Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Summary of Results for Ebehiremen Ayewoh

Site Title: Campbell, Biology, 7e Book Title: Biology Book Author: Campbell Location on Home > 8: An Introduction to Metabolism Site: > Chapter Quiz Submitted: October 5, 2011 at 7:17 PM (UTC/GMT) 98%of 45 Correctquestions
44 correct: 1 2% incorrect: 98%

More information about scoring

1.

Which of the following correctly states the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: Anabolic pathways synthesize more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways. Correct. The synthesis of complex molecules in anabolic pathways requires an input of energy from catabolic pathways.

2.

Which of the following situations does not represent a transformation of one type of energy to another? (Concept 8.1 ) Your Answer: a collision between one billiard ball and other balls, causing them to move Correct. This represents kinetic energy being transferred from one ball to another, but not transformation of one energy type to another.

3.

Organisms are described as thermodynamically open systems. Which of the following statements is consistent with this description? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: Organisms acquire energy from their surroundings. Correct. Open systems are those in which energy and materials can be exchanged between the system and its surroundings.

4.

Consider the growth of a farmer's crop over a season. Which of the following correctly states a limitation imposed by the first or second laws of thermodynamics? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: In order to obey the first law, the crop must represent an open system. Correct. The first law states that energy cannot be created. The growth of plants stores much energy in the body of the plant. That energy must have been obtained from the plant's environment; thus, the plant must be an open system.

5.

Which of the following states the relevance of the first law of thermodynamics to biology? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: Energy can be freely transformed among different forms as long as the total energy is conserved. Correct. The first law of thermodynamics states that energy can be transformed but can be neither created nor destroyed.

6.

Which is the most abundant form of energy in a cell? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: chemical energy Correct. All of the macromolecules that make up a cell contain large amounts of chemical (potential) energy, stored when they

were made in anabolic reactions.

7.

Which of the following is an example of the second law of thermodynamics as it applies to biological reactions? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: The aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose produces six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water. Correct. The second law of thermodynamics states that every energy transformation makes the universe more disordered carbon dioxide and water are more disordered than glucose.

8.

According to the second law of thermodynamics, which of the following is true? (Concept 8.1 )

Your Answer: The decrease in entropy associated with life must be compensated for by an increase in entropy in the environment that life occurs in. Correct. The second law of thermodynamics demands that total entropy must increase with any reaction.

9.

If the entropy of a living organism is decreasing, which of the following is most likely to be occurring simultaneously? (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: Energy input into the organism must be occurring in order to drive the decrease in entropy. Correct. If the entropy is decreasing, this would tend to make the free energy change associated with this positive. Thus, an input of energy would be required to make this decrease in entropy occur.

10.

Which one of the following has the most free energy per

molecule? (Concept 8.2

Your Answer: a starch molecule Correct. Starch is a large polymer of sugar and thus contains many covalent bonds.

11.

Which part of the equation G = H - TS tells you if a process is spontaneous? (Concept 8.2 Your Answer: G Correct. In any spontaneous process, the free energy of a system decreases. The change in free energy equals the change in total energy minus the change in entropy times the temperature. )

12.

If, during a process, the system becomes more ordered, then _____. (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: S is negative Correct. In an endergonic reaction, in which order is increased, the change in entropy, symbolized by S, is negative.

13.

When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, which one of the following will always be true? (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: S is positive. Correct. The large increase in disorder associated with this reaction means that entropy (S) increases.

14.

From the equation G = H - TS it is clear that _____. (Concept

8.2

Your Answer: The first three choices are correct. Correct. This is the best response.

15.

What must be true if the reaction AB + CD AC + BD occurs spontaneously? (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: The difference between H and TS must be negative. Correct. In spontaneous reactions, the G must be negative.

16.

An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that _____. (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction Correct. Exergonic reactions proceed with a net release of free energy, and they occur spontaneously.

17.

