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6.Section VI - chapters 14-17 - Teachings and Miracles 7.Section VII - chapters 18-20 - Teachings on the Kingdom 8.

Section VIII - chapters 21-23 - Reproof and INTRODUCTION Rebuke This book of Matthew study is an Introductory Level 9. Section IX - chapters 24-25 - Teachings on the Study and is our recommended starting point for learning End Times about Torah-based Messianic Bible study. 10. Section X - chapters 26-28 - Conclusion of The book of Matthew is our first in a series of Bible Earthly Ministry studies. Each of these studies is designed for students to You are encouraged to follow along, to submit ideas reach greater depths of understanding the Hebrew and to ask questions. Scriptures. The other studies are: Romans (intermediate level) Background - Part 1 Revelation (advanced level) Proper Interpretation of Hebrew Biblical Texts Materials we will be using for this Matthew study (Last updated 2/4/00) include: "Dead Sea Scrolls" Bible INTRODUCTION "DuTillet" and Shem Tob Hebrew versions of The modern manner of interpreting Biblical text is Matthew commonly called exegesis. This method concerns itself Jewish New Testament & Commentary mostly with the literary and grammatical context of Syriac Peshito (Murdock) version of the New Scripture verses. Practitioners of exegesis sometimes view Testament anything beyond the literal text as "isogesis" and often Talmud, Midrash Rabbah, Zohar, and other Jewish pay it little heed to it, or regard it with suspicion. This is source material an unfortunate error, a result of a backlash against The King James version will be the primary text improper allegorizing of the Scriptures, resulting in a presented in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it case where "the baby is thrown out with the bathwater." With regard to the proper understanding of the Hebrew will be cited. In each section, the text of the chapter will Scriptures in their proper context, including the "New be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected Testament" books, there are in fact "levels" of verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that interpretation that must be taken into consideration. This are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a was the method used to write and interpret Scripture by single word) may merit a great deal of study. The purpose of this study is not to repeat what has already the authors themselves as well as the audience of their time and culture. been presented in other works. Rather, we hope to bring fresh insight into the Scriptures from a Torah-based THE RULES OF PARDES INTERPRETATION perspective. * Before starting on chapter one, please read the following The four level of interpretation are called: Parshat, introductory material: Remez, Drash & Sod. The first letter of each word P-R Part 1 - Proper Interpretation of Hebrew Biblical D-S is taken, and vowels are added for pronunciation, Texts giving the word PARDES (meaning "garden" or Part 2 - Understanding of religious, cultural, "orchard"). Each layer is deeper and more intense than historical and political "context" the last, like the layers of an onion. Part 3 - Use of extra-Biblical Hebrew materials to P'shat (pronounced peh-shaht' - meaning "simple") improve understanding The p'shat is the plain, simple meaning of the text. The Following this preliminary information, we have divided understanding of scripture in its natural, normal sense the study into ten sections: using the customary meanings of the words being used, 1.Section I - chapters 1-4 - Introduction to Messiah literary style, historical and cultural setting, and context. 2.Section II - chapters 5-7 - A Midrash on Torah The p'shat is the keystone of Scripture understanding. If Observance we discard the p'shat we lose any real chance of an 3.Section III - chapters 8-9 - Messiah's Miracles accurate understanding and we are no longer objectively 4.Section IV - chapters 10-12 - Messiah's Teachings deriving meaning from the Scriptures (exegesis), but 5.Section V - chapter 13 - the Kingdom Parables subjectively reading meaning into the scriptures

(eisogesis). The Talmud states that no passage loses its p'shat: Talmud Shabbat 63a - Rabbi Kahana objected to Mar son of Rabbi Huna: But this refers to the words of the Torah? A verse cannot depart from its plain meaning, he replied. Note that within the p'shat you can find several types of language, including figurative, symbolic and allegorical. The following generic guidelines can be used to determine if a passage is figurative and therefore figurative even in its p'shat: 1.When an inanimate object is used to describe a living being, the statement is figurative. Example: Isaiah 5:7 - For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant; and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry. 2.When life and action are attributed to an inanimate object the statement is figurative. Example: Zechariah 5:1-3 - Then I turned, and lifted up my eyes, and looked, and behold a flying scroll. And he said to me, What do you see? And I answered, I see a flying scroll; its length is twenty cubits, and its width ten cubits. And he said to me, This is the curse that goes out over the face of the whole earth; for everyone who steals shall be cut off henceforth, according to it; and everyone who swears falsely shall be cut off henceforth, according to it. 3.When an expression is out of character with the thing described, the statement is figurative. Example: Psalm 17:8 - Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me under the shadow of your wings ...

and combine them to create a verse(s) with a third meaning. There are three rules to consider when utilizing the d'rash interpretation of a text: 1.A drash understanding can not be used to strip a passage of its p'shat meaning, nor may any such understanding contradict the p'shat meaning of any other scripture passage. As the Talmud states, "No passage loses its p'shat." 2.Let scripture interpret scripture. Look for the scriptures themselves to define the components of an allegory. 3.The primary components of an allegory represent specific realities. We should limit ourselves to these primary components when understanding the text.

Sod (pronounced sawd or sood [like "wood"] meaning "hidden")


This understanding is the hidden, secret or mystic meaning of a text. Some examples of this would be the "dragon," "whore of Babylon," and number "666," all from the book of Revelation. Others would include; Yeshua's command in John chapter 6:53, "Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you." Or Paul's statement in Galatians 4:26, "But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all."

EXAMPLES OF PARDES FROM MATTHEW


Examples of the Remez, D'rash and Sod, can be found in Matthew as follows. (Of course the p'shat is throughout the text.) Without knowledge and application of the rules of PARDES, these verses would either not make sense or indicate an error on the part of the author:

Remez
Matthew 2:15 - "Out of Egypt I called my son." This is a quote from Hosea 11:1 that Matthew is applying to Yeshua. If we were to insist on a literal exegesis only and researched the quote, we would have to accuse Matthew of improperly using Scripture, as Hosea is clearly speaking of the nation of Israel, and not the Messiah. Matthew however, is hinting (remez) at the relationship between Israel and the Messiah, in this and other verses he uses.

Remez (pronounced reh-mez' - meaning "hint")

This is where another (implied) meaning is alluded to in the text, usually revealling a deeper meaning. There may still be a p'shat meaning as well as another meaning as any verse can have multiple levels of meaning. An example of implied "REMEZ" Proverbs 20:10 Different weights, and different measures, both of them are alike an abomination to the Lord. The p'shat would be concerned with a merchant using the same scale to weigh goods for all of his customers. The remez implies that this D'rash goes beyond this into aspects of fairness and honesty in Matthew 18:18 - "... Whatever you bind on earth anyone's life. will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose Drash (pronounced deh-rahsh' also called on earth will be loosed in heaven" This is a verse "Midrash") that has been interpreted in numerous (incorrect) This is a teaching or exposition or application of the ways due to a lack of understanding that this a P'shat and/or Remez. (In some cases this could be d'rash (teaching) concerning decisions one makes considered comparable to a "sermon.") For instance, in their personal "walk with God" (called your Biblical writers may take two or more unrelated verses "halakha" in Hebrew/Judaism).

themselves"), the fact is that they are 20th century, "western-minded" people, who are reading documents from another time and (Hebrew) culture. In the case of the New Testament letters, you also have documents that were translated into the Greek language of 1900+ years ago and then into today's modern language(s). All of this presents not only a question of grammatical difficulty -- it also often involves understanding complex Hebrew religious concepts for which there was no adequate expression in the Greek language, and are "lost" in the translation. (i.e., You need to put the text back into the context the Hebrew authors intended it to be read in.) Although this may sound "simple," it is in reality the single greatest obstacle for the modern Bible student to overcome, especially one raised in "Christian America or Europe." Background - Part 2 The first step toward eliminating bias is to understand that Understanding the Context of Biblical Passages Matthew, as well as the rest of the books of the "New (Last updated 1/17/00) Testament," must be studied in the following context: 1.They are first century Hebrew texts written by authors with a Hebrew understanding of such RELATED STUDY INFORMATION things as "faith" or "salvation" or "law." They First Century Religious and Political were never meant to be interpreted with a 20th Background century "western mindset," (that has been tainted WHAT IS MEANT BY "CONTEXT?" by almost 2000 years of non-Jewish, and even Most Bible studies will teach the concept of "taking anti-Jewish theology.) verses in context." Unfortunately, the only concept of 2.They were written with an assumption that the "context" usually taught is, "literary-grammatical," reader(s) have some grounding in Torah (i.e., referring to the surrounding words and sentences. While books with the primary focus on gentiles, such as literary-grammatical context is important, there are others "Romans"), and in some cases are well established just as important to consider, including: in Torah (i.e., books with the primary message to Religious/Cultural Context (1st century Jewish) Jews, such as "Hebrews"). Historical/Policital Context (Jewish, Roman and 3.They are written at a time when Rome controlled Jewish-Roman) the land of Israel and its people, and gentiles Religious/Cultural Context "coming to faith" by the preaching of the disciples, This would include "theological" statements made by were entering from a very anti-Semitic Roman Yeshua and the authors of the "New Testament" as often culture and had little regard for anything Jewish, time they are reflecting Second Temple era religious even as believers. opinions, including those found in the Talmud. It also 4.They are written at a very "Messianically-focused" takes into account habits of Jewish lifestyle, Judaism's time in Israel's history. relationship to the gentile world, and idioms and figures 5.There was a wide range of opinion on spiritual of speech used in first century Hebrew dialogue. matters in Judaism at that time.

Sod

Matthew 26:28 - "Then He took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them saying, Drink from it all of you, This is my blood ..." Taken literally this verse verse would not only be a violation of the Torah commandment against consuming blood, but along with other verses about eating Yeshua's flesh (John 6:51-56), could be grounds for accusations of cannibalism. There is a far deeper, more mystical meaning here however (the sod), even one that those who heard Him did not understand (John 6:52). The above verses will be discussed in more detail when we come to them in this study.

Historical/Political context

This includes "global" events leading up to the first century scene depicted in the "New Testament," first century Jewish life under Roman authority, and relationships between Jewish religious factions such as the Pharisees, Saduccees and Essenes.

FIRST CENTURY RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL BACKGROUND


Around the time of Herod the Great (70 BCE) a civil war broke out between the two main religious factions, the Saducees and Pharisees. Prior to this, King Jannaeus, a Hasmonian who sided with the Saducees, had crucified thousands of Pharisees causing great long term hatred. The Hasmonian family were Saducees and in succession to the position of High Priest. Jannaaeus died and his wife Alexandra brought peace to the land for about 15 years

"RENEWING" YOUR MINDSET


Most people studying the Scriptures today have an "approach" that is formed by their church, cultural, educational and family background. No matter how objective they try to be ("letting the Scriptures speak for

when the Pharisees seeking revenge, restarted the war then went to general Pompeii of the Romans to "bring peace" to the land. The Pharisees attacked the Saducees on Shabbat killing 12,000 priests who refused to fight. The Pharisees then quickly allied themselves with the Romans to take control. Rome sends in a procurator named Antipater, an Edomite descendant and the father of Herod the Great. (This is the Herod who slaughtered the innocents as recorded in the Gospels). Antipater sent Herod to Galillee to bring down a revolt lead by the priest Zacharias. Herod put to death thousands, including innocent victims. He also appointed a gentile to the position of High Priest and had the entire Sanhedrin killed with the exception of two men Hillel (hill-EL) and Shammai (sha-MY). They were recognized as popular leaders and Herod spared to prevent a full revolt. (Shammai favored the Romans, Hillel opposed them.) Herod appointed political cronies to fill the Sanhedrin. Herod then married the last Hasmonian princess, Alexandra Salome (SAH-low-may), giving him political legitimacy for ruling in Judea. Herod killed off the rest of the Hasmonians, and took total control. Herod had two sons with Alexandra. His older son put on the High Priests garments at the age of thirteen. When the people saw this there is a time of national mourning and repentance as he is the first legitimate High Priest in many years. Herod saw this and was threatened so he had this son drowned in a pool. When his wife got upset Herod put her into exile with the younger son. Herod took on another wife, had five children by her, and had them all killed. A populist movement began around the younger son of Alexander Salome. Herod brought a false accusation of adultery to her and had her killed. Herod then went temporarily insane as he truly loved her. Herod then had Alexandra Salomes younger son put to death. However the younger son had children who continued. At the end of Herods life, a son from the second wife tried to take control. Herod had him killed and his brothers imprisoned. Herod in his final will, ordered that any person remotely related to the Hasmonian family, including his own sons, were to be killed, except for one grandson who was to live. This was carried out. Herod died a horrific death, rotting from within. This surviving grandson is the Herod on the throne when Yeshua is brought to trial. This Herod is married to his niece (also named Salome). The Qumran community (Dead Sea Scrolls) in their literature writes a commentary critical of an uncle being married to his niece probably written in reaction to the Herodians, who were considered an abomination to the Jews. This is an interesting criticism as the Torah allowed for such marriages.

By the time of Yeshua the Temple had been corrupted by the Herodians for some time (i.e., people had bought their way into important positions.) In response to this corruption, a number of Saducees split off and departed into the wilderness (and other places) and formed what became the Essenes, (eh-SEENS) setting up their own "temple" and system of sacrifices and offerings, done in the wilderness. Many of the Wilderness Essenes did not marry in order to keep "pure" and draw closer to G-d. It is this group that did most of the writing found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. Much of their terminology can be seen in Yeshuas teachings (i.e., the poor, the meek, "the Way"). Shauls teachings on marriage may also reflect this.

THE PHARISEES
Unfortunately, the term "Pharisee" has become a synonym for an evil person or hypocrite. This is due to an improper understanding of history and Scripture as taught in many churches and Bible Studies. No one would say that Shaul and Nicodemus were evil, yet they were Pharisees until the day they died. I cant imagine anyone saying Yeshua gave bad advice, but He told the people to follow what the Pharisees taught. In fact much of what Yeshua Himself says in the Gospels is a reiteration of teachings already established and taught by the Pharisees, especially Hillel, the grandfather of Gamliel, who taught Shaul. Examples of where Yeshua agreed with Hillel are found in all four of the Gospels: Teaching Yeshua Hillel
Critical of tithing of plants grown only Matthew Ma'asrot 4:5-6 for seeds 23:23 Healing by faith on the Sabbath was Tosefta Shabat Mark 3:2-4 allowed. 7:14 Reached out to sinners and taught them Luke, Ch. Avot D'Rebbe 15 Natan 3:1 Allowed the handling of an item on John, Ch. 5 Betzah 26b Sabbath for which there was no need This chart is taken from "Not Subject to the Law of God?" found at www.yashanet.com/library/underlaw.htm.

The Pharisees came about as a populist movement shortly after the Saducees gained power. The Saducees were the original Temple authority, made up of priests and Levites, developed around Zadok and his priests who gained control after the return from the exile (Ezras time period). By the time of Yeshua, the Saducees had lost much of their power to the Pharisees. Yeshua Himself could best be described as teaching as a Pharisee and holding favor with the Essenes. The latter was true because He had the approval of John the Baptist, who was a leader in the Essene community. John had Scriptural authority as well, as he was from the tribe of Levi and destined to be a priest. It was because of Yeshuas relationship with these two groups, Pharisees and Essenes, (who did not necessarily

think highly of each other) that he was able to hold together a coalition of His own followers made up of people from each camp. They became known as the Nazarenes, or "the Way," and whom we also refer to in these studies as the early or original "Messianic community."

misinterpreting the texts due to your own bias, as will occur if you don't put them back into their Hebrew context. The Holy Spirit will not contradict what the authors were conveying within their Hebrew understanding of God's word. There are many passages in the Bible to which people arrive at completely different, even contradictory, interpretations -- all caused by erroneously, "believing Background - Part 3 they are right because the Holy Spirit showed them," Use of Extra-Biblical Hebrew Materials to Improve rather than using the minds God gave them to dig for the Understanding (Last updated 2/8/00) truth.

In order to gain insight into Hebrew interpretation of the Bible's Hebrew texts, this Matthew study (and all the studies on this web site) will make use of Jewish religious and historical texts including: COMMON MISCONCEPTIONS Two common teachings heard in many Bible study circles Talmud Scripture commentaries from before and after Yeshuas time, made up of: are: Mishnah Earlier material (much predating Yeshua) 1.You don't need anything other than the Bible to compiled around 220 CE understand the Bible 2.The "Holy Spirit" will guide you to understanding, Gemarah Later material compiled between 200-500 CE Targums Aramaic language documents that contained so nothing else is required Scripture and commentary together. They were Although it is absolutely true that Scripture is the best source for interpreting Scripture, the fact is that much of commonly read and discussed in Yeshua's day. Midrash Rabbah Includes very old material, compiled what is written in the Bible cannot be fully understood between 600-1000 CE without turning to extra-Biblical Hebrew texts. Maintaining a "Sola Scriptura" approach leads to horrific Zohar, Bahir, Sefer Yetzirah Ancient material from error in understanding of the Hebrew texts, as everyone is the more mystical branches of Judaism Rabbinic Commentaries Including those of: Rashi, then free to interpret the more difficult passages from Maimonides and Nachmanides. their own personal viewpoint, rather than looking at Qumran Texts Texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls written where the author was coming from culturally and from around 200 BCE to 180 CE religiously. Historical accounts of Josephus, Eusubius, Philo and Take the following questions as a simple example: others What is Rome? Apocrypha 15 books written between 300 BCE and What is a centurion? Yeshuas time What is a legion? Pseudepigrapha 60 books written from 300 BCE to Of course most people might already know what these 100 CE. Hellenistic Jewish influences terms mean, having acquired the knowledge from their Book of Jasher An ancient Biblical history book, own education. But what if they did not already know? Does the Bible explain what these words designate? No. referred to in Joshua 10:13 & 2 Sam. 1:18 Book of Enoch Another ancient text, mentioned in the You would have to go outside the Bible to find out. If book of Jude something as simple this requires looking into extraIt is critical to remember, that these texts contain a wide Biblical material for proper understanding, how much range of opinion. Their proper use will help shed great more then does this apply to complex Hebrew religious light on any Bible study and help in arriving at a proper concepts that are not defined in the pages of the Bible? Hebraic (original) understanding of the more difficult People often say they "let the Scriptures speak for passages. themselves," unfortunately they don't practice what they Many of the concepts Yeshua taught were already present preach. Typically, meaning is "assigned" to topics and in Jewish thought. His teachings were not entirely "new," verses in the Bible based on the particular doctrine of a but the authority with which He delivered them was. See person's religious denomination. (i.e., "The cart is put in 18 such examples from the books of Matthew and Mark. front of the horse.") Regarding the "Holy Spirit guiding you to understanding" -- though this statement is true, it is not an excuse for YESHUA AND THE TALMUD A Hebrew or Greek "New Testament?" Yeshua and the Talmud

RELATED STUDY INFORMATION

RESOURCES USED IN THESE STUDIES

The following chart comes from the document, "Not Subject to the Law of God?" found at www.yashanet.com/library/underlaw.htm. It shows that rather than teaching contrary to the Pharisees (a common misconception) Yeshua supported much of what they taught, as he often quoted from the Mishnah (the early portion of the Talmud) which is an entirely Pharisaic document. Teachings of YESHUA in TALMUDIC Teachings of the Gospels the Pharisees
The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. - Mark 2:27 By not doing for others you betray God. - Matthew 25:45 The Sabbath was given into your hands, and you were not given into her hands. - Yoma 85b One who betrays his fellow, it is as if he has betrayed God. Tosefta Sh'vuot, ch. 3 Insulting someone is like murder.- One who shames the face of his Matthew 5:21-22 fellow, it is as if he has murdered him.- Bava Mezia 58b Gazing lustfully upon a married One who gazes lustfully upon the woman is akin to adultery.small finger of a married woman, Matthew 5:28 it is as if he has committed adultery with her.- Kallah, Ch. 1 God causes it to rain for the God causes it to rain for the wicked as well as for the wicked as well as for the righteous.- Matthew 5:45 righteous.- Taanit 7a Don't do good deeds to be Don't do good deeds to be noticed.- Matthew 6:1 noticed.- Berachot 17b Give alms to the poor in secret; let The greatest form of charity is your left hand not know what your when you give and do not know to right hand does.- Matthew 6:3 whom you give, and the recipient takes and does not know from whom he takes.- Bava Batra 10b Do not elongate your prayers.One who prays too intensely and Matthew 6:7 too lengthily brings on himself heartache.- Berachot 55a Do not worry about where your He who has what to eat today, and food will come from tomorrow, or says, "What shall I eat on the morrow?" has little faith. - Sotah your drink. - Matthew 6:25-31 48b Each day has enough of its own Each day has enough of its own troubles. - Matthew 6:34 troubles. - Berachot 9b Let your Yes be Yes and your No A righteous yes is a Yes; a be No. - Matthew 5:34-37 righteous no is No. - Bava Batra 49b Wisdom was given to the babes. - Prophecy has been taken from the Matthew 11:25 wise and given to the babes. Baba Batra 12b It is much better to lose a limb Better that one's belly burst than than for your whole body to go to one should go down to the pit of hell. - Matthew 5:29-30 destruction.- Niddah 13b Do not be called Rabbi. - Matthew Despise the position of Rabbi. 23:8 Avot 1:10 The Son of Man is coming at an Three things come upon a man hour when you do not expect Him. when he does not expect them: a - Matthew 24:44 lost item, the sting of a scorpion, and the Messiah. - Sanhedrin 97a Yeshua taught in a parable that One who is pleasing unto other they can please the king (God) by people is pleasing unto God. pleasing one another. - Matthew Avot 3:3

25:40 Love your enemy. - Matthew 5:43 They who are insulted but insult not back; who hear themselves reproached but answer not; who serve out of love and rejoice in their affliction--of them it is written in Scripture: They that love God are as the going forth of the sun in its might. - Yoma 23a, Gitin 36b, Shabat 88b There will be no marital union in There will be no marital union in the world to come. - Matthew the world to come. - Ma'asrot 4:523:23 6

A HEBREW OR GREEK NEW TESTAMENT?


Another contibuting factor to misinterpretation is that the books of the "New Testament" are "Greek documents." The fact that the "New Testament" texts we have are in Greek, makes them no more "Greek documents" than the Septuagint (Greek) version of the Old Testament, which the rabbis wrote into Greek 200 years before Yeshua. The rabbis did this (as did someone at some point with the "New Testament" letters), for the benefit of the nonJewish world so that they could also learn of the God and faith of Israel. Thus, the "New Testament" documents remain Hebrew texts written in a Hebrew mindset, and must be studied that way, if we are to determine what the authors' meanings are. And until we learn the true original meaning, discussing "what the verse means to us" (as is done in many so called "studies") is a an exercise in futility and leads to error. Having said that, there is overwhelming evidence, both historical and linguistic that shows that the texts were originally written in Hebrew, and also that Hebrew was not a "dead language" (as was thought of for quite some time). A good source of information on the latter is "Biblical Archaeology Review" (BAR) magazine. BAR has had articles in the past few years on digs that have unearthed documents from around the first century written in Hebrew, including legal documents and one woman's personal diary. Other sources testifying to Hebrew being the language of 1st century Jews and a Hebrew origin of the "New Testament" documents include: 1. Recent Qumran findings (Dead Sea Scrolls) shows secular documents written at that time concerning "current events" (i.e., not just copies of old religious texts.) indicating Hebrew was a "living" language. There are several books on the Dead Sea Scrolls available. Contact YashaNet for recommendations if interested. 2. Jewish coins found from that era are minted with Hebrew text on them. 3. A study of the writings of the Christian "Church Fathers" shows that much of the "New Testament" was

written in Hebrew. This includes direct statements made by; Papias, Ireneus, Origin, Eusubius, Epiphaneus, Jerome and Clement of Alexandria. 4. The prominent first century historian Josephus wrote in both his books, Antiquities and Wars, that Hebrew was the language of first century Jews and that they did not know Greek. (In fact there is a Jewish tradition saying it is better to eat swine than learn Greek.) 5. Modern linguistics (thanks to the input of cognisant Messianic Jewish and gentile scholars) shows that the text themselves don't lend to an "original Greek" translation. A very good book you want to get with dozens of examples is, The Semitic Origin of the New Testament, by James Trimm. This can be ordered via www.nazarene.net. Also recommended is the Hebrew/Aramaic New Testament Research Institute at www.nazarene.net/hantri/ 6. Other books, such as The Jewish New Testament, by David Stern are also helpful in showing the Hebrew thought that gets lost in the Greek/English. (The latter can be ordered through Amazon.com.) An example of a proof for an original Hebrew text, is Matthew 6:19-24: "Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon." In these verses we have Yeshua speaking about money, and not making it more important than God. Note that He begins speaking about money, then says something about "an evil eye," then finishes His statement about money. If this were penned in Greek originally, you would have to ask, "Why this odd verse about an "evil eye" in the midst of a money topic?" It makes no sense. However, if you happen to know that having an "evil eye" is a Hebrew idiom of that time for "being stingy with your money," then, a) the passage makes sense, and b) you realize it HAD to be written in Hebrew first, then whoever translated it into Greek, (unaware of the idiom), simply took it word-for-word from Hebrew into the Greek. There are many "New Testament" verses that are very hard, if not impossible, to understand without knowledge of the deeper teachings of the Judaism of that day. There are also many places where Yeshua and Paul quote from Jewish literature as shown elsewhere in this study.

It is important to note who these letters were originally meant to be read by "leaders" in the Messianic community (most likely Jews), who were well versed in the Judaism of the first century and its understanding of Torah.. (Note Peter's concerns about Paul's letters being hard to understand and often twisted about by "lawless" people -"lawless" meaning not knowing or respecting Torah, the "Law.") Nothing in the "New Testament" was ever meant to be read out of context, by people from another culture ignorant of the Hebrew meaning to the words and the concepts behind them, and replacing this with their own personal meaning. Nor were any of the "New Testament" documents ever meant to stand on their own, apart from being interpreted in the context of the Torah (God's direct revelation/instruction), which of course came first.

Section I -

Introduction to Messiah Matthew 1:1-4:25


NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 1:1-25 (last update: 3/2/00)


SUBJECTS: Titles and Names; Genealogy; Women & gentiles; Joseph & Mary's Relationship; the name "Jesus;" the Ruach HaKodesh; "Lord;" prophecy; "virgin;" "Emmanuel."

Matthew 2:1-23 (last update: 3/3/00)


SUBJECTS: Bethlehem; Herod; "Magi," the "Star;" Priests, Scribes, Pharisees and Saducees; Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh; "Out of Egypt I have called my son;" "A voice was heard in Ramah;" "... that He should be called a Nazarene."

Matthew 3:1-17 (last update: 3/5/00)


SUBJECTS: John the Baptist, baptism, "repent," kingdon of heaven, "near/at hand," "in the wilderness," John's appearance, confessing sins, Pharisees and Saducees, "my beloved Son."

Matthew 4:1-25 (last update: 3/8/00)


SUBJECTS: The devil, "forty days and forty nights," Son of God, "it is written," temptations, "the Gospel," "all over Syria."

Matthew 1:1-25
Introduction to Messiah Last Updated 3/3/00

CHAPTER 1 TEXT:
The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham. Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren; And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias; And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa; And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias; And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias; And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias; And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon: And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel; And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor; And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud; And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob; And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations. Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a publick example, was minded to put her away privily. But while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins. Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us. Then Joseph being raised from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife: And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son: and he called his name JESUS.

The term "Son of David" is a "Messianic title found throughout Jewish literature. Davidic references are found throughout the Tenakh (Old Testament), i.e.: 2 Samuel: 7:12-13,16; Isaiah: 11:1; Jeremiah: 23:5-6; Zechariah: 3:8; Ezekiel: 37:24; Amos: 9:11-12; Psalms 89: 4-5, 3637; 132:11.

1:1-1:16 Genealogy

The genealogies presented in Matthew and Luke present numerous difficulties that, unfortunately, are often "glossed over" (for lack of an explanation.) There are a number of issues that critics raise including: 1.The "problem" with Yeshua not being Joseph's actual son 2.The lineage in Luke's account passing through David's son Nathan, and not Solomon as Scripture said it had to (for the Kingship of Messiah) 3.The inclusion of a lineage through Jehoiachin being invalid, as he was cursed by God 4.The last segment of "14 generations" only having 13 generations listed 5.Verse 11 stating that Josiah begat Jeconiah, which he did not. Regarding #1, According to Jewish law, Yeshua was Josephs son if Joseph claimed him as such which he did. Therefore Joseph's genealogy can legitimately be considered Yeshua's. Note that Joseph is called "husband of Miryam" regarding Yeshuas relationship to him. Regarding #2, many Christian commentaries try to get around the problem of the cursed Jehoiachin (see #3, below) by simply using Luke's genealogy as the one for the Messianic lineage. There are two serious problems with this. First is the issue of the genealogy passing through Nathan rather than Solomon (in Luke's genealogy). This is unacceptable. The promise of 1:1 Titles & Names Messiah being a "son of David" went specifically "Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham" through Solomon and not Nathan. The name "Jesus" is an English transliteration of the Secondly, lineage was passed through the father's Greek Iesous, which is a transliteration of the Hebrew side in first century Judaism (and before). The Yeshua. Greek has no "sh" sound and the custom then idea of tracing Jewishness through the mother's was for men's names to end in "-us" or "-os" or "-es" (i.e., side developed later. Matthew's genealogy is that "Apollos"). of Joseph, and Luke's genealogy is that of "Christ" is from Christos, which is from the root chrio, Miriam's. Matthew's is the one that "counts" meaning anointed. This is tied to the Hebrew word however as it passes through Solomon. Mashiach (Messiah) also meaning anointed, having to do with being the "Anointed One," given Gods priestly and Regarding #3, the curse on Jehoachin was reversed by kingly authority. It should be noted that Cyrus (Koresh), God Himself in Haggai 2:20-23, when He chose in the book of Isaiah, was also called God's "messiah," as Zerubbabel as His signet ring, thus reestablishing that lineage and giving validity to Matthew's genealogy. He was anointed to do God's work in smiting Babylon. Regarding #4, this is clearly an error in transcribing (more The Messiah's proper name, Yeshua (Y'shua), is a contraction of Yhoshua (Joshua) meaning YHVH saves, evidence of someone translating the book from an original having a similar root to "Yoshia," meaning "He (God) will Hebrew into the Greek). Fortunately, there is a version of save." This is key to understanding verse 21 (see below.) Matthew that does not include this error and shows the (missing) 14th generation. The "DuTillet" Hebrew Matthew (available from www.nazarene.net) corrects

"Abiud begat Eliakim," showing that Abiud actually begat Av'ner (Abner), who in turn begat Eliakim. The mention of 42 generations (3 x 14) is also of interest, as 14 is the numerical value of "David," and 42 is the numerical value of God (Eloah) in the Hebrew. Regarding #5, this is evidently another error due to translation, as 1 Chronicles 3:15-16 clearly says that Josiah was the father of Jehoiakim, who in turn was the father of Jeconiah. However, if we were to simply include the missing Jehoiakim, we would then have fifteen generations, which would cause verse 17 to be in error. The most reasonable explanation may be that although the curse was lifted on Jeconiah's lineage, his name was still to be "blotted out," but a careless scribe deleted Jehoiakim by mistake. By replacing the reference to Jeconiah with one to Jehoiakim, we would correct the error, offer a reasonable explanation for Jeconiah's ommission, and maintain the number of generations at fourteen. It should also be noted that incomplete genealogies are not alien to the Tenakh. For instance, Ezra 7:1-5, gives a genealogy found also in 1 Chronicles 6:4-15. Comparing the two: 1 Chronicles 6:4-14 Ezra 7:1-5 Eleazar Eleazar Phinehas Phinehas Abishua Abishua Bukki Bukki Uzzi Uzzi Zerahiah Zerhiah Meraioth Meraioth Amariah * Ahitub * Zadok * Ahimaaz * Azariah * Johanan * Azariah Azariah Amariah Amariah Ahitub Ahitub Zadok Zadok Shallum (Meshullam)Shallum Hilkiah Hilkiah Azariah Azraiah Seraiah Seraiah Ezra Jehozadak Women & Gentiles Women (three of whom were gentiles) are found in Matthew's genealogy. This is highly unusual in texts of that era. Tamar, Rachav and Ruth were born gentile, but considered to be Jewish through conversion. Bat-sheva (wife of Uriyah) was born Jewish. Miryam, the mother of Yeshua is of course Jewish. It is interesting to note that Miriam is also the name of Moses' sister. Christian Bibles refer to the latter by her Hebrew

name, but call Yeshua's mother, "Mary." This was done to make the "New Testament" sound less Jewish (similar to calling Yeshua, "Jesus." and His brother Ya'acov "James," - though the latter is quite absurd as the English should be "Jacob.")

1:18 Joseph & Marys relationship


Engagement/Betrothal was considered as good as being married in Jewish culture. In fact any children conceived during this time were considered legitimate. To dissolve the betrothal, it was necessary to acquire a "get" - a bill of divorce. The penalty for fornication with a betrothed woman was more serious than that for fornication with a fully married woman. (This is found in Talmud Sanhedrin 7:4 and 11:1.)

1:18 "Holy Spirit" (Ruach Ha Kodesh)


Similar to "Spirit of God" (Ruach Elohim) in Genesis 1:2. Also, Genesis 3:8, is typically translated, "And they heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day." Here, "cool of the day" is actually "ruach" in the Hebrew text, suggesting the translation, "in the Spirit of the day." See also; Isaiah 48:16, 51:13, 63:10-11.

1:21 For you shall call His name "Jesus"


The English "Jesus" (as well as the Greek Iesous) are not the proper name for the Messiah, and as such, cause the text to lose some of its meaning. To say; "For you shall call his name "Jesus" for He will save His people from their sins,"carries as much meaning as, "You shall call His name, 'Frank' or 'Ralph'." However, the Hebrew name "Yeshua," as mentioned in the introduction, actually means "God will save," thus making sense of the text (through a play on words.) Regarding the "name" of Yeshua, it should also be noted that elsewhere is the "New Testament," we are instructed to pray or ask for things, "in His name." This is not teaching that our prayers are in vain unless we use the properly pronounced and spelled Hebrew name. Rather, to teach, pray or ask for things "in someone's name," means "in their authority."

1:22 "Lord"
Hebrew texts use Adonai in place of YHVH. The English pronunciation and spelling is Yahweh. The term Jehovah is a hybrid word using German letters (JHVH) and vowels for the Hebrew vowel points (e-o-a) making "JeHoVaH."

1:22 Prophecy
Verse 22 is the first "New Testament" reference to prophecy. There have been over 50 people claiming to be Messiah (or having their followers make the claim) since Yeshua's time. Two of the more famous would be; Simon Bar Kokba (early 2nd century) who lead the failed Jewish revolt against Rome, and the Hassidic leader, Rabbi Menachem Schneerson of Brooklyn New York, who passed away just a few years ago. What is interesting in

the case of Schneerson, is that his followers believed he would resurrect three days after his death, citing Hosea 6:2, "After two days he will revive us, On the third day He will raise us up." Matthew focuses on Tenakh prophecy at great length (i.e., 2:5,15,17; 3:3; 4:14; 8:17; 11:10; 12;17; 13;14,35; 21:4; 22:43). This is important as for Yeshua to be the promised Jewish Messiah, He must fulfill the conditions set forth by the Jewish prophets and cannot violate any of them. To make a claim that He is the Messiah, separate and apart from what the Tenakh says, gives Him no more validity than any other person making such a claim. Yeshua Himself said "Salvation is of the Jews," claiming legitimacy for Himself as well as the Jewish Scriptures, and the proper Jewish interpretation of those Scriptures.

1:23 "Virgin"
This is a controversial verse due to the use of term "Almah" in Isaiah (as opposed to "Btulah"). Arguments can be made for either term meaning, "virgin" or "young woman." Matthew may be quoting from the Septuagint. (This is the Greek version of the Tenakh, circa 200 BCE, also called the LXX after the 70 rabbis who worked on it.). The Jewish writers of the LXX chose "parthenos" which is normally used for "virgin."

