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5th revised and updated edition

exclusively featuring the


John OLeary Nunzio Quacquarelli Martin Ince

www.cityu.edu.hk
John OLeary Nunzio Quacquarelli Martin Ince
Published by QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited
5th revised and updated edition
exclusively featuring the
Top Universities Guide 2011
Published by QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited
5th revised and updated edition, February 2011
ISBN: 978-0-9558157-3-7
Copyright QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited 2011
All rights reserved.
First published in 2006 as Guide to the Worlds Top Universities
QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited
1 Tranley Mews, Fleet Road
London NW3 2DG
United Kingdom
www.qs.com
The entire content of this publication is protected by international copyright.
No part of this publication may be copied or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system
or transmitted, in any form, without the prior written permission of the publisher,
QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited.
Any permitted reproduction of the rankings data must be sourced:
QS World University Rankings

2010.
Any other permitted reproduction from this book must be sourced:
Top Universities Guide 2011, QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited 2011.
For permission, please write to Ben Sowter, QS head of QS Intelligence Unit: ben@qs.com.
Acknowledgements
Sponsors: ETS-TOEFL

, IELTS

.
QS would also like to thank the advertisers in this edition.
The authors would like to thank the many individuals who have contributed:
Ben Sowter and Baerbel Eckelmann, who compiled the data behind the QS World University
Rankings

assisted by Stephanie Braudeau, Liawaty Henry, Shmaila Iqbal, Karina Mejia,


Irene-Jay Shin, Bernard Wong and Samuel Wong; Jason Newman, QS head TopUniversities
portfolio, and project leader Top Universities Guide 2011; Mandy Mok.
Other contributing QS colleagues include: Simona Bizzozero, Liliana Casallas, Kevin Cavilla,
Vickie Chiu, Tony Martin, Nicholas Sequeira, Karolina Stancic, Jessica Wang, Stephanie Whiting
Simon Yeo.
Thanks to Ann Graham and Tim Rogers; to Sarah Hudson and Emma Simmons;
and to Tamsin Clark and Steven Ball.
Additional international research Adam OLeary; and contributors to previous editions:
Michael Chan, Philip Fine, Michael Leidig, Jon Marcus, Jane Marshall, Anna Martin,
Geoff Maslen, and Tom McGrenery.
Special thanks are owed to Elsevier for the provision from Scopus

of the bibliometric data


used in the compilation of the QS World University Rankings

2010, and to World Scientic.


The authors would also like to thank all the universities that provided data and the numerous
governmental and research agencies worldwide that supplied information. Contact details for
many of these universities and agencies can be found in the Directory (Chapter Eight.)
Editorial and project coordinator: Emma Simmons
Design and cover: Sarah Hudson at Room 13 Ltd
Printed on: 100gsm FSC Robert Horne Group, Hello Silk Paper
Printed by: Newnorth Print Ltd, Bedford UK
Distribution: QS
Important note
Every effort has been made to ensure that all information contained in this book is accurate.
However, with the huge volume of data involved, the authors cannot offer a complete guarantee
of accuracy. The publisher regrets any inaccuracies and is most grateful for them to be brought to
its attention. Please write to Baerbel Eckelmann, QS Intelligence Unit: baerbel@qs.com.
Any corrections will be published on www.topuniversities.com, as appropriate.
Editorial content in Top Universities Guide 2011 does not necessarily reect the views of the
publisher or those involved with it. The authors, publisher, and all those associated with
this book cannot be held liable for any actions or decisions taken by any person or any institution,
based on, or resulting from, the information in this book, or any consequences thereof.
Kings is ranked in the top 25 universities
worldwide* and based in the heart of London.
With nine Schools and six Medical Research
9ekdY_bY[djh[i"A_d]ie[himehbZ#YbWii
teaching and research. Our extensive
range of subjects includes humanities, law,
medicine, psychiatry, dentistry, nursing,
mathematics; natural, biomedical, social and
management sciences.
*QS World University Rankings, 2010
Distinguish yourself
www.kcl.ac.uk
Authors
John OLeary is former education editor at The Times, former editor of THES,
and is author of The Times Good University Guide, UK.
He is a member of the Executive Board of the QS World University Rankings

.
John has a degree from Shefeld University.
Nunzio Quacquarelli is managing director of QS.
Nunzio is editor in chief of TopUniversities.com,
TopMBA.com and TopGradSchool.com.
He is director of the QS World University Rankings


and writes regularly on education and careers for
The Times, The Times of India, Handelsblatt, South China Morning Post,
and other newspapers worldwide.
Nunzio has an MA from Cambridge University
and an MBA from The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania.
Martin Ince is former deputy editor of Times Higher Education
and editor of the THE-QS World University Rankings.
Martin now chairs the advisory committee for the QS World University Rankings

,
is a freelance journalist and media adviser, and author of ten books.
Additional contributors
Ann Graham is a Canada-based education writer from New Zealand.
Tim Rogers is an international education consultant and writer.
Ben Sowter is head of the QS Intelligence Unit, responsible for collecting and
compiling the data for the QS World University Rankings

.
Editor Emma Simmons
Discover more about the worlds top 600+ universities
and the QS World University Rankings

at
www.topuniversities.com
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Contents
Introduction 13
One
How to select a university 17
Selecting a university for masters 22
Selecting a university for a PhD 23
Two
Top 200 universities in the world 27
QS World University Rankings

2010 31
Methodology 41
Three
Top 100 universities in the world 49
University proles 51
Four
What to study? 152
Social sciences and management 154, Arts and humanities 159,
Science 165, Biomedicine 169, Technology 173
Five
Study abroad 179
Australia 182, Canada 184, France 186, Germany 188,
Ireland 191, Japan 192, South Korea 195, The Netherlands 197,
The Nordic Countries 200, New Zealand 202, Scotland 203,
Singapore 204, Spain 207, Switzerland 209, UK 210, US 213
Six
Fees, nance and scholarships 219
University fees 221, Masters and PhD funding 237, Scholarships 241
Seven
How to apply to university 245
Eight
Directory of university information 253
Sources of information on higher education worldwide 297
Index of universities 302
Index of advertisers 311
www.topuniversities.com
QS World University Rankings

2010
Worldwide media reaction
The QS rankings are compiled by surveying each institutions reputation among
academics and employers, the proportion of international students and staff,
the number of citations and the ratio of students to staff. More than 15,000
academics were surveyed.
Bloomberg.com/news
...the highly regarded QS World University Rankings.
Brisbane Times
The rankings which are regarded as the most authoritative in the world...
Chosun Ilbo (Korea)
The QS ranking, which has a high authoritative weight, is based on the quality
of a colleges research, administrators evaluations, the output of authoritative
research papers as well as the international makeup of the faculty and students.
englishpeopledaily.com.cn
The latest QS Rankings of world universities a globally reputed ranking
system .....reafrm that the governments fears concerning both the east and
the west may be justied, experts and stakeholders said.
Hindustan Times
The latest results in the prestigious QS World University Rankings...regarded as
the most reliable guide to university performance. Broadly, colleges are ranked
on the basis of data gathered on citations per faculty (the number of times the
universitys research papers are cited by other academics); peer academic review
(canvassing the opinions of other international academics); employer review (the
opinions of industry and multinational companies); and staff-student ratios.
Irish Times
The 2010 Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) World University Rankings survey, which
examines more than 600 universities and is regarded as one of the more reliable
surveys carried out by a variety of organisations....
Otago Daily Times
The QS World University Rankings is the largest review of international
universities conducted, with more than 2000 institutions from more than
130 countries.
Sydney Morning Herald
This is apparently the rst time in the history of the London-based Quacquarelli
Symonds university rankings that someone other than Harvard has ranked rst.
Washington Post
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Introduction
13
Welcome
This fth edition of best-selling Top Universities Guide has been
completely revised and updated and exclusively features the QS World
University Rankings

2010, together with the latest essential knowledge
on selecting and gaining admission to the right university.
Thousands of students, parents, teachers, employers and academics worldwide have
already found Top Universities Guide to be an indispensable handbook. The global
university information website www.topuniversities.com, (also published by QS, the
researchers behind the QS World University Rankings

,) now has nearly 10 million


visitors per year. Check out www.topuniversities.cn for the Chinese language edition of
the Guide. Authored by acknowledged experts in the eld, Top Universities Guide 2011
recognises that employers, governments and parents want young people to select those
universities and courses that will best equip them with the knowledge to make a real
contribution to our global society.
Who should read Top Universities Guide 2011?
As you begin your investigation into one of the most important and exciting decisions
of your life, this book represents an ideal starting point for nding a top university at
home or abroad. In addition to making fascinating reading, the authors hope this Guide
will help change your life for the better, and the lives of tens of thousands of other high
achievers, worldwide. If you are bright, well educated, and aiming for a successful career
after university, or, if you are a parent wanting to give your son or daughter an edge in his
or her choice of university study, this book will be an invaluable too. We have designed
it to direct you to the top performing universities, to help you identify the best subject to
study, to assist you in nding funding, and suggest career paths which will allow you to
achieve your full potential. Either read through from start to nish, or use it as a reference
work, dipping in at points relevant to where you are in your university search.
The number of young people attending university outside their home country is set to
double by 2015, and record numbers are seeking a university education in their home
countries. The result: competition for the best university places worldwide is growing.
Whether at undergraduate, masters or PhD level, you will nd something useful within
these pages. Academics worldwide are referring to the QS World University Rankings

to
benchmark the performance of their universities and departments against international
peers. The global higher education market is growing.
Your university selection should be strongly inuenced by your career goals. Within this
Guide you can nd information on employer attitudes and suggestions of many potential
career paths after studying different subjects. Aim to identify universities and destination
countries that measure up to your study and career goals and provide a feasible option in
terms of cost and nancial aid. Once you have drawn up a list of top universities that meet
your basic criteria, you can further investigate entry requirements, culture and specic
www.topuniversities.com
14
subjects offered, through the proles of the top 100 in this book, by visiting university
websites, by using the contact details for the top 600+ in the Directory (Chapter Eight),
and by exploring www.topuniversities.com. Employers of all kinds now put a premium
on internationally educated graduates because of the greater maturity and cultural
understanding they gain from a period of study overseas, either as an undergraduate or
a postgraduate. Stephanie Ahrens, head of graduate recruiting at Morgan Stanley says,
Changes in the economy as well as todays globalisation are leading to a growing need
for pipeline talent with international skills, uency in a number of foreign languages, as
well as willingness to be mobile and consider a career path anywhere in the world.
A report for the United Nations identied that while 80 per cent of the worlds 18-24
year olds were unemployed, only 10 per cent of the worlds graduates were. But for many
high-yers, it is no longer enough to have a rst degree from a local university. Research
by QS conrms that graduates of these top universities are consistently among the most
highly paid young professionals in every country, and leaders the world over, come
consistently from these same universities. Knowledge based industries like consulting and
banking, global industries like healthcare, consumer products and automotive, as well
as governments worldwide, are seeking to establish a globally minded cadre of young
administrators. Many international employers are increasingly focused internationally on
the best universities to recruit graduates and, increasingly, willing to pay a premium for
those with higher degrees. If you are an employer or researcher rening your choice of
universities to target for recruitment, or an academic looking to change institution, there
is almost certainly something in Top Universities Guide 2011 for you, too.
The world at your ngertips
The world of higher education has never been more exciting and, as the annual QS World
University Rankings