Which of the following reactions would be endergonic? (Concept 8.2 )

Your Answer: glucose + fructose sucrose Correct. In this case, the product is more complex (lower entropy) than the reactants, and like many anabolic reactions, this one requires an input of energy.

18.

Metabolic pathways in cells are typically far from equilibrium. Which of the following processes tend to keep these pathways

away from equilibrium? (Concept 8.2

Your Answer: The first and second choices are correct. Correct. Pathways can be displaced from equilibrium either by adding free energy or by removal of the products of the pathway by other reactions.

19.

Which of the following is not an example of the cellular work accomplished with the free energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP? (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: the production of heat, which raises the temperature of the cell Correct. Heat is a product of most chemical reactions, but heat cannot be stored by a cell or used to do any form of cellular work.

20.

In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by _____. (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: releasing free energy that can be coupled to other reactions Correct. With the help of specific enzymes, the cell can couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis directly to endergonic processes.

21.

Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of ATP hydrolysis being used to drive the active transport of an ion into the cell against the ion's concentration gradient? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.3 )

Your Answer: This is an example of energy coupling. Correct. The free energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to the energy-requiring active transport of the ion across a membrane.

22.

Which compound could be most easily modified to form ATP? (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: the RNA nucleotide adenosine Correct. ATP has three phosphate groups attached to ribose, which is attached to adenine. The RNA nucleotide adenosine contains only one phosphate.

23.

Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bonds between the phosphate groups. These bonds are unstable because _____. (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: the negatively charged phosphate groups vigorously repel one another and the terminal phosphate group is more stable in water than it is in ATP Correct. Negative charges repel each other. Loss of the terminal phosphate removes some of the repulsion.

24.

When 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a test tube without an enzyme, about twice as much heat is given off as when 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a cell. Which of the following best explains these observations? (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: In the cell, the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to other endergonic reactions. Correct. The coupling of ATP to other endergonic processes in cells means that less of the free energy is released as heat. When ATP is hydrolyzed without this coupling, all of the energy is released as heat.

25.

What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism? (Concept 8.3 )

Your Answer: The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate. Correct. This is one way a cell can use an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.

26.

The formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose is an endergonic reaction and is coupled to which of the following reactions or pathways? (Concept 8.3 Your Answer: the hydrolysis of ATP Correct. With the help of specific enzymes, the cell is able to couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis directly to endergonic processes by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule, such as glucose. )

27.

A chemical reaction is designated as exergonic rather than endergonic when _____. (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 )

Your Answer: the potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants Correct. If a reaction is exergonic, the formation of new bonds releases more energy than was invested in breaking the old bonds.

28.

What do the sign and magnitude of the G of a reaction tell us about the speed of the reaction? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 )

Your Answer: Neither the sign nor the magnitude of G have anything to do with the speed of a reaction. Correct. The speed of a reaction is determined by the activation energy barrier of the reaction and the temperature (which determines how many reactants have the energy to overcome the barrier).

29.

The mechanism of enzyme action is _____. (Concept 8.4

Your Answer: lowering the energy of activation for a reaction Correct. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.

30.

Which of the following statements about enzymes is true? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the G for the reaction. Correct. Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy barrier for the reaction. Enzymes cannot change the G for the reaction.

31.

Which of the following statements about enzyme function is correct? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: Enzymes can lower the activation energy of reactions, but they cannot change the equilibrium point because they cannot change the net energy output. Correct. Enzymes lower the activation energy barrier of a reaction but do not change the free energy of the products.

32.

A plot of reaction rate (velocity) against temperature for an enzyme indicates little activity at 10C and 45C, with peak activity at 35C. The most reasonable explanation for the low velocity at 10C is that _____. (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: there is too little activation energy available Correct. The environment usually supplies activation energy in the form of heat. The lower the temperature, the less energy that

is available to overcome the activation energy barrier.

33.

