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What is UNICODE? ftp://194.44.214.

3/pub/e-books/
Answers: Unicode is a character encoding standard that has widespread acceptance. Microsoft software uses Unicode at its core. Whether you realize it or not, you are using Unicode already! Basically, ?computers just deal with numbers. They store letters and other characters by assigning a number for each one. Before Unicode was invented, there were hundreds of different encoding systems for assigning these numbers. No single encoding could contain enough characters.1? This has been the problem we, in SIL, have often run into. If you are using a legacy encoding your font conflicts with the font someone in another area of the world uses. You might have an in your font while someplace else someone used a at the same codepoint. Your files are incompatible. Unicode provides a unique number for every character and so you do not have this problem if you use Unicode. If your document calls for U+0289 it will be clear to any computer program what the character should be.
Is there a simple way to create a boot disk for various operating systems?

Answers:
You can download a boot disk from www.bootdisk.com When you open the file, have a formatted floppy in the floppy drive, because it copies the files over automatically. With this disk, it will allow us to boot to dos mode.
What?s the difference between FAT32 and NTFS?

Answers:
NTFS 1)allows access local to w2k w2k3 XP win NT4 with SP4 & later may get access for somefile. 2)Maximum size of partition is 2 Terabytes & more. 3)Maximum File size is upto 16TB. 4)File & folder Encryption is possible only in NTFS. FAT 32 1)Fat 32 Allows access to win 95 98 win millenium win2k xp on local partition. 2)Maximum size of partition is upto 2 TB. 3)Maximum File size is upto 4 GB. 4)File & folder Encryption is not possible.

if physical addresse and mac addresse is same then why in my system mac addresse and physical address is different ????

what is LCD & CRT or TFT?

Answers:
in lcd use the liquid crystel diode. in tft use thin film transister. CRT(Cathode Ray Tube) monitor is the one which looks like the old fashioned TVs. and TFT(Thin film transistor) monitor is the Flat screen monitor.

Explain the concept of DHCP.

Answers: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used assigning IP addresses to computers in a network. The IP addresses are assigned dynamically. Certainly, using DHCP, the computer will have a different IP address every time it is connected to the network. In some cases the IP address may change even when the computer is in network. This means that DHCP leases out the IP address to the computer for sometime. Clear advantage of DHCP is that the software can be used to manage IP address rather than the administrator. It?s a four-step process consisting of (a) IP request, (b) IP offer, ? IP selection and (d) acknowledgement.

DHCP(DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL) THIS IS TO ASSIGN THE IP ADDRESSES AUTOMATICALLY THRU SCOPE(THIS IS THE RANGE OF IP ADDRESSES) AND DHCP PROCESS IS DORA PROCESS MEANS D:DISCOVER(FROM CLIENT SIDE) O:OFFER(THIS IS FROM SERVER SIDE ) R:REQUEST(CLIENT REQUEST THE IP OFFERED BY SERVER) A:ACKNOWLEDGEMENT(AND SERVER RESERVE THE IP FOR THE CLIENT
Explain IP datagram, Fragmentation and MTU.

Answers:

IP datagram can be used to describe a portion of IP data. Each IP datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. The order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. IP datagram has fields like Version, header length, Type of service, Total length, checksum, flag, protocol, Time to live, Identification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload. MTU:- Maximum Transmission Unit is the size of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. The size can be fixed by some standard or decided at the time of connection Fragmentation is a process of breaking the IP packets into smaller pieces. Fragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the MTU. Each fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. When received by destination they are reassembled.
Explain how NAT works?

Answers: Network Address Translation translates and IP address used in a network to another IP address known within another network. A NAT table is maintained for global to local and local to mapping of IP?s. NAT can be statically defined or dynamically translate from a pool of addresses. The NAT router is responsible for translating traffic coming and leaving the network. NAT prevents malicious activity initiated by outside hosts from reaching local hosts by being dependent on a machine on the local network to initiate any connection to hosts on the other side of the router. Packet format:Flag field: 1 byte: - Indicates frames beginning or end Address field: 1 byte: - Used for broadcast address (destination address) Control field: 1 byte: - Used as a control byte Protocol field: - 1 or 2 bytes: - Setting of protocol in information field (of datagram) Information: - 0 or more bytes: - Datagram (whether it contains data or control information) Padding: - 0 or more bytes: - optional padding FCS: - 2 or more bytes: - error check sum Basically NAT works as a translater it translate the system ip to public ip and it uses in router it enhanced the security it privent the unauthirised users to access
what is difference between windows xp and windows 7

Answers: Window 7 having the built in protection againsts spyware and maliculous softwares with Window defender but Win xp dont have the same.

What is multicasting?
Answers: Multicasting allows a single message to be sent to a group of recipients. Emailing, teleconferencing, are examples of multicasting. It uses the network infrastructure and standards to send messages.

What is a network? What are the different kinds of network? Explain them.

Answers: A network is a group of computers or nodes connected together. They are connected with each other by communication paths. Types of Networks: LAN : Local Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a small physical area. LAN?s are most commonly seen in offices, building etc. LAN?s enable higher transfer rate of data, smaller coverage of area and hence less wiring. WAN : Wide Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a wide area. WAN typically connects and allow communication between regions or national boundaries. The most common example of WAN is internet. VPN : Virtual Private Network connects or links nodes in some larger area by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. It is used for secure communication through the public internet. VPN alone may not support explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. Intranet : It is a set of networks under the control of a single administrative person. It can be considered as an internal network of an organization. If it is large, web servers are used to provide information to the users. Extranet : It is a network that restricts itself within a single organization. It can be categorized as WAN, MAN etc. however; it cannot have a single LAN. It must have a connection (at least one) with external network.

Explain the 7 Layers of OSI ?


Answers: Layer 1: Physical layer It represents all the electrical and physical specifications for devices. Layer 2: Data link layer It provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical layer. Layer 3: Network layer The Network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks. Layer 4: Transport layer It provides transparent transfer of data between end users. Layer 5: Session layer It controls the sessions between computers. It connects, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. Layer 6: Presentation layer It transforms data to provide a standard interface for the Application layer. Layer 7: Application layer It provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. Layer Seven of the OSI Model The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services, such as file transfers, electronic messaging, e-mail, virtual terminal access, and network management. This is the layer with which the user interacts. Layer Six of the OSI Model The Presentation Layer of the OSI model is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions. Layer Five of the OSI Model The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between

networked hosts. Layer Four of the OSI Model The Transport Layer of the OSI model is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts. The Transport Layer should be responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. Layer Three of the OSI Model The Network Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. Routers operate at the Network Layer. Layer Two of the OSI Model The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer. Layer One of the OSI Model The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types, cable types, voltages, and pin-outs.

What is PPP protocol? Explain PPP packet format?


Answers: Point to Point protocol helps communication between 2 computers over a serial cable, phone line or other fiber optic lines. E.g. Connection between an Internet Service Provider and a host. PPP also provides authentication. PPP operates by sending Request packets and waiting for Acknowledge packets that accept, reject or try to change the request. The protocol is also used to negotiate on network address or compression options between the nodes.

What are the differences between a domain and a workgroup?

