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# 1

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
B W
+
B R
-
R N
+
B N
=

B G
+
B W
+
W
+
p
S
- 1
S C
+
C
GB
+
NB
+
B
-
B
G +
B
-
B
N
w p g soi p p t p
Ig I Iw I e
t
wi
wi w f
gi ti gi g ti t
|
.
|

\
|
Material Balance Calculations
A general material balance equation that can be applied to all reservoir types was
first developed by Schilthuis in 1936. Although it is a tank model equation, it can
provide great insight for the practicing reservoir engineer. It is written from start of
production to any time (t) as follows:

oil zone oil expansion + gas zone gas expansion
+ oil zone and gas zone pore volume and connate water expansion
+ water influx + water injected + gas injected
= oil produced + gas produced + water produced
Where:
N initial oil in place, STB
N
p
cumulative oil produced, STB
G initial gas in place, SCF
G
I
cumulative gas injected into reservoir, SCF
G
p
cumulative gas produced, SCF
W
e
water influx into reservoir, bbl
W
I
cumulative water injected into reservoir, STB
W
p
cumulative water produced, STB
B
ti
initial two-phase formation volume factor, bbl/STB = B
oi

B
oi
initial oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB
B
gi
initial gas formation volume factor, bbl/SCF
B
t
two-phase formation volume factor, bbl/STB = B
o
+ (R
soi
- R
so
) B
g

B
o
oil formation volume factor, bbl/STB
B
g
gas formation volume factor, bbl/SCF
B
w
water formation volume factor, bbl/STB
B
Ig
injected gas formation volume factor, bbl/SCF
B
Iw
injected water formation volume factor, bbl/STB
R
soi
initial solution gas-oil ratio, SCF/STB
R
so
solution gas-oil ratio, SCF/STB
R
p
cumulative produced gas-oil ratio, SCF/STB
C
f
formation compressibility, psia
-1

C
w
water isothermal compressibility, psia
-1

S
wi
initial water saturation
p
t
reservoir pressure drop, psia = p
i
- p(t)
p(t) current reservoir pressure, psia
(1)
2
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
B W
+
B R
-
R N
+
B N
=

B G
+
B W
+
W
+
p
S
- 1
S C
+
C
GB
+
NB
+
B
-
B
G +
B
-
B
N
w p g soi p p t p
Ig I Iw I e
t
wi
wi w f
gi ti gi g ti t
|
.
|

\
|
B
N
B
G
=
volume oil initial
volume cap gas initial
ti
gi
= m
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
B W
+
B R
-
R N
+
B N
=

B G
+
B W
+
W
+
p
S
- 1
S C
+
C
B
Nm +
NB
+
B
-
B
B
B
Nm +
B
-
B
N
w p g soi p p t p
Ig I Iw I e
t
wi
wi w f
ti ti gi g
gi
ti
ti t
|
.
|

\
|
Material Balance Equation as a Straight Line
Normally, when using the material balance equation, each pressure and the
corresponding production data is considered as being a separate point from other pressure
values. From each separate point, a calculation is made and the results of these
calculations are averaged.
However, a method is required to make use of all data points with the
requirement that these points must yield solutions to the material balance equation that
behave linearly to obtain values of the independent variable. The straight-line method
begins with the material balance written as:
Defining the ratio of the initial gas cap volume to the initial oil volume as:
and plugging into the equation yields:
Let:

3
( ) | |
B G
-
B W
-
B W
+
B R
-
R
+
B N
= F

p
S
- 1
S C
+
C
=
E

B
-
B
=
E

B
-
B
=
E
Ig I Iw I w p g soi p t p
t
wi
wi w f
w f,
gi g g
ti t o
|
.
|

\
|
( )
( )
W
+
E B
m + 1 +
E
B
B
m +
E
N =

W
+
E B
m + 1 N +
E
B
B
Nm +
E
N = F
e w f, ti g
gi
ti
o
e w f, ti g
gi
ti
o
(

( )
(

E B
m + 1 +
E
B
B
m +
E
= D
w f, ti g
gi
ti
o
D
W
+ N =
D
F
e

Thus we obtain:
Let:
Dividing through by D, we get:
Which is written as y = b + x. This would suggest that a plot of F/D as the y coordinate
and W
e
/D as the x coordinate would yield a straight line with slope equal to 1 and
intercept equal to N.

(2)
4
Drive Indexes from the Material Balance Equation
The three major driving mechanisms are: 1) depletion drive (oil zone oil
expansion), 2) segregation drive (gas zone gas expansion), and 3) water drive (water
zone water influx). To determine the relative magnitude of each of these driving
mechanisms, the compressibility term in the material balance equation is neglected and
the equation is rearranged as follows:
Dividing through by the right hand side of the equation yields:
The terms on the left hand side of equation (3) represent the depletion drive index (DDI),
the segregation drive index (SDI), and the water drive index (WDI) respectively. Thus,
using Pirson's abbreviations, we write:

DDI + SDI + WDI = 1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
B R
-
R
+
B N
=
B W
-
W
+
B
-
B
G +
B
-
B
N
g soi p t p w p e gi g ti t

( )
( ) | |
( )
( ) | |
( )
( ) | |
1 =

B R
-
R
+
B N
B W
-
W
+

B R
-
R
+
B N
B
-
B
G
+

B R
-
R
+
B N
B
-
B
N
g soi p t p
w p e
g soi p t p
gi g
g soi p t p
ti t
(3)
5
Tracy Material Balance

Tracy started with the Schilthuis form of the material balance equation:
Since:
Plugging into the equation, rearranging, and solving for N yields:
Let:
( ) ( ) ( )
w p g soi p p t p e gi g ti t
B W
B R
-
R N
+
B N
= W
B
-
B
G +
B
-
B
N + +