Which of the following statements about enzymes is incorrect? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: All of the above are correct statements about enzymes. Correct. Most enzymes are catalytic proteins that change the rate of reactions without being consumed by the reaction. (Ribozymes, another class of biological catalysts, are made of RNA.) An enzyme speeds a reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier. An enzyme can distinguish its substrate from even closely related compounds such as isomers.

34.

Which of the following statements about the active site of an enzyme is correct? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: The active site may resemble a groove or pocket in the surface of a protein into which the substrate fits. Correct. Only a restricted region of an enzyme molecule (the active site) binds to the substrate. Usually, the active site is formed by only a few of the amino acids, with the rest of the protein molecule providing a framework that reinforces the configuration of the active site.

35.

What is meant by the "induced fit" of an enzyme? (Concept 8.4 ) Your Answer: The enzyme changes its shape slightly as the substrate binds to it. Correct. The enzyme changes slightly to bind to the substrate and catalyze the reaction.

36.

Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) the role(s) of heat and temperature in biological reactions? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: The first and second choices are correct. Correct.

37.

Above a certain substrate concentration, the rate of an enzymecatalyzed reaction drops as the enzymes become saturated. Which of the following would lead to a faster conversion of substrate into product under these saturated conditions? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: The first and second choices are correct. Correct. Either increasing the enzyme concentration or slightly increasing the temperature will increase the rate of product formation.

38.

Which of the following environments or actions does not affect the rate of an enzyme reaction? (Concept 8.4 Your Answer: all of the above Correct. Changes in temperature, substrate concentration, and pH are all likely to affect enzyme activity. )

39.

Enzyme activity is affected by pH because _____. (Concept 8.4 ) Your Answer: high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site Correct. Each enzyme has an optimal pH at which it is most active, and variations in pH can alter the enzyme's structure, changing activity.

40.

Which of these statements about enzyme inhibitors is true? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: The action of competitive inhibitors may be reversible or irreversible. Correct. Competitive inhibitors that bind covalently to the enzyme would be irreversible, and those that bind weakly would be reversible.

41.

Succinylcholine is structurally almost identical to acetylcholine. If succinylcholine is added to a mixture that contains acetylcholine and the enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (but not succinylcholine), the rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis is decreased. Subsequent addition of more acetylcholine restores the original rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis. Which of the following correctly explains this observation? (Concept 8.4 )

Your Answer: Succinylcholine must be a competitive inhibitor with acetylcholine. Correct. Competitive inhibition occurs when a molecule mimics the substrate by competing with it at the active site.

42.

The process of stabilizing the structure of an enzyme in its active form by the binding of a molecule is an example of _____. (Concept 8.5 )

Your Answer: allosteric regulation Correct. The molecule in this example would be termed an allosteric activator.

43.

Which, if any, of the following statements is not true about allosteric proteins? (Concept 8.5 )

Your Answer: They can bind to a range of substrates.

Correct. Allosteric enzymes, like any other enzyme, are very specific with respect to the substrates they will bind.

44.

The binding of an allosteric inhibitor to an enzyme causes the rate of product formation by the enzyme to decrease. Which of the following best explains why this decrease occurs? (Concept 8.5 ) Your Answer: The allosteric inhibitor causes a structural change in the enzyme that prevents the substrate from binding at the active site. Correct. In general, any allosteric regulator functions by changing the structure of the enzyme to either change the ability of the active site to bind the substrate or to facilitate the chemical reaction.

45.

Under most conditions, the supply of energy by catabolic pathways is regulated by the demand for energy by anabolic pathways. Considering the role of ATP formation and hydrolysis in energy coupling of anabolic and catabolic pathways, which of the following statements is most likely to be true? (Concept 8.5 Your Answer: High levels of ATP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways. Correct Answer: High levels of ADP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways No. This would mean that high supply of energy by catabolic pathways would increase the supply of energy by catabolic pathwaysa kind of positive feedback. )