Answers:
In a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. On the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other. In a domain, user doesn?t need an account to logon on a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. In a work group user needs to have an account for every computer. In a domain, Computers can be on different local networks. In a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network. In a domain, Computers can be on different local networks. In a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network. A domain is a logically connectivity of the computers in a physical network.Domain is based on server/client heirarchy. In a domain one or more systems are administrator to manage resources(printer,folder,drives). On the other hand in a workgroup every system is administrator. Workgroup is used in small networks. Domain always required a Network OS or Server OS for server but workgroup environment required only client OS. Any computer can be part or workgroup but authenticated user or administrator can only join a computer in Domain environment. There is no security possible in workgroup environment but you can secure every object in Domain. In small environment (around 10 computers) workgroup is easy to maintain but not possible in hundred or thousand computer environment. In Domain environment you can manage n no of computer and other objects easily. Domain Model: It is a logical group of network model, which is having Centralised Database(Eg: Active Directory). -> We can connect n number of systems. -> For this we need one Server Operating system.

Work Group: It is a logical networking group model, which is having no Centralised Database. -> Maximum we can connect upto 10 systems only.

What is the use of IGMP protocol?


Answers: Internet Group Management Protocol: - It allows internet hosts to participate in multicasting. The IGMP messages are used to learn which hosts is part of which multicast groups. The mechanism also allow a host to inform its local router, that it wants to receive messages.

Explain RSVP. How does it work?


Resource Reservation protocol is used to reserve resources across a network. It is used for requesting a specific Quality of Service (QoS) from the network. This is done by carrying the request (that needs a reservation of the resource) of the host throughout the network. It visits each node in the network. RSVP used two local modules for reservation of resources. Admission control module confirms if there are sufficient available resources while policy module checks for the permission of making a reservation. RSVP offers scalability. On a successful completion of both checks RSVP uses the packet classifier and packet scheduler for the desired Qos requested.

What are Ping and Tracert?


Ping and tracert are the commands used to send information to some remote computers to receive some information. Information is sent and received by packets. Ping I particularly used to check if the system is in network or not. It also gives packet lost information. In windows ping command is written as ping ip_address Tracert is called as trace route. It is used to track or trace the path the packet takes from the computer where the command is given until the destination. In windows ping command is written as tracert ip_address ping is acknowledgement to our system for connecting to internet ex:ping 192.168.63.233 tracert is used for how the data packets or you typed addresses are reached destination to you . ex:tracert www.google.com note:perform on dos.

What is an application gateway?


Answers: An application gateway is an application program that runs on a firewall between two networks. An application gateway is used for establishing connection between client program and destination service. The client negotiates with the gateway to communicate with the service of destination. Here, gateway can be called as a proxy. Hence, two connections are made. One between client and proxy; other, between proxy and destination service. Connections take place behind the firewall.

What is a Router?
Answers: A router is a device or sometimes a software in a computer which decides the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded to reach its destination on Internet. It is usually included as part of the network switch and is located at a gateway, including each point-of-presence on the Internet. The router is connected to at least two networks and determines which way to send each information packet based on its understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to.

Define SMTP?
Answers: SMTP - Short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers.

Define Telnet?
Answers: Telnet is the main Internet protocol for creating a connection to a remote server.

Define broadcast domain?


Answers: It is a logical area in a computer network where any computer connected to the network can directly transmit to any other computer in the domain without having to go through a routing device.

Explain the core naming mechanism, Domain Name System (DNS).


Answers: A Domain Name system is used to convert the names of the website on the internet to IP addresses. The domain names for each IP addresses are stored in a database that is distributed across different servers. A domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. The tree has zones. Zones consist of a collection of connected nodes. These nodes are served by a name server. A domain name is usually in the form of mydomain.com. Here, .com is the top level domain. Where as mydomain is the sub domain or subdivision. A host name is a domain name that has one or more IP addresses associated with it. DNS is a service which is used to resolve domain name into ip address. Domain name is divided into following catagories:1. Top Level Domain Name- .com, .net, .org, .info 2. Second Level Domain Name- it is below toplevel domain name like .co.in, .co.uk,

What is the Public Key Encryption?


Answers: Public key encryption use public and private key for encryption and decryption. In this mechanism, public key is used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them. To encrypt a message, a sender has to know recipient?s public key.

What is an IP address? What is a subnet mask? What is ARP? What is ARP Cache Poisoning? What is the ANDing process? What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? What is a subnet? What is APIPA? What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers, just the ideas behind them) What is RFC 1918? What is CIDR? You have the following Network ID: 192.115.103.64/27. What is the IP range for your network? You have the following Network ID: 131.112.0.0. You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? What does the ping 192.168.0.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. What is DHCPINFORM? Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? DNS zones describe the differences between the 4 types. DNS record types describe the most important ones. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Describe the importance of DNS to AD. Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for? What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use? How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for? What is WINS and when do we use it? Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS?

Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters? What is NAT? What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? How does SSL work? How does IPSec work? How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? What types of authentication can IPSec use? What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? How do I monitor IPSec? Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet types do I see? What can you do with NETSH? How do I look at the open ports on my machine?

1) What is an IP address? This definition is based on Internet Protocol Version 4. See Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for a description of the newer 128-bit IP address. Note that the system of IP address classes described here, while forming the basis for IP address assignment, is generally bypassed today by use of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing. In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. On the Internet itself - that is, between therouter that move packets from one point to another along the route - only the network part of the address is looked at. 2) What is a subnet mask? A subnet mask allows you to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network, and which part is available for host use. If you look at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, you can't tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask, or netmask, gives you all the information you need to calculate network and host portions of the address with ease. In summary, knowing the subnet mask can allow you to easily calculate whether IP addresses are on the same subnet, or not. 3) What is ARP? ARP is a very important part of IP networking. ARP is used to connect OSI Layer 3 (Network) to OSI Layer 2 (DataLink). For most of us, that means that ARP is used to link our IP addressing to our Ethernet addressing (MAC Addressing). For you to communicate with any device on your network, you must have the Ethernet MAC address for that device. If the device is not on your LAN, you go through

your default gateway (your router). In this case, your router will be the destination MAC address that your PC will communicate with. 4) What is ARP Cache Poisoning? ARP cache poisoning, also known as ARP spoofing, is the process of falsifying the source Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of packets being sent on an Ethernet network. It is a MAC layer attack that can only be carried out when an attacker is connected to the same local network as the target machines, limiting its effectiveness only to networks connected with switches, hubs, and bridges; not routers. 5) What is the ANDing process? Notice that when the resulting AND values are converted back to binary, it becomes clear that the two hosts are on different networks. Computer A is on subnet 192.168.56.0, while the destination host is on subnet 192.168.64.0, which means that Computer A will next be sending the data to a router. Without ANDing, determining local and remote hosts can be difficult. Once youre very familiar with subnetting and calculating ranges of addresses, recognizing local and remote hosts will become much more intuitive. Whenever youre in doubt as to whether hosts are local or remote, use the ANDing process. You should also notice that the ANDing process always produces the subnet ID of a given host. 6) What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? In computer networking, a default network gateway is the device that passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other subnets. The default gateway often connects a local network to the Internet, although internal gateways for connecting two local networks also exist. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? 7) Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? If we are using public ip address, we can browse the internet. If it is having an intranet address a gateway is needed as a router or firewall to communicate with internet. 8) What is a subnet? A subnet is a logical organization of network address ranges used to separate hosts and network devices from each other to serve a design purpose.