( )
B R
-
R
+
B
=
B
B
=
B
R N
=
G
B
B
Nm = G
g so soi o t
oi ti
p p p
gi
ti

| |
( ) ( )
(

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B W W
B G
+
B R
-
B N
= N
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
w p e g p g so o p
) (

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
=

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B
=

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B R
-
B
=
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
W
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g
G
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g so o
N
1

6
Phi vs Reservoir Pressure
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Reservoir Pressure, psia
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
phiG
phiW
PhiN vs Reservoir Pressure
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Reservoir Pressure, psia
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

F
a
c
t
o
r
phiN

Thus we have:
If there is no water influx or water production, the equation is written as:

G p N p

G
+
N
= N

Phi factors can be calculated at all desired pressures using data from a reservoir fluid
analysis. Then a table or plot of these factors can be used to calculate oil in place or
predict future performance.
Phi factors are infinite at the bubble point and decline rapidly as pressure declines below
the bubble point. Characteristic shapes of these pressure functions are shown next.

( )

+
W
e w p
G p N p
W B W
G
+
N
= N

7
Tracy Method for Predicting Future Performance
For oil reservoirs above the bubble-point pressure, the Tracy prediction method is
not needed. It is normally started at the bubble-point pressure or at pressures below. To
use this method for predicting future performance, it is necessary to choose the future
pressures at which performance is desired. This means that we need to select the pressure
step to be used. At each selected pressure, cumulative oil, cumulative gas, and producing
gas-oil ratio will be calculated. So the goal is to determine a table of N
p
, G
p
, and R
p

versus future reservoir static pressure such as:

n p N
p
G
p
R
p

0
1
2
3
4
p
0
= p
i
= p
b

p
1

p
1

p
3

p
4
0
N
p1

N
p2

N
p3

N
p4

0
G
p1

G
p2

G
p3

G
p4

R
sb

R
1

R
2

R
3

R
4

Oil is produced from volumetric, undersaturated reservoirs by the expansion of reservoir
fluids. Down to the bubble-point pressure, the production is caused by liquid (oil and
connate water) expansion and rock compressibility. Below the bubble-point pressure, the
expansion of the connate water and the rock compressibility are negligible, and as the oil
phase contracts owing to release of gas from solution, production is a result of expansion
of the gas phase. As production proceeds, pressure drops and the gas and oil viscosities
and volume factors continually change.
Tracy method for predicting the performance of internal gas drive reservoir uses
the material balance equation for a volumetric undersaturated oil reservoir which is
written as:

( ) ( ) ( )
w p
g soi p p t p
e
gi g ti t
B W
B R
-
R N
+
B N
= W
B
-
B
G +
B
-
B
N + +

8
Since:
Plugging into the equation, rearranging, and solving for N yields:

Let:

Thus we have:
( )
B R
-
R
+
B
=
B

B
=
B

R N
=
G
B
B
Nm = G
g so soi o t
oi ti
p p p
gi
ti

| |
( ) ( )
(

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B W W
B G
+
B R
-
B N
= N
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
w p e
g p g so o p
) (

( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
=

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B
=

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B R
-
B
=
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
W
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g
G
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g so o
N
1

9
If there is no water influx or water production, the equation is written as:

G p N p

G
+
N
= N

Phi factors can be calculated at all desired pressures using data from a reservoir fluid
analysis. Then a table or plot of these factors can be used to calculate oil in place or
predict future performance.
At time level j, the above equation is written as:
Since:
Thus:
Rearranging and solving for N
p
we get:
Where N
p
j-1
, G
p
j-1
are the cumulative oil and gas production at the old time level j-1
respectively.

( )

+
W
e w p
G p N p
W B W
G
+
N
= N

( ) ( )

j
G p
1 - j
p
j
N p
1 - j
p

G
+
G
+
N
+
N
= N
( )
N
2
R
+
R
=
R N
=
R N
=
G p
j
p
1 - j
p
ave
p p p p p

(

( ) ( )
N R
+ +
G
+
N
=

N R
+
G
+
N
+
N
= N
p
j
G
ave
p
j
N
j
G
1 - j
p
j
N
1 - j
p
j
G p
ave
p
j
G
1 - j
p
j
N p
j
N
1 - j
p

j
G
ave
p
j
N
j
G
1 - j
p
j
N
1 - j
p
p

R
+

G
-
N
- N
=
N
(4)
10
The tarner method for predicting reservoir performance by internal gas drive will
be presented in a form proposed by Tracy as follows:
1) Calculate
N
and
G
at p = p
i
- p using:

2) Assume R
p
j
= R
so
j

3) Calculate R
p
ave
using:

4) Calculate N
p
using equation (4):

5) Calculate N
p
= N
p
j-1
+ N
p

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B
=

B
-
B
B
B
m +
B R
-
R
+
B
-
B
B R
-
B
=
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g
G
gi g
gi
oi
g so soi oi o
g so o
N

(

2
R
+
R
=
R
j
p
1 - j
p
ave
p

G
ave
p N
G
1 - j
p N
1 - j
p
p

R
+

G
-
N
- N
=
N

11
6) Calculate S
o
and S
L
as follows:

7) Evaluate k
o
at S
w
and k
g
at S
L

8) Calculate R
p
j
using the following equation:

9) Calculate the difference between the assumed and the calculated R
p
j
value. If these
two values agree within some tolerance, then the calculated N
p
is correct. On the other
hand, if they don't agree then the calculated value should be used as the new guess and
steps 3 through 9 are repeated.

( )
S
+
S
=
S

B
B
N
N
- 1
S
- 1 =
S
o w L
oi
o p
w o
(

B
B
k
k
+
R
=
R
g
o
g
o
o
g
so
j
p