sister's daughter. At the time of marriage, the priest ties the hands of the bride and the bridegroom in front of a sacred fire amidst the recitation of mantras : They forge traditional intercommunity linkages with the Brahman, Karan, Komuti and Gouda, from whom they accept water and food, and establish putative kinship ties like mita and maker with people of equal social status. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Orissa - (130,437) Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 26 of 57

KHANDAIT PEOPLE
A community living in Orissa and West Bengal to be famous for their past glory as great fighters. In Orisss the Kshatriyas who fought against the British with the sword are those who are excellent in fighting with the sword. Orissa was formerly divided into khandas or and each khanda was governed by a headman called kham subsequently corrupted into khandai. The Khandait belong to and are the descendants of people who formed the landed ancient rajas of Orissa. The community is divided into a number of clans (gotra) like Nagashwa, Kashyapa and Suklaswa. The common titles used by them are Raut Roy or Rout Roy and Samant Roy while Singh, Baliar and Marathi are the surnames used. Some of them participating activities. They took an active part in the Paik or Chur rebelled. Their literacy rate is, lot high. They avail themselves of the advantage planning programmes. Employment and self-employment scheme, little impact on them.

People of India
FTT ID: 41262

Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : : 5,675,074 : Their traditions aver thai their immigration from Orissa they were in possession : They speak Oriya, Bengali. and use the Oriya script. : : Cultivation is the primary occupation of the Khandait, though the traditional occupation of the community is agriculture, they never touch the plough and engage labour to cultivate their lands. : They are non-vegetarian and consume rice and wheatas their staple cereals. The Khandait widows abstain from a non-vegetarian diet. : Marriage through negotiation at an adult age is most preferred. Dowry, in both cash and kind, and kanyadan are prevalent among them. : They traditionally do not accept water and cooked food from any other community. However, uncooked food and vegetables are accepted from all. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Orissa - (1,363,969), West Bengal - (280,620), Andhra Pradesh - (9,776), Assam - (6,950)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 27 of 57

KHATRI PEOPLE
They originated in Punjab, and are widely distributed in Punjab, , Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in over 132 districts in the having 241 segments. The Khatri are also known as Patnulkaran latriya and are divided into exogamous septs such as Sulegar, Sonappa and Bojagiri. The Khatri claim to be Rajput and believe that lmunity name is a corrupt form of Kshatriya. There are many theories in merchantile activities including various kinds of business. In Punjab, the Khatri are one of the major communities who trace their origin to one segment of the Kshatriya of Manu's varna system. The Khatri are a trading caste of bankers and moneylenders and are engaged in agriculture. All the sons inherit parental property equally. The lifecycle rituals are observed according to the Hindu or Sikh traditions depend on their religion.

People of India
FTT ID: 41279

Identity of the People Alternate name : By reason of their inter-connection with the silk industry, the Khatri called Putnulkaran by other castes, but they identify themselves Kshatriya and claim their descent from one Karta Virya Arjuna. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4,020,216 Location : They are widely distributed in Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Bihar, n, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, in over 132 districts in the having 241 segments. : Punjabi and use the Gurmukhi script. : The Khatri profess Hinduism. : Their business pursuits range from being village shopkeepers to being traders. Presently, they are working in all the fields. : They are vegetarian but occasionally take vegetarian food. Their staple cereals are wheat and maize supplement rice. : Monogamy is strictly There are no symbols of marriage among the Sikhs Khatri. However, bangles, a dot on the forehead (bindi), and finger-rings are the identification marriage for the Hindu women. : The Khatri were linked with other communities by jajmani or interrelationships. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Statewise Population Haryana - (658,958), Punjab - (645,781), Uttar Pradesh - (262,770), Gujarat - (98,140), Jammu & Kashmir - (81,859), Rajasthan (54,549), Maharashtra - (52,695), Delhi - (52,557), Himachal Pradesh - (49,159), Chandigarh - (37,242), Madhya Pradesh - (27,652), Andaman & Nicobar Islands - (1,030)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 28 of 57

KIRAR PEOPLE
The Kirar claim to have originally belonged to Kiser kot or Kiradu-kot of Jaisalmer and were a soldier group during the reign of Lord Shri Krishna. The Kirar are divided into three endogamous subgroups, namely Dhakar, Chauriya and Karod. Among these subgroups there are 136 clans. Khandyat, Birojia, Wankhedia, Sujonia, Haroda, Khojar, Bhdhneria,PureviaGangolia, Choura and Kathoria are some of their clans (kul). All sons inherit parental property equally. The Kirar are a landowning community whose primary occupation is settled cultivation. Some of them are employed in salaried jobs in government and other agencies. Their regional organization, named Akhil Bhartiya Kirar Kshatriya Sabha, (All India Kirar Mahasabha) is headed by the adhyaksh, which provides assistance to the council (jati panch). These people avail themselves of the free education, health and employment schemes, and banking.

People of India
FTT ID: 41393

Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as the Kirar or Kirad, they are a community as inferior or degraded Rajput. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : 899,323 : They are distributed in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In Rajasthan they are distributed in theKota, Bundi and Bharatpur districts of the state. : Brajbhasa is their mothertongue, but they also speak Hindi and use the Devanagari script. : They are Hindu by faith. : They are largely engaged in agriculture. Earlier a hunting group, the present-day primary occupation of the Kiraris agriculture. : The Kirar are non-vegetarian and their staple food consists of wheat, jowar and rice supplemented with pulses. : They practice child marriage and acquire spouses through negotiation. The form of marriage is monogamy. The rule of residence after marriage is patrilocal. Divorce is permitted and remarriage : Traditionally they accept and exchange and food with the Sahariya, Meena, Jata and Gujar. They also accept the Brahman, Jain and Rajput. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Madhya Pradesh - (781,355), Uttar Pradesh - (53,179), Rajasthan - (51,665), Maharashtra - (26,244)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 29 of 57

KUNJRA PEOPLE
The Kunjra are green-grocers who sell mainly vegetables and fruits. The name of the community is probably derived from the Sanskrit word kunj, which means 'a bower' or an 'arbour'. They prefer to call themselves Rayeen and claim their migration from the Rayee mountains of Arabia. Child-labour exists among the Kunjra. Children get their wages in cash. The Kunjra have their traditional panchayat headed by a chaudhary. The panchayat plays a vital role resolving social issues, viz., marriage, divorce, etc., and also settles the disputes in the family. It unites the community memebrs for help to each other. It is said that the verdict of their panchayat is valid in the court of law. In the villages, the panchayat gives punishment too. Formal education is favoured for both boys and girls. They generally study upto intermediate level, but some of them go for higher studies upto postgraduate level and also for professional degrees.