In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar to those found between rooms, floors, buildings, or cities. 9) What is APIPA? Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing, a feature of later Windows operating systems. With APIPA, DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCPserver isn't available. When a DHCP client boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask. If the client is unable to find the information, it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. The IP address range is 169.254.0.1 through 169.254.255.254. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. A client uses the selfconfigured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available. The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes, according to Microsoft). If it detects a DHCP server on the network, APIPA stops, and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses. APIPA is meant for nonrouted small business environments, usually less than 25 clients. 10) What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers, just the ideas behind them) Short for Request for Comments, a series of notes about the Internet, started in 1969 (when the Internet was the ARPANET). An Internet Document can be submitted to the IETF by anyone, but the IETF decides if the document becomes an RFC. Eventually, if it gains enough interest, it may evolve into an Internet standard. Each RFC is designated by an RFC number. Once published, an RFC never changes. Modifications to an original RFC are assigned a new RFC number. 11) What is RFC 1918? RFC 1918 is Address Allocation for Private Internets The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets: 10.0.0.0 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix) 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix) We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block", the second as "20-bit block", and to the third as "16-bit" block. Note that (in pre-CIDR notation) the first block is nothing but a

single class A network number, while the second block is a set of 16 contiguous class B network numbers, and third block is a set of 256 contiguous class C network numbers. 12) What is CIDR? CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing, sometimes known as supernetting) is a way to allocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. As a result, the number of available Internet addresses has been greatly increased. 13. You have the following Network ID: 192.115.103.64/27.What is the IP range for your network? It ranges from 192.115.103.64 - 192.115.103.96 But the usable address are from 192.115.103.64 192.115.103.94 192.115.103.95 - it is the broadcast address 192.115.103.96 - will be the ip address of next range we can use 30 hostes in this network 14.You have the following Network ID: 131.112.0.0. You need at least 500 hosts per network. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? If you need 500 users then 2^9th would give you 512 (remember the first and last are network and broadcast), 510 usable. So of your 32 bits you would turn the last 9 off for host and that would give you give you a 255.255.254.0 subnet mask (11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000). Now that we know that we can see that you have the first 7 of your third octet turned on so to figure out how many subnets you have us the formula 2^7th= 128. So you can have 128 subnets with 500 people on them. 15.You need to view at network traffic. What will you use? Name a few tools winshark or tcp dump 16. How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? use "tracert" command-line

17. What does the ping 192.168.0.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? The ping command will send roundtrip packets to a destination ( other PC, router, printer, etc. ) and see how long it takes. The 192.168.0.1 is the destination ( which, by the way is a typical default IP address of a router. ) The -l 1000 is how big the packet should be in bytes. The default is 32, if the -l parameter is not used. And the -n 100 is saying to send it 100 times. The default is 4, when this parameter is not used. 18. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Benefits: 1. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2. Reduced network administration. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. Benefits: 1. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2. Reduced network administration. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. 19.Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. * At least one DHCP server must exist on a network.

Once the DHCP server software is installed, you create a DHCP scope, which is a pool of IP addresses that the server manages. When clients log on, they request an IP address from the server, and the server provides an IP address from its pool of available addresses. * DHCP was originally defined in RFC 1531 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, October 1993) but the most recent update is RFC 2131 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, March 1997). The IETF Dynamic Host Configuration (dhc) Working Group is chartered to produce a protocol for automated allocation, configuration, and management of IP addresses and TCP/IP protocol stack parameters. 20. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios. Recently I saw a lot of queries regarding when the Microsoft DHCP server issues a NAK to DHCP clients.For simplification purposes, I am listing down the possible scenarios in which the server should NOT issue a NAK. This should give you a good understanding of DHCP NAK behavior.When a DHCP server receives a DHCPRequest with a previously assigned address specified, it first checks to see if it came from the local segment by checking the GIADDR field. If it originated from the local segment, the DHCP server compares the requested address to the IP address and subnet mask belonging to the local interface that received the request. DHCP server will issue a NAK to the client ONLY IF it is sure that the client, "on the local subnet", is asking for an address that doesn't exist on that subnet.The server will send a NAK EXCEPT in the following scenarios:1. Requested address from possibly the same subnet but not in the address pool of the server:This can be the failover scenario in which 2 DHCP servers are serving the same subnet so that when one goes down, the other should not NAK to clients which got an IP from the first server. 2. Requested address on a different subnet:If the Address is from the same superscope to which the subnet belongs, DHCP server will ACK the REQUEST. 21. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Requests are on UDP port 68, Server replies on UDP 67 22. Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. It is about how to install DHCP server...

In Windows server 2008 ... Go to... START-->Administrative Tools --> Server Manager --> Roles (Right Click) --> Add Roles (Here a Add roles wizard will appear) --> Check the box of DHCP Server --> click next --> Next --> In IPv4 DNS settings Give the parent domain Name and DNS server IP address and validate it... Click Next --> Add the DHCP scopes --> Disable DHCPv6.. click Next --> Finally Click on INSTALL This was the process for installing the DHCP server.,.... 23. What is DHCPINFORM? DHCPInform is a DHCP message used by DHCP clients to obtain DHCP options. While PPP remote access clients do not use DHCP to obtain IP addresses for the remote access connection, Windows 2000 and Windows 98 remote access clients use the DHCPInform message to obtain DNS server IP addresses, WINS server IP addresses, and a DNS domain name. The DHCPInform message is sent after the IPCP negotiation is concluded. The DHCPInform message received by the remote access server is then forwarded to a DHCP server. The remote access server forwards DHCPInform messages only if it has been configured with the DHCP Relay Agent.. 24. Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. Traditionally, DNS and DHCP servers have been configured and managed one at a time. Similarly, changing authorization rights for a particular user on a group of devices has meant visiting each one and making configuration changes. DHCP integration with DNS allows the aggregation of these tasks across devices, enabling a company's network services to scale in step with the growth of network users, devices, and policies, while reducing administrative operations and costs. This integration provides practical operational efficiencies that lower total cost of ownership. Creating a DHCP network automatically creates an associated DNS zone, for example, reducing the number of tasks required of network administrators. And integration of DNS and DHCP in the same database instance provides unmatched consistency between service and management views of IP address-centric network services data. 25.What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? Automatic providing IP address