1:23 "Emmanuel/Imanuel"
Another significant title. Imanuel means "El(ohim) (is) with us," in Hebrew. IM = with ANU = us EL = Elohim Yeshua was never actually called this however. This is an example of a "remez," - a hint at who He is. Other Messianic names in the Tenakh are; Shiloh, Branch, Sprout, Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

where the young child was. When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense and myrrh. And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way. And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him. When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt: And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son. Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently enquired of the wise men. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, In Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not. But when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child's life. And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel. But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judaea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither: notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee: And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

2:1 Bethlehem

Bethlehem (Beit-Lechem, literally, "House of Bread,") refers to the verse in Micah 5:1. This can be interpreted in a strict literal sense in that the Messiah will be from BeitLechem. Also, it could be taken in a figurative sense (still in the "p'shat") as, Messiah will be of the lineage of David. An interesting reference can be found in the Midrash Rabbah section on Lamentations (written well after Yeshua's time) that links Messiah to Bethlehem, stating Matthew 2:1-23 the He died around the time the Temple was destroyed Introduction to Messiah Last Updated 3/3/00 and upon His return it would be rebuilt: CHAPTER 2 TEXT: Midrash Rabbah Lamentations I:51 - BECAUSE THE Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to COMFORTER IS FAR FROM ME, EVEN HE THAT Jerusalem, Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we SHOULD REFRESH MY SOUL. What is the name of have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him. When King Messiah? R. Abba b. Kahana said: His name is the Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled, and all Lord; as it is stated, And this is the name whereby he Jerusalem with him. And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ shall be called, The Lord is our righteousness (Jer. XXIII, should be born. And they said unto him, In Bethlehem of Judaea: for 6). For R. Levi said: It is good for a province when its thus it is written by the prophet, And thou Bethlehem, in the land of name is identical with that of its king, and the name of its Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall king identical with that of its God. It is good for a come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel. Then Herod, when province when its name is identical with that of its king, he had privily called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said, Go as it is written, And the name of the city from that day and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found shall be the Lord is there (Ezek. XLVIII, 35). And the him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also. name of its king identical with that of its God, as it is When they had heard the king, they departed; and, lo, the star, which stated, And this is the name whereby he shall be called,
they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over

The Lord is our righteousness. R. Joshua b. Levi said: His name is ' Shoot ; as it is stated, Behold, a man whose name is Shoot, and who shall shoot up out of his place, and build the temple of the Lord (Zech. VI, 12). R. Judan said in the name of R. Aibu: His name is Comforter; as it is said, THE COMFORTER IS FAR FROM ME. R. Hanina said: They do not really differ, because the numerical value of the names is the same, so that ' Comforter ' is identical with 'Shoot." The following story supports what R. Judan said in the name of R. Aibu: It happened that a man was ploughing, when one of his oxen lowed. An Arab passed by and asked, What are you? He answered, I am a Jew. He said to him, Unharness your ox and untie your plough [as a mark of mourning]. ' Why? ' he asked. ' Because the Temple of the Jews is destroyed. He inquired, From where do you know this? He answered, I know it from the lowing of your ox. While he was conversing with him, the ox lowed again. The Arab said to him, Harness your ox and tie up your plough, because the deliverer of the Jews is born. What is his name? he asked; and he answered, His name is "Comforter". What is his father's name? He answered, ' Hezekiah. ' Where do they live? ' He answered, In Birath Arba in Bethlehem of Judah. The man sold his oxen and plough and bought felt garments for children. He journeyed from one city to another and from one province to another until he reached that place. All the villagers came to buy garments from him, but the mother of that child made no purchase of him. He asked her, Why do you not buy children's felt garments? She answered, ' Because a hard fate is in store for my child. Why? he asked; and she answered, Because close on his coming the Temple was destroyed. He said to her, We trust in the Lord of the Universe that as close on his coming it was destroyed so close on his coming it will be rebuilt. He continued, Take some of these felt garments for your child and after some days I will come to your house to collect the money. She took some and departed. After some days the man said, I will go and see how the child is getting on. He came to the woman and asked, ' How is the child? ' She answered, ' Did I not tell you that a hard fate is in store for him? Misfortune has dogged him. From the time [you left] there have been strong winds and a whirlwind came and carried him off. He said to her, ' Did I not tell you at his coming [the Temple] was destroyed and at his coming it will be rebuilt? R. Abun said: Why should I learn this from an Arab when there is an explicit text wherein it is stated, And Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one (Isa. X, 34), which is followed by, And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a twig shall grow forth out of his roots (ib. XI, 1)? Another reference is found in the Targums - Aramaic language documents that contained Scripture and

commentary together. They were commonly read and discussed in Yeshua's day: Targum Jonathan: Micah 5:2 - Out of thee Beit-Lechem shall Messiah go forth before Me to exercise dominion over Israel. Who's Name has been spoken from old, from the day of eternity.

2:1 Herod was King


The Herodian dynasty ruled Israel and its surroundings from 37 BCE to 70 CE (the war). Herod was technically Jewish by birth as his family had been forced converts (from Edom) at the time of Macabees (2nd century BCE). Herod did not reflect anything Jewish in his character, having murdered countless people, including all but two leaders (Hillel and Shamai) of the religious Sanhedrin prior to the birth of Yeshua. He was a very paranoid person even having friends and family killed due to suspicion. The events of Matthew 2:1-17 are in line with his character. Perhaps out of guilt for killing the Sanhedrin, Herod launched a massive campaign to reconstruct the Second Temple that had been built under Zrubavel. This is the Temple we see Yeshua teaching in throughout the Gospels. Read on the Religious & Political Background of Judea-Samaria during this time period.

2:1 Magi
These men came from Babylon or Persia. They were not sorcerers or magicians, but rather astrologer/astronomers. It is clear from the Gospels that the Magi knew what they were looking for, but this raises an interesting question. How would non-Jews in a foreign land know about the birth of the Messiah, know what sign to look for and know when and where to look for it? The answer is that hundreds of years earlier, Daniel had been in Babylon and made head of the "magicians." He evidently taught them about God's ways, including prophecies of the Messiah. The Magi passed these along for generation after generation, until the time came for Yeshua to be born.

2:2 "His star"


A "Star" is associated with Messiah in Midrash Rabbah: Midrash Rabbah - Deuteronomy I:20 - He said to him: I have yet to raise up the Messiah, of whom it is written, For a child is born to us (Isa. IX, 5). Until I come unto my Lord unto Seir (Gen. XXXIII, I4). R. Samuel b. Nahman said: We have searched all the Scriptures and we have nowhere found [it stated] that Jacob ever came together with Esau at Seir. What then is the meaning of, 'Unto Seir? Jacob [meant] to say to him: 'I have yet to raise up judges and saviours to exact punishment from you. Whence this? For it is said, And saviours shall come up on mount Zion to judge the mount of Esau (Obad. I, 21). Israel asked God: Master of the Universe, how long shall

we remain subjected to him?' He replied: 'Until the day comes of which it is written, There shall step forth a star out of Jacob and a sceptre shall rise out of Israel (Num. XXIV, 17); when a star shall step forth from Jacob and devour the stubble of Esau. Midrash Rabbah - Lamentations II:4 - R. Johanan said: Rabbi used to expound There shall step forth a star (kokab) out of Jacob (Num. XXIV, 17), thus: read not kokab but kozab (lie). When R. Akiba beheld Bar Koziba he exclaimed, This is the king Messiah! See also: Numbers 24:17, 2 Peter 1:19, Rev 22:16. Rabbi Akiva named the false Messiah, Bar-Kosiba, the "son of the star" at the time of the second Jewish war with Rome (132 CE).

with the Zealots, who were more political and actionoriented). This new alliance became known as the Nazarenes, or the Way. These are the people whom we also refer to as the early or original, "Messianic community." Their faith was not "Christian," it was a continuation of the faith of Israel recognizing Yeshua as the promised Messiah.

2:11 Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh


There is probably a deeper meaning to these gifts beyond the scope of this study. The gold could speak of His Deity, the frankincense of His purity and the myrrh of His death. All three, like Yeshua are associated with the Temple and/or priesthood.

2:4 Priests, Scribes, Pharisees and Saducees


There were two main factions among the religious authority of Yeshua's day -- Pharisees and Saducees. Unfortunately, the term "Pharisee" has become a synonym for an evil person or hypocrite. This is due to an improper understanding of history and Scripture as taught in most churches and Bible Studies. No one would say that Paul and Nicodemus were evil, yet they were Pharisees until the day they died. I cant imagine anyone saying Yeshua gave bad advice, but He told the people to follow what the Pharisees taught. In fact much of what Yeshua Himself says in the Gospels is a reiteration of teachings already established and taught by the Pharisees, especially Hillel, the grandfather of Gamliel, who taught Paul. The Pharisees came about as a populist movement shortly after the Saducees gained power. The Saducees were the original Temple authority, made up of priests and Levites, developed around Zadok and his priests who gained control after the return from the exile (Ezras time period). By the time of Yeshua, the Saducees had lost much of their power to the Pharisees. (The history of the Pharisees and Saducees will be covered later, where we study the rise and fall of the Hasmonians a Saducean family that rose up to control Temple when Judas Macabee fought the Selucid Greeks and restored the Temple and priesthood around 130 BCE.) Yeshua Himself could best be described as teaching as a Pharisee and holding favor with the Essenes. The former is true as he supported the Scriptural doctrines of the Pharisees, told the people to obey them, and upheld their authority. (More on all this later.) The latter was true because He had the approval of John the Baptist, who was a leader in the Essene community. John had Scriptural authority as well, as he was from the tribe of Levi and destined to be a priest. It was because of Yeshuas relationship with these two groups (who did not necessarily think highly of each other) that he was able to hold together a coalition of His own followers made up of people from each camp (along

2:15 "Out of Egypt I have called my son"


This is an example of a Remez - a hint of a very deep truth, in this case the relationship between the Messiah and Israel, as both are called "Gods son." The verse being quoted refers to Israel and not the Messiah. Matthew is understanding that the primary meaning of this passage (from Hosea) is true in an allegorical sense Israel is "God's son." He takes this allegorical concept of Israel being the Son of God and says Messiah is literally the first born Son of God.

2:18 "A voice was heard in Ramah ..."


Another Remez is seen here, as this verse does not refer to Messiah but to the slaughter of the northern tribes by the Assyrians. Just as Rachel from her tomb in Ramah grieves for those lost lives, so the women of Beit-Lechem mourn for their slain infants. There is also a deeper mystical meaning in this verse (at the sod level) where Rachel is compared to the Shekinah (God's presence in this world) who grieves for her children (of Israel). This type of interpretation will be discussed in our Revelation study.

2:23 "... that He should be called a Nazarene."


On a literal level, this would clearly be another error on Matthew's part, as no prophet ever made this prediction. A possible explanation is that Isaiah refers to the Messiah as "branch" (netzer) which is word play on Nazarene (Natzeret). Note: The Hebrew, Aramaic and Syrian versions of Matthew all have the singular "prophet" in this verse, whereas the Greek has the plural "prophets."

Religious & Political Background of JudeaSamaria


Around the time of Herod the Great (70 BCE) a civil war broke out between the Saducees and Pharisees. Prior to this, King Jannaeus, a Hasmonian who sided with the Saducees, had crucified thousands of Pharisees causing great long term hatred. The Hasmonian family were Saducees and in succession to the position of High Priest. Jannaaeus died and his wife Alexandra brought peace to

the land for about 15 years when the Pharisees seeking revenge, restarted the war then went to general Pompeii of the Romans to "bring peace" to the land. The Pharisees attacked the Saducees on Shabbat killing 12,000 priests who refused to fight. The Pharisees then quickly allied themselves with the Romans to take control. Rome sent in a procurator named Antipater, an Edomite descendant and the father of Herod the Great. (This is the Herod who slaughtered the innocents as recorded in the Gospels). Antipater sent Herod to Galillee to bring down a revolt lead by the priest Zacharias. Herod put to death thousands, including innocent victims. He also appointed a gentile to the position of High Priest and had the entire Sanhedrin killed with the exception of two men Hillel and Shammai. They were recognized as popular leaders and Herod spared to prevent a full revolt. (Shammai accomodated the Romans, Hillel opposed them.) Herod appointed political cronies to fill the Sanhedrin. Herod then married the last Hasmonian princess, Alexandra Salome, giving him political legitimacy for ruling in Judea. Herod killed off the rest of the Hasmonians, and took total control. Herod had two sons with Alexandra. His older son put on the High Priests garments at the age of thirteen. When the people saw this there is a time of national mourning and repentance as he is the first legitimate High Priest in many years. Herod saw this and was threatened so he had this son drowned in a pool. When his wife got upset Herod put her into exile with the younger son. Herod took on another wife, had five children by her, and had them all killed. A populist movement began around the younger son of Alexander Salome. Herod brought a false accusation of adultery to her and had her killed. Herod then went temporarily insane as he truly loved her. Herod then had Alexandra Salomes younger son put to death. However the younger son had children who continued. At the end of Herods life, a son from the second wife tried to take control. Herod had him killed and his brothers imprisoned. Herod in his final will, ordered that any person remotely related to the Hasmonian family, including his own sons, were to be killed, except for one grandson who was to live. This was carried out. Herod died a horrific death, rotting from within. This surviving grandson is the Herod on the throne when Yeshua is brought to trial. This Herod is married to his niece (also named Salome). The Qumran community in their literature writes a commentary critical of an uncle being married to his niece probably written in reaction to the Herodians, who were considered an abomination to the Jews. This is interesting as the Torah allowed such marriages. By the time of Yeshua the Temple had been corrupted by the Herodians for some time (i.e., people had bought their way into important positions. In response to this

corruption, a number of Saducees split off and departed into the wilderness (and other places) and formed what became the Essenes, setting up their own "temple" and system of sacrifices and offerings, done in the wilderness. Many of the Wilderness Essenes did not marry in order to keep "pure" and draw closer to G-d. It is this group that did most of the writing found in Qumran (the Dead Sea Scrolls). Much of their terminology can be seen in Yeshuas teachings (i.e., the poor, the meek, "the Way"). Shauls teachings on marriage may also reflect this.

Matthew 3:1-17
Introduction to Messiah Last Updated 3/19/00
CHAPTER 3 TEXT:
In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea, And saying, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey. Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance: And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance. but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire: Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him. But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me? And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him. And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

3:1 John the Baptist


John = Yo-chanan, meaning, "YHVH was gracious, showed favor." John is referred to as being "in the wilderness," an area near the Dead Sea which was inhabited by a number of people, including certain religious groups seeking to get away from the established authority in Jerusalem. One group, the Essenes broke away from the Pharisees and Saducees (see 3:7 below) and established themselves in the wilderness, forming their own system of sacrifices (due to corruption of Saducees), somewhere between 200 BCE and 100 BCE. John the Baptist was probably an Essene who eventually broke away from the main group and formed his own.

Discoveries in the Dead Sea Scrolls (also called the Qumran documents/scrolls) have shown a very Messianic-oriented community that had certain ways of communicating. For the purpose of this study, we agree with the scholars who believe these people included Essenes. A later group that broke away from the Essenes, were the Ebionites. They were very much isolated after the destruction of Temple. Suffice it to say, the Wilderness was a very spiritual place perhaps more so than Jerusalem at that time. We also know from Scripture that John the Baptist was raised in the Wilderness area and had a following of his own. (Matthew chapter 3 & chapter 11, Acts 18:25; 19:3) Extra-Biblical writings say that John was saved from the slaughter of the innocents (Matt 2:16) by hiding in the wilderness. We also know that Yeshua and John were cousins and were aware of each other. "Baptism" The root meaning of "baptize" is to immerse so that what is dipped takes on the qualities of what it has been dipped in. Ritual purity was important in many instances and is mentioned through the Tenakh. What we call "baptism" was a mikveh (ritual bath) and is still used today. A highly recommended book that explains some of the deeper spiritual dimensions of the Mikvah is, Waters of Eden - The Mystery of the Mikvah, by Aryeh Kaplan.

years later, when John the Baptist announced the arrival of the Messiah Himself. Although a large minority of the Jews at that time accepted John's message about Yeshua, the greater majority did not, and again the offer of the Kingdom was withdrawn. Read a detailed article on the "Kingdom Offer."

3:3 ... in the wilderness

Yeshua challenges the crowd of onlookers by saying, "What did you go out in the Wilderness to see?" (Matt 11:9) Why were these people going out to the Wilderness? The answer lies with a commonly mistranslated verse, John 1:23, which usually reads: "The voice of one crying in the Wilderness: 'Make straight the way of the Lord.'" The problem lies with the punctuation, which is shown to be different in the Masoretic text, which reads: "The voice of one crying: 'In the Wilderness make straight the way of the Lord.'" The Hebrew shows that the message is being cried out to the people who are in the Wilderness. Why are they there? Because there was an understanding based on Scripture that the Messiah would first come there which He did. The "crier" may or may not be in the desert - but the Messiah definitely is. Yeshua appeared to this community (Essenes?), was baptized by John, and only then came to Jerusalem. For anyone wondering where 3:2 Repent Yeshua was between the ages of 13-30, this might offers Repent = "Tshuvah," (teh-SHOO-vah) and means turning some insight. from sin and returning to God. God "grants repentance" An excellent new book on the Messianic view of the but it still requires "action" on our part (See Lamentations Qumran community is, The First Messiah, by Michael O. 5:21). Biblical repentance and turning from sin involves Wise. turning toward God. As we are all easily decieved, how 3:4 John's appearance do we know we are in fact turned "toward God?" What John did not dress as a typical Essene, who were known revelation has He given us as a guideline? He has given to wear white garments. His appearance is a direct His Torah for this purpose (see 3:6 below). association with the poor, and an association with Elijah 3:2 Kingdom of Heaven (2 Kings 1:8). He ate locusts, some of which are kosher The term "Kingdom of Heaven" is used in place of "God" (Leviticus 11:21,22), and were the poor mans food in by Matthew in 32 of 36 places. It refers not to a time or Yeshuas day. John lived outside the normal framework place but a condition in which Gods promises of a of the society so he could perform his task. restored universe are fulfilled. (Hebrew = Tikun Olam) 3:6 Confessing their sins For followers of Messiah, the Kingdom is both present "Confessing sins" is saying the same thing about them as and to come. This is similar to our salvation. We may be God says. Sin is defined as a violation of God's Torah, "saved" now, but our full salvation is yet to come. (See typically translated as, "transgressing the Law" (1 John also comments on "the Gospel" in the next section.) 3:4). Unfortunately, "Law" is an incorrect translation of 3:2 The Kingdom "is near" or "is at hand" "Torah," yet is used in all Christian Bibles. A correct A more appropriate translation would be, "the Kingdom of translation of Torah is "revelation" or "instruction" from Heaven is offered to come." (1) The Kingdom of heaven God. Yeshua Himself said that none of the Torah is done was actually being "offered" by God at this time, similar away with (Matthew 5:17-21) as does Paul (Romans to how it was offered at Mount Sinai. At that time, the sin 3:31). We will cover this in detail in an upcoming section. of the golden calf caused the offer to be "withdrawn" by Scripture also tells us that Yeshua and the Father's will are God, and the opportunity to usher in the Messianic era both one, that God does not change, and that Yeshua is was bumped into the future, at a time predicted by the the same yesterday, today and tomorrow. prophet Daniel. The next opportunity arrived some 1300

If our trust is in God's provision for sin (Yeshua), then our sins are forgiven and the "curse of the Torah" is removed - it is "nailed to the cross" with Him. (This is what Paul talks about in several of his epistles - Our Romans study will cover this in detail.) The Torah's condemnation of us and its role as a "tutor" (or "guardian") comes to an end once we come to faith. However, the Torah (all of it) remains as our guideline to determine what sin is, and if we are "living right" with God. We shall discuss this as we go along in this study.

3:7 Pharisees and Saducees


There were two main religious factions in Israel. The Saducees, who held to strictly literal, Torah-only view, became the temple power, became corrupt. The Pharisees, who were the Heirs of Ezra, fathers of Rabbinic Judaism, believed in extrapolating from Torah according to the Oral tradition which was believed to also have been given to Moses at Sinai. These oral teachings, many predating Yeshua, were finally put into print in the form of the Talmud between the 2nd and 5th centuries. As shown earlier in this study, Yeshua Himself quoted from the Talmud regularly. (If you click on this link, use the BACK button to return to this page.) Also see notes on 2:4 in previous section.

3:8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:


The phrase "to bring forth fruit" in a Hebraic spiritual context, means more than simply "doing good deeds." It refers to spiritual insight and teachings.

3:17 My beloved son


Adam also was Gods son (Luke 3:23). In 1 Corinthians, Yeshua is compared to Adam.
1. As found in the DuTillet Hebrew Matthew. The same is true for Matthew 4:17 and 10:7.

THE KINGDOM OFFER


In examining the text of Isaiah 60:22 the ancient Rabbis noticed what they called a "contradiction" in the phrase "I, the L-RD, will hasten it in its time." The Talmud discusses this verse as follows: R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua b. Levi pointed out a contradiction. It is written, "In its time [will the Messianic Kingdom come], whilst it is also written, "I [the L-RD] will hasten it!"-- If they are worthy, I will hasten it; if not, [it will come] at the due time. [b.San. 98a] Thus, the Rabbis understood this verse to mean that the LRD would offer to hasten the Messianic Kingdom, if they were worthy but if not, the Kingdom would not come until its due time. Tractate Sanhedrin of the Talmud also tells us that the Rabbis believed that such an offer was to be made around the Hebrew year 4,000 (around the first Century). The Talmud relates this tradition which it accredits to the school of Elijah:

The school of Elijah teaches: The world is to exist six thousand years. In the first two thousand years was chaos; two thousand years the Torah flourished; and the next two thousand years are the days of the Messiah, but through our many iniquities all these years have been lost. [b.San. 96a-97b] The text goes on to discuss the delay of the Messianic Kingdom, and then says: Rab said: All the predetermined dates [for the Messianic Kingdom] have passed, and the matter [now] depends only on repentance and good deeds. [b.San. 97b] This requirement for repentance prior to the Messianic Kingdom is taken directly from the Torah (see Deut. 30:16). MESSIAH OFFERS THE KINGDOM Now as we have already discussed, Is. 60:22 tells us that the L-RD will either "hasten" the Kingdom, or let it come about "in its [due] time", all depending on the requirement of repentance (Deut. 30:1-6.) This Kingdom offer began in the days of Yochanan the immerser (John the Baptist), as we read in Mt. 11:12: Only from the days of Yochanan the immerser until now the Kingdom of Heaven is constricted and the forceful despoil it. [Mt. 11:12 from the DuTillet Hebrew ms.] And in Luke 16:16 we read: The Law and the prophets were until Yochanan henceforth the Kingdom of G-d is announced but everyone treats it with violence. [Lk.16:16 from Old Syriac & Peshitta Aramaic] Yochanan had been announcing, "Repent you of your lives, for the Kingdom of Heaven is near to come" (Mt. 3:2 DuTillet.) And as soon as his work began, Y'shua proclaimed, "Turn you, turn you, in repentance: for the Kingdom of Heaven is near."(Mt. 4:17 DuTillet = Mk. 1:14-15) Now the word for "near" here in the DuTillet and ShemTob Hebrew versions is hbrq, in the Aramaic of the Old Syriac and Peshitta the Aramaic equivalent thbrqd appears. In their book Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus, David Bivin and Roy Blizzard Jr. correctly point out that the Hebrew word "karav" brq means "to come up to and be with," or "to be where something or someone else is."; "It's here! It has arrived!" (p. 88) An example of its usage may be seen in 2Kn. 16:12 where we read "...and the king drew near (brqyv) to the altar..." meaning he was right there at the altar. Bivin and Blizzard, however, appear to have an amillennial view of the Kingdom, writing "It [the Kingdom] is G-d ruling in the lives of men. Those who are ruled by G-d are the Kingdom of G-d." (p. 90) In truth, the phrase "Kingdom of G-d" is a variation of the phrase in the Tenach (Old Testament) "Kingdom of YHWH" (1Chron. 28:5; 2Chron. 13:8) a term used to describe the Kingdom of Israel. After studying the "Kingdom of G-d" with the Messiah for forty days (Acts

1:3) the emissaries wanted to know if the Kingdom would be restored to Israel "at this time", Y'shua answers that it is not for them to know the time (Acts 1:6-7). The truth is that the Kingdom of G-d/Heaven is the restored Kingdom of Israel (see Jer. 23:5-6; Is. 9:6-7; 11 with 1Chron. 28:5; 2Chron.13:8.) The Hebrew text of Mt. 3:2 & 4:17 = Mk. 1:14-15 does indicate that the Kingdom was right there, available, if they would just repent. The passage is a conditional statement with an implied "if" as we find in Jonah 3:4. Y'shua continued to proclaim this Kingdom offer throughout his career (Mt. 12:28 = Lk. 11:20; Mk. 12:34; Lk.10:9, 11; 17:21) even sending out his emissaries with the same proclamation (Mt. 10:7.) This is the meaning of the passage, "...if you are willing to receive it [the Kingdom], he [Yochanan] is Elijah who is to come." (Mt. 11:14 see 11:12). THE KINGDOM REJECTED Despite the fact that the Kingdom was being offered as early as the service of Yochanan (John) the immerser, repentance was required for it to be realized (Mt. 3:2-3; Mt.4:17 = Mk. 1:14-15; Dt. 30:1-6). However, from the time of Yochanan forward, the Kingdom was being rejected, "plundered" and "treated with violence" (Mt. 11:12 DuTillet; Lk. 16:16 Old Syriac & Peshitta.) Y'shua compared this rejection to those who would not dance for flute players (Mt. 11:12, 16-19.) Y'shua also mentions this rejection in Lk. 17 where we read "...the Kingdom of G-d is among you... But first he [Y'shua] must suffer many things and BE REJECTED BY THIS GENERATION." (Lk. 17:21, 25.) Mt. 21:43 tells us that the Kingdom would be taken from those to whom Y'shua was speaking and given "to a nation" bearing its fruits (the fruits being repentance, see Mt. 3:2, 8) the words "to a nation" in the Aramaic is L'AM meaning "to a people" i.e. another generation (see Lk. 17:21,25; Jer. 31:35-37; Rom. 11) This is also the meaning of Mt.8:1112 = Lk. 13:28. THE KINGDOM OFFER EXTENDED It would seem that the Kingdom offer was extended beyond the crucifixion. In his discourse at the Temple in Acts 3:12-26 Kefa repeated the Kingdom offer saying: Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that the times of refreshing may come from the presence of the L-rd, and that He may send Y'shua the Messiah, who was proclaimed to you before, whom heaven must receive until the time of restoration of all things, which G-d has spoken by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began. (Acts 3:19-21) Thus it would appear that if the people of Israel had entered a national repentance, even then, the Messiah would have returned to restore the Kingdom to Israel right then and there. THE KINGDOM OFFER EXPIRES

This Kingdom offer seems to have continued throughout the entire Acts period, until it expired at the end of the Book of Acts. In Acts 28 "Paul called the leaders of the Jews together... to whom he explained and solemnly testified of the Kingdom of G-d, persuading them concerning Y'shua..." (Acts 28:17, 23). Once again a corporate repentance did not occur "... some disbelieved. So they did not agree among themselves." (Acts 28:24b25a). At this time Paul made known that the Kingdom offer had ended saying "...the salvation of G-d has been sent to the Gentiles, and they will hear it!" (Acts. 28:28) this parallels Romans 11:11 "...to provoke them [Israel] to jealousy, salvation has been sent to the Gentiles." Which ties this concept to the Olive Tree Parable of Romans 11. THE OLIVE TREE AND THE MYSTERY The Olive Tree Parable of Romans 11 , when viewed in light of the Kingdom offer, teaches that when the Kingdom offer expired in Acts 28:28 = Rom. 11:11, that wild branches (Gentiles) were grafted into the natural olive tree, but that at some point in the future, the natural branches would be grafted into their own olive tree. This concept of unity between Jews and Gentiles in the one body is echoed in Eph. 2-3 and Col. 1:19-26 a unity which Paul describes as a mystery "which was in the past concealed but now revealed" (Eph. 3:3-6 & Col. 1:26) This is because the time period of the wild branches in the olive tree following the Kingdom offer was in the past concealed. Daniel's prophecy of weeks of years (Dan. 9:24-27) goes directly from the coming of the Messiah to the final seven year period commonly known as the tribulation. Daniel accounts for no space between the two. This is why there was such expectation that the Kingdom would come in the first century. There was a mystery, a parenthetical period of time in Daniel's prophecy which was in the past concealed but later revealed. Had the Kingdom offer been accepted in the first century, then Daniel's last seven years would have run from 63 C.E. to 70 C.E. These Years seemed in many ways to fulfil endtime prophecies (so much so that post-millenialists claim that the events of Revelations and Mt. 24 occurred during these years). This is because these years WOULD have been Daniel's final week, had the Kingdom offer been accepted. WHY THE KINGDOM OFFER EXPIRED It has already been discussed that the Kingdom offer expired in 63 C.E., but why? What happened in 63 C.E.? This year was the year of the death of James the Just. According to the ancient Nazarene writer Hegesippus, James the Just was very popular with the Jewish community in general, and many had come to be believers in Y'shua as the Messiah as a result of his charisma with the people. Certain of James's enemies, fearing that all Israel would join the Nazarene movement, pressed him to stand on a wing of the Temple and deny Y'shua.

Instead, James repeated the same hybrid of Ps. 110:1 & Dan. 7:13 which Y'shua had recited at his trial. In response, James' opponents cast him to the ground and stoned him to death (Hegesippus as quoted by Eusebius in Eccl. Hist 2:23). Upon the death of James the Just, the Nazarene movement lost its steam. Even within the movement apostate elements began to arise. Furthermore, the Essene and Pharisaic elements of the movement began to polarize. There was no longer any chance that the Kingdom offer would receive national acceptance in time for the Messianic Kingdom to occur in the first century. This was the very year that Acts 28:28 took place. THE KINGDOM RESTORED Now despite the fact that the condition of repentance was not met in the first Century, G-d had still promised that if the Kingdom was not hastened, that it would still take place "in its [due] time." (Is. 60:22). The emissaries understood, after studying the Kingdom of G-d with Y'shua for forty days, that the Kingdom would eventually be restored to Israel (Acts 1:3, 6-7). Prophecies regarding this Kingdom were yet to be fulfilled (Jer. 23:5-6; Is. 9:67; 11), and in the New Scriptures G-d reiterated this promise (Rev. 20:1-6).

fishers of men." At once they left their nets and followed him. Going on from there, he saw two other brothers, James son of Zebedee and his brother John. They were in a boat with their father Zebedee, preparing their nets. Jesus called them, and immediately they left the boat and their father and followed him. Jesus went throughout Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom, and healing every disease and sickness among the people. News about him spread all over Syria, and people brought to him all who were ill with various diseases, those suffering severe pain, the demon-possessed, those having seizures, and the paralyzed, and he healed them. Large crowds from Galilee, the Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and the region across the Jordan followed him.

4:1 The devil

Hebrew: "haSatan" (HAH-say-TAHN) - the adversary, opponent, rebel. References: Isaiah 14:11-15 is a taunt of the king of Babylon with a "hidden" reference to Satan Ezekiel 28:11-19 Job 1, 2, 40, 41, 42:6 - a created being opposed to God Genesis 3 & Revelation 12:9 Satan is the background source of all sin, evil and opposition to God. The Tenakh and "New Testament" take for granted a supernatural realm of good and evil, By James Scott Trimm 1997 All Rights Reserved Used with angels who serve God and those who serve Satan. This permission. For more info write: The Society for the Advancement of topic will be dealt with in our Revelation study. Nazarene Judaism PO Box 471 Hurst, TX 76053 www.nazarene.net

4:2 Forty days and forty nights

Matthew 4:1-25
Introduction to Messiah Last Updated 3/8/00
CHAPTER 4 TEXT:
Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil. After fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. The tempter came to him and said, "If you are the Son of God, tell these stones to become bread." Jesus answered, "It is written: `Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God.' Then the devil took him to the holy city and had him stand on the highest point of the temple. "If you are the Son of God," he said, "throw yourself down. For it is written: "He will command his angels concerning you, and they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone." Jesus answered him, "It is also written: `Do not put the Lord your God to the test.'" Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their splendor. "All this I will give you," he said, "if you will bow down and worship me." Jesus said to him, "Away from me, Satan! For it is written: `Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only.'" Then the devil left him, and angels came and attended him. When Jesus heard that John had been put in prison, he returned to Galilee. Leaving Nazareth, he went and lived in Capernaum, which was by the lake in the area of Zebulun and Naphtali-- to fulfill what was said through the prophet Isaiah: "Land of Zebulun and land of Naphtali, the way to the sea, along the Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles-- the people living in darkness have seen a great light; on those living in the land of the shadow of death a light has dawned." From that time on Jesus began to preach, "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is near." As Jesus was walking beside the Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers, Simon called Peter and his brother Andrew. They were casting a net into the lake, for they were fishermen. "Come, follow me," Jesus said, "and I will make you

One of many "New Testament" comparisons betweenYeshua and Moses. Moses received all the Torah after fasting 40 days. Yeshua was tempted to break Torah after fasting 40 days (see section below on "Temptations").

4:3 Son of God


The Tenakh hints at such a person: Isaiah 9:5-7 Micah 5:1-2 Psalm 2:7 Proverbs 30:4 Daniel 7:13

4:4-10 "It is written ..."


Refers to the Tenakh - "Tenakh" is an acronym formed from the first letters of the three parts of the Hebrew Bible: Torah (meaning: instruction, revelation or teaching) The first 5 books of Moses - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Nviim (prophets) Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel & the "minor prophets" Ktuvim (writings) Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Chronicles, Nehemiah In Jewish studies, the entire Tenakh is sometimes referred to as "Torah," as it is all God's revelation. In the same

and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases 4:4-10 Temptations there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In It may seem strange that Satan can tempt (or "bless") anyone, especialy the Son of God, but nonetheless he and others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a his "angels" are given that ability. Ultimately, even their great deal of study. Matthew 5:1-16 (last update: 3-22-00) actions serve the purpose of God. Satan tempts Yeshua with three categories of sin mentioned in 1 John 2:15-17, SUBJECTS: Sermon on the Mount, disciples, and Yeshua quotes the Torah to resist Satan all three Kingdom of Heaven, "blessed are ...," times: Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 6:16; peacemakers, Semitic poetry, salt, Yeshua's Deuteronomy 6:13. audience, good works. Interestingly, as Moses was given the design for the Matthew 5:17-20 (last update: 3-22-00) Tabernacle (which later became the Temple, and which SUBJECTS: Defining "Law" and "Torah," Judaism teaches is a "representation" of God's heavenly "detroy" versus "fulfill," duality of the Torah, realm), Satan conversely took Yeshua up to the top of the "positive" and "negative" commandments, "curse" Temple and offered Him "his" realm. of the Torah, role of Torah in the life of a follower Satan is the inventor of the lie (John 8:44) and misuses of Yeshua, exceeding the righteousness of the scripture (at verse 6) citing Psalm 91:11-12 out of its scribes and Pharisees. context. Matthew 5:21-48 (last update: 3-22-00) 4:17 "Near" SUBJECTS: "You have heard it said ..." Messiah As mentioned earlier, this should be translated, "the and the Torah, halachtic rulings, Yeshua and Kingdom is offered." Pharasaic opinion, reconciliation. SUBJECTS: Yeshua upholding the Talmud: Alms Good news as most are familiar with is the "Gospel." before men, vain repetition in prayer, "The Lord's Christianity generally teaches the "Gospel" is; the death, Prayer," forgiving others tresspasses, not laying up burial and resurrection of the Messiah. But how can treasure on the earth, "the Evil Eye," taking no Yeshua be preaching this if He is still alive? The apostles thought for your life or for tomorrow. likewise preached the same while Yeshua was alive. Also, Matthew 7:1-29 (last update: 3-24-00) Hebrews 4:2-6 says that the Gospel was preached to the SUBJECTS: Comparison to teachings of Pharisees Israelites, some 1300 years before Yeshua's time. How and Essenes, judging, standards of measurement, can this be? the speck/beam in the eye, giving what is Holy to The explanation is in the Matthew verse itself -- the dogs, "ask and it shall be given," doing unto Gospel has to do with the healing of disease and sickness others, the Law and the Prophets, entering the and restoration of creation, as will be seen in its fulness in straight gate, knowing teachers by their "fruits," the Millennium. For more information on this, see Yovel those who say "Lord, Lord," hearing versus doing, Year (Jubilees) and the Gospel. (CAUTION: This article Yeshua's "authority." is from our Revelation study and contains some advanced concepts. Use the BACK button to return here.) Matthew 5:1-16 See also: Isaiah 26:14, 29:18, 35:4-6, 61:1.

sense, the entire Bible (with "New Testament") is "Torah."

4:23 Preaching the good news of the kingdom ... healing every disease and sickness ..."

Matthew 6:1-34 (last update: 3-24-00)

4:24 "... all over Syria"


This is possibly a mistranslation in the Greek texts, as the DuTillet Hebrew Matthew has instead, "the people" (which has a similar spelling to "Syria" and makes more sense).