show, is a truly global eld. In the past, students were conned


to universities and colleges in their home town or country; now higher education is an
international phenomenon. Degrees can be taken in another country, another continent,
even in another language. Higher education is rapidly expanding around the world,
providing more opportunities for students to study abroad, either close to home or on
the other side of the globe. Students can choose to study abroad for a semester, a year,
or an entire degree, gaining invaluable experience that will help them to develop both
personally and professionally.
Around the world, governments are, one-by-one, ending the free provision of local
university education and, instead, are encouraging students to seek out the best
university education, at home or abroad. Many are providing grants for international
student mobility. In the US, recent Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad legislation aims to
encourage one million students annually to study overseas by 2016. Europes Bologna
Accord made provision for over 500,000 rst-degree graduates to study in other EU
nations for a masters degree by 2010. Over three million Asians are expected to study
outside their home country by 2020. The majority of all these students will aim to study at
one of the 600+ top universities in the QS World Universities Rankings

and will need the


tools to compare and contrast their offerings, which this Guide facilitates. However, when
reviewing the rankings, always consider their context. A university should not be selected
based on its worldwide ranking alone, when relatively small variations in data can account
for large positional movements. It is important to always cross reference the overall
ranking position of each university with its strength in the subject area relevant to your
study interests, and we recommend following thoroughly the guidance for researching
each university in Chapter One. There can be major variations, because universities are
never equally good at everything.
Introduction
15
Knowledge and competitive advantage
Feedback on Top Universities Guide, www.topuniversities.com and the QS World
University Rankings

has been excellent. The Economist discussed A new sort of higher


education guideThe QS World University Rankings

broadens its inquiry by taking


opinions from academics and employers in the ckle and fast expanding higher
education market. This customer focused approach to evaluating universities has gained
widespread approval and ensures the relevance to anyone concerned that their university
studies should result in good career prospects. In a global economy where knowledge
is the new source of competitive advantage, choosing the right university will be more
important than ever: make the right choice. Good luck with the search!
Contents in detail
Chapter One How to select a university helps you choose a university. Where do you
start? What information do you need? What about rankings? How high should you aim
and should you study near home or further aeld? What special considerations are there
at undergraduate, masters and PhD levels?
Chapter Two Top 200 Universities in the world includes the QS World University
Rankings

2010, now in its seventh year. Study the full tables and read about their
evolution and the methodology.
Chapter Three Top 100 universities in the world proles each institution and what life
is like as a student including student comments on their experiences. This edition also
gives links to each universitys most active Facebook site.
Chapter Four What to study? investigates subjects and programs you could consider
within social sciences, arts and humanities, science, biomedicine and technology, and
identies the best 100 universities in each, worldwide. It explores the multitude of career
options available, depending on which program you choose to follow. You may get quite
new inspiration.
Chapter Five Study abroad examines the advantages international study can bring to
your career, and proles the most popular study abroad destinations, alongside several
up-and-coming ones, including Ireland, which is brand new in this edition. The chapter
concludes with your essential guide to all the international contacts by country to start
your study abroad search.
Chapter Six Fees, nance and scholarships. Now, youve found your ideal study
destination, university and program, you need to know how much it is going to cost
and how you might fund it. This chapter includes tables of tuition fees in each country
and at the top 200 universities. The chapter surveys scholarships worldwide and gives
contact details.
Chapter Seven How to apply to university is your essential guide to successful
undergraduate, masters or PhD applications. It examines all the tasks you will be faced
with, including language issues, and gives you practical advice.
Chapter Eight Directory of university information includes a web contact directory
of the worlds top 600+ universities with their ranking according to the 2010 QS World
University Rankings

and foundation date. All university details can also be found online
with direct links to programs and courses at www.topuniversities.com. The Directory also
lists sources of data and information for higher education worldwide.
17
One
How to select a university
What is important when you select a university? How should you go
about your search? Are there particular factors you should consider? Why
should you always aim high? This chapter guides you through university
selection whether for a rst degree, a masters or a PhD.
Reaching a decision on university study is one of the most important of your life. Balancing
where and what to study involves many elements and a signicant amount of time, so the
amount of research you carry out and the sources of information you consult can make
the difference between a good decision and the best decision.
What, then, are the most important considerations when choosing a university or an
academic program? Is it the country you want to study in, the reputation of the university
where your degree is taught, or the facilities a university has to offer? Perhaps you are
focused on the academic program you wish to pursue, or the quality of research at the
university. Whatever your priorities, you will have to consider a range of factors and
consult a number of different information sources to ensure that your decision is the
best one possible. This book features proles of the top universities worldwide and the
QS Word University Rankings

, both two important sources of information but not


the only ones. When making your nal decision, you will always need to strike a balance
between information that is considered ofcial, from sources such as university websites
or admissions staff, and the mass of unofcial information on offer such as the advice
of current students, alumni and what is available through social networking media. You
need to consider almost every aspect of the university experience before deciding on
a university and program, and remember that valuable advice can come from many
informed sources.
Before you start
First, you might want to grab pen and paper, then read this paragraph and close the book.
Why? Choosing a university and a program can be very personal. The advice here touches
on some of the factors that you must consider, but they may not reect either your own
priorities or what is important to you as an individual. Your rationale for applying to
university is likely to be completely different from that of your best friend, your brother or
sister, or a parents opinion. The crucial thing is to be clear and condent of your precise
objectives. Take the opportunity now to note down your top ten reasons for studying and
www.topuniversities.com
18
organise them into academic, career and personal categories, so that you can easily see
where your priorities lie. Once you have done that, choosing a university and a program
will be a great deal more straightforward.
Many prospective students will be intent on studying an undergraduate degree as the rst
step towards a career that they are already very sure about: this is often the case for those
interested in medicine or engineering. Others will have much more general reasons, based
on a subject or area they have already enjoyed studying at a lower academic level. For an
increasing number of applicants, the primary motivation for going back to university after
a period working, perhaps to take a masters or PhD, is to give them the additional skills to
progress in their career, or change professional direction. A growing number of students
worldwide choose a university abroad, perhaps as the rst step towards permanently
relocating or to increase their chances of securing a top international job after graduation.
Choosing a university location
Even if you are not considering studying abroad, selecting a potential university in your
home country needs careful thought. Many of the issues international students consider
are also relevant for domestic students: do you want to choose a university located in a
city or rural location, or perhaps a conveniently arranged campus-type university, or one
that has multiple venues in a city? If your budget for living and accommodation is limited,
would you consider attending a university nearby, or in your home town so that you
could continue to live at home or with friends or relations? What about the feasibility of
earning some money while you study? If you are uncertain about being on your own, or
you believe that studying with your friends would be positive, then nding out where your
friends are considering going to university may be a helpful rst step.
However, the age of international education is most certainly upon us and the idea of
studying for your rst or an advanced degree away from your home country is now
commonplace. According to UNESCO, more than three million students now pursue some
element of their university education away from their home country and the popularlity of
studying abroad is set to grown to more than ve million in the next decade. The country
proles in the Study Abroad chapter of this book are useful introductions to some of the
most popular and up-and-coming destinations for international students. The proles
weigh up the positives and negatives of each country and provide a snapshot of each
higher education system. So, what kind of country do you want to live in? The differences
between European, North American and Australasian cultures, for example, are enormous
and impact uniquely on your international student experience. The pace of life at an east
coast US university, such as Columbia in New York, is going to be signicantly different
from either Otago University in Dunedin, New Zealand or Bocconi University in Italy. Only
you can decide what is likely to suit you better.
Although the US remains the most popular country for international students, European
Union countries host more international students than any other world region. You may
wish to choose a country where there are many international students and a signicant
infrastructure exists to cater for those from abroad. Or, you may be one of those students
interested in being the only student from your country on campus. The emerging country
destinations of Denmark, Estonia, Hong Kong, Turkey and Singapore are all attracting
international students wanting to enjoy a less familiar culture and education system. This
decision will be entirely dependent on your expectations and, to a certain extent, how
good the rest of your research is in locating a university you believe to be of the right
quality for your chosen degree program. The chapter What to study? surveys the leading
places for various subjects around the world.
How to select a university
19
What language?
The majority of universities that welcome international students teach their degree
programs in English, whether or not they are English-speaking countries. Popular
destinations for international students like Finland, Sweden and The Netherlands offer
much of their teaching and study support in English, but they also encourage students to
learn the local language to get the most out of their student experience. In a small number
of countries, including China, France and Germany, more and more students are choosing
not only to study abroad but also pursue their degree-level studies in the language of the
country. Clearly such an approach requires an excellent command of a second or third
language but the experience can be extraordinarily rewarding and benecial for students.
Conversely, you may want to choose to study in a country where English is the ofcial
language, allowing you to integrate more quickly on and off campus: the choice is yours.
Working while you study
All countries have different attitudes towards international students working during and
after their studies. If you need to work while you study, this may be one of the most
crucial aspects in deciding which country or which university location (eg a city or country
campus) makes it to your shortlist. The most popular countries for international students,
US, UK, Australia, Germany and France, allow students to work while studying. Details
vary, including what kind of work you may do, whether you are permitted to work on or
off of campus and how many hours a week you can legally work, but further research will
enable you to pinpoint where you are likely to be better off.
The options are not as clear for students interested in staying on to work after their
studies. Many countries are aware of the advanced skills international students possess
after graduation but have yet to change their immigration legislation to allow them to
remain and work indenitely. However, as immigration becomes more of a political issue,
legislation in different countries changes very quickly. Most of the major destinations
for international students continue to encourage the best students to apply to stay for
employment on completion of their course, but you need to research very carefully the
terms under which a student can apply for either a work permit or residency.
Aim high: using rankings
It makes sense to try to study at the best university you have the potential to get into, once
all other factors have been considered. Therefore, independent rankings and league tables
are an increasingly important part of choosing a university and an academic program.
The QS World University Rankings