Subnet mask DNS server Domain name Default getaway or router 26. What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? Microsoft Vendor Classes The following list contains pre-defined vendor classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server. Collapse this tableExpand this table Class Data Class Name Description MSFT 5.0 Microsoft Windows 2000 options Class that includes all Windows 2000 DHCP clients. MSFT 98 Microsoft Windows 98 options Class that includes all Windows 98 and Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me) DHCP clients. MSFT Microsoft options Class that includes all Windows 98, Windows Me, and Windows 2000 DHCP clients. If you have non-Microsoft DHCP clients, you can define other vendor-specific classes on the DHCP server. When you define such classes, make sure the vendor class identifier that you define matches the identifier used by the clients. Back to the top User Classes The following list contains pre-defined user classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server. Collapse this tableExpand this table Class ID Class Type Description Unspecified Default user class All DHCP clients that have no user class specified. RRAS.Microsoft Default Routing and Remote Access class All Dial-Up Networking (DUN) clients. Bootp Default Bootp class All Bootp clients In addition to these pre-defined classes, you can also add custom user classes for Windows 2000 DHCP clients. When you configure such classes, you must specify a custom identifier that corresponds to the user class defined on the DHCP server. 27.How do I configure a client machine to use a specific

User Class? The command to configure a client machine to use a specific user class is ipconfig /setclassid "<Name of your Network card>" <Name of the class you created on DHCP and you want to join (Name is case sensitive)> Eg: ipconfig /setclassid " Local Area Network" Accounting 28. What is the BOOTP protocol used for, where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? ootP (RFC951) provides * a unique IP address to the requester (using port 67) similar to the DHCP request on port 68 AND * can provide (where supported) the ability to boot a system without a hard drive (ie: a diskless client) Apple OS X 10.* Server supports BootP (albeit) renamed as NetBoot. The facility allows the Admin to maintain a selected set of configurations as boot images and then assign sets of client systems to share(or boot from) that image. For example Accounting, Management, and Engineering departments have elements in common, but which can be unique from other departments. Performing upgrades and maintenance on three images is far more productive that working on all client systems individually. Startup is obviously network intensive, and beyond 40-50 clients, the Admin needs to carefully subnet the infrastructure, use gigabit switches, and host the images local to the clients to avoid saturating the network. This will expand the number of BootP servers and multiply the number of images, but the productivity of 1 BootP server per 50 clients is undeniable :) Sunmicro, Linux, and AIX RS/600 all support BootP. Todate, Windows does not support booting "diskless clients". 29. DNS zones describe the differences between the 4 types. Dns zone is actual file which contains all the records for a specific domain.

i)Forward Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve host name to ip. ii)Reverse Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve ip to host name. iii)Stub Zone :Stubzone is read only copy of primary zone.but it contains only 3 records viz the SOA for the primary zone, NS record and a Host (A) record. 30. DNS record types describe the most important ones. Type of Record What it does A (Host) Classic resource record. Maps hostname to IP(ipv4) PTR Maps IP to hostname (Reverse of A (Host) AAAA Maps hostname to ip (ipv6) Cname Canonical name, in plain English an alias.such as Web Server,FTP Server, Chat Server NS Identifies DNS name servers. Important for forwarders MX Mail servers, particularly for other domains.MX records required to deliver internet email. _SRV Required for Active Directory. Whole family of underscore service,records, for example, gc = global catalog. SOA Make a point of finding the Start of Authority (SOA) tab at the DNS Server. 31. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Serving Sites with External Domain Name Servers If you host Web sites on this server and have a standalone DNS server acting as a primary (master) name server for your

sites, you may want to set up your control panel's DNS server to function as a secondary (slave) name server: To make the control panel's DNS server act as a secondary name server: 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). 2. Click Switch DNS Service Mode. 3. Specify the IP address of the primary (master) DNS server. 4. Click Add. 5. Repeat steps from 1 to 5 for each Web site that needs to have a secondary name server on this machine. To make the control panel's DNS server act as a primary for a zone: 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). 2. Click Switch DNS Service Mode. The original resource records for the zone will be restored. If you host Web sites on this server and rely entirely on other machines to perform the Domain Name Service for your sites (there are two external name servers - a primary and a secondary), switch off the control panel's DNS service for each site served by external name servers. To switch off the control panel's DNS service for a site served by an external name server: 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). 2. Click Switch Off the DNS Service in the Tools group. Turning the DNS service off for the zone will refresh the screen, so that only a list of name servers remains. Note: The listed name server records have no effect on the system. They are only presented on the screen as clickable links to give you a chance to validate the configuration of the zone maintained on the external authoritative name servers. 1. Repeat the steps from 1 to 3 to switch off the local domain name service for each site served by external name servers. If you wish to validate the configuration of a zone maintained on authoritative name servers: 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web

Site group). 2. Add to the list the entries pointing to the appropriate name servers that are authoritative for the zone: click Add, specify a name server, and click OK. Repeat this for each name server you would like to test. The records will appear in the list. 1. Click the records that you have just created. Parallels Plesk Panel will retrieve the zone file from a remote name server and check the resource records to make sure that domain's resources are properly resolved. The results will be interpreted and displayed on the screen. 32. Describe the importance of DNS to AD. When you install Active Directory on a server, you promote the server to the role of a domain controller for a specified domain. When completing this process, you are prompted to specify a DNS domain name for the Active Directory domain for which you are joining and promoting the server.If during this process, a DNS server authoritative for the domain that you specified either cannot be located on the network or does not support the DNS dynamic update protocol, you are prompted with the option to install a DNS server. This option is provided because a DNS server is required to locate this server or other domain controllers for members of an Active Directory domain 33.Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. In order to find MX Records for SMTP domains you can use Command-line tools such as NSLOOKUP or DIG. You can also use online web services that allow you to perform quick searches and display the information in a convenient manner. 34. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? In the Windows 2000/2003 DNS console (dnsmgmt.msc), under a server's Properties -> Forwarders tab is the setting Do not use recursion for this domain. On the Advanced tab you will find the confusingly similar option Disable recursion (also disables forwarders). Recursion refers to the action of a DNS server querying additional DNS servers (e.g. local ISP DNS or the root DNS servers) to resolve queries that it cannot resolve from its own database

35. What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? Win2K configured your DNS server as a private root server 36. What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? Single-label names consist of a single word like "contoso". Single-label DNS names cannot be registered by using an Internet registrar. Client computers and domain controllers that joined to single-label domains require additional configuration to dynamically register DNS records in single-label DNS zones. Client computers and domain controllers may require additional configuration to resolve DNS queries in single-label DNS zones. By default, Windows Server 2003-based domain members, Windows XP-based domain members, and Windows 2000-based domain members do not perform dynamic updates to single-label DNS zones. Some server-based applications are incompatible with single-label domain names. Application support may not exist in the initial release of an application, or support may be dropped in a future release. For example, Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 is not supported in environments in which single-label DNS is used. Some server-based applications are incompatible with the domain rename feature that is supported in Windows Server 2003 domain controllers and in Windows Server 2008 domain controllers. These incompatibilities either block or complicate the use of the domain rename feature when you try to rename a single-label DNS name to a fully qualified domain name. 37. What is the "in-addr.arpa" zone used for? When creating DNS records for your hosts, A records make sense. After all, how can the world find your mail server unless the IP address of that server is associated with its hostname within a DNS database? However, PTR records aren't as easily understood. If you already have a zone file, why does there have to be a separate in-addr.arpa zone containing PTR records matching your A records? And who should be making those PTR records--you or your provider? Let's start by defining in-addr.arpa. .arpa is actually a TLD like .com or .org. The name of the TLD comes from Address and Routing Parameter Area and it has been designated by the IANA to be used exclusively for Internet infrastructure purposes. In other words, it is an important zone and an integral part of the inner workings of DNS. The RFC for DNS (RFC 1035) has an entire section on the in-addr.arpa domain. The first two paragraphs in that section state the purpose of the domain: "The Internet uses