People of India
FTT ID: 41349

Identity of the People Alternate name : They prefer to call themselves Rayeen Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 1,580,813 : They perceive their distribution to be medium range and scatterd throughout the state of Uttar Pradesh. : They speak Urdu and Awadhi (a dialect of Hindi) and use Persian and Devanagari scripts in day-to-day activity. : The Kunjra are Muslims and belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Their deities are Ghazi Mian and Pachon Pir, and they offer them sweetmeat and fruits, etc. : The Kunjra are a landless people. The main occupation of the community is selling vegetables and fruits. : In their food habits, they are basically non-vegetarian and consume beef (buffalo) too. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is much. They supplement their diet by taking milk and mik products. : Marriages are usually monogamous, but polygyny is also permitted. Marriages are settled through negotiations. : In traditional inter-community linkages, they share food and water with their Muslim brethren except the Mehtar and other menials. They do not take food with the Khatik, who are Hindus and engaged in the occupation of selling vegetables and fruits. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (308,542)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 30 of 57

MACHHI PEOPLE
The Machhi derive their name from the word machhi, meaningfish. They are also called Tandel. In Maharashtra, the Machhi are also known as Mima Machhi, Kharva or Kharvi. There are no hierarchical divisions within the community. Their sur-names are Macchi, Mitna and Patel. Fishing and and salt-making are the traditional as well as the presentday primary occupations of the Machhi. Toddy-tapping, running wine shops and service in different government offices are their subsidiary occupations. Social control is regulated by their traditional caste council, the Machhi Mahajan Samaj. They enjoy the benefits of various developmental programmes pertaining to education, medical facilities, communication, family planning, drinking water, electricity, ration and banking.

People of India
FTT ID: 41425

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Machhi derive their name from the word machhi, meaning fish. They are also called Tandel. In Maharashtra, the Machhi are also known as Mima Machhi, Kharva or Kharvi. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 716,471 Location Language Religion : In Daman and Diu, the Machhi are migrants from Mehri and Bharooch of south Gujarat who settled in the coastal areas of Daman about 200 years ago : Gujarati is their mother tongue and they use the Gujarati script. Some of them are conversant with Hindi also. : The Machhi are Hindu and worship Sangliya Mata as their lineage deity. They also revere N.S. dos remedious (Lady of Remedy), one of the shrines of the Catholic Christian whom the Machhi since the Portuguese period, : Fishing and seamanship are the traditional as well as the present-day primary occupations of the Machhi. Toddytapping, running wine shops and services. : They are non-vegetarian and their staple includes jowar, rice and fish. Their traditional occupation is fishing. : Marriage with one's mother's brother daughter or mother's sister's daughter is permitted and junior levirate and junior sororate are allowed. Marriages are settled through negotiation. : They traditionally accept both cooked and uncooked food from the Brahman, Koli, Patel, Dubla, Dhodia, Momin and Christian. They receive the services of the Dubla and Mangela during fishing operations, NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Haryana - (230,100), Maharashtra - (188,635), Gujarat - (173,407), Punjab - (138,688), Chandigarh - (2,047)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 31 of 57

MALLIK PEOPLE
They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. The Malik, also called Malek, are a small localized endogamous mainly in twenty-seven villages of the Thasra taluk in the Kheda district. The Malik have commensally relationship with other Muslim communities and participation of the Malik is confined mostly to regional-level politics. Mallik is used as a title by the Sayeed group who are descendants of Sayeed Hazarat Ibrahim. Their traditional community council consists of nine members who elected by a voice vote for a period of one year Intra-community dispute are settled by the community council. They also work as skilled labourers. They traditional communal relationship with other Muslim communities excepting goor, gonai and Watal. The Malik have scholars, businessmen, teachers, neers and members in the defence services. Their boys and girls le post-graduate and higher levels. Their attitude towards modern favourable but not so for family planning.

People of India
FTT ID: 41673

Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : Muslim - Religious group : 128,259 : They are distributed in Bhagalpur, Gaya, Munger, Nalanda and Patna districts. Also in Maharashtra and Gujarat state. : They speak Urdu and Magahi and use the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts. : They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. : The traditional occupation of cultivation is still primary source of subsistence followed by agricultural labour. Petty rovision shops and government service are their other means of livelihood. : The Malik are non-vegetarian and bajri or wheat roti forms their tie equigeniture is the rule of inheritance. : Cross-cousin marriages are practised. A married woman wears a nose-studt symbol of a marriage. They have both nuclear and extended families a them. : They traditional commensal relationship with other Muslim communities excepting goor, gonai and Watal. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Statewise Population Gujarat - (210,280), Maharashtra - (133,528), West Bengal - (127,467), Bihar - (2,808), Orissa - (1,426)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 32 of 57

MANIHAR PEOPLE
A community distributed in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya d Uttar Pradesh, they migrated from the Sindh region. The term manihar is derived from mani meaning a precious stone and kara meaning maker, i.e. precious stones. They also work in glass and make tin foils. The Manihar, also known as Maniar or Chudigar. The Manihar are Sunni sect of Islam. The Manihar have two subgroups, Manihar and Lakhere Manihar. They have a local caste panchayat a the Manihar pursue their traditional occupation of selling cosmetics and tikli. Their attitude towards formal education is curable for boys and unfavorable for girls. They use both modern medicines. Some of them are self-employed as tailors, rickshaw- d in poultry farming under various welfare schemes.

People of India
FTT ID: 41396

Identity of the People Alternate name : Manihar, also known as Maniar or Chudigar. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : 875,513 : The Muslim Lakhera known as Manihar are distributed in the Jaipur, Sikar, Chum and Ajmer districts of Rajsthan. : Urdu is their mother tongue a Hindi and use both the Devanagari and Perso-Arabic script . In Gujarat, Kachchi is their mother tongue. : The Manihar e Sunni sect of Islam. : The traditional occupation of the bangles from ivory, but due to the non-availability of ivory ( now make bangles from plastic with jerry covering. : They in general, are non-vegetarian but are prohibited from consuming staple food items include cooked rice and wheat. : Married women wear as symbols of them marital status. Mehar is promised for future he rule of residence after marriage is patrilocal. Divorce is allowed, or which is taken from the biradari panchayat. : They accept water and food from other munities, but intercommunity marriages are prohibited. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (428,923), Bihar - (45,400), Madhya Pradesh - (8,883), Rajasthan - (1,200), West Bengal - (1,100)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 33 of 57

MEMON PEOPLE
A well-known community, they are the descendants of the Lohana of Sindh who accepted Islam in the middle of the fifteenth century. Memon is a corrupt form of the title Momin (meaning a strong believer in Islam) given by the saint Yusuf-ud-din. They inhabit Gujarat and Karnataka. In Gujarat, the Memon are divided into five endogamous, namely Halai Memon, Jalwadi Memon, Surti Memon. They perceive a lower status for themselves than the Patel and Lohna but higher than other Muslim communities exchange food and water with other Muslim groups. Community councils or jamats managed by an executive committee at the local level, are affiliated to the National Memon Federation at Bombay. They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. The Memon participate in local and regional politics. Facilities of formal education, modern health care, drinking water, media and communication are being utilized.