, included in this book, are one of the most exhaustive


and well-researched ways of helping you choose a quality university, whether comparing
top universities in your own country or worldwide. The evaluation criteria reect some
of the most important aspects of university-level education: the quality of the overall
academic experience (as measured by the academic peer review), citations for research,
employer review, staff/student ratio and an institutions commitment to internationalisation
(through the number of international staff and students). This data provides you with
valuable information on how well a university does in the specic categories and overall,
and the top 100 universities in the world are also proled in this book. To help you further,
the Directory at the back of the book includes web contact details for the top 600+
universities in the world, by country.
Rankings, however, cannot provide the whole picture and should always be used in
conjunction with some of the other methods of research described in this chapter. Always
be aware of the methodology that has been employed in making a ranking of universities
www.topuniversities.com
20
and what it actually measures. Rankings can prove most effective in bringing together
a shortlist of potential universities and their academic departments for you to
investigate further.
What rankings never do is replace the more human element of the university experience:
how much fun it is to study at one particular university versus another, or what connections
you will make there that you will have for the rest of your life. Whether aiming to study at
home or abroad, you should always seek the views of friends, parents, teachers, current
and former students (alumni) in tandem with a universitys ranking performance, in order
to make a more complete decision on where might be the best place for you to study.
Gathering information
Whether you are looking to study near or far away from home, it has never been easier to
gather information on prospective universities, their programs and student life. The internet
allows all universities, and their academic departments, to have dedicated websites that
offer an enormous amount of detail on what makes their specic educational experience
one that you should consider. These websites should always be your rst port of call to
gather all the basic data. However, the ofcial presentation of many university websites
does not include much of the information you might actually want to consider, so it is
critical that you consult a far wider range of sources than you might have initially planned.
Independent websites, blogs and student forums, printed directories and other kinds of
guides can offer you a more complete picture of what a university is really like. The more
independent a publication, the more objective it is likely to be and the more useful the
advice is to you.
QS (publisher of this book) hosts www.topuniversities.com, another useful place to start
with a mass of information on universities and study worldwide. Additionally, social
networking sites host active student groups from almost every university in the world,
adding the dimension of the current student or fellow applicant to your research process.
Student forums and chat rooms are a common feature of such sites and tend to offer an
anecdotal view of what it is really like to be a student enrolled on a particular program
or at a specic university. Of course, such advice should always be taken in context, but
it can offer you some of the avour of the university you would otherwise never taste.
Face-to-face: open days and education fairs
The opportunity to meet a representative of a university is an excellent way of nding out
about it. Education fairs, university open days or seminars are now a common feature of
the student recruitment and application process, and they allow you to meet people face-
to-face, often in an informal setting. Universities in most countries open their doors at
least once a year and invite prospective applicants to meet current students and academic
staff and look around the campus and other facilities. These open days can be invaluable
ways of not only visiting a university you are interested in but getting a glimpse of what it
might be like to be a student there.
Education fairs allow you the opportunity to meet a variety of universities in one place; a
perfect solution if you are not lucky enough to be able to attend every one of your chosen
universities open days or visit campus. If you are well prepared and know exactly the kind
of questions you want to ask, education fairs can be an excellent way of really nding
out about potential universities. Some education fairs bring together universities from
different countries, allowing you to discover prospective places to study at such events
that you had not previously considered. Education fairs take place around the world and
can easily be found through an online search.
How to select a university
21
The annual QS Top Universities Tour (www.topuniversities.com/tour) offers you the
chance to meet undergraduate admissions staff from the top universities appearing in the
QS World University Rankings

, while the QS World Grad School Tour enables you to meet


more than 250 universities offering masters and PhD programs www.topgradschool.com.
The QS World MBA Tour brings together many of the worlds leading business schools in
nearly 60 cities every year www.topmba.com.
Social Media
With the growth of Facebook and other social networking platforms all over the world, it
is inevitable that social media now plays a signicant role in nding out about university
study. Universities all over the world have established Facebook and other social media
pages, which can often be accessed directly from their website home pages, to allow
potential students to interact with them on a more informal basis. It is now common
for universities to put applicants in contact with current students so that they can ask
questions without the interference of admissions or other university staff. Facebook in
particular allows applicants to see what current students and others are saying about
the student experience so that they can anticipate whether life at the university is how
they imagine it will be. Social media is also used extensively by universities once they have
made offers of admission, bringing together applicants from the same region, country
or subject area who are all hoping to study at the university. This helps to make friends
even before arriving on campus and makes the transition from school or workplace to
university a great deal easier for new students.
Former students
One of the best sources of information are alumni: the former students of universities.
Having already graduated, they have a unique perspective, an inside view, on their
program, the study experience and the university. The views of alumni can be even
more relevant if they have come from a similar background to yours, sharing some of your
worries and hopes. Most importantly, advice from alumni can cut through the marketing
material a university produces and get to the heart of the actual experience you will
have and the benets that a degree from that institution might have for your future life
and career.
Alumni tend to have an honest and balanced approach to their university experience and
usually provide some of the most useful information of all. Locating an alumnus to speak
to generally requires the help of the university, which should be willing to put you in touch
with someone near where you live. A number of universities use alumni more directly and
arrange interviews between former and prospective students as part of the application
process. In some cases you will have access to the alumni of a university through your own
family, school or professional networks.
Premium value of further study
Future salary may not be a major factor in your choice of university, but a sense of
potential future earnings helps. The UK Association of Graduate Recruiters publishes a
salary report, which reveals that graduates, on average, achieve a 50 per cent premium
over non-graduates earnings. The premium for graduate education spans all professional
sectors and continues to increase as each further degree is added. QS research on
reported salaries across the EU and North America at four stages of higher education:
rst degree, masters, PhD and MBA shows that rst degree salaries vary signicantly by
industry sector. Consulting and professional services, nancial services and energy pay the
highest average starting salaries, with the manufacturing and automotive, public sector
www.topuniversities.com
22
and nonprot, and retail sectors reporting the lowest. Starting salaries, however, are
not always indicators of long-term earnings potential. Career decisions will always be
based on more than just salary, with work-life balance, a stimulating environment and
assignments, and travel, also being important factors.
Many employers place a high premium on further higher education through masters, PhD
and MBA degrees. In the increasingly demanding context of the knowledge economy,
a range of employers from biotechnology rms to consultancies actively seek to recruit
PhDs and can offer salary premiums, which vary between 25 and 100 per cent, over and
above graduate starting salaries, according to the latest QS research.
Selecting a university for a masters
Choosing the right university for a masters program requires a different approach than
that at the undergraduate level. In most cases, the decision to read a masters degree
bears a closer relationship with your career, whether after a period of employment,
or directly after your rst degree, meaning that you need different information before
you can make an informed decision. You should follow the same advice offered in this
chapter about gathering the right information before selecting a university, but more
time should be spent on dening your specic career objectives and how your program
of study will support you in achieving them. University masters programs recognise the
importance of a close relationship between the degree and the labour market and tend
to keep very detailed data on the employment opportunities for their graduates, the
number receiving offers after graduation, average salary levels and industry sectors. Such
information should be available to all prospective masters students, in addition to the
names of companies that regularly recruit on campus.
One way to gain additional insights into masters programs is to seek the advice of current
or former university lecturers and tutors. You will have consulted your teachers at school
before applying for your rst degree, and the advice of university staff on where to take
your masters program and what particular degree might be most appropriate to your
goals can be absolutely critical. Academic members of staff tend to be part of a close-knit
international community, where university-to-university links exist, offering you access to
inside knowledge on the best masters program for your ambitions. Faculty members are
generally most willing to offer impartial advice on your study choices and can also help
you in weighing up a number of options before you make your nal decision.
Length of program
An additional factor to consider is the length of the academic program. Following the
Bologna higher education reforms, most masters programs in Europe are taught over a
maximum of two years. Countries such as Canada, New Zealand and the US have similar
program structures. However, some countries, such as Australia, The Netherlands and the
UK offer one-year, largely taught programs, halving the time you spend away from home
and your career. Although both models result in very similar academic qualications, your
personal circumstances, particularly nancing, may dictate whether the one-year or the
longer masters program is preferable. In most cases, one and two-year masters programs
are recognised equally by employers and other universities.
Funding
Perhaps the most important consideration when choosing a masters program is what
opportunity you may have to receive nancial aid, either from a university or another
How to select a university
23
funding organisation. Your decision may well be guided by who offers the broadest range
of funding opportunities and what kind of nancial aid is provided. In the most popular
countries for international students, universities and other bodies tend to fund masters and
other graduate students more willingly than undergraduates. However, in 2010, 24.1 per
cent of all international students at US universities were funded by scholarships, teaching
assistantships and other forms of nancial aid, a further reduction on the previous year.
Australia, Canada and the UK also have funding programs with a focus on particular
academic subjects and specied outcomes. Masters funding is extremely competitive and
tends to attract candidates of exemplary academic record with clear reasons for why they
want to study at the graduate level. While a good number of students do receive some
kind of funding, the majority of international and domestic students do use their own
funds to pay for the masters degree. The chapter Fees, nance and scholarships includes
specic advice on funding your masters degree.
Selecting a university for a PhD
As governments and other organisations prioritise the acquisition of knowledge and
invest signicant sums in research and development to compete in todays knowledge
economy, it is no surprise that the popularity of PhD study is growing. However, making
the right decision on where to pursue your PhD degree tends to be more complex than at
other levels of university education. Because so much of the work undertaken for a PhD
is done on a one-on-one basis, or in a small research group, choosing the right program
tends to revolve around the research record of the individual academic faculty in your
eld, that you are likely to work with, and the potential ways in which your work will be
funded. While the country you wish to study in or the style of education on offer may
continue to be important, it is likely that your focus will be rmly on those academic areas
most relevant to your eld of academic study.
One of the benets of university rankings is that they often reect research output, one of
the key academic qualities most relevant to PhD study. Many rankings pinpoint how good
individual academic areas are in terms of research, measuring how well used or cited a
piece of research is (one of the key criteria in the QS World University Rankings