A Midrash on Torah Observance Last Updated 3/22/00


CHAPTER 5:1-16 TEXT:

Section II -

A Midrash on Torah

Observance Matthew 5:1-7:29


NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular

And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him: And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying, Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God. Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which

... pure in heart (re: Psalm 22:4; 51;10; 73:11) ... persecuted for righteousness for theirs is the kingdom (Isaiah 66:5) "Blessings" as such are also found in the Qumran (Dead Sea) scrolls. In the following portion wisdom is clearly exalted. Wisdom and the law are viewed as inseparable. (Missing scroll portions are bracketed): 4Q525, Fragment 2, Column 2 - [Blessed is the one THE "SERMON ON THE MOUNT" who] with a clean heart and does not slander with his NOTE: Traditionally, the section of Scripture from Matthew 5:1 to 7:29, has been called "the Sermon on the tongue. Blessed are those who hold fast to its statutes and Mount," due to the physical location of Yeshua when He do not hold fast to the ways of injustice. Ble[ssed] are those who rejoice in it, and do not burst forth on paths of spoke. Unfortunately, this title misses the point of the folly. Blessed are those who seek it with pure hands, and sermon, thus we have chosen to refer to it by its content, a do not search for it with a deceitful [he]art. Blessed is the midrash on Torah observance. (Midrash = teaching) This midrash is broken up into several sections, beginning man who obtains wisdom, and walks in the way of the law of the Most High; establishes his heart in its ways, with 5:1-16, where Yeshua declares what have become known as the "beatitudes," followed by gentle reminders restrains himself by its corrections, is continually satisfied to his Jewish audience as to what their God-given role is with its punishments, does not forsake it in the face of to be. These "introductory statements" will be followed by [his] trials, at the time of distress he does not abandon it, does not forget it [in the day of] terror, and in the the bulk of the message concerning the Torah. humility of his soul does not abhor it. But he meditates on Numerous references will be made to other Jewish it continually, and in his trial he reflects [on the law, and writings, including the Talmud, Midrash Rabbah, Zohar with al]l his being [he gains understanding] in it, [and he and Qumran (Dead Sea) Scrolls, to show how Yeshua's establishes it] before his eyes so as not to walk in the teachings mirrored those of the Pharisees and others of ways [of injustice, and] [and] together, and His day. perfects his heart by it, [and] [and places a crown 5:1 Disciples ofupon] his [hea]d, and with kings it shall se[at him, The relationship between the rabbi and his "talmidim" (disciples, followers, students) was very close. It was not and] brothers shall [] 5:9 Peacemakers only one of learning, but also imitating his conduct and What's is God's concept of a peacemaker? It may not be character. In turn, the rabbi was responsible for his what one would call "politically correct." For instance, talmidim. It is important to note that Yeshua's audience here is exclusively Jews. He did not preach directly to the there is one person in the Scriptures, specifically called a gentiles in His lifetime. Nonetheless, what He says to His peacemaker. He is Pinchas (Phinehas), the grandson of Aaron. What did he do to earn this title from God? He Jewish brethren would apply to any gentile coming into took a spear and simultaneously ran it through a man and the faith of Israel, as God does not have a "separate" woman who were fornicating. For this specific action of revelation and faith for the gentile world -- there is one killing these people, God praises him and calls him a God for Jew and gentile. peacemaker (Numbers 25:6-13). Pinchas later became the 5:3 Kingdom of heaven High Priest. The term "heaven" here is a euphemism for "God." 5:10-13 Semitic Poetry (1) Matthew uses this about 90 percent of the time in his Verses 10-12 are an example of Semitic poetry in a form Gospel. Judaism makes use of multiple ways of referring called a chiasmus, where verses are repeated but in to YHWH, including; HaShem (meaning: the name), reverse order. Here, the verses follow an A-B-C-B-A Adonai, Elohim, El, Yah, Eloah, and others. order: 5:3-10 Blessed are ... Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: Hebrew: Asher - with a combined meaning of; happy and A. B. for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. fortunate." C. Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and ... the poor in Spirit (re: Isaiah 57:15; 66:2) shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. B . Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: ... the mourners who will be comforted (re: Isaiah 61:2; A. for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you. 66:10,13) Verse 13 is an example of Semitic poetry in a form called ... the meek who inherit the land (re: Psalm 37:11) formal parallelism, where a concept in one line is ... they will be satisfied (Isaiah 66:11-12) ... merciful who obtain mercy (re: Psalm 18:26 - 2 Samuel expounded on through several subsequent lines. Ye are the salt of the earth: 22:26) but if the salt have lost his savour,

were before you. Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

Good works are the positive commandments of the Torah. (More on this later in the study.) These are the only "works" that would distinguish the Jews and cause gentiles to give glory to the Father, who gave His Torah 5:13 Salt as a means for His people to sanctify (set apart) Yeshua's use of "salt" in His metaphor is no accident. Salt themselves. has a specific relationship to the eternal covenant God has 1. See: The Semitic Origin of the New Testament by James Trimm with Israel. (www.nazarene.net). This is found in Scripture and throughout other Jewish writings: Matthew 5:17-20 Leviticus 2:13 - Neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the A Midrash on Torah Observance Last Updated 6/14/00 covenant of thy God to be lacking NOTE: This section of Scripture, Matthew 5:17-20, is Numbers 18:19 - It is a covenant of salt for ever pivotal to understanding the relationship of Messiah to Talmud - Mas. Menachoth 19b, 20a - For it has been the Torah, and therefore of the believer to the Torah. taught: The verse, It is a covenant of salt for ever, Thus, we have given it a section of its own. signifies that there is a covenant declared in regard to CHAPTER 5:17-20 TEXT: salt. So R. Judah. R. Simeon says, Here it is said, It is a Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not covenant of salt for ever, and there it is said, The come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven covenant of an everlasting priesthood, as it is impossible and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, to conceive of sacrifices without the priesthood so it is till all be fulfilled. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least impossible to conceive of sacrifices without salt! commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the Midrash Rabbah - Genesis XCVII - The throne of Israel was given to Judah through the righteous David-to same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of him and to his sons as a covenant made with salt. the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 241b - It is of heaven. written: Neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant 5:17 the "Law" of thy God to be lacking from thy meal-offering; with all Christian Bibles consistently refer to "the Law," meaning thine oblations thou shalt offer salt. Salt was to be used the Law of Moses, as given in the first five books of the because it softens bitterness, and so mankind cannot do Bible. The Hebrew term for this is the Torah. However, without it. Salt is the covenant upon which the world is the correct translation of "Torah," is not "law" (not in the established: hence it is called the covenant of thy God. western legal sense of the word). Rather, Torah is 5:13-16 WHO are the salt and the light? correctly translated as revelation or instruction from God. As mentioned earlier, Yeshua here is addressing Jews When understood in its proper Hebrew context, here is within their Judaism. (It is critical to understand the some of what the "New Testament" says about Torah: meaning of this and every verse in its original context Faith does not abolish any part of the Torah as a before expounding on it or trying to apply it to another whole (Matthew 5:17-20, James 2:10) situation.) This is Yeshua's first recorded "public address" Keeping the Torah is part of the faith that gets you to to the Jews, after having spent some time preaching to heaven (Matthew 19:17; Revelation 12:17; 14:12; them in the Synagogues (Matthew 4:23). Yeshua Himself 22:14) said He came for the lost sheep of Israel, not the gentiles, You will abide in Yeshua's love, if you keep Torah and told His apostles to do the same (Matthew 10:5-6; (John 14:15-23) as He abided in the Father's love 15:24). Gentiles would receive their direct invitation to by keeping Torah (John 15:10; Hebrews 2:17-18, join the faith of Israel through the Messiah, after His 4:15) death and resurrection. Faith in Yeshua does not cancel out what the Torah Israel is also God's "Messiah" (meaning: anointed one). says, it establishes it (Romans 3:31) Their job was/is to bring the revelation of God, that the Torah is itself "liberty" and the standard we are to Lord Himself gave them at Mount Sinai, to the entire judge ourselves by (James 1:22-25) world. Here Yeshua is issuing them a reminder of their It is those of the flesh who are not subject to the responsibility in these verses. Israel is still "God's chosen Torah (Romans 8:5-8) people," and the faith they received through the giving of If you say you know Him, and ignore His Torah, you the Torah and work of their Messiah, is still the only one are a liar (1 John 2:3-7) God has ever established. (As we will discuss in the next It does not matter if you are a Jew or a gentile, what section.) matters is keeping God's Torah (1 Cor. 7:19)

wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.

5:16 Good works ... glorify your Father

that we keep his Torah - which is by no means a "burden" (1 John 5:3; 2 John 1:6; Matt. 11:29,30) These "New Testament" references to Torah might at first confuse people, as they aren't used to thinking in these terms. However, when the Hebrew New Testament authors, and Yeshua Himself, spoke of law/commandments in their first century Jewish religious context, it must be interpreted as "Torah," unless there is a clear reason to do otherwise, as this was what it meant to them.

The "law of love" is

5:17 Destroy ... Fulfill


First, a brief look at two of the Greek words behind the King James text in verse 17: Destroy = kataluo, meaning "to overthrow completely" or "abolish" Fulfill = plerosai, meaning "to fill" or "to complete." The second half of verse 17 is used by some people to support a doctrine that says the believer in Messiah is now "not under the Law." Some claim that by "fulfilling the Law," Messiah did away with it, and the believer no longer has a relationship to it. Although we will address this in detail thoughout this and our other online studies, one need not look further than this verse itself to see that such an interpretation is incorrect, as: 1.The word plerosai (fulfill) DOES NOT mean to "do away with" or to "overthrow." 2.The word kataluo (destroy) DOES mean to "do away with" or to "overthrow," and Yeshua said He did NOT come to do that. (1) Furthermore, Yeshua then goes on to emphasize in verse 18, that not even the tiniest part of the Torah (the "Law") is done away with, and won't be until the heavens and the earth are no more. He then takes it even further, and issues a warning to anyone who "breaks" any of the Torah, or teaches anyone to do the same. The Greek word for "break" is luo, meaning; "to infringe upon, loosen the force of, or render not binding." (1) Hence, Yeshua is teaching that His work in no way diminishes the authority or continuation of the Torah. Verses 17-20 set the theme and agenda for the entire "Sermon on the Mount." Yeshua the Messiah makes fuller the understanding of his disciples concerning the Torah and Prophets, so they can more fully express what being Gods people is all about. This is consistent with Judaism, as one of the Messiah's main functions would be to complete our understanding of the Torah & Prophets. The "evidence" for Yeshua being the true Messiah is that He meet the criteria set forth in the Tenakh (Old Testament), which in turn says the Torah is eternal. Much of the remainder of chapters 5-7 give specific cases where Yeshua explains the fuller meaning of the Torah --

teaching the people to not only keep the Law, but to go beyond the "letter of the Law - understanding the Godly principles behind the commandments, as this is how we come to know God, which is His desire for us all. The Talmud agrees with this and even states that Jerusalem was destroyed for not following what Yeshua taught: Babylonian Talmud - Bava Mezia 30b - "...R. Yohanan said: 'Yerushalayim would not have been destroyed, save that they judged Din Torah (by the Law of the Torah).' Should they have judged by the brutal laws?--rather, they insisted upon the law, and did not practice Lifnim miShurat haDin (beyond the letter of the law).

5:20 - the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees


Yeshua never criticized the scribes and Pharisees for carrying out the Torah. In fact he told the people to follow their example (Matthew 23:1-3 ).
1. Vines Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words.

Matthew 5:21-48
A Midrash on Torah Observance Last Updated 9/5/01
CHAPTER 5:21-48 TEXT:
Ye have heard that it was said of them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but

whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away. Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.

often agreeing with an already existing Pharasaic interpretation of Scripture. The main point is that Yeshua's comments are within the framework of Pharasaic discussion. Unfortunately, the term "Pharisee" has a totally negative meaning today, even though many Pharisees were Godly men and some followed Yeshua - (i.e., Paul, Nicodemus, and the factions mentioned in Acts 15 and Luke 13:31). As uncomfortable as many would find hearing this -- Yeshua Himself would have been regarded as a Pharisee. When the Pharisees went out to question John the Baptist about who John was, he said that one among THEM (the Pharisees) was the Messiah to come (John 1:26-27). 5:21 You have heard it said ... The Pharisees themselves were highly critical of one One of the teachings of Judaism regarding Messiah (to another, saying there were "seven kinds of Pharisees," and this day), is that He will come and teach His people the not all were good. (1) The disciples of Hillel went so far as deeper points of the Torah. Yeshua does just this in the calling those of Shammai, "sons of Satan," in a similar remaining verses of chapter five. He begins with the fashion to what Yeshua called some of them. (2) When we expression, "You have heard it said." This He does both see Yeshua rebuking the Pharisees, it is very much a to draw his audience's attention to a specific point, as well "family argument," and needs to be understood as such. as to make a distinction between His opinion on a matter In verses 21-48, Yeshua brings up a number of issues of Torah and any other(s) of His time. He is offering His surrounding actual commandments. As we will see, he authoritative interpretations on how to follow the often quotes directly from the Talmudic writings of the commandments. In the Judaism of Yeshua, these are Pharisees. He is addressing the "fences" (safeguards) called halachtic (hah-LAHK-tik) rulings. Later in this placed around the Torah -- in some case supporting the Gospel we will see Yeshua extending this authority to His ones the Pharisees put in place -- in other places he offers apostles. We also see Paul issuing such halchtic rulings in His own "fences." several of his epistles. 5:21 Thou shall not kill ... It is important to realize that Yeshua did not come to, This is a direct commentary on the sixth commandment "correct all the misguided teachings of the Pharisees." (which is actually against "murder," and not "killing"). (This thought is commonly expressed in religions that Note that when He says, But I say unto you, He is not have little understanding of the Judaism of Yeshua's cancelling the commandment, as murder is still sin and time.) First, it should be noted that there was no will bring judgment. Rather, He is showing that in dominating concensus among the Pharisees and other addition to following the letter of the commandments, one religious groups at that time. A brief look at the Pharasaic should go beyond the minimum requirements as we grow writings in the Talmud, show a diversity of opinion, in our relationship with God. including many that argue against each other. This is 5:22 ... But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry called arguing for the sake of HaShem (God). Secondly, Yeshua actually supported most Pharasaic opinion on the with his brother ... This comment is on the heels of 5:13-21 where Yeshua Torah that eventually were captured in the text of the says he is teaching Torah "correctly" (in its fulness) to His Talmud. Yeshua not only quoted and supported Pharisaic Jewish audience, so that they can take this Torah out to teaching, as seen in the chart above, He also upheld the religious authority of the Pharisees. He told the people to the world. obey the Pharisees, as they "sat in Moses' seat," meaning Yeshua makes a connection between murder in verse 21, and "speaking evil" of someone in verse 22. This was not their authority came from God. (Matthew 23:1-3) a "new teaching," but had been greatly overlooked by that There were two majority schools of Rabbinic thought at time. Such "evil speaking" is called speaking "Lashon that time, the school of Rabbi Hillel and the school of Rabbi Shammai (both of whom had died prior to Yeshua's Hara" (Evil Tongue) against a person, and is equated with ministry). Hillel was the grandfather of Gamliel, who was murder throughout Jewish literature. The book of "James" (Ya'acov is his real name), it also speaks of the subject of the leader of the Sanhedrin and who taught the apostle "the tongue" to great length. Paul. Hillel's teachings were thought to be more liberal Yeshua is reminding the people that "character than those of Shammai, which were considered more strict. As we will see, throughout the Gospels, Yeshua is assassination" is as bad a "physical assassination" in God's sight. This is the higher level of Torah that He

taught -- All part of His greater command to "Love one another." This is also the first of many examples we will show of Yeshua supporting Pharasaic Talmud: Babylonian Talmud, Bava Mezia 58b - One who shames the face of his fellow, it is as if he has murdered him.

5:31-32 whosoever shall put away his wife ...


Here is a rare case where Yeshua sides with the school of Shammai rather than Hillel. Shammai taught exactly as Yeshua did regarding this matter, interpreting "uncleanness" in the Torah commendment solely as sexual immorality. The school of Hillel offered a broader interpretation, allowing for a man to divorce his wife for many things that "did not find favor in his sight." Yeshua holds "to the letter of the law" in this case.

5:23-24... first be reconciled to thy brother


The concept of "reconciliation" can be a difficult one for believers to understand properly. One may ask, If all my sins are forgiven by my faith, why do I have to ask forgiveness from anyone? A different but related question might be, If God can't stand sin, why is it each time a person breaks a commandment, a lightning bolt doesn't descend from heaven and strike him? Reconciliation has a place in the answer to both questions. 1.As believers we have salvation from God, but we are still called to forgive others and ask forgiveness when we've wronged them. Concepts such as "eternal security" have no place in a Hebraic discussion of "faith." Not one person in the Bible, took their salvation for granted, before or after Yeshua. The Messiah makes it clear that if we don't forgive, we won't be forgiven. 2.The sacrificial system of the Tenakh played a major role in reconciliation and was the reason more "lightning bolts" didn't come down from the heavenlies to smite people. Yeshua is presently fulfilling this role for us, in the heavenlies (1 John 2:2), hence at this time there is no need for the day to day sacrifices of reconciliation. (More advanced teachings on the sacrificial system are found in our Revelation study.) This teaching also parallels that found in the Talmud: Babylonian Talmud, Yoma 85b - Yom Kippur atones for all sins, but first you must reconcile your conflict with others.

5:33 Thou shalt not forswear thyself


This has nothing to do with the Torah-based practice of making an oath to God. Rather it is dealing with the practice of invoking God's name, or any part of God's creation, into common oaths (i.e., taking the Lord's name in vain). This is yet another Talmudic teaching reinforced by Yeshua: Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 49b - A righteous yes is a Yes; a righteous no is No. It should also be noted that the Essenes also made it a point not to take oaths other than the one someone took to enter into their brotherhood. Here we have a case where the Pharisees and Essenes may be in agreement.

5:38 Eye for an eye ...


This is one of the most commonly misunderstood concepts in Judaism. Ask most people and they will say that this has something to do with "retaliation in the Old Testament" versus "love and forgiveness in the New Testament." This is incorrect - Judaism has never interpreted the verse in this fashion. The Torah command regarding "eye for eye" had to do with providing for limited liability in matters of legal compensation. Here Yeshua is teaching to go beyond the minimum required of you, especially when you have wronged someone.

5:43 Love thine neighbor and hate thine enemy

This is not a new concept, as the Torah taught love for one's enemy too (i.e., Leviticus 19:18). Yeshua is giving 5:27-28 Thou shalt not commit adultery the rationale behind the command. In a similar fashion to his teaching on murder, Yeshua This idea is found several places in Talmud: says lusting in the heart is as much a sin as committing Babylonian Talmud, Yoma 23a, Gitin 36b, Shabbat the act of adultery. The ensuing verses on "plucking out" 88b - They who are insulted but insult not back; who hear your own eye, are obviously not to be carried out literally. themselves reproached but answer not; who serve out of Yeshua is however, teaching that we have a responsibility love and rejoice in their affliction--of them it is written in to deal with our "evil inclination" (Hebrew = yetzer Scripture: They that love God are as the going forth of the ha'ra). sun in its might. Here Yeshua is supporting two existing teachings of the 5:45 ... sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. Pharisees: There are times when it seems though "the wicked Babylonian Talmud, Kallah, Ch. 1 - One who gazes prosper" and "the righteous suffer." As such, and in light lustfully upon the small finger of a married woman, it is of all the previous comments on the Torah, Yeshua as if he has committed adultery with her. reminds His audience that our reward is not on this earth Babylonian Talmud, Niddah 13b - Better that one's but in heaven. belly burst than one should go down to the pit of This teaching is also found in Talmud: destruction.

Babylonian Talmud, Taanit 7a - God causes it to rain for the wicked as well as for the righteous.

5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.


The Greek word for perfect (teleios) means to be complete. This teaching mirrors the following: Sifri, Ekev No. 49 - As God is, so shall you be: As God is merciful, so shall you too, be merciful.
1. Babylonian Talmud, tractate Sotah 22b. 2. Babylonian Talmud, tractate Yevamot, footnote #14 to 16a: "Literally 'the first-born of Satan.'"

Matthew 6:1-34
A Midrash on Torah Observance Last Updated 3/24/00
CHAPTER 6:1-34 TEXT:

into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature? And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

NOTE: In this chapter, Yeshua continues to clarify and expound on the Torah. We will focus on how His Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: teachings supported those of the Pharisees as seen in the otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven. Talmud. In many of these verses, Yeshua reiterates a Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before fundamental principle for the life of a Godly man -- we thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that are but visitors here, and we need to understand that our they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their real life and our rewards, are in heaven. reward. But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what

thy right hand doeth: That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly. And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly. But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking. Be not ye therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of, before ye ask him. After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen. For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward. But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head, and wash thy face; That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly. Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness! No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather

6:1-4 ... do not your alms before men, to be seen of them ...
The Pharisees were often guilty of not following their own teachings: Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 17b - Don't do good deeds to be noticed. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 9b - He who gives alms in secret is greater than Moses Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra 10b - The greatest form of charity is when you give and do not know to whom you give, and the recipient takes and does not know from whom he takes.

6:7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions


Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 55a - One who prays too intensely and too lengthily brings on himself heartache.

6:9-13 "The Lord's Prayer"


The verses commonly known as, "Lord's Prayer," can be paralleled to concepts found in other Jewish sources. It is a combination of ideas already familiar to His audience: Our Father which art in Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy heaven (Babylonian name. Talmud; Yoma 85b, Sotah 49b, Avot 5:20; Vayikra Rabbah ch 32.) Thy kingdom come, May God's kingdom be established during the days of your life. (Kaddish prayer) Thy will be done in earth, Do thy will above and give as it is in heaven. Give us comfort to those below, and this day our daily bread. to everyone his need. (Babylonian Talmud,

Berachot 29b) And forgive us our debts, as One who is merciful toward we forgive our debtors. others, God will be merciful toward them. (Babylonian Talmud, Shabat 151b) And lead us not into Bring me not into temptation, but deliver us temptation, and lead me from evil: away from iniquity ... and save me from the evil one. (Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 80b) For thine is the kingdom, For Thine, O Lord, is the and the power, and the greatness and the power glory, for ever. Amen. and the glory and the victory and the majesty (Tenakh, 1 Chronicles 29:10)

6:34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow ...


Babylonian Talmud, Berachot 9b - Each day has enough of its own troubles.

Matthew 7:1-29
A Midrash on Torah Observance Last Updated 3/24/00
CHAPTER 7:1-29 TEXT:
Judge not, that ye be not judged.For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye. Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you. Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened. Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone? Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent? If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him? Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets. Enter ye in at the strait gate: for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it. Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves. Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit. Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock. And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it. And it came to pass, when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine: For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

6:14-15 For if ye forgive men their trespasses ...


Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah 17a - Only if you forgive others will God forgive you. Babylonian Talmud, Shabat 151b - One who is merciful toward others, God will be merciful toward him

6:19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth ...


Jerusalem Talmud, Pe'ah 15b - It happened that manobaz had squandered his father's wealth to charity. His brothers admonished him: "Your father gathered treasure and you wasted it all!" He replied: "My father laid up treasure where human hands control it; I laid it up where no hands control it. My father laid up a treasure of money; I laid up a treasure of souls. My father laid up treasure for this world; I laid up treasure for the heavenly world."

6:23 But if thine eye be evil ...

Here we have a verse that is consistently misinterpreted. What is this "evil eye?" Note the context of the verses before and after the term. In both cases Yeshua is talking about serving God and not money. Why would He interrupt this discussion about "God and money" to interject something about an "evil eye?" The answer is that the term "evil eye," in this context, is a Hebrew figure of speech for being stingy with your material wealth. This verse alone offers evidence that the book of Matthew was originally written in Hebrew as whoever translated it into the Greek, was not aware of what the term "evil eye" meant. They simply copied the phrase, which loses its meaning in the Greek and English. NOTE: At this level of Torah fundamentals, we find great 6:25-31 Take no thought for your life, what ye shall unity between the teaching of the Pharisees (as exemplified by Paul's letters and the Talmud) and those of eat ... the Essenes (as exemplified by James's letter).(1) As Babylonian Talmud, Sotah 48b - He who has what to mentioned earlier, Yeshua had one foot in each of these eat today, and says, "What shall I eat on the morrow?" camps. has little faith.

7:1 Do not judge, or you too will be judged ...

What is it that is "Holy" that we can misuse? The topic has not changed -- it is the Torah. A similar sentiment is found in the Talmud: 7:2 ... with what measure ye mete, it shall be Babylonian Talmud, Ket. 111a - R. Levi said: "God made Israel swear that they should not reveal the measured to you again [Messianic] end, and should not reveal the secrets of [of This is the same standard as found in the Talmud: Babylonian Talmud, Mishnah Sotah 1:7 - By a person's the Torah] to the idolators." 7:7 Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you standard of measure, is he, too, measured. Babylonian Talmud, Shabat 127b - How you judge will find ... others, does God judge you. Ask for what? Money, fame or happiness? No, the The Torah is the "perfect law of liberty" that we are to spiritual man seeks spiritual things in the form of the truth judge by: and blessings of the Torah: James 1:23-25 - For if any be a hearer of the word, and James 1:17-21 - Every good gift and every perfect gift is not a doer, he is like unto a man beholding his natural from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, face in a glass: For he beholdeth himself, and goeth his with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. way, and straightway forgetteth what manner of man he Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we was. But whoso looketh into the perfect law of liberty, should be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures. Wherefore, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow but a doer of the work, this man shall be blessed in his to speak, slow to wrath: For the wrath of man worketh not deed. the righteousness of God. Wherefore lay apart all 7:3-5 Why do you look at the speck of sawdust in filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness, and receive with meekness the engrafted word, which is able to save your your brother's eye ... souls. Paul and James had similar messages about double The prime example of what we are to pray for was given standards: to us by Yeshua. He prayed for us to become one (a unity Romans 2:21-23 - Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a - Hebrew: echad) with the Father, as He is echad with the man should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou that sayest a Father: John 17:20-26: Neither pray I for these alone, but man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit for them also which shall believe on me through adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit their word; That they all may be one; as thou, sacrilege? Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may breaking the law dishonourest thou God? be one in us: that the world may believe that thou James 2:1-4 - My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me I Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons. have given them; that they may be one, even as we For if there come unto your assembly a man with a gold are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may ring, in goodly apparel, and there come in also a poor be made perfect in one; and that the world may man in vile raiment; And ye have respect to him that know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, weareth the gay clothing, and say unto him, Sit thou here as thou hast loved me. Father, I will that they also, in a good place; and say to the poor, Stand thou there, or whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am; sit here under my footstool: Are ye not then partial in that they may behold my glory, which thou hast yourselves, and are become judges of evil thoughts? given me: for thou lovedst me before the Again, Yeshua's words are a reflection of the teachings of foundation of the world. O righteous Father, the the Pharisees: world hath not known thee: but I have known thee, Babylonian Talmud, Er'chin 16b - Rabbi Tarfon said, and these have known that thou hast sent me. And "I wonder if there be anyone in this era who will allow I have declared unto them thy name, and will himself to be reproved. If someone says to another, 'Cast declare it: that the love wherewith thou hast loved out the speck that is in your eye!' he will retort, Cast out me may be in them, and I in them. first the beam that is in your own eye!'" Babylonian Talmud, Kidushin 70a - He who condemns 7:12 Do to others what you would have them do to others, sees in them his own faults. you ...

As throughout this midrash, Yeshua's admonition is a reflection of Pharasaic opinion: Babylonian Talmud, Avot 2:14 - Do not judge your fellow until you have been in his place. Babylonian Talmud, Avot 4:10 - Do not be a judge of others, for there is no judge but the one (God).

Babylonian Talmud, Bava Mezia 59a - Do not rebuke your fellow with your own blemish.

7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs

This time Yeshua is directly quoting Hillel, the grandfather of Gamliel, who taught Paul: Babylonian Talmud, Shabat 31a - What is hateful to you, do it not unto others -- this is the entire Torah, and the rest is commentary. (Yes, we can actually thank the Pharisees for the "Golden Rule" that we all teach our children!)

ways of destruction are -- or do we simply pick what sounds good to us?" Of course the answer is that He has given us the Torah as our guideline to define sin, how to live, how to sanctify ourselves, and how to learn more of Him.

7:16 Ye shall know them by their fruits


What are these "fruit" we shall know them by? They are certainly not "miraculous manifestations," as Satan and his angels can and do perform miracles as God allows. Nor are the fruits simply "good results" such as healed marriages, release from addictions, etc. Even secular, pagan and atheistic groups and cults can and do get good results. The key here is that the fruits are coming from "the tree." What is the tree? In Judaism the Torah is called the Tree of Life. As mentioned in our notes to chapter 3, the phrase "to bring forth fruit" in a Hebraic spiritual context, refers to deeper spiritual insight and teachings. The question is, are the fruits (teachings) true to the Torah, or are they in opposition to it, as Yeshua warned about at the beginning of this sermon? (5:17-20) As with any good teacher, Yeshua is "closing the loop" to his argument, summarizing with what He began with. This is expounded on (with a warning) in the next section:

7:12 ... for this is the law and the prophets.


Yeshua does not say, "for this replaces the Law and the Prophets." He clearly said that He did not come to do that (Matthew 5:17-21). He is summarizing His teachings that the whole of Torah is given for the good of man - to establish and improve His relationship with God and with his fellow man. It is by learning and following God's Torah that we "do what is right unto others." James had a similar way of summarizing what true faith is: James 1:27 - Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, To visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world. James brings together several of these points in one section of his letter. He reiterates the idea of "do unto others," but says that if you show favoritism you sin. He then states that you cannot pick and choose what parts of the Torah (the "royal law") you feel like keeping, as it is a unity: James 2:8-12 - If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well: But if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors. For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. For he that said, Do not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law. So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty. Paul and James agree that knowing the Torah is not enough - we are to DO the Torah: Romans 2:13 - For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified. James 1:22 - But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving your own selves. Paul and James also state that wilfully violating the Torah is tantamount to blaspheming God: Romans 2:23-24 - Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written. James 2:7-10 - Do not they blaspheme that worthy name by the which ye are called?

7:21-29 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord ...
These verses have often been used by some groups to point a finger at other "apostate" or "more liberal" groups who "claim the name of Christ." But what is Yeshua's criteria for those who fall into this group? At the beginning of this midrash (Matthew 5:17-20), Yeshua had given three examples to make a point about Torah still being in effect. 1.He did not come to do away with the Torah 2.This included even the tiniest part (jot and tittle) of the Torah 3.Those who taught otherwise would be "least in the Kingdom" Here at the conclusion of His midrash, He again shows in three different ways, who falls in this category of those, "He does not know." He describes them as follows: Matthew 7:21 - Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. Matthew 7:23 - And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Matthew 7:26 - And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand: Regarding the first, Matthew 7:21-- At the time Yeshua spoke, where was the Father's will to be found? Only in

7:13 Enter ye in at the strait gate


The question at this point is, "Has God indicated to us which the straight and correct gate is, and what the broad

the Torah (and its extension through the rest of the Tenakh). Concerning, what He next says in verse 23 -- How is iniquity (sin) defined even in the "New Testament?" It is the breaking of Torah: 1 John 3:4 - Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law. The word for "iniquity" in verse 23 is "lawlessness," from the Greek anomia. Yeshua clearly states that those who practice lawlessness will not enter into His kingdom. What "law" are these people violating with their "lawlessness?" As it has been clearly shown, the context of Matthew 5:17 through 7:29 is that of "religious law" the Torah. Lastly, in verse 26, when Yeshua, says, "these sayings of mine," He is in no way stating that "His commandments" now replace those of the Father's. Such a statement would immediately disqualify Him as being the Messiah. Yet, this doctrine (usually in a roundabout way) is taught in many places today.Yeshua's sayings are those of the Father - they are One. If you have heard Him you have heard the Father, and vice-versa. He makes this clear throughout all four gospel accounts. Paul also reminds us that this does not change for believers in Messiah. The Torah remains: Romans 3:31 - Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.

the Torah, is called Devarim (Deuteronomy) and means "words."


1. The name "James" is a Christian supplantation. The actual name in the Greek text is Jacob, from the Hebrew "Ya'acov." The name "James" was most likely added at the time the "King James" Bible was created.

Section III - Messiah's Miracles


Matthew 8:1 - 9:38
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 8:1-34 (last update: 5-26-00)


SUBJECTS: "Leprosy" versus "tzarrat," the centurion and gentiles in Judaism, Children of the Kingdom, demonic activity, "let the dead bury their dead," demons challenging Yeshua.

Matthew 9:1-38 (last update: 5-29-00)


SUBJECTS: Son of Man, "I will have mercy and not sacrifice," disciples of John, new wine in old wineskins, Could Yeshua become ritually unclean?, "See that no man know it," What is "the Gospel message?", sheep having no shepherd.

7:26 every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not ...

Yeshua concludes His midrash about the Torah (that began in Matthew 5:17-20) with a warning to those listening. His words about the house being knocked down, mirror those found in the Talmud, which equates "these Matthew 8:1-34 sayings of mine," to the Torah: Yeshua's Miracles Last Updated 5/26/00 Babylonian Talmud, Avot 3:17 - One who studies Torah CHAPTER 8:1-34 TEXT: but does not do good deeds is likened to one who builds When he was come down from the mountain, great with a foundation of straw, so that even a minor flow of multitudes followed him. And, behold, there came a leper water will destroy it. and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst

7:28-29 For he taught them as one having authority


Yeshua is teaching and making definitive rulings on the Torah. Rabbis in His day would typically teach "in the name of" of another Rabbi who preceded them -- even if the other Rabbi was long since deceased. Yeshua taught in His own name. The "authority" He has, stems from the fact that He IS the Torah in the flesh -- as John's Gospel says in its Hebrew context: From John 1 - In the beginning was the Torah, and the Torah was with God and the Torah was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made ... In him was life and that life was the light of men ... And the Torah became flesh and made his dwelling among us. At the time John wrote this, the term "Word" was equated both with God and with the Torah. In fact the last book of

make me clean. And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man; but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them. And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him a centurion, beseeching him, And saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented. And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him. The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed. For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it. When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel. And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac,

skin conditions described are those of leprosy The method of examination and treatment is not that for leprosy Leprosy does not appear on clothing and walls of homes The affliction spoke of in Leviticus is known in Jewish Bibles as tzarrat. (The first two letters are pronounced like the double z in "pizza.") Scripture shows that this was a specific disease inflicted directly by God Himself, for hidden sin among the people. It is taught in Judaism that tzarrat was directly associated with the sin of lashan hara (an evil tongue). This was when people would speak evil of others, behind their backs. In the book of Numbers, chapter 12, we see Moses own sister, Miriam, afflicted with tzarrat when she spoke against Moses. Only God could give and take away the affliction of Tzarret. Only God knew of the hidden sin and also if the sinner was truly repentant in their heart. The disease would go away only upon true repentance. God gave the priests specific instructions on recognizing both the appearance and disappearance of tzarrat. Upon it subsiding, it was recognized that the sinner had been forgiven by God, and they would then have certain steps to take prior to be allowed to reenter the community. If the man approaching Yeshua in these verses is indeed afflicted with tzarrat (and by Yeshua's instructions to him, it would appear so), then we have a significant proof text for His deity. For Yeshua to remove tzarrat from a man, was even more significant that other types of diseases, as tzarrat could only be removed by God. Another point to note in this section is that Yeshua commanded the man not to tell anyone but to inform the priests. As already mentioned, He was following Torah by instructing the man to go see the priest. A question to consider is: Why does Yeshua (here and later on as well) tell people not to spread the word of His miracles? We will address this in the next section of this study. Going back to the subject of "tzarrat." There is another 8:1 And, behold, there came a leper ... shew thyself interesting story in the "New Testament" that seems to be related to this sin-related condition. One could ask, "Who to the priest This is a very significant section of Scripture, the meaning more than anyone else, was speaking lashan hara against the Messiah and his followers? of which is however, is missed in modern Bible commentaries. Many Bibles cross reference this section to This was Sha'ul (Paul/Saul), of course. Leviticus chapter 13 and 14 and what they call the "laws In Acts chapter 9, we read of Paul's encounter with Yeshua. He is stricken with an ailment that blinds him. regarding leprosy." Although the link to Leviticus is The details of this affliction are given when it comes to an correct, the common interpretation of the ailment being end: "leprosy" is incorrect. For instance, the Geneva Study Bible even has a caption in chapter 14 entitled, "The Law Acts 9:18 - And immediately there fell from his eyes as it had been scales: and he received sight forthwith, and Concerning Leprous Houses." arose, and was baptized. Of course the idea of a house having leprosy is absurd. The text of Leviticus clearly shows this is not the disease The Greek word for "leprosy" as found in the "New Testament" is lepra, from the root lepis, meaning a flake of leprosy:

and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant was healed in the selfsame hour. And when Jesus was come into Peter's house, he saw his wife's mother laid, and sick of a fever. And he touched her hand, and the fever left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them. When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses. Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to depart unto the other side. And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest. And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. And another of his disciples said unto him, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father. But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead. And when he was entered into a ship, his disciples followed him. And, behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves: but he was asleep. And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish. And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm. But the men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him! And when he was come to the other side into the country of the Gergesenes, there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way. And, behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time? And there was a good way off from them an herd of many swine feeding. So the devils besought him, saying, If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine. And he said unto them, Go. And when they were come out, they went into the herd of swine: and, behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place into the sea, and perished in the waters. And they that kept them fled, and went their ways into the city, and told every thing, and what was befallen to the possessed of the devils. And, behold, the whole city came out to meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they besought him that he would depart out of their coasts.