a special domain to support gateway location and Internet address to host mapping. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in other domains. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host address to host name mapping, and to facilitate queries to locate all gateways on a particular network in the Internet. Note that both of these services are similar to functions that could be performed by inverse queries; the difference is that this part of the domain name space is structured according to address, and hence can guarantee that the appropriate data can be located without an exhaustive search of the domain space." In other words, this zone provides a database of all allocated networks and the DNS reachable hosts within those networks. If your assigned network does not appear in this zone, it appears to be unallocated. And if your hosts don't have a PTR record in this database, they appear to be unreachable through DNS. Assuming an A record exists for a host, a missing PTR record may or may not impact on the DNS reachability of that host, depending upon the applications running on that host. For example, a mail server will definitely be impacted as PTR records are used in mail header checks and by most anti-SPAM mechanisms. Depending upon your web server configuration, it may also depend upon an existing PTR record. This is why the DNS RFCs recommend that every A record has an associated PTR record. But who should make and host those PTR records? Twenty years ago when you could buy a full Class C network address (i.e. 254 host addresses) the answer was easy: you. Remember, the in-addr.arpa zone is concerned with delegated network addresses. In other words, the owner of the network address is authoritative (i.e. responsible) for the host PTR records associated with that network address space. If you only own one or two host addresses within a network address space, the provider you purchased those addresses from needs to host your PTR records as the provider is the owner of (i.e. authoritative for) the network address. Things are a bit more interesting if you have been delegated a CIDR block of addresses. The in-addr.arpa zone assumes a classful addressing scheme where a Class A address is one octet (or /8), a Class B is 2 octets (or /16) and a Class C is 3 octets (or /24). CIDR allows for delegating address space outside of these boundaries--say a /19 or a /28. RFC 2317 provides a best current practice for maintaining in-addr.arpa with these types of network allocations. Here is a summary regarding PTR records: Don't wait until users complain about DNS unreachability--be proactive and ensure there is an associated PTR record for every A record. If your provider hosts your A records, they should also host your PTR records. If you only have one or two assigned IP addresses, your provider should host your PTR records as they are authoritative for the network those hosts belong to. If you own an entire network address (e.g. a Class C

address ending in 0), you are responsible for hosting your PTR records. If you are configuring an internal DNS server within the private address ranges (e.g. 10.0.0.0 or 192.168.0.0), you are responsible for your own internal PTR records. Remember: the key to PTR hosting is knowing who is authoritative for the network address for your domain. When in doubt, it probably is not you. 38. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? When you install Active Directory on a member server, the member server is promoted to a domain controller. Active Directory uses DNS as the location mechanism for domain controllers, enabling computers on the network to obtain IP addresses of domain controllers. During the installation of Active Directory, the service (SRV) and address (A) resource records are dynamically registered in DNS, which are necessary for the successful functionality of the domain controller locator (Locator) mechanism. To find domain controllers in a domain or forest, a client queries DNS for the SRV and A DNS resource records of the domain controller, which provide the client with the names and IP addresses of the domain controllers. In this context, the SRV and A resource records are referred to as Locator DNS resource records. When adding a domain controller to a forest, you are updating a DNS zone hosted on a DNS server with the Locator DNS resource records and identifying the domain controller. For this reason, the DNS zone must allow dynamic updates (RFC 2136) and the DNS server hosting that zone must support the SRV resource records (RFC 2782) to advertise the Active Directory directory service. For more information about RFCs, see DNS RFCs. If the DNS server hosting the authoritative DNS zone is not a server running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003, contact your DNS administrator to determine if the DNS server supports the required standards. If the server does not support the required standards, or the authoritative DNS zone cannot be configured to allow dynamic updates, then modification is required to your existing DNS infrastructure. 39. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? this is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt.msc rightclick on the zone you want to add srv record to and choose "other new record"

and choose service location(srv)..... 40. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. 1. you can give easy name resolution to ur clients. 2. By creating AD- integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone. 3. AD integrated zoned all for incremental zone transfers which on transfer changes and not the entire zone. This reduces zone transfer traffic. 4. AD Integrated zones suport both secure and dmanic updates. 5. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application pertitions in AD. 41. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? Advantages: DNS supports Dynamic registration of SRV records registered by a Active Directory server or a domain controller during promotion. With the help of SRV records client machines can find domain controllers in the network. 1. DNS supports Secure Dynamic updates. Unauthorized access is denied. 2. Exchange server needs internal DNS or AD DNS to locate Global Catalog servers. 3. Active Directory Integrated Zone. If you have more than one domain controller (recommended) you need not worry about zone replication. Active Directory replication will take care of DNS zone replication also. 4. If your network use DHCP with Active Directory then no other DHCP will be able to service client requests coming from different network. It is because DHCP server is authorized in AD and will be the only server to participate on network to provide IP Address information to client machines. 5. Moreover, you can use NT4 DNS with Service Pack 4 or later. It supports both SRV record registration and Dynamic Updates. Using Microsoft DNS gives the following benefits: If you implement networks that require secure updates.

If you want to take benefit of Active Directory replication. If you want to integrate DHCP with DNS for Low-level clients to register their Host records in Zone database. 42. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. Name a few possible causes. The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own The DNS service cannot be run 43. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? One of the new features introduced in the Windows Server 2003-based implementation of DNS are stub zones. Its main purpose is to provide name resolution in domains, for which a local DNS server is not authoritative. The stub zone contains only a few records: - Start of Authority (SOA) record pointing to a remote DNS server that is considered to be the best source of information about the target DNS domain, - one or more Name Server (NS) records (including the entry associated with the SOA record), which are authoritative for the DNS domain represented by the stub zone, - corresponding A records for each of the NS entries (providing IP addresses of the servers). While you can also provide name resolution for a remote domain by either creating a secondary zone (which was a common approach in Windows Server 2000 DNS implementation) or delegation (when dealing with a contiguous namespace), such approach forces periodic zone transfers, which are not needed when stub zones are used. Necessity to traverse network in order to obtain individual records hosted on the remote Name Servers is mitigated to some extent by caching process, which keeps them on the local server for the duration of their Time-to-Live (TTL) parameter. In addition, records residing in a stub zone are periodically validated and refreshed in order to avoid lame delegations. 44. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? 45. What are the differences between Windows Clustering, Network Load Balancing and Round Robin, and scenarios for each use? I will make a few assumptions here: 1) By "Windows Clustering Network Load Balancing" you mean Windows Network Load Balancing software included in Windows Server software a.k.a NLB., and 2) By Round Robin, you mean DNS Round Robin meaning the absence of a software or hardware load balancing device, or the concept of the Round Robin algorithm