People of India
FTT ID: 41459

Identity of the People Alternate name : Memon is one of the title Momin (meaning a strong believer in Islam) given asuf-uddin. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 544,391 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : They inhabit Gujarat and Karnataka. : They speck Gujarati among themselves and Urdu and Kannada with others. : They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. They profess Islam. : The traditional occupation of the Memon is petty business followedservice. Very few depend upon agriculture. : The Memon take bajra, wheat and rice are their staple cereals. : First cousins are preferred as spouse wear nose-ring and nose-pin are the symbols of married women and mehar is instantly. Divorce is allowed on grounds of maladjustment and remarriage both widows and widowers is permitted. : The Memon continue to have occupational relations with other communities including other Muslim communities. They exchange food and water with other Muslim groups. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Gujarat - (433,413), Maharashtra - (281,799), Tamil Nadu - (2,000)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 34 of 57

MOGHAL PEOPLE
The Mughal is one of the four social divisions of Muslims, viz., Sheikh, Siyyad, Mughal and Pathan. Mughals can be both Sunni as well as Shia by sect affiliation. The Mughal believe that their community has originated after intermixing of Iranians and the Russians. It is an immigrant group which is said to have entered India along with Babar who laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India in the fifteenth century. They got spread over different parts of northern India during the period of Humayun and Akbar. The Mughal, who were once known as soldiers of the Mughal army, do not claim to be proficient in any specific occupation, profession or skill. They have taken up variety of works as economic activity. The community has no organized councils or panchayats for social control. These people use all public facilities available, for example, even in villages the Mughal use electricity, bank and post office facilities and public distribution system, etc., without any reservation.

People of India
FTT ID: 41360

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Mughal is one of the four social divisions of Muslims, viz., Sheikh, Siyyad, Mughal and Pathan. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 1,279,327 Location Language Religion : They got spread over different parts of northern India. : The Mughal speak Urdu, Hindi and, to some extent, English. Some of the older people know Persian also. Urdu is their mother tongue and the script is Persian. : The Mughal follow Islam religion. Since they belong to both Shia as well as Sunni divisions of Muslims, These people consider all mazars of saints, dargahs, Mecca and Madina as sacred places and pilgrim centres. : They have taken up variety of works as economic activity. In villages, they do some agriculture, own orchards, specially mango orchards, whereas in towns, they are engaged in trade, handicrafts. : The Mughal are non-vegetarian. They eat mutton, beef and small birds. Pork is, however, is a taboo. : Marriages are negotiated at parents' level. Boy's people initiate the proposal. The symbol for married women in general is the dress, i.e. wearing of juniper (blouse or loose shirt) and garara or sari. : The Mughal maintain community linkages generally at economic sphere only. Their social linkages with other communities is limited to exchange of greetings, etc. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (1,016,122), Maharashtra - (203,257), Karnataka - (168,398), Rajasthan - (136,041), Andhra Pradesh - (130,823), West Bengal - (90,055), Madhya Pradesh - (69,410), Tamil Nadu - (45,987), Bihar - (23,872), Orissa - (18,080), Gujarat - (15,459), Haryana - (11,836), Jammu & Kashmir - (7,234), Goa - (5,078)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 35 of 57

MUSSALLI PEOPLE
The so-called Mussalli are found all throughout the Punjab and India generally, where they make up a majority of those who were historically considered untouchables. Their hereditary, and, ultimately, defiling occupations were cleaning and scavenging. The Mussalli's distinctive music is tied to the worship of their patron diety, the 12th century saint Gugga. Bards of Gugga maintain a unique repertoire of devotional hymns and legends from the life of the saint. Their instruments include an hourglass drum called dauru, which is unique to this sphere of music making in Punjab. The non-Mussalli public patronizes this music during the monsoon months and the saints festival.

People of India
FTT ID: 41508

Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim - Religious group : 361,029 : The so-called Chuhra are found all throughout the Punjab and India generally, where they make up a majority of those who were historically considered untouchables. : The Mussalli speak the Urdu language. : Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. : Their hereditary, and, ultimately, defiling occupations were cleaning and scavenging. : Rice and meat is the staple diet of them. The tea that the Kashmiris drink is called Kahva, which is a concoction of green tea leaves brewed in the samovar and enriched with pounded almonds. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings, the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Punjab - (23,437)

Status of Resources Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 36 of 57

NAI (HINDI) PEOPLE


Nai is either a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word 'napika', meaning one who deans nails, or it is derived from the word 'nahna' meaning a person who acts at will or does not refuse to act. The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata, a saint of their own caste. They use different titles with their name, such ashen, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Extended type of family is common among them. This is follow by the occurrence of nuclear family type. The eldest son succeeds his father. Though women in the Nai community have taken to education and service, they have no voice regarding any dispute or problem their own community. The Nai has a vital role in birth, marriage and death. So they have, close interaction with all the communities. The Nai are regarded as a low caste community due to their occupation.

People of India
FTT ID: 46264

Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name, such asen, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 4,201,693 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. : Hindi is their language and the Devanagari script is used by them. : The community profess Hindu religion. They follow Vaishnavism.Nai generally worship sen bhagat, a saint of their own castes, they worship Ganesh, Hanuman, Shitalamata, Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. They also work as agricultural labourers. : They are non-vegetarian, but abstain from taking beef. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. Furnitures, utensils, fridge, etc. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (4,201,693)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 37 of 57

NAI (MARWADI) PEOPLE


The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata, a saint of their own caste. They use different titles with their name, such as Sen, Shartna, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Extended type of family is common among them. This is followed by the occurrence of nuclear family type. Though women in the Nai community have taken to education and service, they have no voice regarding any dispute or problem of their own community. The authority in the family rests with the male. Their women have a status lower than their men. At the village level, they have caste panchayat which is constituted by the elderly members of the community. They collectively discuss the disputes and make efforts to settle the same. There is acceptance of literacy and education among the Nai. They are very particular and keen to send their children for education. A few of them have come up as professionals such as doctor and engineer. Their attitude towards modern medicare is positive.

People of India
FTT ID: 46287

Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name, such asen, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 243,999 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. : Marwadi is spoken and the Devanagari script used. : The community profess Hindu religion. They follow Vaishnavism.Nai generally worship sen bhagat, a saint of their own castes, they worship Ganesh, Hanuman, Shitalamata, Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. They also work as agricultural labourers. : They are non-vegetarian, but abstain from taking beef. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. Furnitures, utensils, fridge, etc. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : No Statewise Population Rajasthan - (243,999)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 38 of 57

NAI (PUNJABI) PEOPLE


In Punjab, the Nai are fondly called Rajaji. They are distributed throughout the state. Some of them Stammen Raja, Lagi, Savita Samaj Nau, Banmeru, Kuleen Brahman, or Hajjam (Muslim). Nai is either a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word napika, meaning one who deans nails, or it is derived from the word nahna meaning a person who acts at will or does not refuse to act. . A very few educated ones among them work as clerks in banks, etc. Some are petty shopkeepers. They do not have any caste council (jati sabha). Traditionally they do not accept water and food from the Chura, Chamar, Bazigar, Dom, Deha, Mochi, and Muslim. They share the same religious shrines, water sources, and crematoria with other communities. Earlier, they did not do hair-cutting for the scheduled castes, but this rigidity is no more observed. Literacy rate of the community is slowly improving, yet formal education is still, by and large, not favoured for girls.