None of the physical

speak, saying, The LORD hath utterly separated me from his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I am a dry tree. For thus saith the LORD unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant; Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off. Also the sons of the stranger, that join themselves to the LORD, to serve him, and to love the name of the LORD, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant; Even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people. Scripture is clear that at the end of days it will be gentiles that come into the faith of Israel, and its Messiah, Yeshua -- NOT Jews entering into some gentile "church" that has replaced the faith God established with Israel: Zechariah 8:23 - Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those 8:5 ... there came unto him a centurion The centurion clearly knew the Torah and Jewish culture days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out to recognize that Yeshua was the Messiah. Many gentiles of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for of that day were attracted to the faith of Israel. In we have heard that God is with you. Scripture and other writings, we see gentiles in various stages of practice and growth in the faith of Israel. Some Isaiah 54:2,3 - Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habitations: spare not, were known as "God-fearers," who acknowledged that lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes; For thou the God of Israel was the one true God, and followed some of the Torah commandments. They would not be on shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left; and thy seed shall inherit the Gentiles, and make the desolate an active path of conversion. Others would be actively learning and taking on more of the Torah, with the intent cities to be inhabited. Deteronomy 32:43 - Rejoice, O ye nations, with his of full conversion. The issue of the necessity of conversion (taking on all of people: for he will avenge the blood of his servants, and will render vengeance to his adversaries, and will be the Torah) for gentiles coming to faith in Yeshua would merciful unto his land, and to his people. become a point of discussion in the early Messianic community as we see in the fifteenth chapter of the book 8:12 ... But the children of the kingdom shall be of Acts as well as in some of Paul's writings. cast out Although conversion to Judaism and taking on all of the Although many Jews rejected Yeshua at that time and Torah is not a prerequisite to faith for gentiles, God throughout history, Paul (in Romans, chapters 9 through makes it clear that gentiles have and will always have a 11), warns gentiles, not to boast againt the natural relationship to Torah and the faith of Israel. In fact, those branches (the Jews) as God can easily cast out the gentiles who claim to be of the faith of God are warned about to put them back in. As Paul teaches in Romans, there is separating themselves from God's Sabbath and Israel's always a remnant of faithful Jews, and in the end, all of covenant - the Torah: Israel will be saved. This subject will be dealt with Isaiah 56:1-7 - Thus saith the LORD, Keep ye extensively in our Romans study. judgment, and do justice: for my salvation is near 8:16 ... they brought unto him many that were to come, and my righteousness to be revealed. possessed with devils Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son of There are moments in history when significant spiritual man that layeth hold on it; that keepeth the activity occurs. When Moses was born, there were sabbath from polluting it, and keepeth his hand miraculous events and an increase of demonic activity -from doing any evil. Neither let the son of the much of it geared to killing Moses. The same occured just stranger, that hath joined himself to the LORD,

or scale. (Strongs #3014, 3013). This is the word used to describe the "scales" that Paul received on his "road to Damascus." It is also the word used to describe the man healed by Yeshua in verses 8:1-4. Thus, an argument could be made that Paul was stricken with Tzarrat, which was healed through his encounter with Yeshua. While we are on the subject of Paul's "conversion" (as some call it), it is important to note that Paul did not lose all of the knowledge he had acquired in his training as a Pharisee. His problem was the same as he would later note concerning his fellow Pharisees: Romans 10:2 - For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge The word "knowledge" is epignosis (Strongs #1922) meaning to have full discernment. Paul, like the other Pharisees, had abundant understanding of the Scriptures. (They had "knowledge" in this sense.) However, it required the illumination of God's Spirit to take that understanding and turn it into wisdom -- the wisdom that then showed him that Yeshua was the goal of the Torah. We will cover this in detail in our upcoming Romans study.

prior to the arrival of Yeshua. This is seen noy only in the Gospels, but also in the text of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The book of Revelation paints the same picture occuring prior to the return of the Messiah, in the period of time known as "the Great Tribulation."

8:22 ... let the dead bury their dead


The man's father was not dead yet. The request to "bury the father" was a Hebrew idiom meaning, "Let me take care of all the affairs of my family." However, God required an instantaneous response. The Kingdom offer was present with Yeshua. Anyone placing the physical cares of this world ahead of the spiritual concerns of God was not worthy to take part in the latter.

8:26 ... Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea
There is an interesting section found at Qumran, in a fragment that deals with a priest that is to appear in the future, whose righteousness brings light to his generation, but who also arouses fierce opposition (1): 4Q541 - The hid(den mysteries) he shall reveal (...) (for the one) who does not understand he shall write (...) the Great Sea shall be quiet because of him. Although a literal-level connection can clearly be made to "the sea being made quiet," this terminology (the "sea") is rooted in deep Jewish mystical teachings regarding the end times. We will address this over the summer in our Revelation Study.

8:29 ... art thou come hither to torment us before the time?
Even the demons know their time is limited. However, they were also aware that the Kingdom offer had not yet been accepted, and thus "correctly challenged" Yeshua.
1. The Dead Sea Scrolls a New Translation, Wise, Abegg and Cook, 1996, HarperSanFrancisco, p. 260.

Matthew 9:1-38
Yeshua's Miracles Last Updated 5/30/00
CHAPTER 9:1-38 TEXT:
And he entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into his own city. And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee. And, behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth. And Jesus knowing their thoughts said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts? For whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and walk? But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thine house. And he arose, and departed to his house. But when the multitudes saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men. And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him. And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house, behold, many publicans and

sinners came and sat down with him and his disciples. And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto his disciples, Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners? But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. But go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not? And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast. No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment, for that which is put in to fill it up taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse. Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved. While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live. And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples. And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment: For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole. But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour. And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise, He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose. And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land. And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on us. And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord. Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you. And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it. But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country. As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil. And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel. But the Pharisees said, He casteth out devils through the prince of the devils. And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness and every disease among the people. But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad, as sheep having no shepherd. Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few; Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest.

Matthew Chapter 9 is an important section, whose main lesson is largely overlooked. Here we find the "definition" of what the "Gospel message" is. Contrary to what some teach, the "Gospel message" is not the "death, burial and resurrection of the Messiah." It can't be that, as we have

Yeshua Himself, "preaching the Gospel" in this chapter and He is still alive. Add to that the fact that His disciples also preach the Gospel while He is alive, and that in Hebrews 4:2 we are told the Gospel was preached to the children of Israel with Moses in the wilderness. Just what is "the Gospel message" then?

9:1 "Son of Man"


In this context, "son of Man" is a Messianic term found in the Tenakh and numerous Hebrew sources including: Daniel 7:13 - I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 98a - R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua b. Levi pointed out a contradiction. it is written, in its time [will the Messiah come], whilst it is also written, I [the Lord] will hasten it! if they are worthy, I will hasten it: if not, [he will come] at the due time. R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua opposed two verses: it is written, And behold, one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven whilst [elsewhere] it is written, [behold, thy king cometh unto thee . . . ] lowly, and riding upon an ass! Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 145b - And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a son of man (Dan. VII, 13), alluding to the Messiah, concerning whom it is also written: And in the days of those kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, etc. (Ibid. II, 44). Enoch XLVIII - In that hour was this Son of man invoked before the Lord of spirits, and his name in the presence of the Ancient of Days ... In his presence they shall fall, and not be raised up again; nor shall there be any one to take them out of his hands, and to lift them up: for they have denied the Lord of spirits, and his Messiah.

9:11 ... Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners? 9:12 ... They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick. 9:13 ... go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice
This is an important section. Here, a group of Pharisees is critical of Yeshua for associating with those whom they consider to be sinners. Yeshua responds by gives these Pharisees a direct command to go "learn something." Later, in Matthew 12:7, we see Yeshua will criticize them again, for not doing as He told them to do here. Yeshua's instruction to them is a quote from the prophet Isaiah. The context in Isaiah's original message and that of Yeshua's is similar. In each case you had people "going through the motions" of the instructions God gave in His Torah. What Yeshua is telling these Pharisees is that their reliance on performing God's commands, although

absolutely part of their faith, was secondary to what God wants first -- a trusting relationship with Him. In no way does this mean the Torah is not to be followed. Rather, the message here is that, just as faith without works is dead (James, chapters 1 and 2), the same goes for works without faith. This is the message God has given his chosen people throughout the Bible: Isaiah 64:6 - But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away. Romans 2:28-29 - For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh: But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God. Hebrews 4:2 - For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it. If these Pharisees had gone back to learn what Isaiah was talking about, they would have seen that they were just as much in "need of a physician" as these other people were. One could say that their "legalistic view" of the Torah made them more in need of Yeshua than the people they were criticizing. It is evident to most that these Pharisees were outwardly performing the commandments of God but lacked the humility and trust God desired. This caused them to not recognize Yeshua for who He was. They made themselves "blind." It should be noted however, that there is a "flip side" to this situation that is prevalent today. Anyone claiming to "believe in the Messiah," but who rejects the Torah as God's instruction, (i.e., "we're not under the Law") is no better off than these Pharisees. You cannot separate the "Torah in the flesh" from the Torah of Scripture. Yeshua said so (Matthew 5:17-21, 7:21-29), Paul said so (Romans 2:13, 3:31) and James said so (James, chapters 1 and 2). John goes so far as to have said that if you claim to know God but don't obey His commandments (His Torah), you are a liar and the truth is not in you (1 John 2:3-4). Of course this message goes against the overwhelming consensus today -- just as it did in Yeshua and Isaiah's times.

9:14 the disciples of John


We know from Scripture that John the Baptist was raised in the Wilderness area and had a following of his own (Matthew chapters 3 and 11, Acts 18:25; 19:3). Discoveries in the Dead Sea Scrolls have shown a very Messianic-oriented community in the Wilderness, dating from about 100 BCE to 135 CE. These people included Essenes, a community that formed their own system of

sacrifices, due to corruption of Saducees. The latest research indicates that John and his followers probably were a break-away group from the Essenes.

A difficult question can be asked at this point. Did Yeshua become ritually unclean by either the woman touching His garment or by Him touching the dead girl? (If she was indeed dead!) Or was he not made unclean (by Yeshua's statement of not placing new wine in old bottles anything) because of his Deity? This is a very deep issue and one that merits further study. (Feel free to send your (wineskins) is one of many Scripture verses often taken thoughts in to YashaNet!). out of context to support some group's latest (non9:30 See that no man know it Hebrew) doctrine. The proper interpretation of verse 17 would seem to be in relation to verse 14, as it is part of Why did Yeshua "play down" who He was? One thought Yeshua's answer to the question posed to Him by John's is that He didn't want the masses taking up arms against followers about why His disciples were not fasting. Rome, as many had the false idea that this would be a role Fasting was part of following the Torah and Yeshua of the Messiah. certainly never broke the commandments. Nor would we In addition to this idea, looking back at the Hebrew expect His immediate followers to do so, yet they seem to Tenakh, we find the following: be at this time. Yeshua replies to this question using three Isaiah 6:8-13 - Also I heard the voice of the Lord, consecutive and related images: saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for You don't fast when the bridegroom is still with you us? Then said I, Here am I; send me. And he said, only later. Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but You don't put a new piece of cloth on an old garment understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive You don't put new wine in an old wineskin not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make There is a teaching in the Talmud that compares an their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see experienced Torah teacher to a wineskin and his with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and knowledgeable teaching to "old wine." understand with their heart, and convert, and be Mishna Avoth 4:20 - ... he who learns from the young, healed. Then said I, Lord, how long? And he unto what is he [to be] compared? Unto one who eats answered, Until the cities be wasted without unripe grapes, and drinks wine from his vat; and he who inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the learns from the old, unto what is he [to be] compared? land be utterly desolate, And the LORD have Unto one who eats ripe grapes, and drinks old wine. ... removed men far away, and there be a great regard not the container but that which is therein: there is forsaking in the midst of the land. But yet in it a new container full of old [wine], and an old [container] shall be a tenth, and it shall return, and shall be in which there is not even new [wine]. eaten: as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose Yeshua's teachings were "old" as they were from God substance is in them, when they cast their leaves: (John 7:16), and therefore He is the old wineskin with old so the holy seed shall be the substance thereof. wine. Yeshua's actions are in accordance to what God told the The connection between these items can now be seen as prophet Isaiah. The people in Isaiah's time, just as in follows: Yeshua's time, had strayed from God. As such, it was not new piece of cloth = new wine = fasting for those who were haughty and arrogant to understand old garment = old wineskin = Messiah still present who He truly was. Those of a humble and contrite heart With these three examples, Yeshua is simply stating that would receive the message however. As we will see later there is a proper time and place for everything and this in this study, Yeshua makes a similar statement regarding does not abrogate the Torah. The time while He (Elohim His parables, which He says were not for all to in the flesh) was walking among man, was a time for understand. enjoyment (old wine) and not fasting. (1) 9:35 ... preaching the gospel of the kingdom A similar situation occurs in chapter 12, when his As previously mentioned, many today believe the "gospel disciples are again accused of breaking Torah (by their message" is the death, burial and resurrection of the picking and eating ears of corn). As we will see, Yeshua Messiah. This creates a conflict when faced with verses will counter their argument in a similar fashion as He did such as this one, or Hebrews 4:2, or other places where in this chapter. There He cites examples from the Tenakh the disciples are preaching "the gospel" before Yeshua showing how the Torah allows (in fact commands) for has died. To counter this, it is taught that the "gospel of certain actions under specific circumstances. the kingdom" is not the same as the "gospel of the

9:14 ... Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not? 9:17 ... new cloth unto an old garment ... new wine into old bottles

9:20 ... "If I may but touch his garment" 9:25 ... and took her by the hand, and the maid arose.

Messiah's death, burial and resurrection." Scripture doesn't offer support for such a teaching however. An alternative explanation is that there is one gospel message and it has never changed. It was indeed given to the Hebrews in Moses' time and preached by Yeshua Himself and his apostles. This "gospel" was "pictured" in the commandments regarding the Yovel Year, also called "Jubilees," where every 50 years, debts were forgiven and properties returned to their original owners. The Yovel Year has heavy Messianic significance in Jewish literature. The prophet Isaiah (chapter 61) makes the connection between the elements of the Yovel year commandment and their ultimate fulfillment by the Messiah. The connection between the Yovel year and the Gospel may be found in our Revelation study. NOTE: This is more advanced material, and the student of this Matthew study would do well to examine it and return here. Just as the Yovel year brought freedom to captives, forgiveness of debts and a restoration of things to their original order, the Messianic kingdom will bring freedom, forgiveness and a restoration of the the name of God, Israel and creation - complete and everlasting physical and spiritual healing (Revelation 21 and 22). The "death, burial and resurrection of the Messiah" is not the Gospel. Rather, it is God's personal "signet" on Yeshua confirming that He was/is the one bringing in what is called the "Jubilee release" -- the "good news" or "gospel" from God. This will all come fully into place when the New Covenant is established in the Millennium.

shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the LORD of hosts. Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.
1. See: Hermeneutics: How to Understand the Scriptures, James Trimm, Society for the Advancement of Nazarene Judaism www.nazarene.net

Section IV - Messiah's Teachings


Matthew 10:1-12:50
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 10:1-42 (last update: 7-12-00)


SUBJECTS: Disciples/Apostles, unclean spirits, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrha, harmless as doves, "confessing" Yeshua, brother shall deliver up the brother to death, he that endureth to the end shall be saved, calling the master of the house Beelzebub, he that taketh not his cross, He that findeth his life shall lose it.

9:36 ... as sheep having no shepherd

The shepherds of the people were the priesthood. Just as in the days of Malachi, they had become corrupted, leaving the people without Godly leadership. But as the prophet foretold, the true Shepherd, God's Messiah, would one day come: Matthew 11:1-30 (last update: 6-25-00) Malachi 3:1 - Behold, I will send my messenger, SUBJECTS: The two-Messiah concept, Go show and he shall prepare the way before me: and the John these things, If you receive it, he is Elijah, LORD, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his "Wisdom," then began He to upbraid the cities, temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom thou has hid things from the wise and prudent, ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the take my yoke upon you. LORD of hosts. Matthew 12:1-21 (last update: 6-30-00) The book of Malachi closes with a reminder that God SUBJECTS: That which is not lawful to do upon does not change. It also makes it clear that the end times the sabbath, hierarchy of Torah principles, one and arrival of the Messiah are linked to the keeping of the greater than the temple, the Son of man is Lord Torah: even of the Sabbath day, the principle of "tikkun," Malachi 4:1-6 - For, behold, the day cometh, that shall Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days, the burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do meaning of Isaiah 42:1-4. wickedly, shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall Matthew 12:22-50 (last update: 6-30-00) burn them up, saith the LORD of hosts, that it shall leave SUBJECTS: Casting out demons, spiritual them neither root nor branch. But unto you that fear my "warfare," demonic activity, spiritual "binding," name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in He that is not with Me is against Me, blasphemy his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of against the Holy Ghost, wicked and adulterous the stall. And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they

her mother in law. And a man's foes shall be they of his own household. He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me. He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it. He that receiveth you Yeshua's Teachings Last Updated 7/12/00 receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me. He CHAPTER 10:1-42 TEXT: that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them prophet's reward; and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man's reward. And of sickness and all manner of disease. Now the names of the twelve whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, shall in no wise lose his reward. and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son 10:1 Disciples/Apostles of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; Simon These men became emissaries on behalf of the Messiah the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the and in the power of Messiah. The miracles they were able way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: to perform (as Yeshua did) were continued evidence that But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And as ye go, the offer of the Kingdom of God was being offered. preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand. Heal the sick, One of the little mentioned facts about Yeshua, is that He cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have was able to attract followers from all of the major received, freely give. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in religious groups within Judaism, many of whom were your purses, Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither usually at odds with each other. This included Essene shoes, nor yet staves: for the workman is worthy of his meat. And into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter, enquire who in it is types such as Peter and Andrew (who were disciples of worthy; and there abide till ye go thence. And when ye come into an John), Zealots (such as Simon and Judas?), and "outcasts" house, salute it. And if the house be worthy, let your peace come such as Matthew, who was an tax collector working for upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you. And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart Rome. Pharisees were also a part of his following as seen by Paul, Nicodemus and those mentioned in Acts 15 and out of that house or city, shake off the dust of your feet. Verily I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Luke 13. Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city. Behold, I send 10:1 ... power against unclean spirits you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as The power against demons was, and remains, directly serpents, and harmless as doves. But beware of men: for they will related to the advancement of God's kingdom. Though it deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues; And ye shall be brought before governors and kings for may be possible to "cast out" demons even today, one my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gentiles. But when must carefully consider the root, and ultimate result, of they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it this activity. As Yeshua said earlier, not all those casting shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. For it is not out demons in His name, would be recognized by Him ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you. (Matthew 7:15-27). And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and The criteria to judge these things by is this: What is being cause them to be put to death. And ye shall be hated of all men for my promoted; Torah-observant faith in Yeshua or some antiname's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved. But when Torah system of belief that says it is of God? The former they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the Son advances the Kingdom, the latter is not the faith God of man be come. The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant established, and therefore is of darkness, not light. Even above his lord. It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, though it may completely have the appearance of light, it and the servant as his lord. If they have called the master of the house is not the gospel of the true Yeshua (2 Corinthians, Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household? chapter 11). Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be 10:1 ... unclean spirits revealed; and hid, that shall not be known. What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that What's with all this "demonic" activity in the four preach ye upon the housetops. And fear not them which kill the body, Gospels? There are several specific periods in history but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to where a rise in demonic activity occured or will occur. destroy both soul and body in hell. Are not two sparrows sold for a Each of these coincides with a "birth" of someone (or farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear ye not something) very significant. Each period is also a time of therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows. Whosoever God causing a great "spiritual awakening." therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before They are as follows: my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before 1.The birth of Abraham: In chapter eight of the book men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven. Think of Jasher (1) an account is given of the birth of not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, Abraham. Here we find Nimrod, who was ruling but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter in law against the known world, learning from his astrologers

generations, unclean spirits going out and returning, the will of the Father.

Matthew 10:1-42

about the birth of a child born to Terah who would would usurp him and whose decendants would possess all the earth. Their attempts to kill the baby Abraham are thwarted by God. 2.The birth of Moses: In the beginning of the book of Exodus, a new Pharaoh feels threatened by the growing number of Hebrew slaves and orders the execution of new born males. Moses miraculously survives. Pharoah's guidance comes from his own mystics who later do spiritual battle with Moses. 3.The births of John the Baptist and Yeshua the Messiah: The Gospel of Matthew recounts the story of how Yeshua escaped death at the hand of Herod's decree. During his lifetime we see Him and His apostles casting out many demons. What isn't explained is how his cousin John, only six months younger than Him, survived Herod's massacre. There is an account in the Pseudepigrapha, concerning John being protected by God throught this ordeal and thus ending up living in the wilderness, where he was "taken in" by the community of people who lived in that area and trained to be a priest. 4.The return of Yeshua: The book of Revelation shows that the most ferocious period of demonic activity the world will have seen is yet to come -it precedes the return of Yeshua and is part of what is called the birthpangs of the Messiah.

John 17, where He elevates them before the Father, and also those who receive their teachings.

10:14,15 ... more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha
Why is this so? Because Sodom and Gomorrha did not have the witness of the Torah and the prophets and the Messiah's own emmissaries. By the time the apostles are witnessing to Israel, they have had the written Torah for some 1300 years. Yeshua's group of twelve are upholding the witness of the Torah and the prophets. They are the "third witness" to come to Israel. How did so many of them miss the fact that Yeshua was the Messiah? Matthew 16:3 - O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times? Paul addressed what the problem of many of his Jewish brethren was -- they did not submit to God's righteousness, as taught in the Torah, and sought their own. When Yeshua, who was/is the "goal" or "aim" of the Torah arrived, they did not discern who He was. Chapter 10 of Paul's letter to the Romans explains this. Unfortunately key parts to this are mistranslated in all Christian texts, thus we supply the following from the Jewish New Testament for a pivotal verse: Romans 10:4 - The goal at which the Torah aims is the Messiah ... (2) (A detailed study of this teaching will be presented in our Romans study.)

10:5-7 Go not into the way of the Gentiles ... the Kingdom of heaven is at hand
The Messiah and the Kingdom of God were promised to the Jews. He is their living Torah. They in turn are to be a light to the world (Matthew 5:14-16). Gentiles, as a whole, would not receive the message of salvation until after Yeshua had died. God's salvation plan has always been and remains the same: Romans 1:16 - ... to the Jew first, and also to the gentiles

10:16 ... harmless as doves


Humility and obedience (to the point of accepting death), regarding walking with God and teaching the Torah, is the theme of the balance of this chapter. The word for "harmless" in verse 16, has the meaning of: unmixed, pure as with metal or wine, without a mixture of guile. What is the "unmixed" message they are testifying to? God's Torah. The term "harmless" is the same one that Paul uses in his letter to the Philippians. It is interesting that we see several of the same themes in Paul's letters as we do in this chapter of Matthew. In Philippians chapter 2, Paul speaks of obeying God's Torah as part of "working out your salvation." Note that the Torah/Tenakh is all that they could be "obeying," and that not remaining pure to Torah was the only thing they could rightfully be "rebuked" for. This section (below) comes on the heels of the preceding verses (5-11) that describe Yeshua receiving His reward because He was faithful unto death. (See Matthew 10:22 below for what our standards are.) Here too, this same term (harmless, meaning "unmixed") is associated with the Torah, called, "the word of life.": Phillipians 2:12-16 - Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence

10:7 The kingdom of heaven


"Kingdom of Heaven" and "Kingdom of God" are interchangeable. It was and still is common practice among Jews to refer to God in this fashion - out of deep respect for the name of God. Even today, the term "HaShem," meaning "the Name" is often used in place of "God," both in Jewish writings and conversation.

10:8 ... freely ye have received, freely give


The benefit the apostles received cannot be overstated. They had directly received the gift of the Kingdom from the Messiah Himself. The proof of their receiving and giving the Kingdom is seen in verse 14 & 15. These apostles receive special recognition at the return of Messiah, as stated in the book of Revelation.Yeshua mentions their special place in His mystical prayer of

only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. Do all things without murmurings and disputings: That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world; Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain.

10:21 ... brother shall deliver up the brother to death


The prophet Micah spoke of this in His day: Micah 7:6 - For the son dishonoureth the father, the daughter riseth up against her mother, the daughter in law against her mother in law; a man's enemies are the men of his own house. The Talmud connects such family disloyalty to the time of Messiah: Soncino Talmud 49b - In the footsteps of the messiah, insolence will increase and honour dwindle; the vine will yield its fruit [abundantly] but wine will be dear; the government will turn to heresy and there will be none [to offer them] reproof; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for immorality; galilee will be destroyed, gablan desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will degenerate, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, a son will revile his father, a daughter will rise against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, and a man's enemies will be the members of his household; the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. So upon whom is it for us to rely? Upon our father who is in heaven.

Yeshua and goes against God's Torah and the teaching of Yeshua and His followers. Great feats of theological gymnastics often occur when "explaining away" the simple message of Torah-based verses such as these: Hebrews 6:4 - For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. James 5:19-20 - Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins. (Paul did not take his salvation as a "sure thing." See comments to verse 10:39 below.)

10:24,25 ... If they have called the master of the house Beelzebub ...
Yeshua goes as far to say that those persecuting the ones that follow Him (and therefore are correctly following the Torah) will think that they are the ones that are being true to God. It is a tragic fact of the times we live in, that those who are now coming to a Torah-based faith in Yeshua, are being presecuted by others who claim to be the "God's people." The latter even go as far as claiming that the modern day return to Torah is actually of Satan and a sign of the end times. Web sites and articles are now appearing, "warning" people not to let themselves be placed under the "bondage" of "the Law." This topic will be addressed in detail in our Revelation study later this summer.

10:26 for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed

It is the Torah (the only "word of God" that Yeshua and His followers ever knew or referred to) that reveals every hidden thing: There is no "one time fix" in the Jewish view of salvation Hebrews 4:12 - For the word of God is quick, and -- no teaching of, "believe these things in your heart and powerful, and sharper than any two edged sword, you're saved for life." You can willfully turn away and be piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, lost. It should be noted that Paul does teach in several and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the places that nothing can take you away from God. thoughts and intents of the heart. However, he is not addressing free will choice of turning 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body ... away in any of those verses. This is a summation of this section - not fearing death as This did not change with Yeshua or His disciples. Many part of your faith. attempts are made by certain groups (who do not 10:29-30 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? understand the Hebrew interpretation of Scripture) to ... teach doctrines such as, "once saved, always saved." This The context here is that God's concern for you is primarily spiritually arrogant concept is alien to the Judaism of for your soul, not your physical body. You may in fact

10:22 ... but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.

suffer in this life, and die for your faith.

In the book of Hebrews we are told the following: Hebrews 11:35 - ... and others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection.

10:32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men


The word "confess" is homologeo in the Greek (Strong's #3670). This is a compound word derived from homou (meaning "the same" or "akin to") and logos. The term logos in its simplest meaning denotes "something said." We know however, that it also has to do with Divine Expression, such as we see in chapter 1 of John's gospel, where Yeshua is called the logos. Hence, to "confess" Yeshua is not simply a matter of "saying the words," but of identifying with who He is (what He represents), which is the Torah, as He is the goal of the Torah (Romans 10:4). This further explains His words in Matthew 7:21-29, where people who did things in His name are condemned by Him. They did not build their house on the foundation He represents, His word, which is the Word of the Father (John 14:24), which is His Torah.

10:34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth:


See note to 10:21 above.

10:38 And he that taketh not his cross ...


"Taking up your cross" in the context of this chapter, means not being afraid to be killed. The Greek word for "cross" found here is stavros, meaning a "persecution stake." The Dutullet Hebrew Matthew has the word "gallows" in place of "cross."

10:39 He that findeth his life shall lose it ...


John's Gospel includes this analogy: John 12:24 - Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. Paul taught the same about himself. He "lost" his life of trying to gain salvation through his own merit. Again in this section, Paul makes clear that he does not take his salvation for granted: Philippians 3:3-14 - For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit, and rejoice in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence in the flesh. Though I might also have confidence in the flesh. If any other man thinketh that he hath whereof he might trust in the flesh, I more: Circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee; Concerning zeal, persecuting the church; touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless. But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ. Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss

of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith: That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death; If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead. Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. The preceding verse is often misapplied to teach that Paul taught against the Torah (the Law). Nothing is further from the truth. Here, Paul is stating that he no longer relies on his own prideful righteousness - following the Torah in the flesh to "earn" his salvation. He now humbly teaches following Torah in faith - as faith in Yeshua does not void the Torah: Romans 3:31 - Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law. The Talmud teaches of the humilty and seriousness involved in teaching the word: Mishnah Avoth 1:11-13 - Be not like unto servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a gratuity, but be like unto servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a gratuity, and let the fear of heaven be upon you.
1. The book of Jasher is mentioned in the books of Joshua and Second Samuel. It is also referred to in Jewish Biblical commentaries. The book parallels the events from creation to Joshua's entering of the Land. Jasher was rediscovered in Ethiopia in the last century. A forged version was soon released (and is still available). What is believed to be the actual text may be purchased on www.amazon.com . To avoid the recognized forgery, we recommend the edition: ISBN: 0-934666-25-3. 2. The Syriac Peshito version of the New Testament follows along the same line, translating Romans 10:4 as, "Messiah is the AIM of the Law."

Matthew 11:1-30
Yeshua's Teachings Last Updated 7/10/01
CHAPTER 11:1-30 TEXT:
And it came to pass, when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed thence to teach and to preach in their cities. Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples, And said unto him, Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another? Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see: The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them. And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me. And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes

concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind? But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses. But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. For this is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he. And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear. But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows, And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath a devil. The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But wisdom is justified of her children. Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not: Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works, which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works, which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for thee. At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight. All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him. Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.

conquering Messiah, the Lion of Judah, as he knows that Yeshua is the Lamb, come to be slain for the sin of the world (John 1:29). John's background was probably Qumran/Essene, though it would seem he broke away to form his own following. By the time of Yeshua, the Essenes (as shown in the Dead Sea Scrolls) were developing a very accurate picture of Messiah, as king and priest being united in one person. The figure of Melchizadek plays an important role in many of the Qumran writings, with his name being substituted for YHWH's in certain scrolls: 11Q13 - For this is the time decreed for the year of Melchizadek's favor and by his might he will judge God's holy ones and so establish a righteous kingdom, as it is written about him in the songs of David, "A godlike being has taken his place in the council of God; in the midst of the divine beings he holds judgment. Scripture also says about him, Over [it] take your seat in the highest heaven; A divine being will judge his people.

11:4 Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see ...
Yeshua does not give a straightforward reply. His answer consists of presenting John with certain "evidences" - His miracles. These acts are directly associated with the "Jubliee Release," a concept related to Messiah returning the world to the way it once was. There is something very curious in Yeshua's reply when compared to Isaiah's prophecy: Matthew 11:5 - The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them Isaiah 35:5-6 - Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the dumb sing: for in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert. The key difference between these two Scriptures is the issue of "the dead being raised up." Isaiah does not mention this. Yet, in the scrolls found at Qumran, is one that relates the raising of the dead to the Messiah. The Qumran Redemption and Ressurection scroll says of the Messiah: 4Q521 - For He will honor the pious upon the throne of His eternal kingdom, setting prisoners free, opening the eyes of the blind, raising up those who are bowed down ... ... and the Lord shall do glorious things which have not been done, just as He said. For He shall heal the critically wounded, He shall revive the dead, He shall send good news to the afflicted ... This may suggest that Yeshua and John were communicating, using a mutually-recognized teaching not found in the Tenakh, but known to those who spent time "in the wilderness" (as both Yeshua and John did).

11:3 Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?


As John was well aware that Yeshua was Messiah (i.e., John 1:29, Luke 3:22), one may ask, "Why would he ask such a question at this point?" Note that John is not asking if Yeshua is Messiah, but if there may be "another one." Among the various opinions in first-century Judaism concerning the Messiah, was the idea of there being two Messiahs. One of these was considered to be the suffering Messiah (Messiah ben-Joseph) and another, the victorious Messiah that would bring Israel to glory (Messiah ben David). The suffering Messiah would fulfill the duties of priest, and would be killed. The triumphant Messiah would fulfill the role of king and live forever. Some teachings had Messiah ben David "avenging the death" of Messiah ben Joseph, and even being involved with raising the latter from the dead. John is clearly considering that Yeshua may be "Messiah ben Joseph." (He would not think of Yeshua as the

not clear (i.e., flaked off of the manuscript), it could easily 11:7 What did you go out into the desert to see? be mistaken for a DALET. The subject of the Messiah first appearing in the wilderness was discussed earlier, in the notes on Matthew 11:14 And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which 3:3. was for to come. 11:11 ... he that is least in the kingdom of heaven is The key part to this verse are the first words. If Israel would receive it ... What is the "it" in this statement? The greater than he The topic is the offer of the kingdom. Is there a better way topic has not changed - "it" is the Kingdom. What Yeshua is saying here is that IF they as His people, accepted Him to extend an invitation than to say that the least in God's kingdom is greater than the greatest in the present world? and the Kingdom offer, then John would play the role foretold of Elijah. 11:12 the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, This remains a difficult text however. John clearly says and the violent take it by force. The concept of violence surrounding God's attempts to set that he is not Elijah (John 1:21), yet Yeshua says that he is. On the surface, a contradiction. up His kingdom on earth is also found in the mystical writings of a Hebrew commentary called the Zohar. The The first hint as to the answer is found in Luke's account where we are told John comes in the "spirit and power" of Zohar section below also makes a connection between Elijah: this turbulence of the Kingdom and the feast of Rosh Luke 1:17: And he shall go before him in the spirit and Hashana, with atonement coming on Yom Kippur. This power of Elias, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the parallels Revelation's period of great tribulation that children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to befalls the earth (as we will discuss in our Revelation make ready a people prepared for the Lord. study.) Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 174a - With The idea of someone coming "in the spirit" of another is Benjamin, the Shekinah was equipped with the full twelve not foreign to Judaism. The prophet Elias asked for a "double helping" of Elijah's spirit. Neither is the idea of tribes, and with him the kingdom of heaven began to be Elijah playing dual roles alien to Jewish writings. In the made manifest on earth. Now the beginning of any manifestation is brought about with strain, and involves a following citations (1), we see Elijah mysteriously hiding himself in order to fulfill an early and later role: doom of death before it can become established. Here, when the Shekinah was about to assume her rightful place Midrash Zuta, shir haShirim 2:8 - The voice of my beloved, behold it cometh (Songs 2;8). These are the and to take over the house, the doom fell upon Rachel. voices which will come in the future before the Messiah ... Similarly, when the kingdom was about to be made For the door (of Redemption) will not be opened manifest on earth, it commenced with a judgement, and the kingdom was not established in its place until a doom completely at once, but Elijah will come to one city and had fallen upon Saul, in accordance with his deserts; and remain hidden to another, and will speak to one man and remain hidden to his neighbor ... only then was it established. It is a general rule that Seder 'Olam Rabba, ch. 17 - In the second year of beginnings are rough, whereas the subsequent course is (King) Ahazia, Elijah was hidden, and he will not be seen smooth. Thus, on New Year's day (Rosh-hashana) the year opens with severity, as the whole world passes under again until King Messiah comes. And then he will be seen but will be hidden a second time, and seen again only judgement, each individual according to his deeds, but when Gog and Magog come. soon after comes relief and forgiveness and atonement. This second section (above) is especially interesting, as To review a detailed analysis of this concept, see The Elijah comes with Messiah the first time and returns a Kingdom Offer. 11:13 For all the prophets and the law prophesied second time at "Gog and Magog." Yet we know that "Gog and Magog" is directly associated with Messiah, hence He until John. must come twice as well: The Greek text has the word "until" (John). However, the Talmud, Mas. Avodah Zarah 3b - ... but when the battle Shem Tobe Hebrew book of Matthew has the term of Gog-Magog will come about they will be asked, For "concerning" (John). The Hebrew spelling of the what purpose have you come? and they will reply: "concerning" is AYIN LAMED. The term "until" would Against God and His Messiah be spelled AYIN-DALET. Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2,Page 57b - Thy Since Yeshua has just quoted from the prophets about right hand, O Lord, glorified in power, refers to this John, it is clear that the prophets prophesied time, to this world; the words Thy right hand will dash CONCERNING John. It would therefore appear that a the enemy to the time of the Messiah; ln the fulness of translator misread the text. This is quite possible, as the thy majesty thou wilt overthrow thine opponents to the two letters are very similar. If the top of a LAMED was time of Gog and Magog;

(See also: Talmud; Berachoth 10a, Shabbat 118a; Sanhedrin 94a; Leviticus Rabbah 30:5, Song of Songs Rabbah 4:20)

11:19 But wisdom is justified of her children.