available in just about every load balancing solution. Microsoft NLB is designed for a small number (4 - 6) of Windows Servers and a low to moderate number of new connections per second, to provide distribution of web server requests to multiple servers in a virtual resource pool. Some would call this a "cluster", but there are suttle differences between a clustered group of devices and a more loosely configured virtual pool. From the standpoint of scalability and performance, almost all hardware load balancing solutions are superior to this and other less known software load balancing solutions [e.g. Bright Tiger circa 1998]. DNS Round Robin is an inherent load balancing method built into DNS. When you resolve an IP address that has more than one A record, DNS hands out different resolutions to different requesting local DNS servers. Although there are several factors effecting the exact resulting algorithm (e.g. DNS caching, TTL, multiple DNS servers [authoritative or cached]), I stress the term "roughly" when I say it roughly results in an even distribution of resolutions to each of the addresses specified for a particular URL. It does not however, consider availability, performance, or any other metric and is completely static. The basic RR algorithm is available in many software and hardware load balancing solutions and simply hands the next request to the next resource and starts back at the first resource when it hits the last one. NLB is based on proprietary software, meant for small groups of Windows servers only on private networks, and is dynamic in nature (takes into account availability of a server, and in some cases performance). "Round Robin", DNS or otherwise, is more generic, static in nature (does not take into account anything but the resource is a member of the resource pool and each member is equal), and ranges from DNS to the default static load balancing method on every hardware device in the market. 46. How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? 47. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? To clear the server names cache * Using the Windows interface * Using a command line Using the Windows interface

1. Open DNS. 2. In the console tree, click the applicable DNS server. Where? * DNS/applicable DNS server 3. On the Action menu, click Clear Cache. Notes * To perform this procedure, you must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer, or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority. If the computer is joined to a domain, members of the Domain Admins group might be able to perform this procedure. As a security best practice, consider using Run as to perform this procedure. * To open DNS, click Start, click Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools, and then double-click DNS. Using a command line 1. Open Command Prompt. 2. Type the following command and then press ENTER: Dnscmd ServerName /clearcache 48. What is the 224.0.1.24 address used for? WINS server group address. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. For more information, see WINS replication overview WINS server group address. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. 49. What is WINS and when do we use it? In the Windows Server family, the primary means for client computer to locate and communicate with other computers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network is by using Domain Name System (DNS). However, clients that use older versions of Windows, such as Windows NT 4.0, use network basic I/O system (NetBIOS) names for network communication. Some applications that run on Windows Server 2003 may also use NetBIOS names for network communication. Using NetBIOS names requires a method of resolving NetBIOS names to IP . Using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer to work with other Windows computers over the

Internet. In addition, using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer at Indiana University that intends to use Microsoft network resources. To use WINS services, you must insert into your TCP/IP networking configuration the IP address of the WINS servers you wish to use. 50. Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? 51. Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. To replicate database entries between a pair of WINS servers, you must configure each WINS server as a pull partner, a push partner, or both with the other WINS server. * A push partner is a WINS server that sends a message to its pull partners, notifying them that it has new WINS database entries. When a WINS server's pull partner responds to the message with a replication request, the WINS server sends (pushes) copies of its new WINS database entries (also known as replicas) to the requesting pull partner. * A pull partner is a WINS server that pulls WINS database entries from its push partners by requesting any new WINS database entries that the push partners have. The pull partner requests the new WINS database entries that have a higher version number than the last entry the pull partner received during the most recent replication. 52. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Simple deletion removes the records that are selected in the WINS console only from the local WINS server you are currently managing. If the WINS records deleted in this way exist in WINS data replicated to other WINS servers on your network, these additional records are not fully removed. Also, records that are simply deleted on only one server can reappear after replication between the WINS server where simple deletion was used and any of its replication partners. Tombstoning marks the selected records as tombstoned, that is, marked locally as extinct and immediately released from active use by the local WINS server. This method allows the tombstoned records to remain present in the server database for purposes of subsequent replication of these records to other servers. When the tombstoned records are replicated, the tombstone status is updated and applied by other WINS

servers that store replicated copies of these records. Each replicating WINS server then updates and tombstones 53. Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. 54. Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. During the process of routing, decisions of hosts and routers are aided by a database of routes known as the routing table. The routing table is not exclusive to a router. Depending on the routable protocol, hosts may also have a routing table that may be used to decide the best router for the packet to be forwarded. Host-based routing tables are optional for the Internet Protocol, as well as obsolete routable protocols such as IPX. 55. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network, the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. For a discussion of the concepts behind routing protocols, see: Routing. The term routing protocol may refer specifically to one operating at layer three of the OSI model, which similarly disseminates topology information between routers. Many routing protocols used in the public Internet are defined in documents called RFCs.[1][2][3][4] Although there are many types of routing protocols, two major classes are in widespread use in the Internet: link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS; and path vector or distance vector protocols, such as BGP, RIP and EIGRP.

56. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? Routers can have many different types of connectors; from Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Token Ring to Serial and ISDN ports. Some of the available configurable items are logical addresses (IP,IPX), media types, bandwidth, and administrative commands. Interfaces are configured in

interface mode which you get to from global configuration mode after logging in. The media type is Ethernet, FastEthernet, GigabitEthernet, Serial, Token-ring, or other media types. You must keep in mind that a 10Mb Ethernet interface is the only kind of Ethernet interface called Ethernet. A 100Mb Ethernet interface is called a FastEthernet interface and a 1000Mb Ethernet interface is called a GigabitEthernet interface. 57. In Windows 2003 routing, what are the interface filters? 58. What is NAT? Windows Server 2003 provides network address translation (NAT) functionality as a part of the Routing and Remote Access service. NAT enables computers on small- to medium-sized organizations with private networks to access resources on the Internet or other public network. The computers on a private network are configured with reusable private Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses; the computers on a public network are configured with globally unique IPv4 (or, rarely at present, Internet Protocol version 6 [IPv6]) addresses. A typical deployment is a small office or home office (SOHO), or a medium-sized business, that uses Routing and Remote Access NAT technology to enable computers on the internal corporate network to connect to resources on the Internet without having to deploy a proxy server. 59. What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? Take NAT (Network Address Translation) and PAT (Port Address Translation). NAT allows you to translate or map one IP address onto another single ip address. PAT on the other hand is what is most commonly referred to as NAT. In a PAT system you have a single or group of public IP addresses that are translated to multiple internal ip addresses by mapping the TCP/UDP ports to different ports. This means that by using some "magic" on a router or server you can get around problems that you might have with two web browsers sending a request out the same port. 60. How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? http://www.windowsnetworking.com/articles_tutorials/NAT_Wind ows_2003_Setup_Configuration.html Configure Routing and Remote Access To activate Routing and Remote Access, follow these steps: 1. Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access. 2. Right-click your server, and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. 3. In the Routing and Remote Access Setup Wizard, click Next, click Network address translation (NAT), and then

click Next. 4. Click Use this public interface to connect to the Internet, and then click the network adapter that is connected to the Internet. At this stage you have the option to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to your network. To do so, click to select the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up Basic Firewall check box. 5. Examine the selected options in the Summary box, and then click Finish. Configure dynamic IP address assignment for private network clients You can configure your Network Address Translation computer to act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server for computers on your internal network. To do so, follow these steps: 1. Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access. 2. Expand your server node, and then expand IP Routing. 3. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall, and then click Properties. 4. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box, click the Address Assignment tab. 5. Click to select the Automatically assign IP addresses by using the DHCP allocator check box. Notice that default private network 192.168.0.0 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 is automatically added in the IP address and the Mask boxes. You can keep the default values, or you can modify these values to suit your network. 6. If your internal network requires static IP assignment for some computers -- such as for domain controllers or for DNS servers -- exclude those IP addresses from the DHCP pool. To do this, follow these steps: 1. Click Exclude. 2. In the Exclude Reserved Addresses dialog box, click Add, type the IP address, and then click OK. 3. Repeat step b for all addresses that you want to exclude. 4. Click OK. Configure name resolution To configure name resolution, follow these steps: 1. Click Start, point to All Programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access. 2. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall, and then click Properties. 3. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box, click the Name Resolution tab.