,) or the
perceived quality of a university or individual academic area through peer review. This
is the overriding consideration for any prospective PhD student. It is in the research area
that a future academic reputation will be made, so the need to gather this information is
absolutely vital before making the decision on where to study for a PhD.
Funding
Funding your PhD study is also critical and can dictate where you apply. University and
other scholarship schemes encourage the recruitment of international PhD students and
link funding with research support for other academic members of staff or, in the US and
increasingly in Australia and the UK, through teaching assistantships. Depending on your
eld of study, it is likely that there will be funding available to you if your research proposal
is of excellent quality and focused in the appropriate academic area. However, in the
current economic climate, a number of major funding initiatives are being reduced, making
the winning of funding more competitive than ever before. In a number of European
countries, the offer of PhD admission is parcelled with a faculty position, where you are
expected to contribute to the teaching and administration of your department. The benet
of this approach is that you not only receive funding to cover your tuition fees, but you
are a staff member with a different immigration status from other international students.
The chapter Fees, nance and scholarships, includes specic advice on funding your PhD.
www.topuniversities.com
24
PhD applications
The PhD application process is also very different (see the chapter How to apply to
university) but can help you choose the best program. In the course of dening and
writing your research prole, you will need to make contact with prospective academic
supervisors to discuss whether they would be willing to accept you as their student. This
point of contact is one of the best opportunities you will have to discover whether you
feel you will t in with the department that will potentially be your home for between
three and ve years. If a potential supervisor is responsive, friendly and interested in
you and your research, then you have probably found the right place. If you nd this
communication difcult, then you should probably continue your search. It is important
to remember that the process of applying for a PhD takes longer than any other kind of
study. Once you have identied your potential supervisor, you must make contact with
him or her as soon as possible as each academic member of staff is only permitted to
supervise a limited number of PhD candidates.
Finally, you should consider the structure and style of instruction of your future PhD
program. PhD degrees are traditionally research intensive, but the majority of universities
and their research groups now require students to participate in extended taught classes,
either before the research aspect begins or in parallel with the rst one or two years. In
most countries, including those in the European Union, the rst year of a PhD program is
routinely structured around classes, seminars and tutorials to establish your methodology
and research practices. When this is successfully completed, the research phase begins.
Before you make your nal decision, you should ensure that you understand how the
program will be structured and how this will impact on your time spent studying; this
includes any requirements that you might have to fulll before progressing to the research
element of your degree.
Top Universities Guide
Chinese Edition
Achieving breakthrough in Chinas huge
higher education market
Authoritative guide to worlds top universities
Each year, our globally recognized Top Universities Guide (TUG) lists all the worlds top 500
universities ranked by QS World University Rankings. Over the years, discerning students from
around the world refer to this definitive international study guide for information on
undergraduate and postgraduate programs being offered by universities worldwide.
International students get their copies through QS established worldwide distribution network
of bookstores and series of education fairs, and/or they visit our website at
www.topuniversities.com for the latest information, before they decide on which courses and
universities to attend. Naturally, they are drawn to institutions that appear in TUG and on our
website.
Target quality readership
The Top Universities Guide print edition in English achieves its comprehensive worldwide
distribution through carefully chosen channels that are designed to reach a quality readership of
top and influential decision-makers.
The Chinese edition of Top Universities Guide extends its reach and footprint to the
geographically vast China market. Printed copies of each annual edition will be distributed
extensively in China to:
Chinas 106 Project 211 universities
Top 700 academies, institutes and colleges
Top 100 National Level Education Association for Higher Education institutions
Top 1,000 high school libraries
Top 200 National Education agents and their branches
1,000 National Education bookstores
100 government libraries in each province
For more information, please contact
Mandy Mok at +65 9841 9121 / mm@qs.com
27
Two
Top 200 universities in the world
In this chapter you will nd the top 200 universities in the world according
to the QS World University Rankings

, now in its seventh year. The data


tables follow a discussion of the position of university rankings in the
world today. An analysis of the methodology behind the 2010 QS World
University Rankings

follows the data tables.


The need for international comparisons in international higher education continues to
grow. The curious scholar began to travel abroad as far back as the Middle Ages, to which
time some of the oldest European universities can trace their roots, but never before have
so many people crossed national boundaries to study as they do today. UNESCO estimates
there to be in excess of 132 million students worldwide, more than three million of whom
are studying abroad (OECD, 2010). More than half go to four countries to study: France,
Germany, the UK, and the US, which takes by far the largest share despite uctuations
in recent years. Australia, Canada and Japan are also big destinations. Countries such as
China have set their sights on joining them, and the increase in programs being offered
in English indicates that universities around the globe are interested in sharing a slice of
this trend. (Chapter Five, Study abroad, looks in detail at the most popular and up-and-
coming study destinations worldwide.)
The QS World University Rankings

go some way to illustrate why students choose to go


to certain countries. US universities have consistently occupied more than a third of the
top 100 places. Famous US names led by Harvard University throughout the seven years
of the rankings, take most of the top 20 places, but their grip is soon loosened down
the table. European universities outnumber the US contingent in the top 100, led by UK
institutions, and Australasia is close behind. In 2010, the QS World University Rankings


were published for the seventh year, (fth time presented in this book, which since 2009
is also published in a Chinese edition), having generated record levels of response. In
2009, QS also launched a well received, planned series of regional rankings with the
Asian University Rankings using slightly different indicators, tailored to the availability
and relevance of data in the region. Millions of people have viewed these rankings online
at www.topuniversities.com, and debate within the academic community has been
incessant since they rst appeared. A UNESCO experts group spent more than a year
poring over the methodology and there have been several international conferences
devoted to the ranking process.
28
www.topuniversities.com
Growing international demand
The rankings have shown that excellence in higher education is distributed more widely
than many in the West have presumed. The high standing of Australian universities in
Asia, for example, has helped propel a number of them into the top 50, while around 20
different countries are represented in the top 100. Some nations have only one institution
in the top 200, but it has become a matter of economic and cultural importance, as well
as national pride, to compete at this level. In Germany, which has 12 universities in the top
200 but none in the top 50, the government has awarded several billion Euros of extra
investment to a group of elite institutions to promote their world standing. More than
a third of postgraduates at UK universities were from overseas, while foreign students
accounted for 39 per cent of masters places in Australia and 41 per cent of PhDs in
Switzerland. This illustrates the international demand for higher education, and also the
imperative for prospective applicants to do their homework by utilising comprehensive
sources of international comparison such as this book. Following publication of
the rankings, the 2006 edition of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Developments (OECD) annual Education at a Glance report even expressed concern
that some countries might be both overexposed to the international market and nearing
their capacity in some academic areas. Large concentrations of international students,
especially of a single nationality, have posed strategic challenges for planners at popular
universities in certain parts of the world.
Global comparison
Global rankings of universities are eight years old and are used by students, employers,
research funders, governments, and universities themselves. Although still controversial,
these have now been recognised by bodies such as the International Association of
Universities (IAU) as a permanent xture on the international academic scene. Words
written in the IAUs journal still apply: The strength of the market seems unavoidable
and rankings are its most resonant indicator at the moment. Recently, the debate has
intensied on how rankings should be compiled. Discussions have taken place on every
continent and numerous research papers have been published. But few people deny that
there is a need for international comparisons of some sort. The worlds leading universities
are no longer content to be recognised as pre-eminent in their own country. Higher
education has become such a global enterprise that the best institutions are often more
interested in comparing themselves with rivals thousands of miles away. For example, in
the UK, Manchester University set itself the target of breaking into the top 25 in the world
and has reached 30; Bristol University wanted to be in the top 50 and achieved that,
now at 27. It is easy to see why universities want to be recognised on the world stage.
Companies and governments mount global searches before placing research contracts,
top academics frequently move continents to further their careers and students, too, are
increasingly mobile, particularly at postgraduate level. For some students, a move abroad
may be the only way to nd top quality tuition and academic facilities in a particular
subject. For others, to experience a different culture and a new way of thinking is valuable
enough in itself. As tuition fees are imposed for the rst time or rise signicantly in many
countries, the cost and value for money of the investment in a period of higher education
are becoming more signicant considerations for prospective students and their parents.

Dening the world class university
Nevertheless, there is still no consensus about the value of university rankings. Some,
such as Philip Altbach, Director of the Center for International Higher Education, Boston
College, continue to insist that a world ranking of universities cannot be made. Everyone
wants a world class university. No country feels it can do without one, he wrote when
the second World University Rankings were published. The problem is that no one
29
Top 200 universities in the world
knows what a world class university is, and no one has gured out how to get one. In all
probability, there never will be agreement on a single method of comparing universities
worldwide. But there has been widespread support for the objectives set in compiling
the QS World University Rankings

: to produce an up-to-date view of the strengths of


the leading institutions as they impact on research and teaching, and giving credit for
an international outlook. They reect the qualities seen in almost all the universities
recognised informally as international powerhouses, which are institutions rooted in
research, but also proud of their teaching prowess.
Richard C Levin, president of Yale University, told Newsweek magazine: In response
to the same forces that have propelled the world economy, universities have become
more self-consciously global: seeking students from around the world who represent the
entire spectrum of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare
them for global careers, offering courses of study that address the challenges of an
interconnected world and collaborative research programs to advance science for the
benet of all humanity. Of the forces shaping higher education, none is more sweeping
than the movement across borders.
However, there are many valuable universities that do not aspire to international status.
They may serve their local communities, usually with an emphasis on teaching, rather than
research, or they may be determinedly national institutions with an eye to knowledge
transfer. The universities in the QS World University Rankings

(and other similar rankings)


tend to judge themselves internationally on the power of their research, often as members
of the growing number of global higher education networks, and they consciously recruit
students, faculty and staff from the world marketplace for talent.
QS World University Rankings

2010
The table of the top 200 universities worldwide, according to the QS World University
Rankings

2010, begins on the following page. A discussion of the methodology behind


these rankings follows after the table on page 41. A compilation of some of the national
sources of data on higher education worldwide used in the research that leads to the QS
World University Rankings

can be found in Chapter Eight, after the Directory of the top


600+ institutions in the world.
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32
www.topuniversities.com
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33
Top 200 universities in the world
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35
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36
www.topuniversities.com
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T
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4
37
Top 200 universities in the world
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V
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8
38
www.topuniversities.com
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41
Top 200 universities in the world
Methodology
What do the QS World University Rankings

measure and how?*


As international rankings of universities become a more established thread in the fabric
of higher education, the various methodologies are beginning to settle. Consequently, no
major changes in the methodology for the QS World University Rankings

have emerged
for the 2010 results, nor, at the time of writing, are any planned for 2011.
The real difculty facing those who seek to rank universities worldwide is not how to
dene them, but where to nd the data that will enable reliable comparisons. Different
national systems collect the data that matter to them and in the form that suits their
purpose. The limited number of measures in the QS World University Rankings

reects
just how few indicators there are that transfer across international borders, and even they
can present problems. So, what are the main ranking indicators used and what is the
rationale behind them?
Understanding the ranking indicators
The main rankings table of the QS World University Rankings

evaluates six key aspects


of university activity using the most recent data available at the time of initial publication:
1 Academic reputation; 2 Citations per faculty (research quality); 3 Faculty student
ratio (teaching quality); 4 Employer reputation (graduate employability); proportions of
5 International faculty and 6 International students (international outlook).
1 Academic reputation
Peer review is taken as a measure of the average reputation for research of a given
institution among academics in each of ve broad subject areas. It is the method used
to assess academic quality in universities all over the world and it has formed part of US
university league tables for many years. In the absence of more precise statistical data on
activities such as teaching and more up-to-date comparisons of research, it has become
the central element of the QS World University Rankings