People of India
FTT ID: 46278

Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name, such asen, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1,156,116 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. : Punjabi or Hindi is spoken and the Gurmukhi or Devanagari script is used : The community profess Hindu religion. They follow Vaishnavism.Nai generally worship sen bhagat, a saint of their own castes, they worship Ganesh, Hanuman, Shitalamata, Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. They also work as agricultural labourers. : They are non-vegetarian, but abstain from taking beef. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. Furnitures, utensils, fridge, etc. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (1,156,116)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 39 of 57

NAI (URDU) PEOPLE


The Nai are also known as the followers of Sen Bhagata, a saint of Zneir own caste. They use different titles with their name, such as~en, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. It is said that the Nai are the offspring of a Brahman father and a Sudra mother. Extended type of family is common among them. This is follow by the occurrence of nuclear family type. Though women in the Nai community have taken to educati and service, they have no voice regarding any dispute or probIem their own community. They do not have any right of inheritance parental property. The authority in the family rests with tile ma. Their women have a status lower than their men. There is acceptance of literacy and education among the Nai. They are particular and keen to send their children for education. Some of them have come up as professionals such as doctor and engineer. Their attitude towards modem medicare is positive. Hand pump and piped water supply are the sources of drinking water.

People of India
FTT ID: 46273

Identity of the People Alternate name : They use different titles with their name, such asen, Sharma, Thakur, Khawas, Verma etc. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population : 1,819,772 Location Language Religion : They have a widespread community and distributed in all the districts in the state. : The Nai speak the Urdu language. : The community profess Hindu religion. They follow Vaishnavism.Nai generally worship sen bhagat, a saint of their own castes, they worship Ganesh, Hanuman, Shitalamata, Lakshmi:bhuja and all other Hindu gods and goddesses. : The traditional occupation of the Napit is cutting hair. They have several hair-dressing centres and receive payment in cash. They also work as agricultural labourers. : They are non-vegetarian, but abstain from taking beef. : Monogamy is the prevalent type of marriage but second marriage is allowed in some exceptional cases like barrenness or death of first wife.Bride price is paid in the form of gifts to the bride. Furnitures, utensils, fridge, etc. are offered as gifts : Traditionally all the castes accept water from them. Intercommunity marital exchanges are not prevalent among them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (1,819,772)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 40 of 57

NAIKDA PEOPLE
The Nayaka also describes themselves as Naikda in some parts of Gujarat. The alternative name 'nayaka' mean a leader, a chief or governer who execise command over a group of people, they also call themselves as 'kakkari' a term derived from the word 'kathori' which mean 'animal hide'. According to a legend, the Nayaka and Dhodia are the descendants of Rupak-hatri and Dhanakhatri. Their women can be seen taking part in social, economic and agricultural labourers. The Nayaka have community council at certain places, which settles social disputes. The Naikda are divided into several clans, like Pawar, Lahange, Ardi or Arde, Wagh, Pardhi, Saura, Bhedanga and Phasale.The Naikda have shown a literacy rate of 18.82 per cent. They continue to depend on traditional medicines.

People of India
FTT ID: 41318

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Nayaka also describe themselves as Naikda in some parts of Gujarat. In Gujarat, they are notified as Naika, Nayaka, Cholivala Nayaka, or Kapadia Nayaka, etc., Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population : 2,268,678 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes : They are found in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Karnataka states. : Very few of them speak their mother tongue, Naikdi; in fact the majority of them speak Gujarati : They are Hindus. : Agriculture is the major occupation of the community at present : The Nayaka of Gujarat are non-vegetarian. They mostly eat bajra, rice and gram. : They are monogamous. Their women can be seen taking part in social, economic and religious activities. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Statewise Population Karnataka - (1,696,831), Gujarat - (507,624), Maharashtra - (98,203), Andhra Pradesh - (30,916), Rajasthan - (14,499), Madhya Pradesh - (1,049)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 41 of 57

NAYAR PEOPLE
Nayar is an honorific plural of the word nayan derived from nayaka, meaning a leader of the people. At present the Nayar community includes a number of sub castes that were considered to be military classes in ancient time. With concentration in Kerala, the Nayar are also reported from Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, and Maharashtra. They are distributed in 38 districts of the country; they have 115 segments. In Tamil Nadu the Nair have the synonym of Nayammar. Their concentration is in Kanyakumari district. In Maharashtra, the Nair speak Malayalam with family members and converse in English, Hindi and Tamil languages with outsiders. In Nagpur city three associations work for their welfare which are responsible for socio-religious activities. Formal education for either sex is favorable. They avail themselves of the welfare facilities related to healthcare, employment, media, and agricultural methods.

People of India
FTT ID: 41257

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Nayar use the titles such as Pilla, Tampi, Kurup, Kanakkar, Panikkar, Karta, Kidavu, Menon, Menokki, Kaimal, Unnithan, Valiyathan and Nambiar Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 6,578,469 : Sevewral staes of India. Mainly found in Kerala and Tamil nadu. : The language spoken and script used at home and with others is Malayalam. The educated and the employed are fluent in English and Hindi also. : The Nayar profess Hinduism but practise it with a lot of difference. Each family has its own para (bharai] governing deities like 'Vettakkorumakan', various forms of goddess Bhagawati, Naga (snake), ancestors and heroes. : Rice and coconut are the major crops, though in North Malabar, pepper, cardamom and rubber. They are also engaged in business, trade, government service and the learned professions. : Generally, the Nayar are non vegetarian and abstain from eating beef and pork. Staple food is rice. Various pulses, roots and tubers are consumed. : Now, the marriage of the Nayar is denoted by the term kalyanam or vivaham. The marriage proposal usually starts from the bridegroom's side through some intermediary or direct. : Among the Nayar, traditional intercommunity linkages are now cordial. They now accept and exchange water and food with other communities. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Kerala - (5,138,497), Karnataka - (148,352), Tamil Nadu - (42,285)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 42 of 57

PAROJA PEOPLE
Variously known as Paraja, Parja, Porja or Poroja, the Paroja are distributed in the states of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Assam. The term Paroja and Poroja, are derived from the Oriya words, po meaning son and raja meaning king. The Parja interpret their name a derivative of the Sanskrit term Parja means subject. Parja is the only clan who do marriages between cross cousins as well as between maternal uncle and niece are allowed. Paternal property is inherited equally by all the sons and the eldest son succeeds. The artitude toward formal education is not positive. They mostly use traditional method of medicine. Modern method of treatment are accoassionally used. For drinking water they mostly depend on wells and well steams. Some of them have received government assistance in the area of rural employment generation. They depend upon the local moneylenders to a great extent.