4. Click to select the Clients using Domain Name System (DNS) check box. If you use a demand-dial interface to connect to an external DNS server, click to select the Connect to the public network when a name needs to be resolved check box, and then click the appropriate dial-up interface in the list. 61. How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? You can use the Windows Server 2003 implementation of IPSec to compensate for the limited protections provided by applications for network traffic, or as a network-layer foundation of a defense-in-depth strategy. Do not use IPSec as a replacement for other user and application security controls, because it cannot protect against attacks from within established and trusted communication paths. Your authentication strategy must be well defined and implemented for the potential security provided by IPSec to be realized, because authentication verifies the identity and trust of the computer at the other end of the connection. 62. What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? L2TP (layer 2 tunneling protocol ) vpn server is also know as L2TP server in native mode & in PPTP in mixed mode PN gives extremely secure connections between private networks linked through the Internet. It allows remote computers to act as though they were on the same secure, local network. 63. What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? IAS is called as Internet Authentication Service. It's used by for configuring centralised authentication using RADIUS server. 64. What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? When you are in Mixed mode certain options in the dial-in tab of the user proeprties are disabled. And some of the RRAS policies are also disabled. So if you want high level security with all the advanced feature then change the AD to Native mode. 65. What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? Used for managing security and allowing administration for the respective roles of the server. 66. What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies?

The conditions and profiles are used to set some restrictions based on the media type, connection method, group membership and lot more. So if used matches those conditions mentioned in the profile then he can allowed / denied access to RAS / VPN server. 67. What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? It supports authentication methods like MSCHAPv2, MSCHAP, SPAP, EAP, Digest authentication. ( You can check it by going to properties of your server in RRAS ) 68. How does SSL work? Internet communication typically runs through multiple program layers on a server before getting to the requested data such as a web page or cgi scripts. The outer layer is the first to be hit by the request. This is the high level protocols such as HTTP (web server), IMAP (mail server), and FTP (file transfer). Determining which outer layer protocol will handle the request depends on the type of request made by the client. This high level protocol then processes the request through the Secure Sockets Layer. If the request is for a non-secure connection it passes through to the TCP/IP layer and the server application or data. If the client requested a secure connection the ssl layer initiates a handshake to begin the secure communication process. Depending on the SSL setup on the server, it may require that a secure connection be made before allowing communication to pass through to the TCP/IP layer in which case a non-secure request will send back an error asking for them to retry securely (or simply deny the non-secure connection). 69. How does IPSec work? IPSec is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard suite of protocols that provides data authentication, integrity, and confidentiality as data is transferred between communication points across IP networks. IPSec provides data security at the IP packet level. A packet is a data bundle that is organized for transmission across a network, and it includes a header and payload (the data in the packet). IPSec emerged as a viable network security standard because enterprises wanted to ensure that data could be securely transmitted over the Internet. IPSec protects against possible security exposures by protecting data while in transit.

70. How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? Just use this program Server and Domain Isolation Using IPsec and Group Policy 71. What types of authentication can IPSec use? Deploying L2TP/IPSec-based Remote Access Deploying L2TP-based remote access VPN connections using Windows Server 2003 consists of the following: * Deploy certificate infrastructure * Deploy Internet infrastructure * Deploy AAA infrastructure * Deploy VPN servers * Deploy intranet infrastructure * Deploy VPN clients Implantando L2TP/IPSec-based Acesso Remoto Implantando L2TP com base em conexes VPN de acesso remoto usando o Windows Server 2003 constituda pelos seguintes elementos: * * * * * * Implantar certificado infra-estrutura Implantar infra-estrutura Internet Implantar infra-estrutura AAA Implementar VPN servidores Implantar intranet infra-estrutura Implementar clientes VPN

72. What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? In an authenticated key-agreement protocol that uses public key cryptography, perfect forward secrecy (or PFS) is the property that ensures that a session key derived from a set of long-term public and private keys will not be compromised if one of the (long-term) private keys is compromised in the future. Forward secrecy has been used as a synonym for perfect forward secrecy [1], since the term perfect has been controversial in this context. However, at least one reference [2] distinguishes perfect forward secrecy from forward secrecy with the additional property that an agreed key will not be compromised even if agreed keys derived from the same long-term keying material in a subsequent run are compromised.

73. How do I monitor IPSec? To test the IPSec policies, use IPSec Monitor. IPSec Monitor (Ipsecmon.exe) provides information about which IPSec policy is active and whether a secure channel between computers is established. 74. Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. What packet types do I see? You can see the packages to pass, but you can not see its contents IPSec Packet Types IPSec packet types include the authentication header (AH) for data integrity and the encapsulating security payload (ESP) for data confidentiality and integrity. The authentication header (AH) protocol creates an envelope that provides integrity, data origin identification and protection against replay attacks. It authenticates every packet as a defense against session-stealing attacks. Although the IP header itself is outside the AH header, AH also provides limited verification of it by not allowing changes to the IP header after packet creation (note that this usually precludes the use of AH in NAT environments, which modify packet headers at the point of NAT). AH packets use IP protocol 51. The encapsulating security payload (ESP) protocol provides the features of AH (except for IP header authentication), plus encryption. It can also be used in a null encryption mode that provides the AH protection against replay attacks and other such attacks, without encryption or IP header authentication. This can allow for achieving some of the benefits of IPSec in a NAT environment that would not ordinarily work well with IPSec. ESP packets use IP protocol 50. 75. What can you do with NETSH? Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that allows you to, either locally or remotely, display, modify or script the network configuration of a computer that is currently running. 76. How do I look at the open ports on my machine? Windows: Open a command prompt (Start button -> Run-> type "cmd"), and type: netstat -a Linux: Open an SSH session and type: netstat -an