This peculiar verse, "wedged in" if it were, in the midst of Yeshua's argument, is very mystical in its meaning. Our Revelation study will have a discussion on the topic of "Wisdom" later this summer. For the moment, we would suggest that Yeshua is equating Himself with "Wisdom," and his deeds as "her children."

11:20 Then began he to upbraid the cities ...


Yeshua's miracles are the Father's testimony that Yeshua is the Messiah. The people are not condeming Yeshua's works. Rather, they reject the authority by which He did them and the witness that His miracles attest to. The result of all this is that they are guilty of blasphemy against God's Holy Spirit as He later tells them (in the next chapter.)

11:25 thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent ...
Talmud, Baba Batra 12a - Prophecy has been taken from the wise and given to the babes. Why does God hide things from people? Why did Yeshua Himself speak in parables so that only certain ones would understand? Why did God tell Ezekiel to inform the people that they were to "study the future Temple" that he describes in chapters 40-48 of his book? Why doesn't He make things "easier" for everyone? These are questions that we will deal with as we go forward in all of the studies on this YashaNet web site.

of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless? But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day. And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him. And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days. Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other. Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him. But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence: and great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all; And charged them that they should not make him known: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying, Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles. He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets. A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory. And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.

12:2 thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath ...
One of the concepts lost upon the modern reader of the Bible (unfamiliar with the Jewishness of the Scriptures), is that Yeshua and the Pharisees were not arguing from vastly different backgrounds. Yeshua Himself taught as a Pharisee and His dialogue with these religious leaders can very well be considered a "family argument." Had Yeshua been coming from some new non-Pharisaical viewpoint, the Pharisees would have had little concern for what He was saying. However, He was arguing within the family, and beginning to convince people that many of the Pharisees were both hypocritical and wrong in their opinion about him. (See 12:23 in the next section.) The section from 12:1-12:8 has to do with an accusation made by certain Pharisees regarding some of Yeshua's disciples, picking and eating grain in a field during the Sabbath. The verses shown above are the key ones in this passage. The Torah does prohibit "work" on Shabbat, and the oral Law of the time would support the Pharisees claim. Yeshua responds to this in a fourfold manner: He makes comparison to two accounts from scripture He tells them that He is greater than the Temple He reminds about what He told them to learn earlier (Matthew 9:13) He say that He is Lord of the sabbath day

11:29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me;


As mentioned already -- Yeshua's "yoke" and the Father's "yoke" are not different. Nor is Yeshua telling them to "learn of Him" in any place they didn't know where to look. The yoke and the place to learn of Him are the same -- the Torah. Unfortunately, many people today view the idea of the "yoke of the Law" (yoke of the Torah) as some kind of "bondage." This is unfortunate, and is the result of almost two thousand years of non-Jewish understanding of the Bible, God, Messiah and what "faith" is. Our Romans study will deal with this issue extensively.
1. The Messiah Texts. Raphael Patai, 1979, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, p. 134

Matthew 12:1-21
Yeshua's Teachings Last Updated 6-30-00
CHAPTER 12:1-21 TEXT:
At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn and to eat. But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day. But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him; How he entered into the house

12:3-5 Have ye not read what David did ... have ye not read in the Law

The first Scripture Yeshua quotes is of David eating of the "bread of the Face," something that was reserved for the priests to eat (from 1 Samuel 21:6), followed by how the Torah allows for priests to do certain type of work on the Sabbath, as part of their Temple service (Leviticus 24:59). His point in quoting these, is to establish the principle that within the framework of the Torah is a hierarchy of principles. The Pharisees recognized this fact, as in the Talmud makes it clear that both the commands of circumcision and Temple sacrificial service, take precedence over the command not to do work on the Sabbath: Talmud - Mas. Shabbath 132b - whilst the sacrificial service supersedes the Sabbath, yet circumcision supersedes it: then the Sabbath, which is superseded by the sacrificial service, surely circumcision supersedes it.

12:8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath day.
Just as the priority was not to fast during Yeshua's presence on earth (Matthew 9:14-17), so to does this affect other priorities of the Torah (as mentioned above). The Messiah's presence on earth was not to invalidate any of Torah (Matthew 5:17-21). Any "messiah" that declared an end to Torah would be a false one. Rather, according to the correct Hebrew understanding of the Scriptures (at that time and now), Messiah is to come and explain the deeper meanings of the Torah. Because of this better understanding He gives, when we study and perform the commands of the Torah (Romans 2:13, James 1:22), we can grow in our relationship with God, enjoying life more abundantly (John 10:10). The Torah was given to man for a variety of reasons, all of which have to do with the principle of tikkun, ("spiritual repair"). Torah does this by showing us what the meaning of life is, namely: To be conformed to the image of God To grow in intimacy in our relationship with Him Messiah fulfills the same role, as He is the goal of the Torah (Romans 10:4, when properly translated). Isaiah writes that by His suffering and death, Messiah brings spiritual healing (tikkun) between us and God: Isaiah 53:5-6 - But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. The above verse has been misused to by some as having something to do with physical healing. It does not in Isaiah's context, nor when Peter cites the verse and reiterates that this healing has to do with our being made righteous: 1 Peter 2: 24-25 - Who his own self bare our sins in his own body on the tree, that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness: by whose stripes ye were healed. For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

12:6 ... in this place is one greater than the temple


Having reminded these Pharisees of the recognized oral Torah, he now announced that He is greater than the Temple (therefore the same hierarchy of principles should apply to Him and His disciples). Yeshua was the Temple of God while on earth. Once again, John's Gospel (the one) makes the connection for us: John 2:19-21 - Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days? But he spake of the temple of his body. Yeshua is alluding to what the prophet Isaiah spoke about the relationship between God and His Temple: Isaiah 66:1 - Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest? The same passage in Isaiah, also says what the Lord is looking for in man. These words mirror those of Hosea 6:6, which Yeshua quotes in verse 7 below: Isaiah 66:1 - For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

12:7 but if ye had known what this meaneth, ...


Yeshua repeats his quote from Hosea 6:5, that He said earlier in Matthew 9:13. If these Pharisees had truly been seeking God's righteousness, and not their own, they would have recognized Him as the Messiah. They made themselves "blind" through their legalistic observance of the commands of God, seeking their own righteousness over His (i.e., Romans 10:3). If they had recognized His as Messiah, then by both the written and oral Torah, they would have no cause to be critical of any work being done by those serving the one who is greater than the Temple.

12:8 And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days?
Here is an example of where the true meaning of Sabbath had been lost and the prioritization of God's commandments placed out of order. The Pharisees had developed a teaching that healing on the Sabbath was "work" and therefore not allowed. Yeshua continues to teach that the purpose of the Sababth is that of tikkun. Refusing to do good (to heal someone in this case) would not be doing anything to advance the Kingdom of God. For instance, circumcision is an important part of tikkun,

and is commanded to be done on the eight day - whether or not this falls on a Sabbath.

12:18 Behold My Servant ...


The verses from 18 to 21 are a quotation from Isaiah. Matthew mentions this in relation to Yeshua's request for the people He healed (in verse 15) not to broadcast to everyone what He was doing. As the people of the day were expecting a powerful vengeful Messiah that would lead Israel to glory (i.e., Messiah ben David) He did not want some violent insurrection to take place with everyone thinking He would be the leader. The quote from Isaiah clearly alludes to a Messiah ben Joseph type - one that would suffer and die for his people.

12:20 ... till He send forth judgment into victory


At that time he will play the role of Messiah ben David, the Lion of Judah, and the High Priest annointed unto war. (For more on the topic of the High Priest annointed unto war, read an article from our Revelation study.)

condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here. The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here. When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation. While he yet talked to the people, behold, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to speak with him. Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee. But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren! For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.

12:23 Is not this the son of David?


The miracles Yeshua had been performing in God's name were beginning to have an effect on the minds of the people. Many of them were now considering that He was the Messiah.(The term "son of David" was a euphemism for the Messiah.)

Matthew 12:22-50
Yeshua's Teachings Last Updated 6/30/00
CHAPTER 12:22-50 TEXT:
Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David? But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils. And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand: And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand? And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. Or else how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house. He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad. Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit. O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned. Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee. But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas: For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall

12:25 And Jesus knew their thoughts ...


Whose thoughts? When closely examined, the text indicates He is considering the thoughts of the people (in verse 23), not the Pharisees. His ensuing comments are directed toward them more than their leaders.

12:28 But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you.
Again, the direct connection is made between the miracles He is doing and their specific purpose, to declare to them that the Kingdom of God is being offered. There is no argument as to the validity of these being "real miracles." The discussion at hand is by whose authority these miracles are being done. If by God, then this was there opportunity to usher in His Kingdom on earth. It is interesting that Scripture tells us that many of the physical problems people were experiencing at that time, were directly attributed to the work of Satan or a demon. The Hebrew Zohar shows that the clash between God's Kingdom being established over Satan's, is what spiritual warfare is all about. This section also testifies to what Paul wrote about Satan being the god of this world, and also to the gospel account of Satan being able to tempt Yeshua with the kingdoms of this world. Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 204b - God thus admonished Israel to sanctify themselves, in the words: Ye shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy (Lev. XIX, 2). The term Ani (I) here signifies the kingdom of heaven. Confronting this is the kingdom of idolatry, which is termed another (aher), regarding which it is written: For thou shalt bow down to no other god, for the Lord whose name is Jealous, is a jealous

God (Ex. XXXIV, 14). Ani (I) is sovereign over this world and of the world to come, all being dependent on it, whereas the other one (aher), the side of impurity, the other side, has rule only in this world and none at all in the other world; and hence, whoever cleaves to that Ani (I) has a portion in this world and in the world to come; but he who cleaves to that aher (the other one) perishes from this world and has no portion in the world to come. He has, however, a portion in the world of impurity, as that other kingdom, the kingdom of idolatry, possesses innumerable emissaries through whom it exercises dominion over this world. The Zohar makes it clear that the Kingdom of God is in a struggle to be established: Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 210b - Now, seeing that the holy kingdom, the kingdom of heaven, has been overthrown and the wicked kingdom has prevailed, it behoves man to mourn with it and to abase himself with it, so that when it will be raised again and joy will be restored to the world, he may rejoice with it. Scripture thus says: Rejoice for joy with her, all ye that mourn for her (Is. LXVI, 10). The time period of the Kingdom offer extended for a brief while after Yeshua's death. Peter reiterated the offer to his kinsmen. Peter let them know that if they were to accept the message of Yeshua, He would immediately return and usher in the Kingdom: Acts 3:18-21 - But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled. Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. NOTE: One of the criticisms of the "New Testament" until recent times, has been the great mention of demonic activity within its pages, in light of the fact that there was little other historical evidence that witnessed to such things in the Second Temple period. This changed with the Dead Sea Scrolls. Among the parchments (dated about 100 years prior to Yeshua), are found detailed instructions on casting away demons, using either chants or the placing of an amulet upon the body. Many of these demons were directly connected to physical ailments. (Scrolls 4Q560 and 11Q11.)

12:29 Or else how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man?

The idea of binding a spiritual enemy being, before accomplishing an earthly deed, is found both in Scripture (see study on Daniel 10) as well as in Midrash: Midrash Rabbah - Deuteronomy I:22 - BEHOLD, I HAVE BEGUN. etc. This bears out what Scripture says, To bind their kings with chains (Ps. CXLIX, 8). And what is meant by their kings? R. Tanhuma said: Literally their kings. And their nobles with fetters of iron (ib.): these are their guardian angels [in heaven] abovel; for God does not exact punishment of any nation before he first exacts punishment of its guardian angel. How? Before God drowned Pharaoh and all the Egyptians in the sea he first drowned their guardian angel. How is this to be inferred from the Scripture? The Rabbis say: It is not written, ' horses and their riders, but The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea (Ex. XV, 1); this refers to their guardian angel. And when the Egyptians came out in pursuit of the Israelites the Israelites lifted up their eyes and saw the guardian angel of the Egyptians hovering in the air. Whence this? R. Isaac said: Because it is written, Behold, Egypt was marching after them (Ex. XIV, 10); that is, their guardian angel. This is the force of the words, To bind their kings with chains, etc.BEHOLD, I HAVE BEGUN. etc. This bears out what Scripture says, To bind their kings with chains (Ps. CXLIX, 8). And what is meant by their kings? R. Tanhuma said: Literally their kings. And their nobles with fetters of iron (ib.): these are their guardian angels [in heaven] abovel; for God does not exact punishment of any nation before he first exacts punishment of its guardian angel. How? Before God drowned Pharaoh and all the Egyptians in the sea he first drowned their guardian angel. How is this to be inferred from the Scripture? The Rabbis say: It is not written, ' horses and their riders, but The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea (Ex. XV, 1); this refers to their guardian angel. And when the Egyptians came out in pursuit of the Israelites the Israelites lifted up their eyes and saw the guardian angel of the Egyptians hovering in the air. Whence this? R. Isaac said: Because it is written, Behold, Egypt was marching after them (Ex. XIV, 10); that is, their guardian angel. This is the force of the words, To bind their kings with chains, etc. Midrash Rabbah - The Song of Songs VIII:19 - The Holy One, blessed be He, does not punish a nation on earth till He has cast down its guardian angel from heaven. This is borne out by five Scriptural verses. One, the verse, And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord will punish the host of the high heaven on high-that first, and then-and the kings of the earth upon the earth (Isa. XXIV, 21). The second is: How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! after which we read, How art thou cut down to the ground (ib. XIV, 12). The third is: For My sword hath drunk its fill in heaven;

and then, Behold, it shall come down upon Edom (ib. XXXIV, 5). The fourth: To bind their kings with chains, and then, and their nobles with fetters of iron (Ps. CXLIX, 8), explaining which R. Tanhuma said: ' To bind their kings with chains: this refers to the heavenly princes. And their nobles with fetters of iron: this refers to the earthly rulers.

one day to come in full. Thus, they were wilfully rejecting the work of the Holy Spirit (the Ruach haKodesh through whom Yeshua's works were performed). They were therefore aligning themselves against Yeshua, and with the kingdom of Satan, in this grand spiritual battle.

12:30 He that is not with me is against me;


On the surface, this would seem to contradict the following words from Yeshua: Luke 9:49-50 - And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not with us. And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us is for us. It is important to consider here, that Yeshua is not telling John that, "it's OK as long as they are using my name." Yeshua had already said that this is no guarantee of anything: Matthew 7:22-23 - Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. The context of Luke 9:49-50 is again that of miracles being performed as a sign that the Kingdom of God was being offered. Yeshua evidently knew that the men John was referring to, were also performing these miracles for this same purpose, otherwise they would have fallen under the condemnation of His words of Matthew 7:2223. Therefore, even though they weren't directly "in the camp," they were "on the same team," as the miracles they were performing were properly grounded in the Torah's Kingdom message and God's authority. This situation is remarkably similar to an occurence in Moses' time: Numbers 11:26-29 - But there remained two of the men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad: and the spirit rested upon them; and they were of them that were written, but went not out unto the tabernacle: and they prophesied in the camp. And there ran a young man, and told Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad do prophesy in the camp. And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Moses, one of his young men, answered and said, My lord Moses, forbid them. And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the LORD'S people were prophets, and that the LORD would put his spirit upon them! Returning to Matthew 12:30, Yeshua is speaking in the context of His message of the Kingdom offer being rejected. The Pharisees, who attributed His works to Satan, were making a concious decision to discard His claim that the authority behind the miracles was God, even though they were being given a taste of what was

12:32 ... blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men
The proof that what Yeshua was doing was of God, was not that He said so, nor was it the miracles themselves. (Satan and his demons can claim to be doing things of God and perform wonderful deeds.) Rather, Yeshua's "litmus test" for the Pharisees was Torah. He had previously told them to go properly understand what was meant in the verse, "I will have mercy, and not sacrifice." Why did He tell them to do this? Had they done so, they would have learned that they were seeking their own righteousness and not submitting to God's. (This is a purpose and function of Torah.) They would have then known Yeshua for who He was and His works as being of God. Rather than doing thing however, these Pharisees choose to view themselves as righteous, walk away from the Kingdom offer, and attribute the work of the Ruach haKodesh to Satan. The warning of the "unforgivable sin" is given in the book of Hebrews, only in a different setting. (As Yeshua has died and resurrected by this time, which holds additional signficance. This will be discussed in our upcoming Hebrews study.). Again, this has to do with experiencing the work of the Ruach and rejecting it, when you have enough understanding to know better: Hebrews 6:4-6 - For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. There is a bit of a paradox here that needs to be addressed. Although Yeshua says that this generation is condemned, later in Acts chapter 3 (see above) Peter tells these people that they still have yet one more chance. Anyone cognizant of the Hebrew Scriptures knows that this is common. The prophets, on more than one occasion, told the people they were doomed as they would not listen, while still preaching repentance to them.

12:39 An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign;


It is a fact of Scripture that some generations end up cursed, while others especially blessed. Those in the position to receive the greatest blessings from God, and who fail Him, end up in the former category. The other generation in Scripture, cursed in such a fashion, was that which came out of Egypt. They received

the offer of the Kingdom and the written Torah. Those in Matthew's narrative, receive the Kingdom offer and the walking, talking, Torah - Yeshua.

12:43-45 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none ... Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.
This generation had the greatest preacher of the Kingdom in their midst. Yeshua's miracles were not only physical cures, they were spiritual gains, each contributing to the binding of Satan and his own legions of angels (demons). The great physician was making them well by bringing God's light into the world, forcing out the darkness of the enemy, and ushering in the Kingdom of God. Here was there chance! Their rejection of this opportunity is worse for them than if He had never come and preached to them at all. For now they will be beyond repentance (i.e., Hebrews 6:4).

12:50 For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven,


What is the "Will of God" that each of us, without exception, is to do? Learn of the "Image of God," as presented in the Torah, and become conformed to it Grow in intimacy with Him, by following the commandments of His Torah, and going beyond the "letter of Torah," by performing acts of kindness in our day to day activities

Section V - Kingdom Parables


Matthew 13 & other texts
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 13:1-58 (last update: 8-27-00)


SUBJECTS: The eight Kingdom parables from Matthew chapter 13

Other Kingdom parables (last update: 8-27-00)


SUBJECTS: Kingdom parables from other chapters and sources

Matthew 13:1-58
The Kingdom of God Last Updated 9/10/00
CHAPTER 13:1-58 TEXT:

The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea side. And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore. And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow; And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the fowls came and devoured them up: Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth: And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them: But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some an hundredfold, some sixtyfold, some thirtyfold. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables? He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given. For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath. Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive: For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear. For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower. When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way side. But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended. He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful. But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some an hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field: But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares? He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servants said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn. Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field: Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them: That it might be fulfilled

which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world. Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field. He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world. The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind: Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away. So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord. Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old. And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence. And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works? Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas? And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things? And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house. And he did not many mighty works there because of their unbelief.

1.A basic level where we are concerned mostly with the literal text 2.A level where we seek to understand some of the deeper truths 3.A mystical level Such mystical teachings will mostly be left to our Revelation study. For now, we will provide two examples. One can be found in the book of Zechariah. The prophet, speaking of this time, says that this is when the "name" of the Lord will be made one: Zechariah 14:9 - And the LORD shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one. Another, found in the Talmud, says that the Temple represents the Kingdom of God: The goal of Creation is that the Kingdom of God (represented by the Temple) shall be established on earth, as it is in heaven; and finally, the name of the Messiah, i.e., the assurance that God's purpose will ultimately be achieved.1 In this analysis of Matthew, we will remained focused on the more basic aspects of the Kingdom, looking to a degree at some of its deeper truths. We will first present an overview of the Kingdom, then examine some of Yeshua's parables from this chapter of Matthew as well as the other gospels.

THE KINGDOM OF GOD


The Kingdom of God is spoken of throughout Scripture and in Jewish writings as an everlasting Kingdom where God and those who are faithful to Him exist in harmony. The Kingdom of God is also called the Kingdom of Heaven (especially in the book of Matthew), as "heaven" is often substituted for "God" in Jewish texts. Depending on context, the Kingdom can mean one or both of two "time periods." It can be said to be the 1000year Messianic Kingdom on earth, and/or eternity in Olam Haba, the world to come. The former, a time when there is still some degree of sin and death, leads directly into the latter, where sin and death will be no more: 1 Corinthians 15:24-26 - Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. Both the Tenakh and "New Testament" show us that the Kingdom is also the restored kingdom of Israel. King David was promised that the Kingdom of Israel, established through his offspring, would one day be this everlasting Kingdom of God: 2 Samuel 7:8-16 - "Now then, tell my servant David, `This is what the LORD Almighty says: I

INTRODUCTION
The subject of the Kingdom of God is the essential lesson of the Bible, beginning with creation account in Genesis and its final realization in the book of Revelation. The message of the Kingdom is the message of the Gospel: Mark 1:14 - Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee, preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God. A study of the Kingdom is one of the more interesting and complex that a Bible student can undertake. Not only are there many aspects to the Kingdom, but there are also different "levels" at which one can investigate all of that Scripture presents and hints at. A detailed description of these aspects and levels is found in our Revelation study. For now, we will simply say that a study of the Kingdom can be approached at these levels:

took you from the pasture and from following the flock to be ruler over my people Israel. I have been with you wherever you have gone, and I have cut off all your enemies from before you. Now I will make your name great, like the names of the greatest men of the earth. And I will provide a place for my people Israel and will plant them so that they can have a home of their own and no longer be disturbed. Wicked people will not oppress them anymore, as they did at the beginning and have done ever since the time I appointed leaders over my people Israel. I will also give you rest from all your enemies. "`The LORD declares to you that the LORD himself will establish a house for you: When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom. He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men. But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul, whom I removed from before you. Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me ; your throne will be established forever.'" Mark 11:9-10 - And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest. Acts 1:6 - Therefore, when they had come together, they asked Him, saying, "Lord, will You at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?"

THE "KINGDOM" OF SATAN


Counter to the Kingdom and God's plan to establish it, is Satan and his efforts to establish his own unholy Kingdom. The book of Revelation shows the final chapters of this story, including mention of the Kingdom coming at the time of Satan's defeat: Revelation 12:10 - And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. Perhaps the earliest reference to the battle between these two kingdoms is the dialogue between God and the serpent in the Garden of Eden: Genesis 3:15 - And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

Those in opposition to God's truth can be said to be supporting Satan and his kingdom: John 8:44 - Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it. Revelation 2:9 - I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. It is important to note here, that the two verses above are often misused to say that the Pharisees were blind to who Yeshua was, because they "kept the Law." Nothing could be further from the truth, as Yeshua Himself said that the Tenakh (Old Testament) spoke of Him (Luke 24:44-45), and He Himself kept the Torah and said none of it was done away with (Matthew 5:17-21). The correct understanding of these statements has to do with the fact that many of the Pharisees (who were the most powerful religious group of the time, but not the only one) had misused Torah and established their own righteousness, based on their ability to do the works of the Torah, and/or their simply being born Jews. Both Yeshua and Paul castigate such people and say that this is why they missed Messiah. A correct understanding of Torah, resulting in obeying the commandments of God in faith (i.e., Hebrews 4:2), will point a person to Yeshua, as He is the goal of the Torah (Romans 10:4)2 Our Revelation study shows that the "battles" between these kingdoms are waged both in the heavenly realms as well as on earth. In the earthly realm, Satan's kingdom is identified with Edom, the (non-believing) world, Babylon or Rome. God's Kingdom is associated with Israel, and specifically with David or Jacob: Luke 1:33 - And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

THE KINGDOM PRIOR TO YESHUA


God's work to establish His Kingdom can be seen by tracing the "faithful remnant" that has existed in every generation. With Abraham, he set aside a specific people, Israel, to be His "Messiah," that would bring about the Kingdom. The promise continued through Jacob and his sons, the 12 tribes of Israel. Finally, with Moses and the children of Israel who were taken out of Egypt, the opportunity came to usher in the Messianic age. Due to the unbelief of the people, (including the sins of the Golden Calf and the episode of the 12 spies), this chance was forfeited. The earthly kingdom of Israel was established at David's time, with the building of the Temple by Solomon. As seen above, a promise was made that this would be an

everlasting kingdom -- but there was still much to occur before that would happen.

Conversely, the kingdom of Satan, has its own "opportunity" for the miraculous. Some of the more common occurrences seen today, are the actions of THE KINGDOM AT YESHUA'S TIME popular "psychics," seen on television and in magazine As we have discussed earlier in this study, another offer advertisements. Although many of these people are of the Kingdom came again, with the arrival of Yeshua: charlatans, some do possess uncanny power to reveal Matthew 4:17 - From that time Jesus began to preach, hidden truths about people. Offering people a "shortcut" and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. into the spiritual realm is one of Satan's oldest tricks. Matthew 10:7 - And as ye go, preach, saying, The It should be noted however, that not all things done in kingdom of heaven is at hand. opposition to God, are blatantly "unbiblical." Yeshua Matthew 12:28 - But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of warned (Matthew chapter 7), that there would even be God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you. those who did things in His name that He would turn Once more however, the sin of the people prevented this away. from happening, although the offer continued to be Scripture teaches us that we are to pray for the coming of extended after Yeshua's death (Acts 3), probably until God's Kingdom (i.e., the "Our Father" [Matthew 6] around the time the Temple was destroyed, at which point which, as we have seen, is a typical Jewish prayer.) it was again withdrawn. Yeshua Himself prayed for this time in terms of our There will not be another offer of the Kingdom, unification with God: dependent on the faithfulness of human beings. God will John 17:21-23 - That they all may be one; as "forcibly" usher in His Kingdom at a future date, as seen thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they in the book of Revelation (as well as Scriptures such as also may be one in us: that the world may believe Matthew chapters 24 and 25). that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou THE KINGDOM TODAY gavest me I have given them; that they may be Although there is a literal earthly and heavenly Kingdom one, even as we are one: I in them, and thou in to come, there is also a degree to which we can me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that "experience" the Kingdom in our lifetime. The "New the world may know that thou hast sent me, and Testament" states that those who are following God in hast loved them, as thou hast loved me. faith are said to already belong to the Kingdom. This is THE KINGDOM IN MATTHEW 13 similar to saying that although we are presently "saved," Matthew 13 is the single chapter of the "New Testament" we are not yet experiencing the "totality" of that salvation with the most references to the Kingdom of God. Here, until we are actually with God. Yeshua speaks of the Kingdom, using a series of parables. As the Kingdom is a time where we are "one with God," When asked by His disciples why He spoke in parables, those things that would presently be considered He replied: "miraculous," would be the regular state of being in the Matthew 13:11 - ... Because it is given unto you to know Kingdom. Yeshua's twelve apostles could be said to have the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is been "walking in the Kingdom," as they had superior not given. God-given insight into the Scriptures, and were able to Here, Yeshua is not saying that there was some elite perform open miracles (those outside of the laws of group that could understand while others could not. Every nature). person has the choice of responding to God in faith, and This idea is not foreign to Jewish interpretation of receiving greater understanding of all of the word of God. Scripture, however it is definitely belongs in the area of The key is humility (i.e., Moses was a great prophet due mystical studies. As a for instance however, consider the to his humble nature. Yeshua compare this characteristic following from a recent book on Nachmanides, one of the to the faith of little children). most famous teachers in Jewish history. Matthew 18:4 - Whosoever therefore shall humble Teaching on Deuteronomy 11:22, he says: himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the Possibly this cleaving includes the remembering of God kingdom of heaven. and continually loving Him, that is, don't separate your On the other hand, the pitfalls are many, including any thoughts from Him while you walk on the road, when you religious doctrine not based in God's revealed will as lie down, and when you get up. Such an individual will found in His Torah: relate to people, but his heart, his innermost thoughts and Matthew 7:21 - Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, feelings are always facing God. Furthermore, possibly the Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that souls of such elevated individuals are bound up with the doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven. mystical life source, even while alive, for they themselves are a dwelling place for the Shekhinah.3

There are several other direct and indirect references to the Kingdom of God, in the Gospel of Matthew, the other Gospels and the epistles. We will also examine these as part of this study section. Yeshua offers eight parables in Matthew 13, which can be divided into several categories: 1.Acceptance and rejection of the Kingdom (13:3-8) 2.Growth of the Kingdom (13:31-32 & 33), with possible reference to evil within it 3.Evil mixed in the Kingdom (13:24-30 & 47-48) 4.The Kingdom being worth everything to be part of (13:44 & 45-46) 5.The Kingdom with regard to teachers (13:52)

Interestingly, even those in Satan's kingdom are serving the will of God: Revelation 17:17 - For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his will, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.

THE THIRD AND FOURTH PARABLES (v. 3132 & 33)


These short parables are the most peculiar. The first, involving the mustard seed, would indicate that the Kingdom of God would grow enormously despite its humble beginnings. However, the reference to the birds coming to land in the branches may be an indication of evil in the Kingdom. The latter parable involves leaven, which is also normally a metaphor for sin or evil. In this case as well, it may seem that Yeshua is saying that evil spreads throughout the Kingdom.

THE FIRST PARABLE (v. 3-8)


In two places, Yeshua explains the meaning of His parables to some degree. In verses 19-23 he explains this first parable, by showing four possible scenarios involving people who hear the gospel message of the Kingdom. The interpretation is as follows: 1.Some won't understand the message when it is presented. Why they don't Yeshua doesn't exactly say. However, it could be that they had given little time to learning about the things of God, and when the "secrets" of the Kingdom (see verses 11 & 35) were presented, they were clueless as to the importance. This lesson is reflected in the opposite (positive) sense, in the two short parables in verses 44-46, where Yeshua shows that the Kingdom is worth more than anything this life has to offer, and the wise man would give up anything of this life for it. 2.The second person is one who grasps the message, but is overcome by certain "negative" influences (i.e., incorrect doctrine from others) and pressured into letting go of it. 3.The third type of person also has some understanding, but in this case is overcome by certain "positive" things (i.e., love for the cares of the world) and also loses hold. 4.Lastly, are those who are prepared, understand, and take hold.

THE FIFTH AND SIXTH PARABLES (v. 44 & 45-46)


These two short parables are less difficult to interpret. As mentioned above, Yeshua makes it clear that the most important thing in this life is to make certain you make it into the Kingdom of God - it is worth more than anything this world can offer: Matthew 16:26 - For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? Yeshua's reference to a "pearl" is based in Jewish mystical teachings: Bahir 72 - Another explanation of "Bring to life Your works in the midst of Years": What is this like? A king had a beautiful pearl, and it was the treasure of his kingdom. When he is happy, he embraces it, kisses it, places it on his head, and loves it.4

THE SEVENTH PARABLE (v. 47-50)


This parable resembles the second, showing that both good and evil will co-exist in the Kingdom until the end of the age.

THE EIGHTH PARABLE (v. 52)

This last parable is a different type than the previous seven, in that it is directed to those who will understand enough of the Kingdom in order to teach its truths to THE SECOND PARABLE (v. 24-30) others. The reference to, "things new and old," may have The second parable is also another that Yeshua gives to do with having greater spiritual insight into the some explanation to (in verses 37-43). These verses are Scriptures that they already knew, based on the insights really a synopsis of what is seen in the book of revealed to them through Yeshua. Revelation, which is in turn based on prophecies from the Note that this parable comes on the heels of Yeshua Tenakh (Old Testament) showing God's vengeance being asking His disciples if they understood everything to that carried out by His angels of judgment. Here, the concept point: of belonging to one of two Kingdoms is seen with the Matthew 13: 51-52 - Jesus saith to them, `Did ye reference to Children of the Kingdom and Children of the understand all these?' They say to him, `Yes, sir.' wicked one. Note that the latter, though part of "Satan's And he said to them, `Because of this every scribe kingdom" are also said to be in the Kingdom of God, until having been discipled in regard to the reign of the it is time for them to be cast out.

heavens, is like to a man, a householder, who doth bring forth out of his treasure things new and old.' We will examine other parables and aspects of the Kingdom in the next section of this study.
1. Soncino Talmud - footnote to Mas. Pesachim 54a 2. Romans 10:4 is incorrectly translated as, "Christ is the end of the law," in almost all Bibles. The word "end" is telos in the Greek text, and is correctly translated as "goal." (see Vines Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Word. and also Jewish New Testament Commentary by David Stern. 3. Ramban: Philosopher and Kabbalist, Chayim J. Henoch, Jason Aronson, Inc., London, 1998, p.103 4. The Bahir: Illumination, Translation Introduction and Commentary by Aryeh Kaplan, Samuel Weiser, Inc. York Beach, Maine, 1979, p. 26. The Bahir is one of the oldest texts in Hebrew mystical literature. Aryeh Kaplan's comments to this verse state that "the pearl" is a reference to the Kingdom. Kaplan's comments also indicate that "the field" is a reference to the spiritual world around us, within which one finds the Kingdom, a treasure. These concepts are discussed in our Revelation study.