People of India
FTT ID: 41494

Identity of the People Alternate name : Variously known as Paraja, Parja, Porja or Poroja, Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location Language Religion : 409,105 : The Paroja are distributed in the states of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Assam. : They speak the Oriya language and are also conversant with Hindi. The Oriya and they use Devanagari scripts : They are Hindu. Nishani Munda is the common sacred centre for them. A few of them have embraced Christianity, while some practice animism. : The traditional occupation of the Parja in was agriculture. Presently their men and women are employed on permanent or temporary basis for plucking tea-leaves. : Rice is their staple food. They are non-vegetarian who eat pork : Parja is the only clan who do marriages between cross cousins as well as between maternal uncle and niece are allowed. Marriages are generally settled through gabra), courtship and mutual consent (rajikhusi). : They traditionally do not accept food from the Tanti, Dom and Ghasi. Intercommunity marriages exist among them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa - (410,802)

Status of Resources Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 43 of 57

PATHAN PEOPLE
The Pathan, also known as Khan as well as Bahadur (brave). Tuse Khan as a surname and females use Khanam or Bibi. According to the Pathan narration their ancestors migrated from Afghani and worked as defenders of forts in the hills during the regime of Maharaj Ranjit Singh and claimed the stock of Mughal Pathan and Kabuli Pathan. There is no community council as such, but to uphold community norms and to resolve social issues from time to time an ad hoc body of elders is formed. They belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Sacred specialists are from other Muslim communities who Muslim brethren. Traditionally, they used to render service in the army of native rulers. Now they are primarily engaged in agriculture. The community favors formal education for boys, but for girls only partially. They make full use of modern medicare, mass media and communication network.

People of India
FTT ID: 41237

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Pathan have three divisions mainly Swadi, Bunedi and Bagodi. Identity : Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage : 12,889,749 : They are distributed in Dungarpur, Banswara, Ajmer, Jaipur, Bharatpur and Udaipur districts. Their main concentration is in Dungarpur district : The Pathan speak a Urdu dialect and Hindi. They use Devnagari script. : : The main source of income of Pathan is through service in government and non-government firms. They traditionally served as soldiers and guards of the rulers (durbar). : The Pathan are non-vegetarians. Their staple food includes wheat and maize. Rice is used occasionally. : Marriage alliances are made "'rough negotiation. Monogamy is the common form but polygamy is allowed in some cases. Mehar is promised in marriage and the amount of mehar is recorded in the name of bride at the time of carriage. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population West Bengal - (1,494,248), Maharashtra - (1,268,096), Madhya Pradesh - (1,024,022), Karnataka - (732,503), Tamil Nadu - (576,089), Bihar - (420,440), Andhra Pradesh - (322,082), Gujarat - (278,265), Orissa - (259,603), Punjab - (233,412), Haryana - (140,315), Delhi - (97,140), Jammu & Kashmir - (42,810), Kerala - (26,428), Himachal Pradesh - (16,098), Goa - (7,466), Andaman & Nicobar Islands - (4,558), Assam - (3,793)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 44 of 57

PONDARA PEOPLE
In Orissa, the Pondara are also known as 'Bartiya'. The term is derived from the words, 'bar' meaning land and 'tiya' meaning self-prepared. They are also called 'Pondari'. They grow vegetables through out the year. It is customary among the Pondara to take an acre or two of land and share the plots to grow vegetables and contribute to the prescribed rent jointly. Besides the practice of horticulture, they also work as daily wage laborers. They have a traditional caste council. A statutory grampanchayat exists to look after the development of the village and resolve the problems. Formal educational is not encouraged and most of them discontinue their studies. They use both modern and indigenous medicines for treatment. Other welfare measures have yet to reach them.

People of India
FTT ID: 41646

Identity of the People Alternate name : In Orissa, the Pondara are also known as Bartiya. In Andhra Pradesh, the Pondara are also called Pondari. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 144,164 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes Orissa - (82,328) : They are distributed in the districts of Srikakulam and Vizianagaram. They have migrated from Orissa. : Their mother tongue is a dialect of Gujarati, which is locally called Pomla bhasha. : The Pomla are Hindu. : The Pondara are traditional vegetables growers and horticulturists; and they also practise agriculture. : They consume fish, meat and egg. They are non-vegetarian. : Monogamy is the form of marriage. Vermilion and glass bangles are the symbols of married women. : NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 45 of 57

QASSAB PEOPLE
Qassab are also known as 'Buz Qassab' in Persian buz means 'a goat and qassab an Arabic word means-'to cut' or Chikwa. Recently they have begun to use the surname Qureshi. The general pattern of family among the Bakar Qassab is nuclear. In some cases, the extended type is also prevalent. Women in the community get respect and are treated at par with men. They are consulted in all family matters. Elderly women play a vital role in family disputes, etc. They also perform religious rites. Bakar Qassabs belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Besides pirs other religious saints are also given due importance and reverence. They get formal modern education up to school, college and university level. Girls have started going to school. They do not, however, go in for higher education due to social reasons. They generally make use of the facilities available in an area. The Bakar Qassab make use of facilities of drinking water available in the area.

People of India
FTT ID: 41353

Identity of the People Alternate name : Bakar Qassab/Chikwa/Quresh are also known as Buz Qassab (in Persian buz means 'a goat1 and qassab an Arabic word means-'to cut') or Chikwa. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 1,486,022 Location Language Religion : Sevaral states in India. : The Qassab speak Urdu and use the Persian script, These days, the members speak Hindi and use Devanagari script in their business transactions. : Qassabs belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. Besides pirs other religious saints are also given due importance and reverence. Their major sacred centres are Mecca and Medina. : Major economic activity of the community is business and trade of meat, sale and purchase or slaughter and export of fresh meat and hides. : They are non-vegetarian people and eat meat two or three times a week, the frequency going up when there is some meat left unsold. They also take seasonal vegetables and fruits. : Marriage is performed according to the Hanafi school of Muslim jurisprudence. Marital unions are mostly monogamous. Bride-price in the form of mahr is fixed according to the status of the family. : Traditional inter-community linkages are found mainly with Sheikhs. The other Muslim communities, Nai and Dhobi, are also found to be associated in the rituals of the Qassab, NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (845,412), Punjab - (65,805), Haryana - (26,912), Gujarat - (26,796), Bihar - (20,699), Rajasthan - (5,174), Madhya Pradesh - (3,943), Maharashtra - (1,563), West Bengal - (1,193)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 46 of 57

QAZI PEOPLE
QAZI, literally meaning judge, the Qazi are a community of Gujarat. The community people consider themselves as higher than the Sheikh but lower than the Sayyed. Now, the word qazi has come to mean imam. They conduct marriages and act as the chief member on the death of a Muslim. The Qazi are Sunni Muslims and follow the Hanafi school. They are strict in praying five times a day and in observing fasts during the month of the Rarnzan. The Qazi of Wadhawan also participate in the Hindu festivals and observe fast and take cold food on the satharn and ashtam of Shravan month (JulyAug). Some of the Qazi are expert medicine-men and they give talisman to protect the people from evil spirits and cure the ill. The Qazi have commensal relations with all Muslim communities and in certain places, they have entered into connubial relations with the Sayyed and Sheikh. Quite a large number of the Qazi are literate. They rarely adopt family planning measures. They utilize both banking facilities and public distribution system.