KCC The KCC is a built-in process that runs on all domain controllers and generates replication topology for the Active Directory forest. The KCC creates separate replication topologies depending on whether replication is occurring within a site (intrasite) or between sites (intersite). The KCC also dynamically adjusts the topology to accommodate new domain controllers, domain controllers moved to and from sites, changing costs and schedules, and domain controllers that are temporarily unavailable. How do you view replication properties for AD? By using Active Directory Replication Monitor. Start> Run> Replmon What are sites What are they used for? One or more well-connected (highly reliable and fast) TCP/IP subnets. A site allows administrators to configure Active Directory access and replication topology to take advantage of the physical network. Name some OU design considerations? OU design requires balancing requirements for delegating administrative rights independent of Group Policy needs and the need to scope the application of Group Policy. The following OU design recommendations address delegation and scope issues: Applying Group Policy An OU is the lowest-level Active Directory container to which you can assign Group Policy settings. Delegating administrative authority usually dont go more than 3 OU levels http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc783140.aspx What are FMSO Roles? List them. Fsmo roles are server roles in a Forest There are five types of FSMO roles 1-Schema master 2-Domain naming master 3-Rid master 4-PDC Emullator 5-Infrastructure master Logical Diagram of Active Directory ?, What is the difference between child domain & additional domain Server? Well, if you know what a domain is then you have half the answer. Say you have the domain Microsoft.com. Now microsoft has a server named server1 in that domain, which happens to the be parent domain. So its FQDN is server1.microsoft.com. If you add an additional domain server and name it server2, then its FQDN is server2.microsoft.com. Now Microsoft is big so it has offices in Europe and Asia. So they make child domains for them and their FQDN would look like this: europe.microsoft.com & asia.microsoft.com. Now lets say each of them have a server in those child domains named server1. Their FQDN would then look like this: server1.europe.microsoft.com & server1.asia.microsoft.com.. What are Active Directory Groups? Groups are containers that contain user and computer objects within them as members. When security permissions are set for a group in the Access Control List on a resource, all members of that group receive those permissions. Domain Groups enable centralized administration in a domain. All domain groups are created on a domain controller. In a domain, Active Directory provides support for different types of groups and group scopes. The group type determines the type of task that you manage with the group. The group scope determines whether the group can have members from multiple domains or a single domain. Group Types * Security groups: Use Security groups for granting permissions to gain access to resources.

Sending an e-mail message to a group sends the message to all members of the group. Therefore security groups share the capabilities of distribution groups. * Distribution groups: Distribution groups are used for sending e-main messages to groups of users. You cannot grant permissions to security groups. Even though security groups have all the capabilities of distribution groups, distribution groups still requires, because some applications can only read distribution groups. Group Scopes Group scope normally describe which type of users should be clubbed together in a way which is easy for there administration. Therefore, in domain, groups play an important part. One group can be a member of other group(s) which is normally known as Group nesting. One or more groups can be member of any group in the entire domain(s) within a forest. * Domain Local Group: Use this scope to grant permissions to domain resources that are located in the same domain in which you created the domain local group. Domain local groups can exist in all mixed, native and interim functional level of domains and forests. Domain local group memberships are not limited as you can add members as user accounts, universal and global groups from any domain. Just to remember, nesting cannot be done in domain local group. A domain local group will not be a member of another Domain Local or any other groups in the same domain. * Global Group: Users with similar function can be grouped under global scope and can be given permission to access a resource (like a printer or shared folder and files) available in local or another domain in same forest. To say in simple words, Global groups can be use to grant permissions to gain access to resources which are located in any domain but in a single forest as their memberships are limited. User accounts and global groups can be added only from the domain in which global group is created. Nesting is possible in Global groups within other groups as you can add a global group into another global group from any domain. Finally to provide permission to domain specific resources (like printers and published folder), they can be members of a Domain Local group. Global groups exist in all mixed, native and interim functional level of domains and forests. * Universal Group Scope: these groups are precisely used for email distribution and can be granted access to resources in all trusted domain as these groups can only be used as a security principal (security group type) in a windows 2000 native or windows server 2003 domain functional level domain. Universal group memberships are not limited like global groups. All domain user accounts and groups can be a member of universal group. Universal groups can be nested under a global or Domain Local group in any domain. What are the types of backup? Explain each? Incremental A normal incremental backup will only back up files that have been changed since the last backup of any type. This provides the quickest means of backup, since it only makes copies of files that have not yet been backed up. For instance, following our full backup on Friday, Mondays tape will contain only those files changed since Friday. Tuesdays tape contains only those files changed since Monday, and so on. The downside to this is obviously that in order to perform a full restore, you need to restore the last full backup first, followed by each of the subsequent incremental backups to the present day in the correct order. Should any one of these backup copies be damaged (particularly the full backup), the restore will be incomplete. Differential A cumulative backup of all changes made after the last full backup. The advantage to this is the quicker recovery time, requiring only a full backup and the latest differential backup to restore the system. The disadvantage is that for each day elapsed since the last full backup, more data needs to be backed up, especially if a majority of the data has been changed. What is the SYSVOL folder? The Windows Server 2003 System Volume (SYSVOL) is a collection of folders and reparse points in the file systems that exist on each domain controller in a domain. SYSVOL provides a standard location to store important elements of Group Policy objects (GPOs) and scripts so that the File Replication service (FRS) can distribute them to other domain controllers within that domain. You can go to SYSVOL folder by typing : %systemroot%/sysvol

What is the ISTG Who has that role by default? The first server in the site becomes the ISTG for the site, The domain controller holding this role may not necessarily also be a bridgehead server. What is the order in which GPOs are applied? Local, Site, Domain, OU 1.Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? If we are using public ip address, we can browse the internet. If it is having an intranet address a gateway is needed as a router or firewall to communicate with internet. 2. What is CIDR? CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing, sometimes known as supernetting) is a way to allocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. As a result, the number of available Internet addresses has been greatly increased. CIDR is now the routing system used by virtually all gateway hosts on the Internets backbone network. The Internets regulating authorities now expect every Internet service provider (ISP) to use it for routing. 3. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. In a networked environment it is a method to assign an address to a computer when it boots up. Advantages All the IP configuration information gets automatically configured for your client machine by the DHCP server. If you move your client machine to a different subnet, the client will send out its discover message at boot time and work as usual. However, when you first boot up there you will not be able to get back the IP address you had at your previous location regardless of how little time has passed. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. 4. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? To create SRV records in DNS do below steps: Open DNS Click on Zone Select domain abc.local Right Click to domain and go to Other New Records And choose service location (SRV) 5. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones. Benefits as follows

a. you can give easy name resolution to ur clients. b. By creating AD- integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone. c. AD integrated zoned all for incremental zone transfers which on transfer changes and not the entire zone. This reduces zone transfer traffic. d. AD Integrated zones suport both secure and dmanic updates. e. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forestwide replication through application pertitions in AD. 6. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? Go to cmd prompt and type ipconfig/flushdns without quotes 7. What is NAT? NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. For more details go to Microsoft link 8. How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? For above answer go to below link Configure NAT 9. How to configure special ports to allow inbound connections? a. Click Start, Administrative Tools, and then click Routing and Remote Access to open the Routing and Remote Access management console. b. Locate the interface that you want to configure. c. Right-click the interface and then select Properties from the shortcut menu. d. Click the Special Ports tab. e. Under Protocol, select TCP or UDP and then click the Add button. f. Enter the port number of the incoming traffic in Incoming Port. g. Select On This Address Pool Entry, and provide the public IP address of the incoming traffic. h. Enter the port number of the private network resource in Outgoing Port. i. Enter the private network resources private IP address in Private Address. j. Click OK.