. It is, after all, partially a matter


of opinion, which the best universities in the world are; who better to ask than the people
who work in them?
QS operates an international survey of academics asking them to identify institutions
they consider best for research in the subject area(s) they identify themselves as
knowledgeable in. Respondents are sourced from previous survey respondents and third-
party databases. 15,050 responses were considered for the 2010 rankings. Respondents
are asked to identify the subject area(s) with which they have most familiarity from
the following: arts and humanities, life sciences and biomedicine, natural sciences,
social sciences, and engineering and IT. They are also asked to identify which of three
geographical areas: 1 The Americas, 2 Europe, Middle East & Africa, 3 Asia Pacic, they
have most awareness of. Respondents are asked to rst identify up to 30 institutions
outside their own country (from a list of institutions in the region(s) they have selected,)
and secondly, up to 10 from their own country that they consider excellent in each subject
area they have selected. They are not asked to rank those institutions; performance is
based on the number of occurrences of each institutions name. Responses are weighted
by region and compiled into ve separate peer reviews for each of the ve subject areas
which are combined with equal weighting to yield the nal result. Respondents are not
able to respond in favour of their own institution. An analysis of 2010 respondents is
available at www.topuniversities.com.
The peer review is based on an average 12 responses from each of over 15,000
respondents, resulting in a statistical universe of over 180,000 data points to evaluate just
42
www.topuniversities.com
over 600 institutions. Whilst being statistically robust, since it is a reputation survey, it is
sensitive to certain bias. For example, big name universities and universities in the worlds
largest cities may perform beyond expectations and respondents may identify institutions
as strong in elds they may not even have. The response is growing dramatically each
year the rankings are carried out, so the inuence of such bias will continue to diminish.
Although any evaluation of university research strength is likely to be skewed in favour
of universities operating in widely spoken languages, the peer review is more resistant
to this problem than citations scores, resulting in many universities from non-English
speaking countries performing more strongly in the peer review evaluation. In addition,
the peer review reects no bias between any of the ve main subject areas, so if you are
interested in arts, humanities or social sciences, which are, relatively, under-represented
by citations, this measure reects a more even balance.
2 Citations per faculty
Citations in leading academic journals are a conventional measure of institutional research
strength and the most common source of international academic comparisons. Dividing
these by the number of faculty staff, takes into account the size of the institution. Citation
numbers come from Scopus

www.scopus.com. Faculty numbers come either from


central statistics bodies, (many of which are listed for reference in the Directory (Chapter
Eight,) from the universities directly, from institutions websites or, in a few unusual cases,
from an extrapolated average. Scopus

supplies QS with the latest ve complete years


of publication data with citation counts. QS maps all of the names from the rankings
exercise into the Scopus

data. In 2010, over 975,000 distinct ID were founds for the


institutions considered for the rankings. The faculty number used is total and not purely
restricted to research faculty. While it would be ideal to factor research output purely by
those involved in its production, this level of data has proved difcult to collect globally
and may constitute a future enhancement to the methodology.
In general, the breakdown of faculty is reasonably consistent across the sample institutions,
but there are exceptions where a given institution may have a particular concentration
of either teaching or research faculty. These institutions may be at an advantage or
disadvantage in any indicator involving faculty numbers. Institutions with strong medical
schools are at a particular advantage since citations are a more prolic practice in science,
and particularly in medical subject areas than in any other. Also, citations data yields a
strong language bias towards English and a strong cultural bias towards countries where
academics place a stronger emphasis on publication; little consolation to institutions that
work in other languages and whose academics stand correspondingly less chance of
building up a competitive body of citations. The US is the most profound beneciary of
these last two factors as it is, by far, the most signicant nation in terms of the publication
of academic research in English. Furthermore, the research culture in the US and the sheer
volume of citations registered by US universities suggests that their academics also cite
each others work more regularly than is the case in most of Europe or Asia. There is no
suggestion of corruption, merely of a difference in normal academic practice.
3 Faculty student ratio
The ratio of faculty to students is the most universally available metric that indicates
commitment to teaching. There is no globally available measurement of teaching quality.
Most countries do not even attempt national comparisons. The nearest proxy, however
imperfect, is the faculty student ratio. Despite the onward march of technology, there is
no substitute in conventional universities for face-to-face contact. Students value small
teaching groups and the opportunity to consult tutors. Both student and faculty numbers
come either from central statistics bodies, from the universities directly, from institutions
websites or, in a few unusual cases, from an extrapolated average. Separate numbers are
43
Top 200 universities in the world
collected for undergraduate and postgraduate students from each institution. In most
cases, the sum of the two is used. In a scenario where separate metrics are not available,
total student numbers are requested. The lower the number for a faculty student ratio,
the better; which makes its inclusion in an index, based on high scores, a challenge. So,
for purposes of the ranking, the ratio is reversed, thus essentially evaluating the number
of faculty per student.
In a similar way to the citations indicator, the faculty score used is total, without identifying
and eliminating those faculty not contributing to research. As a result, universities with
typical faculty demographics may be at an advantage or disadvantage. While this may
remain the best universally available indicator of commitment to teaching, it is a far from
perfect measure of teaching quality. In fact, measuring teaching quality remains one of
the greatest challenges for international rankings. If you are concerned about teaching
quality in particular, it may be worth your while to refer to country-specic rankings, a
list of which can be found at www.topuniversities.com. Speaking to staff and alumni of
the institution, either through your personal network or at an education fair, is also highly
recommended as a way to gauge teaching quality at a particular institution.
4 Recruiter review
Recruiter review is a measure of the quality of graduates from particular institutions, from
the perspective of global employers. QS conducts an annual survey of global graduate
employers. Prospective respondents are sourced from QS comprehensive databases and
from a selection of partner and other organisations. 5,007 responses were considered for
the results in 2010.
The recruiter review is conducted along very similar lines to the peer review. There is no
distinction between different subject areas and it is operated in a near identical way to
a single subject area peer review. Regional weightings are still applied. The international
respondents come from a very diverse range of businesses in terms of scope, sector, size
and nature. No weighting is applied on the basis of the seniority of respondent, or the
scope of their recruitment base. While the international spread of the responding sample
is rapidly improving year-on-year, the response and, thus, the results still show some bias
towards English speaking nations in 2010.
5 Number of international faculty
The ability of an institution to attract, retain and adequately compensate international
faculty members could be considered a measure of quality. The proportion of international
faculty also gives prospective students an impression of the diversity of an institution and,
perhaps, some feeling for its progressiveness, in terms of globalisation. All faculty and
international faculty data is collected via the same means as discussed for the faculty
student indicator. Raw scores are simply a proportion of the faculty that are international
(ie hold a different passport from the country of the institution.) The higher the proportion,
the higher the eventual score.
Very high international faculty numbers may not necessarily be a good thing; poor quality
faculty may be forced to seek employment outside their home nation and a poor quality
institution may nd it difcult to attract faculty from its own country. Since this study
deals exclusively with leading universities, this is less of a problem here than it may be if
the rankings embraced a much larger number of universities.
Understanding the full international nature of an institution is of value, though best
considered only in the context of other quality indicators. It is important to take a
balanced and comprehensive view of such aspects that extends far beyond the scope of
these rankings. This book helps reveal the rst steps.
44
www.topuniversities.com
6 Number of international students
The proportion of international students at an institution also gives prospective students an
impression of its diversity and perhaps some indication of its commitment to international
students, and the ability to provide them with adequate academic and other support.
All student and international student data is collected via the same means as discussed
for the faculty student indicator. The raw scores are simply a proportion of the student
body that is international. Exchange students are not currently included. The higher the
proportion, the higher the eventual score. Very high international student numbers may
not necessarily be a good thing: a poor quality institution may nd it difcult to attract
students from its own country and, thus, focus on the overseas market. More students are
able to engage in full program study abroad, if those programs are taught in a language
they understand. This gives institutions in English-speaking countries an advantage
for both of these international indicators. In the future, separately including exchange
students in this consideration may help add balance and will become more feasible as
institutions, year-on-year, furnish the exercise with more complete data.
Overall, it is not easy to measure international activity. Some universities have whole
campuses overseas, others have numerous partnership programs and exchange schemes.
But it is possible to be globally active and internationally minded without such formal
initiatives. The proportions of international students and staff have been selected as
the most universally applicable indicators, although both have been accorded a low
weighting, so as not to overplay their importance.
Weightings
Weightings are applied to the data results as set out in the chart below. (From 2010 all
decisions regarding the allocation of weightings are the responsibility of the International
Academic Advisory Board of the QS World University Rankings

). After conclusion of the


data collection and analysis, the total scores are transformed to a scale where the top
score is set at 100 with the remainder being a proportion of the top score.
QS World University Rankings

criteria/weights
Criterion
Research
quality
Teaching
quality

Graduate
employability

International
outlook
Indicator
1 Peer review

2 Citations
per faculty
3 Student
faculty ratio

4 Recruiter
review

5 International
faculty
6 International
students
Description
Composite score drawn from
peer review (in ve subject
areas) 15,050 responses
Score based on research
performance factored against
the size of the research body
Score based on student/
faculty ratio

Score based on responses
to recruiter survey
5,007 responses
Score based on proportion of
international faculty
Score based on proportion of
international students
Weight
40%