People of India
FTT ID: 41367

Identity of the People Alternate name : Literally meaning judge, the Qazi are a community of Gujarat Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : 1,201,572 : All over Gujarat State and north of Bihar state. : Urdu is their mother tongue. They ate conversant with Gujarati also. Both the PersoArabic and Gujarati scripts are used. : The Qazi are Sunni Muslims and follow the Hanafi school. : Landholders and agriculturists are very few among the Qazi. Traditionally the Qazi worked as judges but after the end of the Muslim rule they began to teach in madrasas and act as imams in dargahs. : The Qazi are non-vegetarian. : marriages are allowed amongst them. Polygyny is permitted but it is rare. Bride-price and mehar are fixed. : The Qazi have commensal relations with all Muslim communities and in certain places, they have entered into connubial relations with the Sayyed and Sheikh. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Bihar - (472,844), West Bengal - (11,032), Gujarat - (3,868), Madhya Pradesh - (1,009)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 47 of 57

RAJ PEOPLE
The Rai Sikh claim that they are the descendants of those Rajputs who became Sikh during the reign of Mughal emperor Aurangazeb. The Rajput are also known as Rai and hence, the name Rai Sikh. They had migrated from the Layalpur, Minthumari and Sargodha areas of Pakistan. The community is divided into thirty-six clans. Village exogamy is strictly observed, even in case of people who migrated from the same village in Pakistan. Sons inherit the parental property and get equal shares; succession pattern follows male primogeniture rule. Formal education is partially favored for boys and girls. They take advantage of the health and medical care and family planning programme. One of the perceptible changes that has taken place during the last ten years is a strong tendency to follow the religious teachings of Radha Soami. This has brought a tremendous transformation in their way of life as most of them have stopped taking alcoholic drinks and have become strictly vegetarian.

People of India
FTT ID: 41700

Identity of the People Alternate name : In Punjab, the Rai Sikh were earlier called Mahatm and Sirkiband. Identity : Scheduled Tribe Population Location : 114,669 : They have settled all along the banks of the Sutlej river in the districts of Ferozepur, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Kapurthala. In Haryana, the Rai Sikh are spread in the Hissar, Karnal and Kurukshetra districts. : They speak Punjabi and use the Gurumukhi script. : They are followers of Sikh religion. : A large number of them are working as agricultural and non-agricultural laborers. Animal husbandry is their secondary occupation : They are non-vegetarian who avoid beef; their staple food comprises rice and wheat. : Marriages take place between the Rai Sikh, Mahatm and Sirkiband. They perform marriage rites according to the Sikh religion. Divorce and remarriage are permitted in their society. : This community maintains very cordial relationship with the scheduled castes and other artisan and sendee castes of the nearby villages. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 48 of 57

RAMDASIA PEOPLE
Ramdasia sikh is a people in India. Members of this community were engaged in the profession of weaving. They may at times be also referred to as julaha meaning a weaver in punjabi and hindi. The total population of this community is about 505,000, 80% of which reside in Punjab alone. The remaining 20% are found in the states of Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. The Sikh Light Infantry draws its man power from the Mazhabi and Ramdasia elements amongst the Sikhs. The terms ravidasia and ramdasia are not synonymous and hence should never be used interchangeably. The Chamars in Punjab have embraced sikhism and are called ramdasis after Guru Ramdas. The raindasis are different from the radidasi(rabdasi)chamars. The former are sikhs and the later are hindus and follow bhagat rav das. Arya samaj movement succeded in converting some chamars.

People of India
FTT ID: 41387

Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Jatav, Jatia, Golia or Raigar. The Ramdasi are different from the Raidasi (Rabdasi) Chamar. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 941,336 Location : Mainly in Punjab. The Jatia Chamar mainly live in the Faridabad and Gurgaon districts, the Chanaur in the Mahendragarh, Hissar and Jind districts, while the Julaha Chamar are thinly distributed all over the statearyana : They speak Punjabi, an Indo-Aryan language, and use the Gurmukhi script. They speak Haryanvi in Haryana, : The Raidasi worship the Hindu gods and Guru Ravidas, while the Sikh worship the Guru Granth Sahib. : The women tend domestic animals, collect cowdung and fuelwood, cut grass and work as labourers. Some of the Chamar work as labourers either on daily wages or on an annual contract (sanjhi), : Wheat is their staple cereal, while rice is eaten occasionally. : The Ramdasi, Ravidasi, Jatia and Raigar do not intermarry. Each of these groups is divided into gotras, such as Sidhu, Kauldhar, Kataria and Kaira, whose main function is to regulate marriage alliances. : They do not accept food from the Sapera, Bhangi, Khatik and Sirkiband communities. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Punjab - (213,652), Haryana - (111,679), Rajasthan - (42,905), Uttar Pradesh - (8,371), Chandigarh - (5,358), Maharashtra - (3,722), Jammu & Kashmir - (1,696)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 49 of 57

RELLI PEOPLE
Relli, also known as 'Sachchari', 'Chachati' or 'Relli Chachadi', they identify himself or herself as Sapris or Sapru. Earlier, they lived on the hills, and their chief occupation was to sell grass. Hence, the name Relli. The term relli means a kind of grass in the Telugu language. The Relli women participate in all the social, economic, ritual and such as scavenging and other petty jobs in public or private organizations. The Relli generally do not send their girls to school. Boys study only up to primary level owing to various economic reasons. Their literacy rate according to the census is 16.26 per cent. Benefits of development programmes have reached to some of them. They have made comparitively attitude towards modern medical care and family planning is favourable. They are predominantly hindus though a few of them have converted to chiristianity.

People of India
FTT ID: 41622

Identity of the People Alternate name : Also known as Sachchari, Chachati or Relli Chachadi, they identify himself or herself as Sapris or Sapru. Identity : Scheduled Castes Population : 159,234 Location Language Religion Occupation Food Marriage Relationship : They are distributed in ten out of thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh. : Their mother tongue is the Oriya language. They are also conversant with Telugu and use its script. : The Relli are predominantly Hindus. A few of them have embraced Christianity. : Main occupations are Selling, Fruits, And, Seeds, and Scavenging. : The Relli are non-vegetarian. Their staple food comprises finger millet (ragi), bulrush millet (gantelu), rice and wheat. : Cross-cousin marriage, though not common, is practiced : The Relli traditionally accept cooked food and water from the Brahman, Bhottoda, Karan, Paroja and while none accept cooked food from them. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Andhra Pradesh - (129,820), Orissa - (11,845)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 50 of 57

SAINI PEOPLE
The Saini are also known as Mali outside Punjab. They affix Saini as a surname. They call themselves Shoor Saini or Brave Saini. Social divisions exist in the community. Differentiation exists at social, economic, religious, occupational and educational levels, which help to regulate marriages and indicate social status. They recognize the varna system and consider themselves Kshatriya. The Saini are an endogamous community. They observe exogamy at the village and gotra levels. The members of the Saini community are employed in business and white-collar jobs and as teachers, administrators, lawyers, doctors and defense personnel. They are enjoying all the benefits of development activities. The children, both boys and girls, get good education up to college level. They make full use of modern medicare and both sexes accept modern family planning techniques. Their attitude towards savings is positive.