THE KINGDOM OF GOD


Additional References Last Updated 8/27/00
The Kingdom of God is mentioned in other places in Scripture as well as in Jewish commentaries. In this section, we will examine some of these references, as a supplement to our Matthew study. Elsewhere in Matthew, Yeshua alludes to the Kingdom when answering Peter's question on the subject of forgiving others. The lesson is simple yet important. If you do not forgive, you will not be forgiven. This is often overlooked today. There are many people who think they have an easy path to heaven, because they "believe" a certain way, all the while holding unforgiving grudges against others they feel did them wrong. Yeshua teaches otherwise: Matthew 18-21-35 - Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven. Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants. And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by

the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest. And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt. So when his fellowservants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me: Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee? And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him. So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses. A more peculiar Kingdom teaching relating to "eunuchs," is found in the following chapter of Matthew: Matthew 19:12 - For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it. Some insight to the above can be found by going back to the Torah, where God command that eunuchs were not allowed to enter the Tabernacle/Temple: Deuteronomy 23:1- He that is wounded in the stones, or hath his privy member cut off, shall not enter into the congregation of the LORD. In the Kingdom of God however, even these eunuchs (as well as gentiles) will have access to all the things of God. This is because the kingdom is a time of tikkun (repair) where things that are now separated, are to be united: Isaiah 56:4-5 - For thus saith the LORD unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant; Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off. Yeshua offers another Kingdom parable where he teaches the principle that although we may accept God's offer of the Kingdom, we do not "earn" our way in. It should be noted that this teaching does not go against the principle that there will be varying degrees of reward in heaven. This has to do solely with entry into the Kingdom: Matthew 20:1-16 - For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his

vineyard. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise. And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive. So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny. And when they had received it, they murmured against the goodman of the house, Saying, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day. But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny? Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen. A Kingdom parable with a harsh lesson is found later in Matthew. Here Yeshua teaches that even those who are given the minimal amount of opportunity by God, are without excuse if they fail to act on it: Matthew 25:14-30 - For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey. Then he that had received the five talents went and traded with the same, and made them other five talents. And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two. But he that had received one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money. After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I have gained beside them five talents more. His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and

faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them. His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed: And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine. His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have not strawed: Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents. For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. The following parable has a fairly simple beginning, but the ending demands some study. Here, Yeshua speaks of a King (God) who was ready to hold a wedding feast for his son (Yeshua) and sent invites to through his servants (the prophets) to those destined to come (Israel). They (Israel) did not hold this message with high regard, even killing some of the servants (the prophets). The invite then went out to a general audience (the gentile world) many of whom accepted it. That's the "easy" part. The difficulty arises with the last section. One of those invited did not bother to put on a proper wedding garment, and was cast out: Matthew 22:1-14 - And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said, The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son, And sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come. Again, he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: And the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them. But when the king heard thereof, he

was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their city. Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy. Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen. What is the significance of this wedding garment? We know a bit more about the wedding garment of the end time marriage feast, from the book of Revelation: Revelation 19:7-8 - Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. The Greek term for "righteousness" (as found in the King James version above), is dikaioma, a noun meaning righteous acts. This of course, would be acts of Torah, prepared for us from before the foundation of the world (i.e., Ephesians 2:10). This is consistent with other verses in Revelation that also state that those who obey God's Torah (including faith in Yeshua), are the ones who are declared righteous: Revelation 14:12 - Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus. Revelation 22:14 - Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. It would seem then that the white wedding garment is directly tied to following Torah. This is also found in the Hebrew Zohar1: Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 226b - Alas for men that they look not to their foundation, and neglect the precepts of the Torah. For some of these precepts fashion a glorious garment above, and some a glorious garment below, and some a glorious garment in this world; and man requires them all. The book of Zechariah tells of a vision the prophet received, associated with the establishment of the Kingdom of God. Here, a high priest named Joshua (not the Joshua of Moses' day), was unable to immediately

take his proper place, as Satan had an accusation against him (for iniquity - violating Torah). The angel of the Lord orders a "change of garments" for Joshua, and charges him to walk in His ways (Torah) in order to continue on as high priest: Zechariah 3:1-10 - And he shewed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him. And the LORD said unto Satan, The LORD rebuke thee, O Satan; even the LORD that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee: is not this a brand plucked out of the fire? Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the angel. And he answered and spake unto those that stood before him, saying, Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment. And I said, Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments. And the angel of the LORD stood by. And the angel of the LORD protested unto Joshua, saying, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If thou wilt walk in my ways, and if thou wilt keep my charge, then thou shalt also judge my house, and shalt also keep my courts, and I will give thee places to walk among these that stand by. Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou, and thy fellows that sit before thee: for they are men wondered at: for, behold, I will bring forth my servant the BRANCH. For behold the stone that I have laid before Joshua; upon one stone shall be seven eyes: behold, I will engrave the graving thereof, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day. In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine and under the fig tree. Those who claim to follow the Messiah, and expect to be priests in His Kingdom one day, should take heed to previous warnings that God gave on this subject: Hosea 4:6 - My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge: because thou hast rejected knowledge, I will also reject thee, that thou shalt be no priest to me: seeing thou hast forgotten the law of thy God, I will also forget thy children. Lastly, the following parable, with its lesson on always being prepared, is especially interesting as there is a similar story found in Jewish literature: Matthew 25:1-12 - Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: But the wise

took oil in their vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Here is the teaching from the Midrash Rabbah on the book of Ecclesiastes. This teaching seems to be a synthesis of the parables in Matthew 22:1-14 and 25:1-12, above: Midrash Rabbah Ecclesiastes IX:7 - To a king who made a banquet to which he invited guests. He said to them, Go, wash yourselves, brush up your clothes, anoint yourselves with oil, wash your garments, and prepare yourselves for the banquet, but he fixed no time when they were to come to it. The wise among them walked about by the entrance of the king's palace, saying, ' Does the king's palace lack anything? The foolish among them paid no regard or attention to the king's command. They said, We will in due course notice when the king's banquet is to take place, because can there be a banquet without labour [to prepare it] and company? So the plasterer went to his plaster, the potter to his clay, the smith to his charcoal, the washer to his laundry. Suddenly the king ordered, ' Let them all come to the banquet. They hurried the guests, so that some came in their splendid attire and others came in their dirty garments. The king was pleased with the wise ones who had obeyed his command, and also because they had shown honour to the king's palace. He was angry with the fools who had neglected his command and disgraced his palace. The king said, 'Let those who have prepared themselves for the banquet come and eat of the king's meal, but those who have not prepared themselves shall not partake of it.
1. The Zohar is a collection of ancient Hebrew texts, much of which are Sod-level commentary on the passages of the Tenakh.

and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 14:1-36 (last update: 9-9-00)


SUBJECTS: What is a "prophet?," blessing God, Yeshua's radiance, Peter sinking into the sea, the wind ceasing, Yeshua's clothing

Matthew 15:1-39 (last update: 9-9-00)


SUBJECTS: Tradition versus commandments, anti-Torah doctrine, gentiles coming directly into the faith of Israel

Matthew 16:1-28 (last update: 9-9-00)


SUBJECTS: Signs of the times, seeking miracles as proof, spiritual insight, "binding and loosing," the Kingdom

Matthew 17:1-27 (last update: 9-9-00)


SUBJECTS: Spiritual insight, transfiguration, Succot, the Shekinah, Elijah, lack of faith, fasting, the Temple tax

Matthew 14:1-36 Last Updated 9/9/00


CHAPTER 14:1-36 TEXT:
At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus, And said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him. For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her. And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet. But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod. Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask. And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother. And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus. When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities. And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion toward them, and he healed their sick. And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals. But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes. He said, Bring them hither to me. And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full. And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children. And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples

Section VI - Teachings and Miracles


Matthew 14:1-17:27
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular

The Shem-Tob Hebrew Matthew has, "... into the wilderness of Judea." This would make sense as the 1 Herod For more information on Herod and the Roman politics at origins of both John and Yeshua's ministries are in this area. the time, refer to our background article, First Century 17 We have here but five loaves, and two fishes. Religious and Political Background. Yeshua "replicates" a miracle by the great prophet Elisha, 5 they counted him as a prophet. only to a far greater magnitude: What is a prophet? To many people, the word is 2 Kings 4:42-44 - And there came a man from associated with someone who predicts the future. Baalshalisha, and brought the man of God bread Although this can be a part of a prophet's life, this is not of the firstfruits, twenty loaves of barley, and full represent what a Biblical prophet is all about. Nor should ears of corn in the husk thereof. And he said, Give Biblical prophets be defined solely as bringers of unto the people, that they may eat. And his messages of impending doom or calls for repentance, servitor said, What, should I set this before an although they may have done that at times as well. hundred men? He said again, Give the people, Interestingly, the first person in the Bible to be called a that they may eat: for thus saith the LORD, They "prophet," is not one that people usually associate much shall eat, and shall leave thereof. So he set it with that title. That person is Abraham. before them, and they did eat, and left thereof, God told King Abimelech: according to the word of the LORD. Genesis 20:7 - Now therefore restore the man his wife; 19 he blessed, and brake for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou One of the common misconceptions is that Yeshua "blessed the food" (here, and at the "Last Supper," where shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine. As Scripture shows us, Abraham was best known for his it is said He "blessed the bread and the wine"). This is an incorrect understanding of what was being done, and has intimacy with God and carrying out of God's will led to many unscriptural traditions (such as blessing of wherever he went. The Hebrew word for prophet, is Navie, which may come pets, cars, etc.) Some even teach that by "blessing" unkosher food, this makes it permissible to eat. What from the root Nava, meaning "to flow," or "gush forth." Yeshua did, and what Jews did and do today, is to bless This would imply that a prophet is also a "channel" for God. The prayer over the food, is actually a prayer bringing spiritual power from God to bear on a certain thanking God for his sustenance. situation. A typical prayer Yeshua would have said (which is still Thus, we have God saying this to Moses about his said today), is: brother: Exodus 7:1 - And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have Baruch attah Adoonai, Elohenu Melech ha-Olam, made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall haMotzi lechem min ha'aretz. Which may be translated (note who is being blessed): be thy prophet.

to get into a ship, and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away. And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone. But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves: for the wind was contrary. And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water. And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus. But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased. Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God. And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret. And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased; And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched were made perfectly whole.

Many people associate Aaron (the prophet) being God's spokeman to Pharaoh. However, examining the account of the meetings with Pharaoh, we see that it was Moses that did the talking directly. Scripture does show us however, that it was Aaron that brought about the first miracles. Aaron acted as a prophet for Moses, being the "channel" for bringing down God's spiritual power.1 All of the above should not blur the distinction between the "office" of prophet, which has a time and place in history, and the gift of prophecy, which we are told to seek after: 1 Corinthians 14:1 - Follow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts, especially the gift of prophecy. The "flow," or "gushing forth," of the will of God through a person, was promised byYeshua: John 7:38 - He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

13 by ship into a desert place apart

Blessed are you, Lord God, King of the Universe, who brings bread from the earth.

26 the disciples saw him walking on the sea


Evidently, Yeshua was in a state where He could be seen at night across the waters. This may be compared to his appearance when seen with Moses and Elijah, in Matthew chapter 17. His return is described as being in such radiance as well: 2 Thessalonians 2:8 - And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming:

30 he was afraid; and beginning to sink,


Peter was no doubt an expert swimmer, being a fisherman by trade. Why was he so fearful when he went under water only a few feet from the boat? Evidently, the plain meaning (p'shat) of the text may not tell the full story. There is spiritual connotation to the water, especially "the sea." In mystical Jewish literature, the "sea" is the spiritual realm. Sinking into the sea, as such, can be seen as a rapid deterioration of one's spiritual condition. (Something that occured in Peter's life more than once, such as in Matthew 16:23 and Matthew chapter 26). Peter's cry as he was sinking was not for a lifeguard.

32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.
Not only was Peter's condition calmed (verse 30) but so were the physical elements. Psalm 65:8 - Who stillest the roaring of the seas, the roaring of their waves, and the tumult of the peoples

36 as many as touched were made perfectly whole.


The same was said about Paul's clothing. In fact even his garments had some kind of miraculous power about them (Acts 19:12). Unfortunately, due to a lack of grounding in God's Torah, many superstitions have emanated from these specific miracles. Instead of focusing on learning and doing the Torah (which conforms us to the image of God), people have resorted to creating and using everything from medals to "prayer cloths," in vain efforts to bring themselves "closer to God." Another more recent trend is the misuse of "Jewish things," such as the tallit (in both Christian and Messianic circles) for similar purpose.
1. See Meditation and the Bible, Aryeh Kaplan, 1978, Samuel Weiser, Inc. York Beach, Maine, pp. 27-30.

Matthew 15:1-39 Last Updated 9/9/00


CHAPTER 15:1-39 TEXT:
Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying, Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread. But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition? For God commanded, saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the

death. But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus have ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition. Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, saying, This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me. But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men. And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand: Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man. Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after they heard this saying? But he answered and said, Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch. Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable. And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding? Do not ye yet understand, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught? But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies: These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man. Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. And, behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me. But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour. And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a mountain, and sat down there. And great multitudes came unto him, having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus' feet; and he healed them: Insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel. Then Jesus called his disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat: and I will not send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way. And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude? And Jesus saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven, and a few little fishes. And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground. And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them, and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude. And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets full. And they that did eat were four thousand men, beside women and children. And he sent away the multitude, and took ship, and came into the coasts of Magdala.

2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.
The story in this chapter one that has consistently been misused to teach that the Messiah did away with the Levitical food commandments (kosher laws). The text

plainly shows that this is not the subject at hand, yet many ignore this in order to teach against Torah. (See comments on verse 14 below). The context of the discussion, is stated clearly in this verse (and at the end of the topic, in verse 20). The subject is not the kosher laws, but that of "washing of hands." There is more to this tradition than what the scripture tells however. (Hence the advantage of knowing the Hebrew background to the discussion.) There were varying mystical beliefs among some Jews of Yeshua's day, not all firmly grounded in Torah. Some of these ideas had to do with how a person could become spiritually "clean" or "unclean." (A concept, that is of course, quite biblical.) One such teaching was that during the night, evil spirits could come into a man's body. These spirits would exit the body through the hands (more precisely, the fingertips). The body would become spiritually "clean" again, in the morning, with the exception of the fingertips/hands. It was taught that the hands had to be washed in order to remove any defilement that would cause anything touched (i.e., food) to become unclean. Yeshua is showing that this hand-washing tradition that was not based in Torah, was in fact nullifying Torah, as they were calling unclean, foods that God Himself had declared clean, simply by eating with unwashed hands. He also chastises the teachers for breaking true Torah commandments (while laying these unnecessary burdens on the people) by citing their own lack of properly following the commandment of honoring father and mother. This is the lesson of verses 2-20. Another scripture cited in the same incorrect fashion is Peter's vision of the unclean animals in Acts chapter 10. Here too, the context and explanation are ignored in order to support false doctrine. Dreams in scripture commonly use specific items and themes to represent certain people, places, things and teachings. In the case of Peter's dream in Acts 10, he clearly explains this vision several times throughout the book of Acts. Not once does Peter say that God showed him that the laws of kashrut are done away with. Rather, in every case, he explains the meaning of the dream as being that gentiles were not to be considered as "unclean," and could directly come to faith through Yeshua -- something that God had not provided for before Yeshua's death. (See comments to verse 24 below.)

(which He himself followed, i.e., celebration of Chanukkah, called the "Festival of Dedication" in the gospel of John). Such tradition is the way in which we "walk out" our faith (called halakha). As we will see in the next chapter, Yeshua even gave the power to set such "tradition" to His disciples. What Yeshua is opposed to is any tradition not founded in Torah that places itself above Torah.

9 teaching for doctrines the commandments of men


He repeats His criticism. They are elevating the doctrines of men over the commandments of the Torah. The kosher laws are from God, they are not traditions of men. In fact, teaching that the kosher laws (or any part of Torah) is done away with, would be what God would consider "commandments of men" and goes against His Word (Matthew 5:17-18).

11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth
This is the verse that is commonly pulled out of its context to support the idea that the kosher laws have been done away with. Yeshua is teaching that we don't make clean foods unclean by failing to ceremonially wash our hands before we eat. Non-kosher food is not part of this discussion as the surrounding verses show.

13 Every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up.
With allusions to the sower parables in Matthew chapter 13.

14 blind leaders of the blind

Despite "popular opinion," the situation is the same today. The vast majority of people who say they believe in the God of the Bible, follow teachers who tell them that they are "free" from what they call "the Law," (an inaccurate translation of "Torah," which is God's revelation/instruction on how to live, for all who claim to be His people.) The examples given above (Matthew 5:17-21; 15:2-20, Acts 10, etc.), show how people ignore what is explained in the text of the Bible, in favor of following man's anti-Torah doctrines. This is not dissimilar to what many of the religious leaders of Yeshua's day did. Then, as now, men reject the truth of God's Torah. This is NOT to say that we must first learn and follow the 3 Why do ye also transgress the commandment of Torah to be saved. That has never been the case, as men and women have always been saved by trusting God God by your tradition? (faith) which is a free gift from Him. No one can merit Here is a second statement about the problem at hand -Yeshua is not telling them the kosher laws (given by God) entry into heaven based on works. What is being said are suspended (in violation of His own words in Matthew (throughout all the studies on the YashaNet web site), is 5:17-18), but clearly says they are breaking God's Torah that once anyone "comes to know of God," and His salvation in Yeshua, His Son, there is a path for them to by this particular man-made (not God-given) tradition. "walk," and this is to learn of, and begin doing God's It should be noted that Yeshua is not against tradition, including many of the traditions of the Pharisaic Judaism, Torah (Romans 2:13; James 1:22-25).

The only other path is the "false torah" of the flesh and of the world (i.e., Romans 7:23). Picking and choosing commandment from the Torah is not an acceptable position with God (James 2:10), nor is "straddling the fence," (i.e., Revelation 3:15-16). Those commandments that we are able to keep are the ones we should strive to learn of and follow, in order to be conformed to the image of God -- which is a main purpose of the Torah. We cannot keep all of God's commandments perfectly, because there is no Temple or priesthood (and also because most of us are living outside the land of Israel). Because the Torah has been rejected by followers of the Messiah for such a long time, we need to diligently relearn the Torah precept by precept. The Holy Spirit is our guide, but this does not alleviate us of our responsibility of diligently studying God's word: 2 Timothy 2:15 - Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. Acts 17:11 - These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily, whether those things were so. The Holy Spirit will never contradict Torah, as it is God's word. If someone believes the "spirit" is telling them that it is permissible to go against any Torah command (correctly understood in context), then that person is being led by some other spirit. One question to ask is, "If someone tells a person they are a sinner and need to repent (i.e., as in most "salvation messages" given today), how does that person know what 'sin' is?" Scripture tells us that sin is violation of God's Torah (including all the teachings of the Tenakh/"Old Testament"). Torah was the ONLY standard used by Yeshua and his disciples. Paul and the others only taught Yeshua and salvation out of the Tenakh as there was no "New Testament" around at the time. Neither Yeshua (Matthew 5:17-21), or Paul (Romans 3:31), or any of the other disciples, did away with any part of the faith of Israel. The original believers continued in this faith, only now with knowledge of the promised Messiah. The "New Testament" is of course, inspired of God, but it was never meant to be read outside of the context of the Torah. Unfortunately, this is exactly what is done today, with churches giving their own meaning to the teachings of the "New Testament." They then use this to explain the "Old Testament." This is "putting the cart in front of the horse." (i.e., the common practice of handing out "New Testaments" to people, rather than complete Bibles.) Gentiles who came to faith in Yeshua, did not become "Christians," as there was no such separation from Judaism ("the faith of Israel") until much later. Gentiles

who came to faith, came into the faith of Israel with its Torah (Ephesians 2:10-13) and began to learn more of the Torah as they were taught within the faith of Israel (Acts 15:21). This subject matter is dealt with extensively in our Romans study, and in our article, Not Subject to the Law of God?

20 but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.


Yeshua wraps up the discussion by making it clear what the subject has been since verse 2 -- eating with unwashed hands -- not doing away with the Torah commandment of eating only clean foods.

24 I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
As Paul also stated the following: Romans 1:16 - For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. It should be noted that the Gospel was not sent out to the gentiles until after Yeshua's death and resurrection. Up to that time, both Yeshua and His disciples went only to the Jews. Something very mysterious happenend with His death -- gentiles could now come to the God of Israel in a more direct fashion -- by placing their faith in the Messiah of Israel. Why is this? The basic explanation is that Yeshua was/is the Torah ("Word") in the flesh (i.e., John chapter 1). Just as the Torah is the revelation of the invisible God Yeshua is also the image of the invisible God (Colossians 1:15). Coming to trust in Yeshua, is coming to trust in God (as much as we mere mortals can know Him, which is revealed in His Torah). Yeshua is the door to this relationship. Torah is the path beyond this door - for all who wish to put their trust in Him. Sadly, most will not end up on the right path, even after learning of Him (Matthew 7:12-21). Most people who come to know of the God of the Bible are soon taught that He changed His mind about His Torah two thousand years ago, that it was somehow done away with by Yeshua. This is taught despite the fact that Yeshua is the Torah in the flesh, (the "goal" of the Torah Romans 10:4), who said Himself in no uncertain terms that none of the Torah was done away with by His arrival (Matthew 5:17-21). After Yeshua's death, the practice (evangelisic method) of the disciples was to go to the Jew first. For instance, in every town Paul went to, he first visited the local synagogue. (Paul skipped over some very large cities in his travels that lacked a signficant Jewish presence.) In each case, the Gospel was preached to the Jews first. In every location, there would be some Jews that accepted his message and others that rejected it. Once "Israel" had made its "decision" (in each town), then, and only then,

would the message be given to the local gentile population. This subject will be addressed in more detail in our Romans study.

3 ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?
History reveals that there was a great deal of "Messianic fervor" among the Jews at this time in history. The Dead Sea Scrolls texts show this began at least 100 years before Yeshua's time. This "Messianic period" lasted until about the time of the second war with Rome, around 132 AD. The determination that this was a time that Messiah would appear was arrived at, through a proper study of the Tenakh. Between the "timing," His teachings and the specific miracles He performed (always giving glory to God), Yeshua says there was enough evidence for the Pharisees and Saducess to see what was going on and who He was. Although this is true, this "evidence" is not easily seen when reading the Bible in a modern day, non-Jewish, outof-context way. Much of the method of understanding that the Pharisees and Saducees had (or should have had), has been lost since shortly after that time. This began in the 2nd and 3rd centuries when "following the Messiah" changed from being a continuation of the faith of Israel with its Torah and Yeshua Messiah, to following a nonJewish, anti-Torah Christian "Jesus." This subject is discussed in detail in our article, "Not Subject to the Law of God?" People today will often point to "Old Testament" verses, saying they are "Messianic prophecies," (which they well may be), and then claim that Yeshua fulfilled these (which He may have), but they lack the means to prove the connection, as often the correlation is often at mystical (sod) level of interpretation. Our Revelation study will deal with these deeper aspects to Yeshua's claim.

31 they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see:
As mentioned earlier, these were signs of the gospel (Jubilee) message as prophesied in the Tenakh.

Matthew 16:1-28 Last Updated 9/9/00


CHAPTER 16:1-28 TEXT: The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired
him that he would shew them a sign from heaven. He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times? A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed. And when his disciples were come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread. Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have taken no bread. Which when Jesus perceived, he said unto them, O ye of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread? Do ye not yet understand, neither remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took up? Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets ye took up? How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees? Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. When Jesus came into the coasts of Caesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of man am? And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets. He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ. From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day. Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee. But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall find it. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul? For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.

4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign


A comparison is made here (and later in Matthew's gospel) between the generation of Yeshua's time and that of the time of Moses following Mount Sinai. (See also Matthew 23:30.) The Pharisees and Saducees had the witness of Torah for about 1300 years by the time Yeshua arrived. By this point, Yeshua had already performed many miracles, so there was no need for more. It should be noted that His miracles alone did not attest to Him being the Messiah. In fact, Torah warns not to blindly follow anyone who can perform miracles, saying that such miracles must support the revealed will of God as found in the Torah.

11 the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.


As discussed already, the Pharisees and Saducees had corrupted the truth of God's Torah through their own selfrighteousness, and the creation of laws that contradicted Torah.

14 Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets.
It is interesting to note that three deceased invividuals are noted here (even more if you count "one of the prophets"). There were (and still are) beliefs in Judaism regarding resurrection, as well as the idea of the "spirit" of someone resting on another. (i.e., Elijah's spirit onto Elias, Moses' spirit onto the elders.) A point being made here, and in the following verse, is that the people, though they knew Yeshua was a significant person, did not (yet) have the clear understanding that He was the promised Messiah.

17 flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.
Peter was given insight that others did not yet have. In chapter 13, Yeshua had said that there were those who would receive special understanding of the mysteries of the Kingdom of God, that others did not (yet) have. Peter's revelation is one of those moments. Obviously, this was a "benefit" of following the Messiah directly. The twelve "apostles" (as they are usually called) do seem to merit a special place in the Kingdom (Revelation 21:14). The revelation Peter received is the gift of prophecy, mentioned earlier in this study. (See notes to verse 18 below.)

Yeshua is passing along a degree of authority to his immediate disciples regarding matters of halakha, which is best translated as "the way we walk out our faith." (Hence Catholicism has the basic concept correct, but neglects Torah as the final authority.) Scripture does not give us all the minute details of how we are to carry out all of God's commandments. Decisions have to be made as to how Torah is applied both by individuals and communities, as circumstances do change in people's lives and through the course of history. Torah is eternal and resolutions must be made in accordance with it. The idea of a "governing authority" that makes rulings for the body of believers is biblical. We can see this with the 70 elders of Moses' time and the Jerusalem council of Acts 15. As mentioned in the last chapter, by giving this authority to His disciples, Yeshua is allowing for "traditions" to be established. He had no problem with traditions based in Torah.

23 Get thee behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me


Peter allowed himself to stray away from the light of God's revelation, and fell back to his own understanding (i.e., Proverbs 3:5). God's ways are not our ways, and in this case Yeshua makes it clear that regarding understanding the mystical revelations of the Kingdom, there are but two sides to the story - God's and Satan's (see notes on chapter 13).

18 upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
As mentioned earlier, the word "church" is not in Scripture, and represents a theology based on the concept that God replaced Israel's faith with a new one ("the Church"), and that Torah is no longer the standard to live by. Yeshua is saying that the type of revelation that Peter received, (that comes by humility and submission to Torah), is the essence of what "faith" in Him is all about. This is the part of the gift of prophecy discussed in chapter 14. The reference to "gates of hell" is an example of a concept deeply rooted in Jewish mystical studies and will be addressed in our Revelation study. For now, suffice it to say that the demonic world will not prevail against those "walking in the Kingdom."

27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.
The allusion here is to the book of Revelation (and other Hebrew writings), which helps explain the following verse.

28 There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.

This is another deeply mystical verse, as it is obvious that all those present have since died, and Yeshua has not yet come into His kingdom. Here is another example of how 19 the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and one must go beyond the literal text (the p'shat) and look whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound into the mystical (sod) level to understand what is being in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth said. Yeshua's statement ties into what was said in the previous verses in this chapter. Those who completely shall be loosed in heaven. The important reference here is to the Kingdom, which as surrender themselves to God and seek to be conformed to His image, through Torah and prayer, can (to a degree) we mentioned in the notes to chapter 13, is the main message of Scripture. This is another verse that has been experience the Kingdom of God in the present time. misused through history, (mostly by Catholicism) though We know that Peter, James, and John received a direct not due to the reasons cited by its critics (Protestantism). revelation of a "transfigured" Yeshua (indicative of the As the text shows, the concept of "keys" is directly tied to Kingdom) in Matthew 17. John was given a vision of the coming of Yeshua and subsequent Kingdom (in the book "binding and loosing." The issue at hand (as with all of of Revelation). the text of the "New Testament") must be understood within the context of Judaism.

Matthew 17:1-27 Last Updated 9/9/00


CHAPTER 17:1-27 TEXT:
And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light. And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him. Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him. And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid. And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid. And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only. And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead. And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come? And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them. Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist. And when they were come to the multitude, there came to him a certain man, kneeling down to him, and saying, Lord, have mercy on my son: for he is lunatick, and sore vexed: for ofttimes he falleth into the fire, and oft into the water. And I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him. Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me. And Jesus rebuked the devil; and he departed out of him: and the child was cured from that very hour. Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, Why could not we cast him out? And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you. Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men: And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry. And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute money came to Peter, and said, Doth not your master pay tribute? He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers? Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.

(i.e., insight into the Kingdom), especially in light of what occurs over the next few verses.

2 And was transfigured before them:


It is possible that this had also occurred when they saw Yeshua walking on the water, as mentioned in an earlier chapter. (Compare His comment to Peter after the latter began to sink in the water, to what He says the disciples could do if they had faith, in verse 20 below.)

3 there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him
The key to understanding what is occurring here lies in the next verse.

4 let us make here three tabernacles;


Peter clearly views this as a vision of the Kingdom of God. His desire to build "tabernacles" (succot) is tied to the Feast of Succot. This is the last of the Feasts of the Lord, and the one directly associated with the coming of the Kingdom of God. Interestingly, the time of this vision is not Succot. The same allusion will be seen later in Matthew's gospel, when people lay out palm branches (another Succot symbol) before Yeshua on His entry into Jerusalem, just before Pesakh (Passover), in the spring.

5 a bright cloud ... and behold a voice out of the cloud,


The cloud is associated with the Shekinah - God's visible presence on earth. (Much of Jewish mystical literature surrounding the Kingdom is concerned with the Shekinah.) The voice from heaven is called the Bat-kol. (Literally, "daughter of the voice.") The Shekinah, and the Bat-kol are feminine in the Hebrew - as is the Ruach haKodesh, the "Holy Spirit." The "feminine aspect" of God is one ignored, if not frowned upon, in Christianity. Again, this is partly due to pagan doctrine of "the mother of God" (as found in Catholicism) and a lack of understanding of the deeper meaning of the Hebrew scriptures (as is lacking in both Catholicism and Protestantism). God is described as being both masculine and feminine at the time of the creation: Genesis 1:27 - So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Interestingly, even Paul offers a feminine aspect to the coming Kingdom: Galatians 4:26 - But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. The subject of the feminine aspect(s) of God is discussed in our Revelation study.

Chapter 17 builds upon the events and teachings of the previous chapters, going back to the parables of the Kingdom in chapter 13. As with the previous chapter, there continue to be deeply mystical teachings in this section.

1 bringeth them up into an high mountain apart,


There is a "sod" (hidden) level understanding to this verse. The "going up" to a high mountain can also be understood as a heightened level of spiritual awareness

11 Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things.


Yeshua says Elijah has yet to come, but in the next verse says differently.

them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them. This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel Yeshua of course is referring to John the Baptist, whom after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty he says "was Elijah." Critics often point to this as a gerahs:) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD. "contradiction." Some go as far to say that this shows that Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, Scripture teaches reincarnation. However the concept of multiple appearance of Elijah is from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD. The rich shall not give more, and the not foreign to Judaism, nor is the idea of someone being poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give "in the spirit" of a great prophet, nor is the concept of an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for Elijah coming more than once: your souls. And thou shalt take the atonement money of Seder 'Olam Rabba, ch. 17 - In the second year of (King) Ahazia, Elijah was hidden, and he will not be seen the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service again until King Messiah comes. And then he will be seen of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the LORD, to but will be hidden a second time, and seen again only 1 make an atonement for your souls. when Gog and Magog come.

12 That Elias is come already, and they knew him not

Does Yeshua teach breaking of the Torah here by saying this? As the subsequent verses show, the "fault" was with the No, for the same reason found in Matthew 12, when disciples. Yeshua's words imply that they should have Yeshua was challenged as to the behavior of his disciples been able to deal with this. on the Sabbath. If the religious authorities recognized 18 And Jesus rebuked the devil who Yeshua was, they would have realized that they had As mentioned earlier, this was a time of great "demonic a greater "Tabernacle/Temple" before them, in the form activity," as it was at the time of Abraham and Moses and the Messiah. will be again upon the return of Yeshua at the end of the Yeshua's presence among them took priority over the age. physical Temple, which was (in this sense only), a 20 If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, "lesser" representation of the image of God and His The potential for "walking in the Kingdom" is outlined Kingdom, (a "shadow," i.e., Colossians 2:17; Hebrews here in an amazing fashion. The question this begs is, 8:5, 10:1). Yeshua is above the physical Temple as He is "Why aren't we seeing these type of miracles today?" the actual image of the invisible God (Colossians 1:15). Obviously, the twelve apostles had a unique relationship, Note however, that after His death, his disciples continued but a good reason for the lack of the truly miraculous to attend the Temple for services and sacrifices, but no today, is the rejection of the Torah by those who claim to longer for the Yom Kippur sacrifice (as we will explain in be following God for the past 1900 years. This applies to our other studies). both gentiles, who follow a theology of an anti-Torah Nonetheless, Yeshua commanded His disciples to pay the messiah figure, as well as Jews, who don't recognize the tax, for reason explained below. Torah in the flesh - Yeshua.

16 I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him.

26 Then are the children free.

21 Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting.
The subject of fasting is another that is often misunderstood. Many consider fasting simply to be a means of "getting something." God is not some "puppet" however, whose strings you can pull when desired. Fasting is a means of clearing the mind of earthly thoughts and desires, in order to connect to God at a higher spiritual level.

27 Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them

Note that although Yeshua was "correct," in that His presence initiated a higher level of Torah commandment, He deferred to the principle of setting aside His "right" for the benefit of others. This is an important principle we will discuss in our Romans study.
1. The Messiah Texts, Raphael Patai, 1979, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, p.134

24 Doth not your master pay tribute?

This is in reference to the Temple tax that all Jews were to pay to support the work of the Temple. This tax is also an atonement, according to the Torah. Matthew 18:1-20:34 Exodus 30:11-16 - And the LORD spake unto Moses, NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text saying, When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel used in this study for no other reason than it is popular after their number, then shall they give every man a and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest

Section VII - Teachings on the Kingdom

cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 18:1-35 (last update: 9-10-00)


SUBJECTS: Greatest in the Kingdom, humility, guardian angels, answered prayer, Yeshua's "presence" among us, forgiveness

Matthew 19:1-30 (last update: 9-10-00)


SUBJECTS: "Male" and "Female" aspects of God, divorce, "tikkun"

Matthew 20:1-34 (last update: 9-10-00)


SUBJECTS: "first being last," the mystery of gentile salvation, questioning God

Matthew 18:1-35 Last Updated 9/10/00


CHAPTER 18:1-35 TEXT:
At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them, And said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven. And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name receiveth me. But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea. Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh! Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire. And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire. Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven. For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost. How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray? And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray. Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish. Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times? Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until

seventy times seven. Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants. And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents. But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made. The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt. But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest. And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt. So when his fellowservants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done. Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me: Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee? And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him. So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.

1 Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?


It is possible that the disciples (who are still in the process of leaning the mysteries of the Kingdom from Yeshua), were thinking in terms of "might" or "wisdom" when they asked this. Yeshua turns this question around to show who the "greatest" really are.

3 Except ye be converted, and become as little children,


The full explanation of "being converted" is in verse 4, where Yeshua shows this has to do with humility. As mentioned earlier, Moses is said to be the most humble man to ever live as well as the greatest of the prophets until Yeshua's time. (See also comments to verse 19.)

8 Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee


Here we have a similar teaching to that of the parables in chapter 13, where Yeshua compared the Kingdom to a pearl and to a field, in both cases showing that nothing was of more value. The allegorical reference to "hand or thy foot" could mean many things, including false doctrines. (See also comments to verse 19.)

10 in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father


This could be a reference to "guardian angels," a belief that seemed to have been held by Yeshua's disciples as seen in Acts 12:15. As we discuss in our Revelation study, there also seem to be angels assigned to Israel and to the nations of the world.

17 let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.


God is revealed to us in His attributes of both justice and mercy. Justice is seen in this teaching. Compare this to the mercy taught in the parable beginning in verse 23. The

various attributes of God, as we perceive them, is a subject of our Revelation study.

19 if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven.
Many critics will point to the countless unanswered prayers of people, as evidence that Yeshua's statement isn't true. Many answers are given in response to this challenge, however the words of scripture can't be ignored: James 4:3-6 - Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts. Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God. Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy? But he giveth more grace. Wherefore he saith, God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble. The adultery James speaks of, as the source of prayer not being answered, is spiritual adultery, as seen by his description of it being "friendship of the world." As said throughout this study, the way of God is the light of Torah. Outside of Torah is darkness - "the way of the world." We like to think that we're "out of the dark ages" with regard to receiving spiritual light from God. However, with the overwhelming number of people in the world today rejecting either the written Torah (in the case of most of Christianity) or Yeshua, the walking Torah, (in the case of most of Judaism), is it any wonder that God's blessings are not as prevalent as they should be? "James" (Jacob) says, "We ask amiss." Amiss of what? Amiss of the will of God, which is revealed through His Torah. He reiterates that God's grace (answer to prayer) is given to the humble. Humility comes from denying ourselves and accepting His Torah. Spiritual pride/arrogance comes from rejecting Torah in favor of some other religious belief that allows for "picking and choosing" from the commandments of God. Some would here interject, "What about the Holy Spirit? Doesn't the Spirit reveal to us the will of God? The answer is Yes - but the will of God that the Spirit will reveal IS His Torah. The Spirit will make clear to us the deeper meaning of the Torah and how to apply it in our lives. The Spirit will never lead anyone against God's Torah. If someone "prays to the Spirit" and is told that God's Torah is not for today, they are hearing from a spirit that is not of God. Paul gives the same message as "James," - If you consider yourself not subject to God's Torah, you are of the world, and not of the Spirit:

Romans 8:7 - Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

20 where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.
Exactly how is Yeshua "in our midst" if He is presently seated at the right hand of the Father? Does this mean He is simply "looking down at us?" Or is there a literal presence in the "spiritual realm" that "surrounds" us here on earth - and if so, how does this all work? Although Yeshua's statement can, in a simple sense, be accepted "on faith," the concept of God's presence within creation is actually a very complex area of Bible study. We address this fully in our Revelation study.

23 Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king ...


This parable was discussed earlier in our study.

35 So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.
We are called by God to; a) forgive others, b) ask forgiveness of others (Matthew 5:23-24), and, c) be certain not to have unrighteous anger in our hearts (Matthew 5:22). Willful failure in any of these areas places someone in jeapordy with God. The "free gift" of salvation includes obedience to God, not just "believing" in certain facts. The subject of the believer's obedience to God is central to our Romans study.

Matthew 19:1-30 Last Updated 9/10/00


CHAPTER 19:1-30 TEXT:
And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judaea beyond Jordan; And great multitudes followed him; and he healed them there. The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away? He saith unto them, Moses because of the hardness of your hearts suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so. And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and whoso marrieth her which is put away doth commit adultery. His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry. But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given. For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it. Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.