20%


20%
10%


5%

5%
45
Top 200 universities in the world
Z-scores: a balancing tool
A statistical technique called the z-transformation, (sometimes known as normal or
standard scores), has been applied to each measure. This is a statistical way of ensuring
that each measure contributes the intended amount to the overall score. (For the
statistically minded, it involves subtracting the mean score from each individual score
and then dividing by the standard deviation of the scores. The percentile ranks of the
z-scores are then plotted using a standard normal distribution table). This adjustment
to the methodology, initiated in 2007, adds to the reliability of the ranking by ensuring
that high performers on a single indicator do not gain a disproportionate advantage,
and brings the ranking into line with other similar assessments. The use of z-scores has
reduced year-on-year volatility in the ranking.
Prior to 2007, scores for each indicator were scaled against the top performer on that
measure; the leading institution was awarded 100 and subsequent institutions scores
scaled against that maximum. Where there was a steep curve in the distribution of
scores, universities at the head of lowly weighted indicators, such as the proportion of
international students, could benet by the equivalent of up to 50 places in the top-
weighted peer review indicator. Applying z-scores effectively attens the curve,
normalising the scores throughout the ranking to iron out such ripple effects. The change
has beneted universities that are strong across the board and also explains some of
the larger falls since 2006. In 2007, London School of Economics, for example, lost the
benet of a large lead in the proportion of international students and the methodological
change had a similar effect on Macquarie University, Australia, which had a big lead on
international faculty.
Further potential indicators of university quality
Academic opinion was already considered a vital element if the rankings were to paint
the most current picture of international higher education, rather than reecting past
glories. Even citations inevitably credit universities for work, which may have been carried
out several years previously; Nobel Prizes, which form a substantial part of the global
university rankings originated by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, often relate to research
done far in the past. The thousands of academics who take part in the peer review
exercise conducted by QS for the QS World University Rankings

are judging universities


in their own discipline, as they are today. By aggregating the views of subject experts, we
avoid impressionistic judgments of overall quality and provide material for the separate
faculty-level rankings.
Other possible indicators have been considered and, either discarded as impractical or,
shelved until enough data can be collected to make them reliable sources of comparison.
This was the case initially with the employers survey, which was omitted from the rst
edition of the rankings, in 2004, because the sample was considered too small. Now that
the pool of international employers is larger and more diverse, it is considered a valuable
addition and one that will continue to grow in the years to come.
Among the other indicators considered for inclusion in the rankings have been various
spending measures. Many domestic rankings measure the amount spent on libraries, for
example, but it was decided that, even if genuinely comparable data could be collected,
too great an advantage would be conferred upon wealthy nations for the results to be
meaningful. Similar objections have been raised to the use of graduate employment rates:
there is a danger of comparing economies rather than universities.
Entry standards provide another obvious area of comparison and one much used in
national league tables. But while business schools have an international entry standard,
most areas of university life do not. Much work has been done on the equivalence
of different qualications, but it is not yet clear how this can be incorporated into a
46
www.topuniversities.com
system of rankings such as these. No doubt other measures will be developed such as
the proportion of staff with PhDs, or the number of PhDs awarded by each university,
but, despite frequent appeals for workable additions, no glaring omission in the current
criteria has yet emerged.
Major universities are complex and while attempting to encapsulate their quality in a
few simple measures, the process of ranking inevitably involves simplication. Many US
state universities, for example, or the Indian Institutes of Technology have a number of
campuses and centres, but it is often beyond data-gathering feasibility to distinguish
adequately between them. If handled separately, fewer of them would appear in the
rankings and in lower positions, although in some cases it is unavoidable. The units
analysed in the rankings relate predominantly to universities, as they exist in practice.
For example, the various colleges of the universities of London and California, which
have their own management structures and in some cases award their own degrees, are
treated individually.
Conclusions
The position of an institution in the QS World University Rankings

is, clearly, not only


inuenced by its activities and performance in the last 12 months, but by reputation,
effort and achievements over years and decades and, in some cases, centuries. There
are many factors outside direct institutional control that may have inuenced the current
position of a university, such as language, politics, economics, and culture, for example.
The ranking of the top 200 or 500 worldwide can provide an interesting basis for initiating
your research into university choice. However, rankings do not replace the need for that
research entirely, but simply, perhaps, help make it more incisive.
The tables of the QS World University Rankings

do not, for example, consider institutional


strength in many specic elds. The university proles of the top 100 universities
worldwide, in Chapter Three, take a more in-depth look and highlight specic areas of
excellence. For a student considering economics or marine engineering, for example, a
more detailed analysis will be required by looking at the subject area rankings for science
and technology in Chapter Four. There are certainly many institutions worldwide that
offer real excellence in specic elds, but may not do so across an entire broad subject
area and thus may not be revealed in these rankings.
The continuing research work involved in the QS World University Rankings

is not
exhaustive, nor is it, obviously, customised to any single persons specic quest for the right
program or course. Your own personal university ranking, evolved according to your own
personalised criteria, combined using your own weightings and only looking at institutions
that meet your own search requirements would yield very different results. The QS World
University Rankings

, this book: Top Universities Guide and www.topuniversities.com are


designed to provide an informative starting point for your journey. Visiting the websites
of the institutions listed in the Directory of university information in Chapter Eight, is also
a good starting point for your own further research on higher education in particular
countries across the world.
* This analysis was prepared by Ben Sowter, head of the QS Intelligence Unit
GLOBAL
A
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INFLUENCE
IMPACT
A leading global university centred in Asia,
inuencing the future
Founded in 1905, the National University of Singapore (NUS) is a leading
research-intensive university in the heart of Asia.

Our 14 faculties and schools, and 6 overseas colleges in some of the worlds most
entrepreneurial cities, provide students with many academic pathways and both global
and Asian education opportunities. We strive to deliver high-impact research and thought-
leadership in areas of global signicance that impact the future of Asia and beyond.
At NUS, excellence in education, research and service is built on a commitment to make
a difference and improve lives.
Kent Ridge . Bukit Timah . Outram
nus.edu.sg
49
Three
Top 100 universities in the world
In the following pages you will nd proles of the top 100 universities
according to the 2010 QS World University Rankings

. These proles are


designed to provide a snapshot that goes beyond rankings and raw data.
International experts and journalists have compiled the proles, with the
objective of givng a complementary view to university websites.
Each prole includes a location map, the foundation date and web address. There is a
fact le* of some of the information collected in compiling the rankings, including subject
area positions, student and faculty numbers, and tuition fees. The prole texts identify
unique aspects of each university, news, top subjects and some high achieving alumni.
Real student comments provide a unique opinion on the experience of studying at each
institution, though they may not reect general opinion. This edition includes, for the
rst time, the link to the most active Facebook site of each proled university, so that you
can explore a broad spectrum of contributions on each institution. Let these proles be
a starting point for your further research. The alphabetical list on the next page will help
you locate each prole.
*Notes on the top 100 institution prole fact les
The prole fact les provide a user-friendly overview of information behind the QS World University
Rankings

. US$ are used throughout (exchange rates as at 12.02.10 www.oanda.com) to facilitate


comparison. Any apparent disparity between fact le data and prole text, or university websites,
results from different data collection dates, sources or data denitions. For example, student numbers
in the prole fact les are for full-time equivalent (FTE) students, counting students, who do not
take a full course load, only as the fraction of a full-time student that they represent, rather than as
individual students. Additionally, many universities have students that are neither undergraduates
nor postgraduates, such as foundation year, diploma and some language students. Universities also
all have different ways of counting distance learning and exchange students, among others, and this
can lead to numbers published on university websites, being different from the ofcial statistics of
registered students provided for a rankings exercise. Student numbers marked with an asterisk indicate
an estimate made in the absence of an accurate FTE gure being provided, based on the average ratio
between FTE and headcount across other institutions in the country or region. These complex issues
underline the imperative of further research and the need to verify important data, such as tuition
fees for a particular course, directly with the institution before acting upon it. Any factual clarications
received by the publisher will be posted on www.topuniversities.com as appropriate, which also has
direct electronic links to all the universities proled.
www.topuniversities.com
50
University of Aarhus 84
University of Alberta 78
University of Amsterdam 56
University of Auckland 68
Australian National University 20
University of Birmingham 59
Boston University 64
University of Bristol 27
University of British Columbia 44
Brown University 39
University of California, Berkeley 28
University of California, Los Angeles
(UCLA) 35
University of California, San Diego 65
California Inst of Technology (Caltech) 9
University of Cambridge 1
Carnegie Mellon University 34
University of Chicago 8
Chinese University of Hong Kong 42
Columbia University 11
University of Copenhagen 45
Cornell University 16
Dartmouth College 90
Duke University 14
Durham University 92
cole Normale Suprieure, Paris 33
cole Polytechnique, Paris Tech 36
Ecole Polytechnique
Fdrale de Lausanne 32
University of Edinburgh 22
Erasmus University Rotterdam 99
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Inst of Tech) 18
Universitt Freiburg 97
Freie Universitt Berlin 70
University of Geneva 71
University of Glasgow 77
Harvard University 2
Universitt Heidelberg 51
University of Helsinki 75=
University of Hong Kong 23
Hong Kong U of Science & Tech 40
University of Illinois (UIUC) 63
Imperial College London 7
Johns Hopkins University 17
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 86
Kings College London 21
KAIST (Korea Adv Inst of Sc & Tech) 79
Kyoto University 25
University of Leeds 85
Leiden University 82
Lomonosov Moscow State University 93
London School of Economics & Political
Science (LSE) 80
Worlds top 100 universities
*
alphabetically with rank
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt
Mnchen (LMU) 66
Lund University 72
University of Manchester 30
Massachusetts Inst of Technology (MIT) 5
McGill University 19
University of Melbourne 38
University of Michigan 15
University of Minnesota 96
Monash University 61
Nagoya University 91
Nanyang Technological University 74
National Taiwan University 94
University of New South Wales 46
New York University (NYU) 41
University of North Carolina,
Chapel Hill 57
Northwestern University 26
University of Nottingham 73
Osaka University 49
University of Oslo 100
University of Oxford 6
Peking University 47
University of Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania State University 98
Princeton University 10
Purdue University 87
University of Queensland 43
Seoul National University 50
University of Shefeld 69
National University of Singapore 31
University of Southampton 81
University of St Andrews 95
Stanford University 13
University of Sydney 37
Technische Universitt Mnchen 58
University of Texas at Austin 67
University of Tokyo 24
Tokyo Institute of Technology 60
University of Toronto 29
Trinity College Dublin 52
Tsinghua University 54
University College London (UCL) 4
Uppsala University 62
Utrecht University 83
University of Warwick 53
University of Washington 55
Washington University in St Louis 75=
University of Western Australia 89
University of Wisconsin-Madison 48
Yale University 3
University of York 88
*according to the QS World University Rankings