People of India
FTT ID: 41335

Identity of the People Alternate name : They are also known as Mali outside Punjab. They affix Saini as a surname. They call themselves Shoor Saini or Brave Saini. Identity : Population Location Language Religion : 1,884,865 : In Punjab, the Saini are living in the districts of Ropar, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar and Gurdaspur. : The Punjabi language and the Gurumukhi script are used : The Saini primarily follow Slkhism and Hinduism. A few amongst them follow the Nirankari sect of Sikhism as well. : Land is the main source of economy for the rural section of the Saini in Punjab. They are also engaged in animal husbandry, trade. : Both men and women are non-vegetarian. Wheat, rice and maize are the staple cereals. : Marriages are monogamous and are arranged through negotiation. The marriage symbols include vermilion (red in the part of the hair), bangles, bindi (dot on forehead), a finger-ring and ear-rings. : The community has good relations with other communities. The Saini share water sources, crematoria, festivals and visit religious shrines with other communities. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (439,308), Punjab - (321,792), Haryana - (230,536), Himachal Pradesh - (26,382), Rajasthan - (18,435), Bihar (10,546), Chandigarh - (7,356), Maharashtra - (4,430), Jammu & Kashmir - (2,712), Madhya Pradesh - (1,816)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 51 of 57

SAYYID PEOPLE
The Syed in Uttar Pradesh are distributed throughout the state. SAYYAD the word seelavanthula denotes pure being. The community derived its name from their Muslim brethren is their traditional occupation. The Sayyads are in different pursuits like agriculture, business, service and in a wide variety of white-collar professions such as medicine, engineering, law and teaching. Health is another aspect which has received their attention. Health care clinics are provided even in remote areas. The Sayyads occupy the foremost position among the four major classes of Muslims, viz., Sayyad, Sheikh, Mughal and Pathan. Though all are equal, yet in practice there has been a hierarchical grading among them.

People of India
FTT ID: 41270

Identity of the People Alternate name : Identity Population Location Language Religion : Muslim - Religious group : 4,721,358 : The Syed in Uttar Pradesh are distributed throughout the state : They speak Urdu. The Hindi language is spoken with the non-Muslim communities. Both the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used. : They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha, Baqrid, Muharram, Shab-eBarat, etc. : The Sayyads are in different pursuits like agriculture, business, service and in a wide variety of white-collar professions such as medicine, engineering, law and teaching. : They are fond of non-vegetarian food. The staple diet of the Sayyads consists of wheat, maize, pulses of chana, mall, rajmah, masur and seasonal vegetables. : Cousin marriages are preferred. Muta too was a popular form of marriage among the followers of Shite tenet but now it is rarely practised. Only men can divorce; women can seek separation (khula or fariqhkhati) only by foregoing their right of mehar. : The Sayyid community has socio-economic and religious relations with all the surrounding Hindu and Muslim communities, respectively. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage

Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (2,104,360), Maharashtra - (1,097,405), Karnataka - (837,936), Andhra Pradesh - (791,650), Rajasthan - (614,503), Tamil Nadu - (553,116), Bihar - (414,702), West Bengal - (374,042), Madhya Pradesh - (297,621), Gujarat - (232,126), Punjab (201,400), Delhi - (67,185), Haryana - (59,705), Orissa - (51,100), Jammu & Kashmir - (9,486)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 52 of 57

SHAIKH (ASSAMESE) PEOPLE


SHEIKH/SHAIK are a community largely distributed in two hundred and fifty-four districts of the country. The word sheikh in Arabic language connotes a person who does justice. A male takes a share double than that of a female in his own generation. The eldest son succeeds to the authority. They perform aqiqa, naming and circumcision. The important marriage rituals observed are lagan, reception of barat,' astomangala (a non-Islamic trait), consent and agreement on den mohar. The attitude of the Sheikh towards development programmes is quite positive but it is not possible for them to always take advantage of the same due to poverty. Family planning measures have not spread uniformly as they are supposedly against the tenets of Islam. Mass media, communication and transport have helped these people enormously in maintaining relationship with the Muslim spread all over.

People of India
FTT ID: 46184

Identity of the People Alternate name : The word Sheikh is a general term of courtesy equivalent to the English term of esquire belonging mainly to the three branches of Qureshi family, namely Siddiqi, Faruqi and Abbassi. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 1,707,488 Location Language Religion : All over Assam state. : The Assamese language spoken with an influence of Urdu and Arabic is their mother tongue. Assamese is the script used. : They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha, Baqrid, Muharram, Shab-eBarat, etc. : The traditional occupation is agriculture and now are settled cultivation, business and government service; some are self-employed too. : They are non-vegetarian who take both beef and buffalo meat. Their staple food is rice. : Consanguineous marriages between parallel- cousins are permitted in the community. Dowry is given in cash and mehar is promised to be paid in future. : The Sheikh community has socio-economic and religious relations with all the surrounding Hindu and Muslim communities, respectively. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Assam - (1,707,488)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 53 of 57

SHAIKH (URDU) PEOPLE


SHEIKH/SHAIK are a community largely distributed in two hundred and fifty-four districts of the country. The word sheikh in Arabic language connotes a person who does justice. The community includes twentyeight subgroups like Abbasi, Faruqi, Siddiqi, Usmani, Alavi, Jafari and Qureshi. They came to India during the reign of Shahjahan. They were the first people who embraced Islam on the advice of prophet Mohammad and so were given the title of Sheikh. Namely Siddiqi, Faruqi and Abbassi. The community has businessmen, scholars, teachers, advocates, doctors and engineers, and political leaders at the national level. A good number of their boys and girls have received higher education.