9 Whosoever shall put away his wife, 4 Have ye not read, that he which made them at the There were two main schools of thought regarding beginning made them male and female, divorce at this time. The school of Rabbi Hillel allowed
As mentioned earlier, "man" was made in the image of God - which is male and female: Genesis 1:27 - So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. "Unity" is an important subject in the Scriptures. At this time, creation is not in a state of unity. This will return fully when the Kingdom is established. Until that time, those who follow God are to work toward the "repair" (tikkun) of creation, bringing healing and peace into the lives of all we meet (as well as in their personal relationships with God). The commandments of God, given in the Torah, are geared toward tikkun, at both physical and spiritual levels. Divorce goes against this principle of tikkun, therefore it is not the will of God. for multiple reasons that a man could divorce his wife. The school of Rabbi Shammai, rules that divorce was only an option in case of fornication. Here, Yeshua sides with Shammai's view. (Both of these rabbis lived a couple generations before Yeshua began teaching.)

But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven. And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. The young man saith unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet? Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me. But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven. And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying, Who then can be saved? But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible; but with God all things are possible. Then answered Peter and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore? And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting life. But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first.

Although the Torah does not speak in favor or divorce, polygamy, slavery or war, it does set up "rules" for how to deal with these things. Why is this? The answer lies in the principle that the Torah was given because of sin. The Torah is dealing with a sin situation that has been in effect for quite some time. Recognizing that man has an evil inclination (called the yetzer hara in Hebrew), and is going to sin, the Torah on its most "basic level," keeps man "in check," so that he doesn't go too far from God's ways. The Talmud says of this: Kiddushin 21b - The Torah is only speaking against the yetzer hara. God, who understands our weaknesses, knows that an outright "No" can provoke our desire to sin, hence the Torah commands "regulating" certain issues. However, continued study into the deeper meanings of the Torah will then show man that although God "allows" for these things, they are not reflective of His perfect character. One of the things Messiah was/is promised to do (in Judaism) is to reveal these deeper meanings of the Torah so that God's people can better conform themselves to the image of God and work as His "partners" toward tikkun. We saw Yeshua do this in chapters 5 through 7 of this gospel. Here, He continues to do the same.

12 which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake
More than likely, the term "eunuch" is an incorrect translation. The word for "eunuch" in the Aramaic manuscripts of this passage is M'HAIMNA, which can also mean "believer," or "faithful one." This would make better sense.

17 if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.

Many attempts have been made to explain away Yeshua's direct answer. He did not say "accept me into your heart," 8 Moses because of the hardness of your hearts or some similar statement. He made it clear that suffered you to put away your wives: but from the obedience to Torah was key. However, we know from beginning it was not so. both the Tenakh and the "New Testament," that once An interesting subject here, if divorce is wrong in God's cannot "earn" their way into heaven by keeping the sight, why did He allow for divorce in the Torah? (which commandments outside of faith. God wants us to put our is of course His revelation to us). One could also ask, why entire trust in Him first, then to learn and walk in His did God allow for multiple wives? Or, why did God allow ways. The two are inseparable. for slavery? Also, why does he give instructions for 20 All these things have I kept from my youth up: soldiers when at war? what lack I yet?

Yeshua points out (to all that are listening to this discussion) that God is interested in commitment first and challenges this man on the aspect of trust.

28 ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones,


An allusion to the Kingdom in Revelation 21:14.

30 But many that are first shall be last; and the last shall be first.
This is a Hebrew idiom that has to do with "evening things out," not necessarily reversing the actual order of something. This is seen in the next section of this study (Matthew 20:16).

among you, let him be your minister; And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant: Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him. And, behold, two blind men sitting by the way side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David. And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you? They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened. So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received sight, and they followed him.

Matthew 20:1-34 Last Updated 9/10/00


CHAPTER 20:1-34 TEXT:

1 For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder

This parable can be taken on a literal (p'shat) level, as well as a remez (hint) at something else. On the p'shat For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, level, the lesson here is that salvation (represented by the which went out early in the morning to hire payment the workers receive) is not based on how long labourers into his vineyard. And when he had agreed with the you serve God. However, it would be incorrect to draw labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And he from this parable the idea that everyone gets the same went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the marketplace, And said unto them; Go ye also into the vineyard, and reward in heaven. God rewards and punishes fairly, based whatsoever is right I will give you. And they went their way. Again on our works in this life. he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise. And The parable does hint (remez) at another truth, one of the about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, mysteries that was to make itself known to those who and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle? They say Yeshua revealed it to. In this case, the workers of the unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive. morning, (the first called) could be considered Israel, the So when even was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his Jewish people. Those coming later in the day represent steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first. And when they came that were hired about the gentiles. Paul alludes to this in his Ephesians letter, where he says eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they that gentile salvation though the Messiah was a mystery likewise received every man a penny. And when they had received it, revealed: they murmured against the goodman of the house, Saying, These last Ephesians 3:3-6 - How that by revelation he made known have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, which have borne the burden and heat of the day. But he answered Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny? Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will in the mystery of Christ) Which in other ages was not give unto this last, even as unto thee. Is it not lawful for me to do made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good? So unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; That the the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and chosen. And Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel:

and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death, And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again. Then came to him the mother of Zebedees children with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him. And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom. But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able. And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with: but to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father. And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren. But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great

15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? Is thine eye evil, because I am good?
We are not the ones to question God: Romans 9:18-21 - Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth. Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? For who hath resisted his will? Nay but, O man, who art thou that repliest against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why hast thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? The "evil" eye is an idiom for "stinginess," as mentioned in our notes to Matthew 6:23.

If this parallel is taken to be that of the Jews and gentiles, then the "complaint" of the Jews would be that they have been God's chosen people, the people of the Torah, for far longer than the gentiles. The reply to this would be that although the Jew has an advantage in that they have the Torah (Romans 3:2), a great part of this advantage is in knowing that God is no respector of persons, and thus no one has an "advantage" toward salvation in this sense. This subject is discussed in our Romans study.

marriage; the resurrection; "loving God;" the Shema; the law of Moses.

Matthew 23:1-39 (last update: 11-27-00)


SUBJECTS: Authority of the Pharisees; teaching Torah correctly; not seeking positions of leadership; textual error concerning Zecharias; the "feminine" aspect of God.

CHAPTER 21:1-46 TEXT: As mentioned in the previous section, this idiom has to do And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to with equality (as the parable shows), not reversing the Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, order. Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and

16 So the last shall be first, and the first last:

Matthew 21:1-46 Last Updated 11/27/00

22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask.


The mother of James and John asked a question that came from her lack of understanding. (Similar to Matthew 18:1). Again, Yeshua stresses the aspects of humility and servanthood.

22 Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?
A full discussion of this "cup" and baptism will be presented in chapter 26 of this study.

27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant:
Again referring to the idea of the "mighty in the Kingdom," serving others in humility (with Moses being our best human example.)

Section VIII - Reproof and Rebuke


Matthew 21:1-23:39
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 21:1-46 (last update: 11-27-00)


SUBJECTS: The "two-Messiah" theory; Sukkot symbolism; unity of the Lord's feasts; the "den of thieves;" symbolism of the fig tree, mountains and seas; the mission of the Kingdom; commentary on Acts 2 and 3.

Matthew 22:1-46 (last update: 11-27-00)


SUBJECTS: "Many are called but few are chosen;" the Herodians; the Saducees; Levirate

straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass. And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them, And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their clothes, and they set him thereon. And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way. And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest. And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this? And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves. And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them. And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; they were sore displeased, And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea; have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise? And he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany; and he lodged there. Now in the morning as he returned into the city, he hungered. And when he saw a fig tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And presently the fig tree withered away. And when the disciples saw it, they marvelled, saying, How soon is the fig tree withered away! Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig tree, but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done. And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive. And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority? And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things. The baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him? But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people; for all hold John as a prophet. And they answered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things. But what think

ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to day in my vineyard. He answered and said, I will not: but afterward he repented, and went. And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not. Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not: but the publicans and the harlots believed him: and ye, when ye had seen it, repented not afterward, that ye might believe him. Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country: And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it. And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another. Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise. But last of all he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son. But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance. And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him. When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen? They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons. Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder. And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of them. But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude, because they took him for a prophet.

in fact be killed. The second, Messiah ben David, would come, avenge the death of Messiah ben Joseph and usher in the Millennial Kingdom.

8 others cut down branches from the trees, and strawed them in the way.
The cutting of branches alludes to the feast of Sukkot (Tabernacles), most closely associated with the coming of the Messianic era (See comments on Matthew 17:4). Leviticus 23:39-42- Also in the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days: on the first day shall be a sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a sabbath. And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days. And ye shall keep it a feast unto the LORD seven days in the year. It shall be a statute for ever in your generations: ye shall celebrate it in the seventh month. Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths. It is clear from the behavior of these people that they thought Yeshua was at least a great prophet, if not the Messiah.

9 Hosanna to the son of David


The term "Hosanna" is Hosheanu, meaning, "save us." The cry of the people (Hosheana, ben David), is also tied to Sukkot. The 7th day of Sukkot is called, Hosheana Rabba, meaning "the great save us." As mentioned earlier, "son of David" is a Messianic title. Interestingly, the time of this occassion is the spring and not the fall, (when Sukkot takes place). Also, even though Yeshua is the final Yom Kippur sacrifice (another fall feast), He was killed in the spring on Pesakh (Passover). The resolution to this lies in deeper levels of study (at the Sod level) and will be addressed more fully in our Revelation study. Suffice it to say that although the feasts of God seem separate and unique from our point of view in this physical world, in the spiritual realm there is less distinction and far greater unity (enabled by the Messiah). The Zohar1 says of the Lord's feasts, that they are all unified in the great Sabbath to come, the thousand year Millenial Sabbath, (referred to as "her" in the text below): Soncino Zohar, Shemoth, Section 2, Page 133b - From all of these we take "the heave offering of the Lord" on each of these special seasons, in order that it may rest upon us: on Passover by means of the paschal lamb, on Tabernacles by means of the tabernacle, and so forth. The six Days [Feasts] are but a preparation for her. As they are united above in "One."

5 thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass ...

One of the problems posed by the Tenakh's prophecies, regarding the Messiah, is that He would arrive both on the back of a donkey as well as in the clouds of glory. As it did not seem possible for one person to fulfill both prophecies, there developed a theory that if the people were righteous, Messiah would come on the clouds, if they were not, He would arrive on a donkey: Talmud, Sanhedrin 98a - R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua b. Levi pointed out a contradiction. it is written, in its time [will the Messiah come], whilst it is also written, I [the Lord] will hasten it! if they are worthy, I will hasten it: if not, [he will come] at the due time. R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua opposed two verses: it is written, And behold, one like the son of man came with the clouds of heaven whilst [elsewhere] it is written, [behold, thy king cometh unto thee . . . ] lowly, and riding upon an ass! if they are meritorious, [he will come] with the clouds of heaven; if not, lowly and riding upon an ass. However, even the Talmudists recognized that Scripture did not truly offer an "if-or" option, hence the idea of two Messiahs came into being. The first, Messiah ben Joseph 13 ye have made it a den of thieves. would be more of the humble suffering servant. He would

The people were required to make offerings at the Temple. As it was too difficult for those living far away to bring animals with them, they would instead purchase the animal when they arrived at the Temple. Also, it was not permitted to use pagan money to make offerings (or pay the Temple tax), so coins would be evaluated and exchanged for shekels. The men providing this service had found it too easy to cheat people however, and it is for this dishonesty that Yeshua drives them out. The verse Yeshua quotes is from both Isaiah 56 and Jeremiah 7. As the prophets state, the Temple of the Lord was to be a house of prayer for all nations, thereby including gentiles into the faith of Israel. The actions of the money changers were a perversion of justice, taking advantage of people, which is a perversion of the essence of God's Torah. By such evil works, the name of the God of Israel would be blasphemed among the gentiles. This acted against God's Temple being a house of prayer for them, in fact keeping salvation from the gentiles. As Paul similarly wrote of some of his fellow Jews: Romans 2:23-24 - Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written.

no place in the "New Testament" do we see Yeshua or His disciples repudiating the Torah (i.e., Matthew 5:17-21, Romans 3:31). As we see in chapters 21 through 23, Yeshua directed most of his criticism at the religious leaders of the day, who "shut up the kingdom of heaven" for themselves and others, due to their voiding the commandments of God (Torah) through man-made doctrines. Still, the people as a whole were not without blame, and as seen later in this chapter and at the end of this sermon (23:37), where He extends His reproof to the people as a whole. (See comments to verse 43 below.)

21 if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed 22 whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.
As God would not want all of us hurling huge mountains about, it is easy to see that there are deeper meanings to these verses. First, if we take these verses at a more literal (p'shat) level (even considering the allegorical terms of "mountains" and "seas"), it would seem that great miracles should be "commonplace" among those who are righteous in God's sight. As this is not the case today, one has to ask what the problem is. The answer may be found in another statement made by Yeshua: Luke 18:8 - Nevertheless when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth? As "faith" is defined by God in terms of a relationship with Him based on His instruction, His Torah, (i.e., Deuteronomy chapter 6, Luke 18:18-22) and the majority of those claiming to follow His Messiah today preach that they are "not under the Law," (i.e., not submissive to His Torah), then Messiah's words are a indeed frightening prophecy. (See notes to Matthew chapters 5 through 7 on Torah as part of faith.) There is a deeper meaning to these verses however, that is actually applcable to their imediate context. The question must first be asked, What is the purpose of Messiah's teachings in these surrounding chapters (21-23)? As we are seeing, Yeshua is both, a) rooting out the false teachings (leaven) of the religious leadership, and b) presenting the offer of the Kingdom to His people. (See Isaiah 61 as well.) The metaphorical terms "mountains" and "seas" have to do with leaders and the spiritual abyss. As Yeshua points out in these chapters, the Pharisees were actually keeping people away from the Kingdom of God through their teachings (though the people were at fault as well for allowing them to do this). Yeshua is thus instructing His disciples that with faith, not only can the falsehood of the Pharisees be overcome (the mountain being tossed into

16 Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?
Yeshua quotes Psalm 8, which is highly Messianic in its nature, thus offering the people a "hint" as to who He was: Psalm 8 - O LORD, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! who hast set thy glory above the heavens. Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength because of thine enemies, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger. When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars, which thou hast ordained; What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man, that thou visitest him? For thou hast made him a little lower than the angels, and hast crowned him with glory and honour. Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the field; The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas. O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!

19 And when he saw a fig tree in the way


The verses concerning the fig tree (and others tied to these) are very mysterious, and have been greatly misused to teach that God has done away with Israel and its Torahbased faith (as represented by the fig tree), and replaced her with a new religion, as based on verse 43. However, at

the sea), but the Kingdom itself can be ushered in, (where for we see Peter extending this to His Jewish brethren, "miracles" will be commonplace, i.e., "whatever you ask following the events of that Shavuot in the very next chapter: you will reveive.") Acts 3:12-26 - And when Peter saw it, he Verses 23-27 answered unto the people, Ye men of Israel, why Here Yeshua begins to reveal the character of the marvel ye at this? or why look ye so earnestly on Pharisees to the people. Much of what He states in His us, as though by our own power or holiness we parables is directed to them, though the people who had made this man to walk? The God of Abraham, tolerated their leadership are not without accountability. and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, 43 The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, hath glorified his Son Jesus; whom ye delivered and given to a nation up, and denied him in the presence of Pilate, when This verse, in conjunction with verse 19 (the fig tree) is he was determined to let him go. But ye denied the often used to teach that God changed His mind and did Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to away with the faith of Israel (as given in Torah), and be granted unto you; And killed the Prince of life, began something new (i.e., "the Christian Church"), about whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we the time of Acts chapter 2. are witnesses. And his name through faith in his The reality is that God did not do away with His Torah name hath made this man strong, whom ye see and (i.e., Matthew 5:17-21, Romans 3:31), but the offer of the know: yea, the faith which is by him hath given Kingdom, along with the task of spreading the news of him this perfect soundness in the presence of you Messiah, did indeed "pass from" Israel proper, to the all. And now, brethren, I wot that through nations (via the faithful Jewish remnant in the diaspora), ignorance ye did it, as did also your rulers. But after Yeshua's death -- though not for long. (Much of those things, which God before had shewed by the chapters 9-11 of Paul's Romans letter addresses this.) mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should The offer of the Kingdom through Messiah was indeed suffer, he hath so fulfilled. Repent ye therefore, intended for Israel and not the gentiles: and be converted, that your sins may be blotted Matthew 10:5-7 - These twelve Jesus sent forth, and out, when the times of refreshing shall come from commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the the presence of the Lord. And he shall send Jesus Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: Christ, which before was preached unto you: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. And Whom the heaven must receive until the times of as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by hand. the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world Matthew 15: 22-24 - And, behold, a woman of began. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And with a devil. But he answered her not a word. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from her away; for she crieth after us. But he answered among the people. Yea, and all the prophets from and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of Samuel and those that follow after, as many as the house of Israel. have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. The seeds for what was to come indeed began in Acts 2, Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the but not as the Christian church depicts. Here we find Jews covenant which God made with our fathers, saying (not "Christians") gathered in Jerusalem for the feast of unto Abraham, And in thy seed shall all the Shavuot. The Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit) decends on kindreds of the earth be blessed. Unto you first these Jewish followers of Messiah as an indication that God, having raised up his Son Jesus, sent him to God's will and intent were being served through those bless you, in turning away every one of you from who trusted in Yeshua. (This experience was similar to his iniquities. that of Mount Sinai. Our Revelation study goes into much more detail about this.) These Jews then returned to their We also see Paul continue to teach that this offer of homes throughout the Roman empire, continuing in their salvation/Kingdom was for the Jew first: Romans 1:16 - For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Torah-based faith, with a knowledge of Messiah in Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every Yeshua and empowerment of the His Ruach. We know that the Kingdom offer had not completely been one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. taken away from Israel at the time of the events in Acts 2, Israel did not heed the warnings however. This was followed by the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD and

subsequent Roman war of 132 AD. During this approximately 100-year time period, a process began whereby the baton of Torah-based Messianic faith was passed along to the remaining faithful remnant of Israel in the diaspora, and those gentiles who congregated with them (i.e Romans, chapters 9-11). It was in this manner that nations other than Israel were "given" the Kingdom offer to take to the world. It was not long however before Babylonian paganism crept in and took the place of the faith of Yeshua and His disciples, resulting in the formation of gentile Christianity. By the time of Constantine (early 4th century) anyone continuing to follow the original (authentic) Torah-based Hebraic faith in Yeshua was considered a heretic. For a historical summary of this time period, see Not Subject to the Law of God? in the YashaNet library. Conversely, some would argue that the phrase "a nation," here still refers to Israel, but a different generation. This argument is made no doubt, with the intention to combat the aforementioned false teaching that God deserted the Torah-based faith of Israel in favor of Christianity.2 It would seem however that the context (from the cursing of the fig tree on Yeshua's way into Jerusalem, to His words as He left the Temple in 33:37-39), indicate a rebuke of Israel, (other than the faithful remnant). This has nothing to do with God's faithfulness to Israel (i.e., as seen in Jeremiah 31 and Romans chapters 9 through 11), only to their role of bringing the truth of God's Kingdom, as it will be established through Yeshua, to the nations. In short, although the main body of Israel did not carry out its mission of the Kingdom (and has never accepted Yeshua or taught others about Him since that time), neither did the gentiles when given the chance.

servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen. Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk. And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men. Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Caesar, or not? But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites? Shew me the tribute money. And they brought unto him a penny. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's. When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way. The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection, and asked him, Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother. Now there were with us seven brethren: and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased, and, having no issue, left his wife unto his brother: Likewise the second also, and the third, unto the seventh. And last of all the woman died also. Therefore in the resurrection whose wife shall she be of the seven? for they all had her. Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven. But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob? God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine. But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together. Then one of them, which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying, Master, which is the great commandment in the law? Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the 1. The Zohar is a collection of ancient Hebrew texts, much of which Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy are Sod-level commentary on the passages of the Tenakh. mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is 2. Here we take a different view than Nazarene teacher James Trimm like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two expounds in his book, The Semitic Origins of the New Testament (pp. commandments hang all the law and the prophets. While the 42,51) and also from David Stern in his Jewish New Testament (pp. Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them, Saying, What 71,72,95,96). think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David. He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right Last Updated 11/27/00 hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? If David then call him CHAPTER 22:1-46 TEXT: Lord, how is he his son? And no man was able to answer him a word, And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said, neither durst any man from that day forth ask him any more questions. The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son, And sent forth his servants to call them that 1 And Jesus answered were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come. Again, he sent Chapter divisions were obviously not present in the forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all original documents. Yeshua's comments are a continuation from the discussion of chapter 21. things are ready: come unto the marriage. But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise: And 2 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew king them. But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their See our previous comments on the Kingdom parables. As city. Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they He mentioned in chapter 21, the Kingdom offer, meant which were bidden were not worthy. Go ye therefore into the exclusively for Israel, was slipping from their hands. highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. So those

Matthew 22:1-46

11 he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment


See our previous study on this particular parable.

14 For many are called, but few are chosen.


This would allude to His parable of the sower as discussed in chapter 13. Many hear the Torah preached, but few truly adhere to it. See also Matthew 7:13-14. The "call" of God can be traced to the Shema (Deuteronomy 6) which is a call to enter the Kingdom. (See comments to verse 37 below.) The Shema can be considered God's "plan of salvation," as it gives instruction to place our trust in the One true God, and to seek Him and be conformed to His image, by being both hearers and doers of His Torah. All of these principles are reinforced in the various "New Testament" letters.

16 they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians
Yeshua's enemies now play their "secular card," bringing in the ruling family with ties to Rome, prior to asking Him a question about loyalty to Caesar.

23 The same day came to him the Sadducees


We have very little information on the teachings of the Saducees. The Talmud and subsequent Jewish texts reflect the Pharisaic position on issues, as they came to complete power (and the Saducees to extinction) not long after Yeshua's time with the destruction of the Temple. One thing we do know as that the Saducees did not share the same views about the afterlife as their Pharisee opponents. This is also seen in Acts chapter 23, where Paul, who was a Pharisee, made clever use of this point to escape a difficult situation.

thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments, which I command thee, thou, and thy son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy life; and that thy days may be prolonged. Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee, in the land that floweth with milk and honey. Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD: And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be in thine heart: And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes. And thou shalt write them upon the posts of thy house, and on thy gates.

39 Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.


The entire Torah presents itself in commandments toward God and toward fellow man. The latter are of almost equal importance as our fellow man is made in the image of God.

40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.

This teaching (verses 37-40), is reflective of the thought of Rabbi Hillel as well as Paul: Talmud, Mas. Shabbath 31a - What is hateful to you, do not to your neighbour: that is the whole Torah, while the 24 ... his brother shall marry his wife rest is the commentary thereof; go and learn it. The Saducees are referring to the laws of Levirate Romans 13:8-10 - Owe no man any thing, but to love one marriage (Deuteronomy 25:5-10), which say that a man another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. should marry his brother's widow in order to care for her For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not and her children. kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false 30 For in the resurrection ... witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other Yeshua supports a Pharisaic teaching from the Talmud: commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, Talmud Ma'asrot 4:5-6 - There will be no marital union namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Love in the world to come. worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the 37 Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy fulfilling of the law. heart Neither Yeshua, Hillel or Paul taught that the "law of Yeshua is quoting from the Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4), Moses" is "done away with," and replaced by some the fundamental "statement of faith" of Judaism. Note the emotional concept of "love." However, Christianity, in the means that God gives for how we are to love Him, as name of the Messiah, says that "the law of Moses" is done found in the verses surrounding Shema. away and all we need now is this type of "love." Love for God is not based on emotions, but on following As previously mentioned in our study of the sermon of His Torah: Matthew chapters 5-7, there will be those who did great Deuteronomy 6:1-9 - Now these are the things, even miracles, in Messiah's name, yet He will not commandments, the statutes, and the judgments, recognize them as they did not have proper regard for the which the LORD your God commanded to teach will of the Father (Torah, the "law of Moses"). The book you, that ye might do them in the land whither ye of Revelation also makes it clear that those who follow go to possess it: That thou mightest fear the LORD

the commandments (Torah, the "law of Moses") are the ones who enter New Jerusalem.

Matthew 23:1-39 Last Updated 11/27/00


CHAPTER 23:1-39 TEXT:
Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples, Saying The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat: All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not. For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers. But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments, And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues, And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi. But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren. And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven. Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ. But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant. And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted. But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves. Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor! Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty. Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon. And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein. And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell? Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: That upon you may

come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

2 The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat


By using the phrase "seat of Moses," Yeshua indeed designates that authority is with the Pharisees.

3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do, but do not ye after their works ...
It would appear that Yeshua is telling the people to obey the Pharisees, while at the same time telling them not to follow them. In order to understand this passage, it is important to recall that much of Yeshua's criticism of the Pharisees was because they taught commandments of men that made void the commandments of God (Matthew 15:13). Hence, the problem is not with the Pharisees teaching Torah, but with anything that contradicts Torah. The human ordinances of the Pharisees placed emphasis on outside observance and not on what would change the inner man (see verses 24-28 below). Yeshua considered these teachings to be as "leaven," (Matthew 16:11-12), which if left unchallenged, would corrupt all the people. Certain manuscripts of the Hebrew Shem Tob1 book of Matthew offer a different translation to this section, making a distinction between what Moses said and what the Pharisees taught: Upon the seat of Moses the Pharisees and Sages sit, and now, all which he (Moses) will say unto you-keep and do; but their ordinances and deeds do not do, because they say and do not. The key thing to note here, is that even though the Pharisees were teaching Torah, they were also promoting "lawlessness" as their teachings were not based in a humble faith in God but in self-righteouseousness that misused the Torah and often negated it.

Verses 7-12
The key to this section is verse 12: "And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted." Yeshua is teaching not to seek leadership (as many are often too eager to do), as this places a person under greater responsibility. As He points out in verse 14, there is a "greater condemnation" for such leaders who err. This is consistent with the teachings of "James": James 3:1 - My brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the greater condemnation. And also the Talmud: Talmud, Avot 1:10 - Despise the position of Rabbi.

It is interesting to note that Yeshua, who says he broods like a hen in this verse, was instrumental in creation. (John 1:3). The language of the Genesis account similarly The Pharisees were not shy about evangelizing. However, states that the Spirit of God also "brooded" over the as Yeshua points out, many of them interpreted the waters at creation. Bringing these two together, is the Scriptures in their own (self-righteous) way, that was not Talmud, that says this Spirit of God is the spirit of in accordance to the truth of Torah. Not much has Messiah: changed to this day, with countless church denominations Midrash Rabbah, Genesis II:4 - AND THE SPIRIT OF sending missionaries all around the world, teaching GOD HOVERED: this alludes to the spirit of Messiah, as people to follow a Messiah who tells them that "they are you read, And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him not under the Law" - a message alien to the true gospel (Isa. XI, 2). message.

15 ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves

17 whether is greater, the gold, or the temple ... 19 whether is greater, the gift, or the altar ...

38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

This is a continuation of the rebuke of the Pharisees who 1. There are several versions of the Shem Tob. The majority follow had their priorities out of order, following the traditions of the common interpretation of "they" in this verse, but two manuscripts have the singular "he." men over the Torah of God.

A final rebuke, tying back to the metaphor of the fig tree in 21:19.

23 these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone
Again Yeshua throws His support behind Torah, in this case telling the Pharisees that they should have continued giving the tithes they chose to give, but not at the expense of judgment, mercy and faith, which are the "three pillars" of the godhead that the Torah directs us toward.2

2. Our Revelation study explains these various aspects/emanations of God in our world.

Section IX - Teachings on the End Times


Matthew 24:1-25:46

35 Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular Here is yet another verse with a worrisome lesson for and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be today. These religious leaders were condemned, as future cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, generations would be, for not having a proper regard for followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases God's Torah. If the Pharisees had been following Torah in there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In its proper context, they would have recognized Yeshua as others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a the Messiah. great deal of study.

30 If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers

Matthew 24:1-51 (last update: 01-17-01)

SUBJECTS: Signs of the end, false Messiahs, Here is one of those cases that causes a problem for those end-times deception, "footsteps of Messiah," the who insist that the "New Testament" texts, as we have role of Torah, enduring to the end, preaching of them, are absolutely free from any scribal error. the Gospel, the anti-Messiah, signs in the According to 2 Chronicles 24:20-21, it was another heavenlies, "tribes of the land," the last Trumpet Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada that was slain as such, not blast, only the Father knowing the hour, the days Zacharias the son of Barchias. (See the comments on this of Noah, the Elect verse in the, Jewish New Testament Commentary, by Matthew 25:1-46 (last update: 01-17-01) David Stern, for possible reasons for this error. Also see SUBJECTS: the ten virgins, preparedness, oil in the footnote to this verse in the DuTillet Hebrew Matthew, the lamps, "I know you not," spiritual translation by James Trimm, www.nazarene.net.) enlightenment, the foundation of the world, 37 even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her Yeshua's brethren.

wings,

It is easy to overlook the fact that Yeshua uses a feminine analogy here. The "feminine" aspect of God is something we discuss fully in our Revelation study. Yeshua's sad words relate back to the previous parables, which though spoken more directly to the Pharisees, were also a condemnation of the people who blindly followed them.

Matthew 24:1-51 Last Updated 1/17/01


CHAPTER 24:1-51 TEXT:
And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple: and his disciples came to him for to shew him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said unto them, See ye not all these things? verily I say unto you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples

came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world? And Jesus answered and said unto them, Take heed that no man deceive you. For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many. And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the beginning of sorrows. Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake. And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many. And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold. But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come. When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:) Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains: Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house: Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes. And woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day: For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened. Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you before. Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not. For as the lightning cometh out of the east, and shineth even unto the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For wheresoever the carcase is, there will the eagles be gathered together. Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other. Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh: So likewise ye, when ye shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left. Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up. Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom

his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

3 ... Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world?
Jewish literature is replete with examples of what will proceed the coming of the Messiah. These events are known as the "Footsteps of Messiah." Talmud - Mas. Sotah 49b - In the footsteps of the messiah insolence will increase and honour dwindle; the vine will yield its fruit [abundantly] but wine will be dear; the government will turn to heresy and there will be none [to offer them] reproof; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for immorality; galilee will be destroyed, gablan desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will degenerate, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, a son will revile his father, a daughter will rise against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, and a man's enemies will be the members of his household; the face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. So upon whom is it for us to rely? Upon our father who is in heaven. Midrash Rabbah - The Song of Songs II:33 - The Rabbis say: In the generation in which the scion of David will come, the wise men of the generation will die and the rest will waste away with grief and sorrow and much trouble will come upon the community and cruel decrees will be promulgated, one coming on top of another. R. Nehorai said: In the generation in which the scion of David will come, the young will insult their elders and the old will rise before the young, as it says, The daughter riseth up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man's enemies are the men of his own house (Micah VII, 6), and a son will feel no shame before his father. R. Nehemiah said: Before the days of the Messiah there will be great poverty and scarcity, and the vine will cast its fruit and the wine will turn bad and the whole of the government will be converted to minuth and there will be no reproof. R. Abba b. Kahana said: The scion of David will come only in a generation which is brazen-faced like a dog. R. Levi said: The scion of David will come only in a generation which is full of impudence and deserves to be exterminated. R. Jannai said: If you

see one generation after another cursing and blaspheming, look out for the coming of the Messiah, as it says, Wherewith Thine enemies have taunted, O Lord, wherewith Thine enemies he taunted the footsteps of Thine anointed (Ps. LXXXIX, 52), and immediately afterwards it is written, Blessed be the Lord for evermore, Amen and Amen.

4 For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many
It is important to place this verse (as with all the "New Testament") back into its Hebrew context. Yeshua is saying that many will come in His name. The final "antiMessiah" will not come in opposition to Yeshua, but will be a counterfeit who will deceive almost everyone (i.e., verse 24 below). A legitimate question to ask here is; How will this person be able to pull this off? After all, aren't there countless books, movies and web sites available today warning people about him (calling him the "Antichrist"), and describing everything that is going to happen in the last days? In fact, a Christian book on the end-times/Antichrist, "The Mark," by Tim Laheye, was the number one book on the New York Time bestseller list in the month of December 2000. This was not a religious book list. It was the secular hardcover list -- so it would seem more than just Christians who are buying this. As people everywhere are seemingly becoming "well aware" about what is coming, then one must ask; Where is the deception forecast by Yeshua? Also, where is the "lack of faith" to be found throughout the world, as prophesied by Him? (Luke 18:8) After all, doesn't over one-third of the planet declare themselves to be His followers? Some people explain this problem by forecasting a great "rapture" of Christians and those "left behind" will believe some far-fetched reason responsible for this (i.e., UFOs), or have their memories "erased" somehow. This would then explain the great "lack of faith," prophecied. The problem with these end-time scenarios is that they all come from a Torah-less base. By "Torah-less," we mean a faith that is not in continuation with that which God established prior to Yeshua's arrival (as He did not do away with this faith, i.e., Matthew 5:17-21, Romans 3:31). This includes any "faith" that may even include certain elements of Torah (as any counterfeit faith will). A more difficult question to ponder is this; Are all the supposed "disciples of the Messiah" in the world today following the Torah-preaching Yeshua of the Hebrew Scriptures? Or is their view of the Messiah one that tells them that "they are not under the law (Torah)?" This subject will be discussed in detail in our Revelation study over the spring and summer of 2001. See also Not Subject to the Law of God? in the YashaNet library.

6-8 And ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places. All these are the beginning of sorrows.
See comments on "Footsteps of the Messiah," to verse 3 above.

9 Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you: and ye shall be hated of all nations for my name's sake.
The Messiah cannot be separated from the Torah (see notes to chapters 5-7), nor from His Name.

10 And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another. 11 And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.
When people come to a faith in Yeshua, based in Torah, some of their worst enemies may be their friends and family -- including those who think that they are the ones with the "truth" and that the Torah-observant person is even doing Satan's will (by supposedly bringing them into the "bondage of law"). For more information on how this is actually becoming a reality, see our commentary, Signs of the Times Growing Christian anti-Torah Hostility, in the Opinions Section of YashaNet.

12 And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.
Iniquity may be considered the same as sin, which is defined according to one standard -- God's Torah: 1 John 3:4 - Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law [Torah]: for sin is the transgression of the law [Torah]. Torah is what we are to use as our criteria to know if we are following God: James 1:25 - But whoso looketh into the perfect law [Torah] of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work [Torah], this man shall be blessed in his deed.

13 But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.
Yeshua places a stipulation, that we are to endure. The idea of some "guaranteed salvation" based on simply "what you believe" is foreign to the Hebrew Scriptures. Paul did not even make such a claim for himself: Philippians 3:11-14 - If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead. Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect: but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count not myself

to have apprehended: but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus.

"Unrighteousness" is defined solely by God's Torah.

14 And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.
Yeshua makes it clear that the gospel message does not reach the ends of the earth until the very last days before He returns. This is the Torah-based Gospel that He and the original community of believers preached. The false Messiah, being a man of "lawlessness" (2 Thessalonians 2:3), and his followers, will preach a Torah-less "gospel" in the name of "God."

29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:
How can a star fall from heaven? As this is not possible, it gives us a clue that this verse might contain a deeper meaning. (Also, if the sun was darkened, all life would cease to exist, and this does not happen at this time either.) Although there may be some literal physical fulfillment of these things, Yeshua is very much speaking in metaphorical terms. These hidden aspects of the last days will be addressed in our Revelation study.

15 When ye therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoso readeth, let him understand:)
There was a previous fulfillment to this verse about two centuries before Yeshua spoke these words. Antiochus IV Epiphanies became king of the Syrian-Greeks who ruled over Israel. He commanded the Jews to do away with Torah and accept the Greek culture and religion. He bore down ruthlessly on his Jewish subjects and defiled the temple, placing a Hellenistic priest in charge and sacrificing pigs on the altar. This led to a successful revolt under Judah Macabee, the rededication of the Temple and the Feast of Chanukah, which we seeYeshua Himself celebrating in John 10:22. For more information on these events, read our article on Chanukah, or turn to the Apocryphal book of Macabbes. Yeshua's words forecast yet another one that will come in opposition to Torah.

30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
The term "tribes of the earth," is an incorrect translation. Yeshua is speaking of a fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy. The correct translation is tribes of "the land," (of Israel): Zechariah 12:10-12 - And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn. In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart; the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart;

22 And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.
God has promised to reunite all of Israel -- the "lost tribes" of the northern Kingdom under Ephraim with the southern Kingdom under Judah. These are the elect along with those gentiles who join them.