2010
Top 100 universities in the world
51
Cambridge reached the top of the QS World University Rankings

this year, overtaking


Harvard and extending its lead over Oxford, its ancient rival. The accolade came as a
nal achievement for Dame Alison Richard, Vice Chancellor until 2010. The university
celebrated its 800th anniversary the previous year with a 1 billion fundraising campaign,
which has already met its target. Traditionally supreme in the sciences, where it is ranked
best in the world for the second year in succession, Cambridge has also strengthened its
arts and social sciences and the Cambridge Judge Business School continues to grow its
international reputation. There have been plenty of recent high-prole developments,
but university funding has remained a concern. The 800th anniversary campaign intends
to narrow the gap between its funding levels and those of the US Ivy League schools.
Already, a new centre has opened on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus to address the
growing threat to public health posed by obesity, diabetes and related diseases, and, as
part of a unique collaborative agreement, the Japanese government has located a new
research satellite at the Nanoscience Centre. Meanwhile a new Institute for Cosmology
will collaborate with sister centres in the US and China. The university dominates the small
city of Cambridge, 50 miles northeast of London, where a third of places are held by
postgraduates, more than half of whom are from overseas. All students belong to one of
31 colleges, which, with few exceptions, are dotted around the city centre. Many boast
historic buildings, several along the banks of the River Cam, where students and tourists
go punting when the weather allows. Three colleges are for women only, while the rest
are mixed. International students are guaranteed university-owned accommodation if
they want it and are eligible for a limited number of scholarships.
The 82 afliates of the university who have won Nobel Prizes span every category and
include Francis Crick and James Watson, who mastered the structure of DNA. More
recently, Amartya Sen was recognised for his work in development economics and
Robert Edwards took the physiology or medicine Prize in 2010 for his work on test-tube
fertilisation. Stephen Hawking has become one of the worlds best-known scientists,
while the student drama company Footlights has produced a stream of stars for the
cinema and theatre worldwide.
Rachel Pike, a Gates scholar from the US, is studying for a PhD in chemistry and is based
at Emmanuel College. She said Cambridge is unique in that it allows her to meet a wide
variety of people. Through the college system and also through the Gates community,
you get to meet people from different backgrounds who are studying all sorts of different
subjects, and you learn so much. At other universities you stick more to your own subject
group. I soon got swept up in the place and had the most profound sense of history, of
walking among great minds. www.facebook.com/cambridge.university
1 (2) University of Cambridge
Founded 1209 www.cam.ac.uk
Arts & humanities ...................................................2
Engineering & IT .....................................................4
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................2
Natural sciences .....................................................1
Social sciences ........................................................3
Academic survey position .......................................1
Employer survey position ........................................3
Students ........................................................ 18,215
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 40.4%
International students ................................... 28.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 40,042
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 341,593
Impact (citations per paper)..................................81
www.topuniversities.com
52
Harvard has been supplanted at the top of the QS World University Rankings

for the rst


time since they began in 2004, but remains only a fraction of a point behind Cambridge.
A marginal expansion in student numbers without an equivalent increase in faculty
was enough to bring about the change. Harvard is Americas oldest, and the worlds
richest, university, but even it has been hit by the recession. Although it is recovering, the
universitys endowment slumped by 20 per cent and plans were put on hold for a new
campus for interdisciplinary science. The eventual aim is for Bostons Allston section, just a
short footbridge walk across the Charles River from Harvards long-time Cambridge home,
to house two 500,000-square-foot research facilities. A start was made on construction
but, although the Business School has announced plans for two buildings in Allston, work
on the science campus has yet to resume. The university already conducts groundbreaking
medical research, largely in its afliated hospitals, which are among the best in the world,
while the library is the largest at any academic institution, with nearly 16 million volumes.
Harvard is trying to increase the number of women on the faculty after a controversy
in which a former president was quoted (largely out of context) theorising that women
did not have the innate ability to succeed in the sciences. Now the university has its rst
woman president and an initiative to support tenure-track women. International activities
include the opening of ofces in Shanghai and Beijing. Nine applicants vie for every seat
in the entering class. Following complaints that teaching is an afterthought for faculty
more concerned with research and writing, a university review recommended improving
its quality and rewarding successful teachers by encouraging faculty to share course
materials and teaching practices. The review also suggested linking good teaching to
salaries and career advancement.
Harvards faculty has produced 43 Nobel laureates; its alumni another 32. Among
Harvards alumni are leaders who have served in every eld, from eight US presidents
(including George W Bush and Barack Obama) to Benazir Bhutto and Al Gore. Some of
the most famous alumni, however, are the ones who dropped out, including Microsofts
Bill Gates (it has been said that he quit when Harvard objected to his use of university
computers for private business), Polaroid founder Edwin Land, publishing magnate
William Randolph Hearst, and actor Matt Damon.
Colin Teo, a Singaporean student who chose Harvard over less expensive alternatives
at home, said: I dont think I would have gotten a worse education in Singapore than
at Harvard, but I learn so much more at Harvard out of the classroom. Getting to meet
people from 60 different countries and living in a different society has really opened me
up a lot. Thats something I never could have learned at home.
www.facebook.com/Harvard
2 (1) Harvard University
Founded 1636 www.harvard.edu
Arts & humanities ...................................................3
Engineering & IT ...................................................22
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................1
Natural sciences .....................................................2
Social sciences ........................................................1
Academic survey position .......................................2
Employer survey position ........................................1
Students ........................................................22,529
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 24.0%
International students ................................... 22.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............62,776
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........773,246
Impact (citations per paper).............................180.3
Top 100 universities in the world
53
A university that numbers George H W Bush, George W Bush, Bill Clinton and John Kerry
among its graduates must be providing a broad education. In fact, Yale has one of the
broadest curricula in American higher education, requiring its undergraduates to take at
least three classes in each of four groups: languages, culture, social sciences, and science
and mathematics. All students are required to learn a foreign language and to submit a
senior essay or project, unusual at American universities. Named after Elihu Yale, who in
1716 gave the young school 417 books and a portrait of King George I, Yale is located
in New Haven, Connecticut, a small city plagued with problems of urban poverty. The
university tries to make itself affordable for the broadest possible range of students more
than half receive some aid. Families with combined incomes below US$45,000 a year are
no longer required to pay anything towards their childrens education, a groundbreaking
shift which has since been followed by other leading universities. International students
are eligible for the same nancial aid as US citizens. Many of the programs at Yale have
small classes; nearly a third of the classes enrol fewer than ten students, three-quarters
have fewer than 20. Only one in ten applicants is admitted, the lowest proportion in
the country. Undergraduates are divided into 12 residential colleges. More than US$400
million a year in research is conducted at the university. Before the recession ate into its
endowment, the university had invested US$1 billion in a 136-acre campus and laboratory
complex for science and technology. Recently, a strong international focus has been one
of Yales main priorities and has included recruiting Tony Blair to lecture on faith and
globalisation. The Center for International Experience has been running for nine years and
enables hundreds of students annually to experience other cultures through study, work
or research abroad. The university is also enabling one nation Peru to experience more
of its own culture by handing back a collection of artefacts from Machu Pichu, excavated
by a team from Yale a century ago.
Alumni include presidents William Howard Taft and Gerald Ford, Secretary of State Hillary
Rodham Clinton, actors Jodie Foster, Sigourney Weaver, Sam Waterston, and Meryl
Streep, former and current CEOs of FedEx and Coca Cola, 12 Nobel laureates and Samuel
F B Morse, the inventor of the telegraph.
Fatema, an undergraduate student from Bahrain, said Yale taught her to see her own
culture from a different perspective, giving her a global as well as a world-class education.
She was particularly impressed by the helpfulness of the academic staff. They really enjoy
giving knowledge to students, she said. They enjoy embracing the passions that we
have and directing them down the right path.
www.facebook.com/pages/Yale-University
Arts & humanities ...................................................5
Engineering & IT ...................................................81
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................9
Natural sciences ...................................................17
Social sciences ........................................................8
Academic survey position .....................................10
Employer survey position ......................................10
Students ........................................................ 11,524
Student faculty ratio .........................................3.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 26.8%
International students ................................... 16.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 35,648
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........357,403
Impact (citations per paper)............................. 112.2
3 (3) Yale University
Founded 1701 www.yale.edu
www.topuniversities.com
54
University College London (UCL) recorded its highest-ever nish in the last years QS
World University Rankings

and has held on to fourth place in the latest edition. UCL


describes itself as Londons Global University, hosting many international students from
around the world. Their numbers are expected to grow still further in the next few years
as UCL develops courses in global citizenship and leadership to be integrated into all
undergraduate programs. Parts of UCL, such as the Royal Free Hospital, are in north London
but most of campus life is based in busy, central London. Further aeld, UCL has become
the rst British university with a campus in Australia, establishing a School of Energy and
Resources in Adelaide, in agreement with the Government of South Australia. It will also
become the rst to operate in Qatar, opening in 2012, with a range of research programs
and masters degrees in archaeology, conservation and museum studies open, and joining
a number of leading US universities on the Education City site. UCL is comfortably the
largest of the University of Londons colleges and has begun to award its own degrees.
UCL is committed to teaching in small groups, especially in the second and subsequent
years of degree courses, and prides itself on excellence in biomedicine and Slavonic and
East European studies, among many other subjects. It pioneered degrees in architecture
and law and has an excellent reputation in art with the Slade School of Fine Art. During
the 1990s it took in a number of specialist schools and institutes, mainly in medicine or
dentistry, adding to an already large medical school. In the latest development, ve top
medical research centres and hospitals are coming together to create what UCL claims will
be Europes leading health research powerhouse. Two thirds of its submission to the UKs
2008 Research Assessment Exercise was judged to be world-leading or internationally
excellent. The new academic health science partnership, UCL Partners, will support more
than 3,500 scientists, researchers and consultants, with an annual turnover of around
2 billion.
Alumni include Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro
Koizumi, inventor of the telephone Alexander Graham Bell and UK TV presenter Jonathan
Dimbleby. Twenty alumni or former staff members have won Nobel Prizes.
Canadian postgraduate Laura Rotenberg came to UCL for an MA in the history of art, on
the advice of her tutor at McGill University. She was sufciently impressed to stay on for a
PhD in contemporary art production, with the aid of a scholarship for overseas graduate
students. UCL is a fantastic place to undertake a PhD, she said. The vibrant academic
community offers much support and encourages our active participation. This reduces
feeling isolated as a research student.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-College-London
Arts & humanities .................................................12
Engineering & IT ................................................... 51
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................15
Natural sciences ................................................50=
Social sciences ......................................................25
Academic survey position .....................................23
Employer survey position ......................................34
Students ........................................................18,621
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.6:1
International faculty .......................................37.7%
International students ................................... 34.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............43,724
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 312,491
Impact (citations per paper)..................................77
4 (4) UCL University College London
Founded 1826 www.ucl.ac.uk
Top 100 universities in the world
55
Cambridge may have captured the headlines, but the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT) has made the most progress at the top of this years QS World University
Rankings