People of India
FTT ID: 46159

Identity of the People Alternate name : They are Abbasi, Alvi, Ansari, Bene Israel, Faridi, Faruqui, Hashmi, Jafari, Qidwai.Qureshi) Siddiqui, Sulaimani and Usmani. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 44,851,176 Location Language : In Uttar Pradesh : They speak Urdu with their kin members as well as with other Muslim communities; with others they speak Hindi. Both the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts are used by them. : They professes Islam and they are Sunni by faith. They observe major Muslim festivals like ld-ul-Zuha, Baqrid, Muharram, Shab-e-Barat, etc. : The traditional and primary occupation of the Sheikh is cultivation. They rear buffaloes, cows and goats too. Business, trade, weaving, government service. : Their staple food is rice and wheat supplemented with pulses. They are non-vegetarian who eat buffalo meat. : The community comprises both the Shia and Sunni sects. Differentiations are on the basis of Ashrafand non-Ashraf status which regulate their marriage alliances. : The Sheikh traditionally accept water and food from all other communities except the Bhangi. NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : Yes

Status of Resources Statewise Population Uttar Pradesh - (44,851,176)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 54 of 57

SUTAR PEOPLE
"The name Suthar or Sutar appears to be a corruption of the Sanskrit word suthradhara meaning a holder of string, referring to the string used either in joining planks or in planning and measuring". The Suthar are also called Sutar, Mistari and Viswakarma. Both nuclear and mixed extended families are found. The eldest son succeeds as head of the family. There is some rise-in the formation of nuclear families due to the impact of modernization. The activities of the Mandal is a potent source for the upliftment of the community.They share the facilities of well and other water sources, roads, school, panchayat office etc with members of other communities. The community has a favorable attitude towards formal education for both boys and girls.

People of India
FTT ID: 41314

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Suthar are also called Sutar, Mistari and Viswakarma. Identity : Other Backward Communities Population Location Language Religion : 2,484,612 : They live in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat state. : They speak Gujarati within their kin circle as well as with outsiders, Gujarati script is used. : The Sutars profess Hindu religion. They worship lord Viswakarma, lord Siva, Ganesh, goddess Lakshmi etc. of the wider Hindu pantheon. : The traditional occupation of the Sutar has been carpentry. A majority of them are landless. : The Sutar are vegetarian in food habits. Their staple food consists of wheat and rice. They use all kind of pulses like gram, tur, urad, moong, masur etc. : Monogamy is the common form of marriage. The symbol of marriage for women is marigalsutra. Some married women also put vermilion in the parting of hair. Dowry is given in both cash and kind. In kind, the main item is gold. : Traditionally, they accept both cooked and uncooked food from the communities like Brahman, Bania, Kunbi but they never accept any food from the hands of Vankars, Bhangis and Chamars etc NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Maharashtra - (458,339), Gujarat - (393,650), Andhra Pradesh - (250,376), Madhya Pradesh - (238,127), Karnataka - (41,461)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 55 of 57

TARKHAN PEOPLE
The Tarkhan, also known as Takhan, Thirkhan or Tikhan in the Punjabi language, is an occupational caste engaged in woodwork. The men wear a pyjama and kameez and women wear a salwar, kameez and dupatta. However, at present, a few women have started wearing a sari and blouse and the men western-style pants, shirts or bush shirts. The Tarkhan usually live in joint families. Nuclear families are very few in Delhi, which may be due to their common business. The Tarkhan women suffer secondary status compared to that of men in all walks of life. They participate in all kinds of social, ritual and religious activities along with their men folk. The Tarkhan freely participate with members of other neighboring communities in all kinds of social, ritual, political and occupational activities. Their attitude towards the education of boys and girls is favorable. The majority of boys have received either primary or middle school education..

People of India
FTT ID: 41312

Identity of the People Alternate name : The Tarkhan, also known as Takhan, Thirkhan or Tikhan in the Punjabi language, is an occupational caste engaged in woodwork. Identity : Population Location : 2,475,372 : Their original home is in Punjab. Most of them have come to Delhi after partition. In Delhi, they are mainly concentrated in Shastri Nagar, Shahdara, Faizabad, Safdarjang, Tilak Nagar, Moti Nagar, Lajpat Nagar etc. : Punjabi language with their community members and in Hindi with non-Punjabis. They use Gurmukhi script. : The Tarkhan are Sikh, but in practice they practice a combination of Hinduism and Sikhism. They visit both Hindu temples andgurudwaras. : The traditional and primary occupation of the Tarkhan is carpentry and agriculture. However, in Delhi, while the majority of them are still engaged in the traditional occupation of carpentary. : Traditionally, the Tarkhan are vegetarian but at present, a tendency towards consumption of non-vegetarian food has been observed, especially among the men. : Monogamy is the common form of marriage. Married women do not use any marriage symbol, but it is considered wrong for them not to wear earrings. A tendency to ask for dowry has been observed among some affluent families. : The Tarkhan freely participate with members of other neighbouring communities in all kinds of social, ritual, political and occupational activities NT : Yes Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Language Religion

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship

Status of Resources Bible : Yes Statewise Population Punjab - (789,649), Haryana - (385,843), Jammu & Kashmir - (85,452), Himachal Pradesh - (81,829), Rajasthan - (44,154), Uttar Pradesh - (43,394), Delhi - (20,457), Chandigarh - (13,495), Maharashtra - (11,346), Madhya Pradesh - (5,014), Gujarat - (4,719), West Bengal - (2,125) 11-Sep-07
Prepared by National Resource Center Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 56 of 57

YASHKUN PEOPLE
It is unanimously believed about the Yaku that they are related with Aryan. They migrated via Hindu Kush to the Northern Pakistan. In the history, Yakus came via Pamir to the sub-continent before the i tribes. They are in majority in Giglit, Punial, Yasin, Ishkoman and Chitral. In Kohistan, Chhilas, Astor, Gurez, Dras, Gultari, Talil and Soro, the is are in majority.People call them differently in different areas. For instance, Borish, Dorshak, Boristi and so on. The is preferably marry within the ranges of their own castes. In reality, there is no up and low in terms of their castes as i and Yaku both are counted as "Ulsia" ( subjects, bonafied residents. Their many other branches are found in Chhilas, Darel, Tagir, Tumar, Harban and Sazin.

People of India
FTT ID: 41568

Identity of the People Alternate name : People call them differently in different areas. For instance, Borish, Dorshak, Boristi and so on. Identity : Muslim - Religious group Population : 230,291 Location Language Religion : They are in majority in Giglit, Punial, Yasin, Ishkoman and Chitral. In Kohistan, Chhilas, Astor, Gurez, Dras, Gultari, Talil and Soro. : Kashmiri is spoken and the Devanagari script used. : Ninety percent of the population in the valley professes Islam of both Sunni and Shia sects. : They also indulge themselves in agriculture, sheep rearing, cattle rearing and other cottage industries. : Rice and meat is the staple diet of them. The tea that the Kashmiris drink is called Kahva, which is a concoction of green tea leaves brewed in the samovar and enriched with pounded almonds. : The Dejharoo symbolizes that the Kashmiri Pandit woman is married. Muslim women wear bunches of earrings, the weight of which is supported by a thick silver chain along with several bracelets and necklaces. : NT : No Audio Cassettes : Yes Radio program : Yes "JESUS" Film : Yes

Socio-Economic Status Occupation Food Marriage Relationship Bible : No

Status of Resources Statewise Population Jammu & Kashmir - (230,291)

11-Sep-07

Prepared by National Resource Center

Source: ASI, Kolkotta and Census of India 2001

Page 57 of 57