31 And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect.

The "gathering of the elect" is a fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy (above). God will regather all of Israel to their Messiah and to the land of Israel. The "trumpet" is representative of the Shofar, which is found throughout Hebrew literature that is concerned wih Those whose faith is grounded in Torah will be less likely Messiah and the "end times." This trumpet blast could very well be the "last trump" to be deceived as Torah is God's truth. Any concept of prophecied by Paul in two of his letters. This last trump is "faith" independent of God's Torah is a lie. God will associated with the Feast of Yom Kippur (and not Rosh allow those rejecting this truth to be deceived: haShana as some teach): 2 Thessalonians 2:11-12 - And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: 1 Corinthians 15:52 - Behold, I shew you a mystery; We That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 - For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep. For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord. A common Jewish belief was that all people would die before God instituted His Kingdom and the World to Come (Olam Haba). Paul states that this is not the case, that some would enter the Kingdom of God without dying first. The reference to His gathering His elect, "from one end of heaven to the other," in verse 31, is likely a reference to the dead raised incorruptable (in 1 Corinthians 15:52) and the dead in Messiah (1 Thessalonians 4:16). Our Revelation study will explore all of these themes in greater detail.

observance of all commandments [one day], so also will he come for the observance of one Sabbath day, because the Sabbath is equivalent to all commandments. Another example of this can be seen in Acts chapter 3, where Peter tells His Jewish brethren, that if they turned in faith to the Messiah (who was just killed and resurrected), that Yeshua would immediately return and usher in the Kingdom. Interestingly, if the people become completely unrighteous (see verse 37 below), this will also bring on His arrival, albeit in not such a pleasant fashion.

37 But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
We know that evil permeated the earth to such a degree in Noah's time, that God intervened by killing all but a handful of people. Again, at the end of days, there will be widespread destruction. Beyond this however, Noah's time was also one of great demonic activity, as cited in the book of Jude: Jude 1:6 - And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. This "days of Noah" will be dealt with in detail in our Revelation study. (Revelation shows a great deal of demonic activity in the last days.) We will investigate a resource with much information on this subject, the book of Enoch -- which was held in high esteem at the time of Yeshua, and is quoted by Jude: Jude 1:14-16 - And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, To execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him. These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling words, having men's persons in admiration because of advantage.

34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.
This study will not enter the long time debate over what Yeshua meant by "generation." Suffice it to say, He is speaking of a chain of events (the "footsteps of Messiah), that once they begin, will not stop until He comes.

36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.
Why doesn't Yeshua know the day? A hidden message here is that the day is not truly "fixed," in that the actions of His followers, here on earth, can either hasten its arrival. Hebraic teachings say that if the people act righteously, they will merit Messiah's arrival. An example of this is found in Midrash Rabbah, which says that although there is a "determined date," for Messiah's arrival, there also remains the possibility that His coming could be advanced: Midrash Rabbah - Exodus XXV:12 - R. Levi said: If Israel kept the Sabbath properly even for one day, the son of David would come. Why? Because it is equivalent to all the commandments; for so it says, For He is our God, and we are the people of His pasture, and the flock of His hand. To-day, if ye would but hearken to His voice! (Ps. XCV, 7) R. Johanan said: The Holy One, blessed be He, told Israel: Though I have set a definite term for the millennium which will come at the appointed time whether Israel returns to Me in penitence or not, still if they repent even for one day, I will bring it before its appointed time. Hence, To-day, [redemption cometh] if ye would but hearken to His voice; and just as we find that the son of David will come as a reward for the

40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken ...
The terminology here (one shall be taken), is the same used for Jewish nuptial language in John 14:1-3. Contrary to some popular modern theologies, the "marriage in heaven" between Messiah and His people comes after the time of Tribulation on earth, and makes up the first seven years of the Millennial Sabbath: Revelation 19:1-9 - And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God: For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of

his servants at her hand. And again they said, Alleluia And her smoke rose up for ever and ever. And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia. And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great. And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God. This marriage involves more than the Lord and His righteous ones, as Scripture tells us that New Jerusalem, which is "our Mother" (Galatians 4:26) is the bride (Revelation 21:2). Our Revelation study covers these mystical aspects in great detail.

done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord. Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed: And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine. His lord answered and said unto him, Thou wicked and slothful servant, thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have not strawed: Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury. Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents. For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory: And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? And the King shall answer and Last Updated 1/17/01 say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it CHAPTER 25:1-46 TEXT: unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: For them were wise, and five were foolish. They that were foolish took I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave their lamps, and took no oil with them: But the wise took oil in their me no drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye vessels with their lamps. While the bridegroom tarried, they all clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. Then shall slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him. Then all those virgins athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not arose, and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish said unto the wise, minister unto thee? Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say Give us of your oil; for our lamps are gone out. But the wise unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us and you: but it not to me. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but go ye rather to them that sell, and buy for yourselves. And while they the righteous into life eternal. went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in 1 Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened with him to the marriage: and the door was shut. Afterward came also the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But he answered and unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not. Watch therefore, for ye forth to meet the bridegroom. know neither the day nor the hour wherein the Son of man cometh. The Kingdom parables were discussed in detail in the For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. And chapter 13 notes. 3 They that were foolish took their lamps, and took unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his no oil with them: journey. Then he that had received the five talents went and traded The oil in the lamp could equally represent the Ruach with the same, and made them other five talents. And likewise he that had received two, he also gained other two. But he that had received haKodesh or the Torah, as the two cannot be separated (i.e., Romans, chapter 8) See also note to verse 12 below. one went and digged in the earth, and hid his lord's money. After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and reckoneth with them. Psalm 119:105-107 - Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, And so he that had received five talents came and brought other five and a light unto my path. I have sworn, and I will perform talents, saying, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me five talents: behold, I it, that I will keep thy righteous judgments. I am afflicted have gained beside them five talents more. His lord said unto him, very much: quicken me, O LORD, according unto thy Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou word. into the joy of thy lord. He also that had received two talents came and said, Lord, thou deliveredst unto me two talents: behold, I have gained two other talents beside them. His lord said unto him, Well

Matthew 25:1-46

The parable of the virgins is meant to teach preparedness, a common theme in Judaism with regard to the coming of God's Kingdom: Midrash Rabbah Ecclesiastes IX:7 - LET THY GARMENTS BE ALWAYS WHITE; AND LET THY HEAD LACK NO OIL (IX, 8). R. Johanan b. Zakkai said: If the text speaks of white garments, how many of these have the peoples of the world; and if it speaks of good oil, how much of it do the peoples of the world possess! Behold, it speaks only of precepts, good deeds, and Torah. R. Judah ha-Nasi said: To what may this be likened? To a king who made a banquet to which he invited guests. He said to them, Go, wash yourselves, brush up your clothes, anoint yourselves with oil, wash your garments, and prepare yourselves for the banquet, but he fixed no time when they were to come to it. The wise among them walked about by the entrance of the king's palace, saying, ' Does the king's palace lack anything? The foolish among them paid no regard or attention to the king's command. They said, We will in due course notice when the king's banquet is to take place, because can there be a banquet without labour [to prepare it] and company? So the plasterer went to his plaster, the potter to his clay, the smith to his charcoal, the washer to his laundry. Suddenly the king ordered, ' Let them all come to the banquet. They hurried the guests, so that some came in their splendid attire and others came in their dirty garments. The king was pleased with the wise ones who had obeyed his command, and also because they had shown honour to the king's palace. He was angry with the fools who had neglected his command and disgraced his palace. The king said, ' Let those who have prepared themselves for the banquet come and eat of the king's meal, but those who have not prepared themselves shall not partake of it. You might suppose that the latter were simply to depart; but the king continued, ' No, [they are not to depart]; but the former shall recline and eat and drink, while these shall remain standing, be punished, and look on and be grieved. Similarly in the Hereafter, as Isaiah declares, Behold, My servants shall eat, but ye shall be hungry (Isa. LXV, 13). Ziwatai said in the name of R. Meir: These will recline and eat and drink, while the others will recline without eating and drinking; because the vexation of him who stands [at a banquet without participating in it] is not the same as of him who reclines [without participating in it]. He who stands without eating and drinking is like an attendant, but he who reclines and does not eat suffers very much more vexation and his face turns green. That is what the prophet says, Then ye shall I sit and discern between the righteous and the wicked (Mal. III, 18).

10 And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage: and the door was shut.
The marriage banquet is for Messiah, the bridegroom, and His bride, the faith community of Israel, made up of both Jews and gentiles who trust in Yeshua and His Torah. The end-times book of Revelation shows the necessity of Torah, as part of one's faith in Yeshua, in order to enter the Kingdom of God: Revelation 12:17 - And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, [Torah] and have the testimony of Jesus Christ. Revelation 14:12 - Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, [Torah] and the faith of Jesus. Revelation 22:14 - Blessed are they that do his commandments, [Torah] that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city.

12 But he answered and said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not.
This is the same reply Yeshua gave in chapter 7, which was directed to those who thought they could follow Him apart from the will of the Father and His sayings, both of which refer to Torah: Matthew 7:21-24 - Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father [Torah] which is in heaven. Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity. Therefore whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock: The above would lend credibility to the idea that the oil in the lamps of the virgins represents Torah.

14-15 For the kingdom of heaven is as a man travelling into a far country, who called his own servants, and delivered unto them his goods. And unto one he gave five talents, to another two, and to another one; to every man according to his several ability; and straightway took his journey.
There is a principle in Judaism that God gives to each one of his servants as much spiritual enlightenment as they are capable of handling. The human being that had the greatest enlightenment was Moses, who spoke directly with God, and not in dreams or visions. Everyone else since Moses sees things less clearly:

1 Corinthians 13:12 - For now we see through a glass, 40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it shall I know even as also I am known. unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have

29-30 For unto every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have abundance: but from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath. And cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

done it unto me.


Yeshua's brethren are the children of Israel and those gentiles adopted into the faith of Israel. They are those who trust in Him and keep His Torah (1 John 2:3-4; 3:2224; 5:2-3; 2 John 1:6; Revelation 12:17; 14:12; 22:14). "Works" are an integral part of "faith" in Judaism: James 2:24 - Ye see then how that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only. It can thus be said that those persecuting Torah-observant followers of Yeshua, are in fact persecuting Him.

Yeshua's stern message here is that even those who are given a small amount from God will be held accountable to Him for what they did with it. (i.e., All believers are called to obedience.)

34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:
The Talmud teaches that seven things were seven things created from the foundation of the world: Talmud - Mas. Pesachim 54a - Surely it was taught: Seven things were created before the world was created, and these are they: The Torah, repentance, the Garden of Eden, Gehenna, the Throne of Glory, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah. The Torah, for it is written, The Lord made me [sc. the Torah] as the beginning of his way. Repentance, for it is written, Before the mountains were brought forth, and it is written, Thou turnest man to contrition, and sayest, Repent, ye children of men. The Garden of Eden, as it is written, And the Lord planted a garden in Eden from aforetime. The Gehenna, for it is written, For Tophet [i.e., Gehenna] is ordered of old. The Throne of Glory and the Temple, for it is written, Thou throne of glory, on high from the beginning, Thou place of our sanctuary. The name of the Messiah, as it is written, His [sc. the Messiah's] name shall endure for ever, and has exited before the sun! I will tell you: only its cavity was created before the world was created, but its fire [was created] on the eve of the Sabbath. The Messiah's sacrifice also goes back to this time (Hebrews 9:26; Revelation 13:8). The Bahir (a book of deeper Hebrew teachings on the Torah that we address in our Revelation study), affirms Yeshua's words. It compares the Kingdom to a special light from God set aside since the foundation of the world: Bahir 190 - "What is Fear of God? It is the First Light. Rabbi Meir thus said: Why is it written (Genesis 1:3): And God said 'Let their be light, and there was light.' Why does it not say: 'And it was so?' But this teaches us that the light was very intense, so that no created thing could gaze upon it. God therefore store it away for the righteous in the Ultimate Future.

Section X - CONCLUSION OF EARTHLY MINISTRY


Matthew 26:1-28:20
NOTE: The King James version will be the primary text used in this study for no other reason than it is popular and well recognized. If another version is used, it will be cited. The text of each chapter will be shown in full, followed by commentary on selected verses. In some cases there may be multiple verses that are not discussed. In others, a single verse (or even a single word) may merit a great deal of study.

Matthew 26:1-75 (last update: 02-27-01)


SUBJECTS: The Lord's Feasts, the wicked generation, Simon the "leper," spikenard, Judas in the place of honor, blessing of God, the New Covenant, dispersion, Yeshua remaining with us, Son of Man

Matthew 27:1-66 (last update: 02-27-01)


SUBJECTS: Textual discrepancies, "measure for measure" punishment, Messianic prophecies and their fulfillment

Matthew 28:1-20

(last update: 02-27-01)

SUBJECTS: The Sabbath, the Angel of the Lord, emanations of God, Torah for gentiles

Matthew 26:1-75 Last Updated 2/27/01


CHAPTER 26:1-75 TEXT:
And it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, he said unto his disciples, Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified. Then assembled together the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders of the people, unto the palace of the high priest, who was called Caiaphas, And consulted that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. But they said, Not on the feast day, lest there be an uproar among the people. Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment, and poured it on his head, as he sat at meat. But when his disciples saw it, they had indignation, saying, To

what purpose is this waste? For this ointment might have been sold for much, and given to the poor. When Jesus understood it, he said unto them, Why trouble ye the woman? for she hath wrought a good work upon me. For ye have the poor always with you; but me ye have not always. For in that she hath poured this ointment on my body, she did it for my burial. Verily I say unto you, Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall also this, that this woman hath done, be told for a memorial of her. Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, And said unto them, What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty pieces of silver. And from that time he sought opportunity to betray him. Now the first day of the feast of unleavened bread the disciples came to Jesus, saying unto him, Where wilt thou that we prepare for thee to eat the passover? And he said, Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples. And the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the passover. Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say unto him, Lord, is it I? And he answered and said, He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me. The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born. Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom. And when they had sung an hymn, they went out into the mount of Olives. Then saith Jesus unto them, All ye shall be offended because of me this night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. But after I am risen again, I will go before you into Galilee. Peter answered and said unto him, Though all men shall be offended because of thee, yet will I never be offended. Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, That this night, before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. Peter said unto him, Though I should die with thee, yet will I not deny thee. Likewise also said all the disciples. Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. Then saith he unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me. And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt. And he cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak. He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done. And he came and found them asleep again: for their eyes were heavy. And he left them, and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. Then cometh he to his disciples, and saith unto them, Sleep on now, and take your rest: behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us be going: behold, he is at hand that doth betray me. And while he yet spake, lo, Judas, one of the twelve, came, and with him a great multitude with swords and staves, from the chief priests and elders of the people. Now he that betrayed him gave them a sign, saying, Whomsoever I shall kiss, that same is he:

hold him fast. And forthwith he came to Jesus, and said, Hail, master; and kissed him. And Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come? Then came they, and laid hands on Jesus and took him. And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. Thinkest thou that I cannot now pray to my Father, and he shall presently give me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be? In that same hour said Jesus to the multitudes, Are ye come out as against a thief with swords and staves for to take me? I sat daily with you teaching in the temple, and ye laid no hold on me. But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled. Then all the disciples forsook him, and fled. And they that had laid hold on Jesus led him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. But Peter followed him afar off unto the high priest's palace, and went in, and sat with the servants, to see the end. Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death; But found none: yea, though many false witnesses came, yet found they none. At the last came two false witnesses, And said, This fellow said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days. And the high priest arose, and said unto him, Answerest thou nothing? what is it which these witness against thee? But Jesus held his peace, And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God. Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy; what further need have we of witnesses? behold, now ye have heard his blasphemy. What think ye? They answered and said, He is guilty of death. Then did they spit in his face, and buffeted him; and others smote him with the palms of their hands, Saying, Prophesy unto us, thou Christ, Who is he that smote thee? Now Peter sat without in the palace: and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus of Galilee. But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. And when he was gone out into the porch, another maid saw him, and said unto them that were there, This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth. And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter, Surely thou also art one of them; for thy speech bewrayeth thee. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew. And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.

NOTE: The final three chapters of Matthew, depicting the days just prior to Yeshua's death, as well as the account of His trial, death and resurrection, are replete with deep mystical meaning. For the purpose of this study, we will only touch on some of these themes. A more in-depth approach will be taken in our other enhanced studies.

2 Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified.
Note that Yeshua speaks of a connection between Passover and His destiny. All of the feasts of the Lord have some bearing on His cosmic plan. They are a "shadow" of what is to come (Hebrews 8:5, 10:1; Colossians 2:17). The study and observance of these

Feasts (and the rest of Torah - Romans 2:13; James 1:22), Acts 12:4 -- a clear case of tampering with the Word of God.) is fundamental to faith in God. God commanded His people to keep the Feast of 3 Then assembled together the chief priests, and Passover/Unleavened Bread in Exodus 12:14-20; 13:6-10; the scribes, and the elders of the people 23:15; 34:18, Leviticus 23:5-8; Numbers 28:17-18, Although the leadership was clearly instigating matters against Yeshua, He does not miss the people as a whole, Deuteronomy 16:8,16). In addition, all males who were able, were required to as we will see in the next chapter. This generation was appear at the Temple in Jerusalem for three feasts: Pesakh given more blessing than any other as they had the (Passover), Shavout (Pentecost), Succot (Tabernacles), as Messiah in their midst (Hebrews 11:39-40). Some, like found in Deuteronomy16:16. John the Baptist were fortunate in this respect (Luke 23 And he answered and said, He that dippeth his 7:28), but the generation as a whole failed to respond to what God had given them (Matthew 25:15) and thus their hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me. punishment would be great (Luke 12:47). This would indicate that Judas was sitting on one side of 6 Now when Jesus was in Bethany, in the house of Yeshua (with John on the other). As dipping in the bowl (at Pesakh/Passover) is done to the left, this places Judas Simon the leper, This is a mistranslation. Lepers were not permitted to live to His right, in the seat of honor at the seder table. This alludes to one of the Psalms: in the city (see Leviticus 13:46). Since ancient Hebrew Psalm 41:9 - Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I and Aramaic were written without vowels, there was no distinction between the Aramaic words GAR'BA (leper) trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me. and GARABA (jar maker or jar merchant). Since in this 26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and story a woman pours oil from a jar it is apparent that 1 blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, Simon was a jar merchant or jar maker and not a leper. Another incorrect translation that has led to erroneous This ointment is called "spikenard," as revealed in Mark doctrine. Yeshua does not bless the bread. "Blessing things" as such is foreign to Judaiam. Rather, Yeshua 14:3. The Hebrew Zohar (a book of very deep and often blessed God, the maker of the bread, as is still done today mystical commentary), relates spikenard to the man who at Passover seders. dies before his time because of the good deeds he has This the blessing He would be reciting at this point of the done: Soncino Zohar, Bereshith, Section 1, Page 56b - While meal: the king was still with his company at table, my spikenard Baruch atah Adonai Elohenu Melech haOlam, hamotzi lehem, min ha'aretz. sent forth its fragrance (Song of Solomon 1:12). This Blessed are you Lord God, King of the Universe, Who verse, he said, can be expounded as referring to the brings forth bread from the earth. ways of God. When God sees that a man who cleaves to 28 For this is my blood of the new testament, Him and with whom He abides will one day degenerate, He takes him from the world prematurely, culling, as it which is shed for many for the remission of sins. were, the odour while it is still sweet; hence it is written, Exodus 24:6-8 - And Moses took half the blood and put it while the King was with his company, my spikenard in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar. gave up its scent. The King is God; the company is the Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the good man who cleaves to Him and walks in His ways; the hearing of the people. And they said, "All that the LORD spikenard indicates the good deeds on account of which has said we will do, and be obedient." And Moses took the he is removed from the world before his time. blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, "This is the blood of the covenant which the LORD has made with you 17 Now on the first day of the Feast of the according to all these words." Unleavened Bread the disciples came to Jesus, This Exodus passage shows that Israel accepted the saying to Him, "Where do You want us to prepare covenant that was being offered to them. They were to do for You to eat the Passover?" this by faith in the same way we accept a relationship with Again, the Lord's Feasts play an important role and still Yeshua. Both require a committment, sprinkling of blood should for anyone following Yeshua and the ways of God. to institute, and faith. The modern religious holidays of Christmas and Easter The "imperfection" of the "old" covenant was that the are pagan in origin and are alien and contrary to what God promises were based on the obedience of the people as has established. (The King James version of the Bible they said "all that the LORD said we will do." They failed even has the audacity to replace Passover with "Easter" in due to a lack of faith on their part (Hebrews 4:2). The

7 There came unto him a woman having an alabaster box of very precious ointment,

and said, Take, eat; this is my body.

"new" covenant is different in that it is based upon Yeshua's obedience (Hebrews 8:6-8).

29 But I say unto you, I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom.
Blood was sprinkled on the people at the initiation of the Covenant in Exodus 24. "New Testament" is a term that takes away from a correct understanding. Yeshua is referring to what is also called the "New Covenant" in English, but according to the Tenakh, is more correctly considered a "renewed Covenant." This Covenant renewal is found in the book of Jeremiah and also referred to in other places in the Tenakh. Unfortunately, the English word "new" in either case, falsely implies that the "old" covenant, with Torah as its foundation, is done away with. We know from Yeshua's own words that this is not the case. See notes to Matthew chapter 5, and forward. None of God's covenants have been disposed of. It would seem in verse 29, that Yeshua Himself does not drink of this cup. This is because the "New Covenant" is not fully established by Him at this time. The Hebraic understanding is that of a "Renewed Covenant" that God will make when Judah and Ephraim are reunited one day at the time of Messiah's coming -- hence He will drink of the cup only, "... in my Father's kingdom." There are specific conditions for the New Covenant, and these were are not in place at the time of Yeshua, nor are they yet in place today. They will come to fruition only upon His return. For details on this subject, turn to the article: The New Covenant - Not for Today in the YashaNet library.

own skin (at the end of this chapter), to being a chief spokesperson for the Lord among his Jewish brethren (as seen in the book of Acts).

54 But how then shall the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be? 56 But all this was done, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled.
See notes to Matthew 27:35 concerning "fulfillment of prophecy."

63 And the high priest answered and said unto him, I adjure thee by the living God, that thou tell us whether thou be the Christ, the Son of God.
The text implies that the high priest had an understanding of Scripture that correlated the Messiah to the "Son" of God. This is not easily found in Scripture when read at the literal level. Our Revelation study will reveal the deeper aspects ("sod" level) of Hebraic understanding of concepts such as "the living God," Messiah, and "Son of God."

64 Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.

Daniel 7:13 - I was seeing in the visions of the night, and lo, with the clouds of the heavens as a son of man was [one] coming, and unto the Ancient of Days he hath come, and before Him they have brought him near. One of the "puzzles" that concerned the Jewish sages was that some parts of the Tenakh seemed to indicate that the Messiah would arrive triumphantly on the clouds, while others said he would come on a donkey. The conclusion they reached was that if Israel merited it, he would come on the clouds, but if they failed, he would come on a 31 All ye shall be offended because of me this donkey: night: for it is written, I will smite the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock shall be scattered abroad. Talmud - Mas. Sanhedrin 98a - R. Alexandri said: R. Joshua b. Levi pointed out a contradiction. it is written, in Not long after this came a series of altercations between its time [will the Messiah come], whilst it is also written, I the Jews and Rome, including major wars around 70 and [the Lord] will hasten it! if they are worthy, I will 132 AD. The result of these actions was not only the hasten it: if not, [he will come] at the due time. R. further dispersion of Jews across the empire, but also the Alexandri said: R. Joshua opposed two verses: it is suppression of the faith of the original Messianic written, And behold, one like the son of man came with (Nazarene) community. This led to the development of a the clouds of heaven whilst [elsewhere] it is written, "faith" that was decidedly "anti-Torah," and incorporated [behold, thy king cometh unto thee . . .] lowly, and riding many pagan elements, that eventually organized itself into upon an ass! if they are meritorious, [he will come] the Catholic/Christian religion and its "spinoff" Protestant with the clouds of heaven; if not, lowly and riding upon children. an ass. For more details of these historical developments, turn to Yeshua, as we know, first came to his people on the back the background articles in our Romans study. of a donkey (Matthew 21:5), and is destined to return in 35 Peter said unto him, Though I should die with the clouds.

thee, yet will I not deny thee.

It is interesting to note the change in Peter before and after the giving of the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit). He goes from being impetuous and rebuked by Yeshua (Matthew 16:23), even denying the Messiah to save his

65 Then the high priest rent his clothes, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy;

Again, the reaction of the High Priest is that of someone claiming in some fashion to be God, as all Jews were considered "sons of God" in a greater sense.
1. Credit to James Trimm of www.nazarene.net for this corrected translation.

Matthew 27:1-66 Last Updated 2/27/01


CHAPTER 27:1-66 TEXT:
When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: And when they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to Pontius Pilate the governor. Then Judas, which had betrayed him, when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders, Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood. And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that. And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed, and went and hanged himself. And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury, because it is the price of blood. And they took counsel, and bought with them the potter's field, to bury strangers in. Wherefore that field was called, The field of blood, unto this day. Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying, And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was valued, whom they of the children of Israel did value; And gave them for the potter's field, as the Lord appointed me. And Jesus stood before the governor: and the governor asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And Jesus said unto him, Thou sayest. And when he was accused of the chief priests and elders, he answered nothing. Then said Pilate unto him, Hearest thou not how many things they witness against thee? And he answered him to never a word; insomuch that the governor marvelled greatly. Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the people a prisoner, whom they would. And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas. Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ? For he knew that for envy they had delivered him. When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him. But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus. The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas. Pilate saith unto them, What shall I do then with Jesus which is called Christ? They all say unto him, Let him be crucified. And the governor said, Why, what evil hath he done? But they cried out the more, saying, Let him be crucified. When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see ye to it. Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified. Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered unto him the whole band of soldiers. And they stripped him, and put on him a scarlet robe. And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews! And they spit upon him, and took the reed, and smote him on the head. And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull, They gave him

vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink. And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots. And sitting down they watched him there; And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. Likewise also the chief priests mocking him, with the scribes and elders, said, He saved others; himself he cannot save. If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he will have him: for he said, I am the Son of God. The thieves also, which were crucified with him, cast the same in his teeth. Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour. And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias. And straightway one of them ran, and took a spunge, and filled it with vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink. The rest said, Let be, let us see whether Elias will come to save him. Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost. And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened; and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, And came out of the graves after his resurrection, and went into the holy city, and appeared unto many. Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done, they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Son of God. And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him: Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and the mother of Zebedees children. When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus' disciple: He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed. And there was Mary Magdalene, and the other Mary, sitting over against the sepulchre. Now the next day, that followed the day of the preparation, the chief priests and Pharisees came together unto Pilate, Saying, Sir, we remember that that deceiver said, while he was yet alive, After three days I will rise again. Command therefore that the sepulchre be made sure until the third day, lest his disciples come by night, and steal him away, and say unto the people, He is risen from the dead: so the last error shall be worse than the first. Pilate said unto them, Ye have a watch: go your way, make it as sure as ye can. So they went, and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and setting a watch.

9 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet
This verse presents a problem as Zechariah is the actual source or this prophecy and not Jeremiah. There are several possible explanations for this: 1. As seen earlier in Matthew, this could be a case of subsequent scribal error. The Shem-Tob Hebrew Matthew has Zechariah as the prophet in this verse. As this is shows a clear difference between translations, we view this as the most likely explanation over the next two.

But one can legitimately ask, What is the basis for saying a verse from the Tenakh, is a prophecy about the Messiah, and furthermore, specifically that "Yeshua fulfilled it." Examining the text of Psalm 22 (which Matthew cites), we see that it is a "Psalm of David," and is written in the "first person." Therefore it is David who is crying out to the Lord in a time of his need. There is no specific reference to "Messiah" anywhere in the text. How then is this a "Messianic prophecy" as well as being "proof" for Yeshua being Messiah? The same can be said of most of the other "prophecy fulfillments" of the "New Testament." For example, the Jewish New Testament and Jewish New Testament 20 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the Commentary both have lists of "Messianic prophecies" multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and fulfilled by Yeshua.1 Examining the Tenakh citations, we destroy Jesus. find the same thing in these texts -- no mention of 25 Then answered all the people, and said, His "Messiah." (In fact, the term "Messiah" is only found in blood be on us, and on our children. one place in the entire Tenakh -- in chapter 9 of Daniel.) As mentioned, the "multitude" was willing to go along Unfortunately, we lack the level of understanding that the with the efforts of their leaders, hence Yeshua's words (Hebrew) "New Testament" authors had to show why about the entire generation being wicked (Matthew 12:45; these Tenakh verses are "Messianic prophecies" and how 16:4). The principle in force here is that to whom much is they make the connection to Yeshua fulfilling them. Our given (by God), much is expected. ability to decipher these Scriptures is hampered due to An example of this is Moses, who was given greater almost 2000 years of reading the "New Testament" spiritual insight than anyone else in history. He was not outside the context of Torah, as it was understood and allowed to enter the Holy Land due to certain sin (striking presented in the Hebraic minds of Matthew, John, Peter, the rock and not speaking to it), which for someone of Paul, James, etc. "lesser stature" would probably not have merited such 40 And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, punishement. This generation was blessed beyond any to that point, in and buildest it in three days, The deeper aspects of the relationship between Yeshua that they had the Torah in the flesh among them (i.e., and the Temple will be explored in our future studies. Hebrews 11). They rejected this blessing however, and therefore suffered severe consequences. As they "cut off" 42 If he be the King of Israel, let him now come the Messiah (i.e., Daniel 9:26), they themselves would be down from the cross, and we will believe him. This wicked generation was still looking for signs to the cut off. This is the principle of middah k'neged middah very end (i.e., Matthew 16:4). The proper attitude of a (God's punishement being "measure for measure"). believer was found in three men tossed into a furnace Despite the words of the people, their actions did not many years prior to this: condemn all Jews from that point on (as some antiDaniel 3:17-18 - If it be so, our God whom we serve is Semites teach). Each person is guilty for their own sin before God, although the effects of that sin may continue able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace; and he will deliver us out of your hand, O king. But if not, be it for several generations. known to you, O king, that we will not serve your gods or 35 And they crucified him, and parted his worship the golden image which you have set up." garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled

2. It could also be that Jeremiah is referred to as the "source," as in ancient times the scrolls of the "minor" prophets (i.e. Zechariah) were bound together with those of the "major" prophets (i.e., Jeremiah), and that the book of Jeremiah was indeed the "head" of the grouping. Although this is possible, it would be the only use of this method in the gospels, making it somewhat unlikely. 3. It could be that Matthew is combining two prophecies, that contain elements of the other. Although this device is used (at the Midrashic level of Hebrew Bible commentary), there doesn't seen to be a strong reason for it here.

which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots.
There are many citations of Scripture (from the Tenakh) used by Matthew (and other "New Testament" writers) with association to Yeshua being the Messiah. The quotation in this verse is from Psalm 22:18. Many people will cite such statements from "New Testament" as a fulfilled prophecy.

46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
The ideas of, a) Messiah being God, and, b) God talking to God, are both difficult to prove using Scripture at the literal (p'shat) level. The concept of God's various "emanations" lies deep within the mystical aspects of Judaism are touched on in the next section and will be dealt with extensively in our Revelation study.

47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard "days of the week," is Day 1, Day, 2, etc, through Day 6, followed by the Sabbath. that, said, This man calleth for Elias.
Although the tradition of Elijah returning is associated with Passover, why they are saying that Yeshua is calling for Elijah when He is obviously calling out to God, is quite interesting.

The change from keeing God's Sabbath to worshipping on Sunday is discussed in our article, Not Subject to the Law of God? in the YashaNet library.

Interestingly, "the angel of the Lord" is often associated with the Messiah. How then could this angel be the This is the veil separating the Holy Place from the Holy Messiah as He is speaking of Himself being elsewhere? of Holies. (See Hebrews 9:3-9; 10:19-22.) There is deep mystical signficance here, beyond the scope of this study. (See Matthew 27:46). The angel possesses a "garment" of white. This is not physical clothing, as we are dealing We will address this issue in our future studies. with the spiritual realm. Our Revelation study addresses 1. Jewish New Testament Jewish, Introduction, section VII, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pp. 79-80 these complex issues. (See note at end of this section.)

51 And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom; and the earth did quake, and the rocks rent;

2 the angel of the Lord descended from heaven 3 His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow:

Matthew 28:1-20 Last Updated 2/27/01


CHAPTER 28:1-20 TEXT:

18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.

Daniel 7:14 - I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week, came Mary Magdalene and the other Mary to see the came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near sepulchre. And, behold, there was a great earthquake: for the angel of before him. And there was given him dominion, and the Lord descended from heaven, and came and rolled back the stone glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and from the door, and sat upon it. His countenance was like lightning, languages, should serve him: his dominion is an and his raiment white as snow: And for fear of him the keepers did everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his shake, and became as dead men. And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.

was crucified. He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell his disciples that he is risen from the dead; and, behold, he goeth before you into Galilee; there shall ye see him: lo, I have told you. And they departed quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy; and did run to bring his disciples word. And as they went to tell his disciples, behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And they came and held him by the feet, and worshipped him. Then said Jesus unto them, Be not afraid: go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me. Now when they were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and shewed unto the chief priests all the things that were done. And when they were assembled with the elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large money unto the soldiers, Saying, Say ye, His disciples came by night, and stole him away while we slept. And if this come to the governor's ears, we will persuade him, and secure you. So they took the money, and did as they were taught: and this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this day. Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. And when they saw him, they worshipped him: but some doubted. And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:
Yeshua, says to baptize "in the name of ..." This means, "in the authority of," the person, place or thing, being referred to. Note that there is also a signficant change of "direction" with this verse, regarding the offer of salvation. Here we have Yeshua telling His disciples to go out to the nations (goyim), not just the children of Israel (compare to His words in Matthew 10:6, where He told them not to go to the nations). Something significant and deeply mystical happened with the death of Messiah, that enabled the gospel to go out to the non-Jewish world. This verse is often used to teach the Christian "trinity" - a concept contradictory to a Hebrew understanding of the Scriptures. God does indeed emanate in the forms of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Ruach haKodesh), but also as; the Shekinah, Kingdom, the "voice of God," the "face of God," Tzaddik ("Righteous One"), New Jerusalem, the Bat Kol (voice from heaven),Wisdom, Understanding, Mercy, Judgement, Prophecy, and even "seven spirits" (i.e., Revelation, chapter 1). It is often overlooked (and frowned upon by Protestants, due to Catholic dogmas about Mary being the "mother of God"), that God is also revealed in some distinctly "feminine" forms. These include the Ruach haKodesh (Holy Spirit), Shekinah, Kingdom and "New Jerusalem"

1 In the end of the sabbath, as it began to dawn toward the first day of the week,
As noted, Yeshua and His followers remained in the faith of Israel and its Torah, and this observed the Sabbath on the "last" day of the week, i.e., from sundown Friday to sundown Saturday. The Bibilcal method of counting the

(which is also called, "Jerusalem above" and referred to as our "mother" in Galatians 4:26) and Bat Kol (literally, "daughter of the voice). All of these terms are feminine in the Hebrew - grammatically, and at a deeper level, theologically. We even see Yeshua speaking of Himself in "female" terms in Matthew 23:37. Recall that we are made in God's image and that image is both male and female (Genesis 1:27). God is not limited to three parts of a "trinity," nor are any of these emanations solely a distinct "person" (i.e., "God the Father," "God the Son," "God the Holy Spirit"), as God is One. Such doctrines are attempts to put "God in a box" as many people don't consider themselves to have strong faith unless everything is "black and white," and they have a "tidy answer" for anyone that asks asks them to explain their faith. Judaism recognizes that God is a bit more complex than we often "wish" Him to be. He reveals Himself in His Torah, and that Torah is infinite.

20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.
Once again, we see that the Torah is for everyone, Jew and gentile -- as what He "commands" is obedience to the Word of God. Again, there is a great deal of mystical significance in the text. Just how is Yeshua "with us" always, when Scripture says He has returned to heaven? This too will be explored later, in our more advanced studies.

TO THE STUDENT COMPLETING THIS STUDY:


We recommend that the student proceed to our Romans study from this point. The book of Revelation has been mentioned a great deal, but that study contains very deep Hebraic concepts, and a firm foundation in Torah, including Paul's insights from the book of Romans, is essential for correct understanding.