. Already the leading university in the world for engineering and technology,
MIT has moved into the top ve for the rst time since 2006. Every January, in the small city
of Cambridge across the Charles River from Boston, students at MIT can study chocolate
sculpture making, palmistry, the symbolism of the Star Wars lms, or how to make chain
mail. This Independent Activities Period is a whimsical break from the intensity of the
demanding academics at a school where students are required to take two semesters
each of calculus and physics, one each of biology and chemistry, and various courses in
the humanities, arts, and social sciences. What makes MIT so tough, beyond the pressure
its high-achieving students famously put on themselves, is the concept of the teaching
laboratory it pioneered, combining teaching with applied research. As a result, it is one of
the leading research institutions in America. More than half the undergraduates who have
declared a major are enrolled in engineering, the eld in which MIT is indisputably pre-
eminent. Many can work with faculty through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity
Program. Research teams at the school have developed a single-electron transistor,
invented a process similar to photosynthesis to produce hydrogen, and invented a gas
with super-high temperature uidity. This work is conducted in a collection of radically
innovative buildings, many recently completed, including the Frank Gehry-designed Ray
and Maria Stata Center for Computer, Information, and Intelligence Sciences and a new
brain and cognitive sciences complex. MITs president, Susan Hockeld, a neuroscientist
and the rst woman to hold the post, has also challenged MIT to nd solutions to the
worlds energy crisis. The university was the rst to put all teaching materials used in its
courses on the Internet without charge and, in addition to its science disciplines, MIT has
a top-ight business school, the Sloan School of Management, which attracts mostly
mid-career managers.
More than 70 past and present MIT faculty and alumni have won the Nobel Prize, 31 have
received the National Medal of Science, and four have been awarded the Kyoto Prize. MIT
leads all universities in America in patents granted.
Federico Merle came from Argentina to take an MBA at the Sloan School of Management
and hopes to stay in Boston when he completes the course. From the beginning I knew
MIT Sloan would be the perfect place to further pursue my goals, he said. MIT Sloan
is an information hub, a trend developer, and I believe that if we start developing these
ideas from a place like MIT Sloan, we will be getting more people to our cause, and set the
trend of dual-prots not only for Latin America, but for the entire world.
www.facebook.com/pages/Massachusetts-Institute-of-Technology
Arts & humanities .................................................27
Engineering & IT .....................................................1
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................8
Natural sciences .....................................................4
Social sciences ......................................................12
Academic survey position .......................................6
Employer survey position .....................................4=
Students ........................................................ 10,211
Student faculty ratio ............................................4:1
International faculty ...................................... 46.7%
International students ................................... 31.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............31,967
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........315,067
Impact (citations per paper)................................ 124
5 (9) MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Founded 1861 www.mit.edu
www.topuniversities.com
56
Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world and possibly the best known.
Although this is the rst year in which it has slipped out of the top ve in the QS World
University Rankings

, only fractions of a point separate it from its nearest competitors.


Oxford tops most of the UK league tables and is invariably mentioned in the same breath
as Cambridge when leading universities are discussed. The 39 Oxford colleges select their
own students and are responsible for much of the teaching, especially in the arts and
social sciences. Traditionally, Oxfords strengths have been in these subject areas, which
have provided most of the 26 UK prime ministers educated at the university. But the
sciences have been growing in quality: a 60 million development houses the worlds
largest chemistry department, and the controversial Biomedical Sciences Building opened
in 2008. The building, which was the subject of intense, and sometimes illegal, protests,
has rehoused research animals in one of the most advanced facilities in the UK. The Sad
Business School, established in 1996, has also carved out a strong reputation.
Most of the colleges and other university buildings are in, or close to, Oxfords city centre,
which is within reach of some of Englands most picturesque countryside and only an
hour by train from London. Overseas students are guaranteed residential accommodation.
Several hundred international students each year benet from a range of scholarships
and bursaries, the biggest of the schemes being the Rhodes and the Clarendon Fund
Scholarships. Details appear in the universitys International Student Guide. In 2008
Oxford launched a 1.25 billion fundraising campaign for the university, which has
attracted 25 million in gifts for the business school and the New Bodleian Library, and is
now more than halfway to meeting its target. A new Vice Chancellor, Professor Andrew
Hamilton, arrived from Yale University in 2009, as the university announced one of its
biggest developments for more than a century: a mathematical institute and humanities
building, and a library are planned for the new Radcliffe Observatory Quarter.
Among scores of famous alumni are Erasmus philosopher Thomas Hobbes, playwright
Oscar Wilde, author JRR Tolkien and chemist Dorothy Hodgkin, the only British woman
to win a Nobel Prize. More recent alumni include former US President Bill Clinton and Tim
Berners Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web.
Jan Domanski, a Polish undergraduate who is taking a biochemistry degree, said the
quality of teaching at Oxford is unrivalled. Who could be a better tutor about the viral
life cycle than a key researcher in the discipline, who is probably quoted numerous times
in your textbook? Oxford is alive with scientic competition, discovery and exploration,
especially in the eld of biochemistry. www.facebook.com/the.university.of.oxford
Arts & humanities ...................................................1
Engineering & IT ..................................................9=
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................3
Natural sciences .....................................................3
Social sciences ........................................................2
Academic survey position .......................................3
Employer survey position ........................................2
Students ........................................................ 18,765
Student faculty ratio .........................................3.9:1
International faculty ...................................... 40.1%
International students ................................... 28.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............36,027
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 317,318
Impact (citations per paper)...............................65.9
6 (5=) University of Oxford
Founded 12th century www.ox.ac.uk
Top 100 universities in the world
57
Imperial College has slipped out of the top ve of the QS World University Rankings

this
year, but remains an academic powerhouse to rival Oxford and Cambridge in its specialisms
of science, technology, medicine and engineering. The subjects make it one of the most
male-dominated universities in the UK, although the number of female students doubled
during the 1990s and is now up to a third. Faculty include Nobel Prize winners and 61
Fellows of the Royal Society. It was also one of the most successful institutions in the latest
UK research assessment exercise and is in the top six in the world for engineering and
technology. Imperial has also built one of the largest and most powerful medical schools
in Britain and a management school that is making its mark internationally. Language
courses are available as joint degrees with management or the sciences. The integrated
medical school and hospital trust spans ve hospitals and describes itself as the UKs rst
academic health science centre delivering breakthroughs in medical research directly to
its patients. The medical school is also responsible for Imperials rst overseas venture,
opening a new medical school in Singapore in partnership with Nanyang Technological
University, which is due to open in 2013. Eventually, it will take 750 students. Imperial
College can claim the invention of penicillin and magnetically levitated trains among its
successes. It is also respected for strong links with government and industry, boasting
the largest external research income in the UK. Imperial College left the University of
London in time for its centenary in 2007, capitalising on its high reputation and rankings
performance. Student services have now been replicated by the college itself. Imperial
Colleges headquarters could hardly be in a more glamorous part of London. South
Kensingtons cosmopolitan vibe and museums show off London at its best. That can
increase the cost of living, but overseas students are initially guaranteed college-owned
accommodation.
Famous alumni include the four-minute miler and academic Sir Roger Bannister, politicians
Rajiv Gandhi and Trevor Philips, writers Simon Singh and HG Wells, fertility expert and
TV scientist Baron Robert Winston and pop star and astrophysicist Brian May. The many
eminent scientists and engineers include Sir Alexander Fleming and Sir Ernst Chain, who
shared the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1945 for their work on penicillin, and Sir Rodney
Robert Porter, who won the Prize in 1972.
Arthur Graham-Dixon, discussing Imperials status on the colleges lively Facebook
pages, says: Consistently rated amongst the worlds best universities. Quite right. Last
year Imperial College London came joint 5th with Oxford in the QS World University
Rankings

. Nicholas Stock adds: Imperial is a fantastic place to study! Make the most
of it while youre there, I miss those days. www.facebook.com/imperialcollegelondon
Arts & humanities ............................................144=
Engineering & IT .....................................................6
Life sciences & biomedicine .................................. 11
Natural sciences ................................................... 11
Social sciences ................................................... 65=
Academic survey position .....................................16
Employer survey position ........................................8
Students ........................................................13,569
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 45.9%
International students ................................... 38.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 28,198
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........199,690
Impact (citations per paper)...............................62.7
7 (5=) Imperial College London
Founded 1907 www.imperial.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
58
Unusually among American universities, the University of Chicago has been expanding
its faculty at a time when others have been forced to retrench. Robert J Zimmer, the
universitys President, told the academics that he had seen the impact of previous cuts
and would target increases particularly on graduate and doctoral programs. The university
surpassed a US$2 billion fundraising target before the recession hit and is putting the
equivalent into new facilities. It is also setting aside US$400 million for student nancial
aid, entirely eliminating the need for loans for its middle-class students. Student protests
persuaded the university to preserve the unique essay questions for which its admissions
process is famous. Its just one way that Chicago students have been ercely protective
of the intellectual seriousness summed up in its heady credo: Dedicated to the primacy
of research, the intimate relationship of research to teaching, and the amelioration of the
condition of humankind. So inuential is the economics taught here that it has given
rise to an entire eld known as the Chicago School. Several members of the vaunted
economics faculty are among the more than 80 Nobel laureates that have been associated
with the university. Chicago also has the oldest sociology department in the US and was
an early practitioner of interdisciplinary scholarship. The ten-week quarters accelerate a
learning process divided elsewhere into much longer semesters. Students are constantly
subjected to examinations that test them on the rigorous core academic requirements,
including a foreign language and cross-cultural studies. Some say Chicago is the only
school in America where the undergraduates are under more stress than the graduate
students, yet the university is aware of its serious image: Our un-fun-ness has been the
subject of both mirth and pride, a task force on the matter put it.
The Graduate School of Business, the second-oldest in the world, is consistently ranked
among the best and has recently been renamed the University of Chicago Booth School
of Business following the US$300 million donation by alumnus David Booth. It was the
largest donation in the universitys history and the largest gift to any business school in
the world. Other alumni include former US Attorney General John Ashcroft, former World
Bank President Paul Wolfowitz, authors Kurt Vonnegut Jr and Philip Roth, composer Philip
Glass, astronomer Edwin Hubble, the Reverend Jesse Jackson, director Mike Nichols, and
the current or former presidents of other universities in the world rankings, including
Northwestern and Caltech. President Barack Obama taught at the university law school
from 1992 to 2004.
Fernando Maldonado, commenting on autumnal pictures of the campus on Facebook,
describes the university as: A most wonderful place where minds excel and hearts get
conquered. www.facebook.com/uchicago
8 (7) University of Chicago
Founded 1890 www.uchicago.edu
Arts & humanities ...................................................9
Engineering & IT ................................................86=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................31
Natural sciences ...................................................16
Social sciences ........................................................7
Academic survey position .....................................13
Employer survey position ......................................25
Students ........................................................ 11,697
Student faculty ratio ............................................5:1
International faculty ...................................... 22.9%
International students ................................... 23.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............24,321
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........233,695
Impact (citations per paper)...............................99.7
Top 100 universities in the world
59
One of Americas smallest major research universities, with an annual undergraduate
intake of fewer than 250 students, California Institute of Technology (Caltech) is also
one of the countrys best. Never out of the top ten in the QS World University Rankings

,
Caltech is also rated domestically among the top ve US colleges. Students boast the
highest average scores in the nation on the SAT university entrance examination and enjoy
a high faculty-student ratio. There are more than twice as many men as women, research
is closely integrated with education, and expectations are high. Every student has to take
at least ve terms of mathematics, two of chemistry, one of biology and ve of physics,
including quantum mechanics, special relativity, and statistical mechanics. To deal with
the stress of such a workload, collaboration is encouraged. So too is a sense of humour:
during nal examination weeks, Wagners Ride of the Valkyries is broadcast from
loudspeakers across the campus every day at 7am. Despite Caltechs small size, there are
still grand construction plans. A new astronomy and astrophysics centre was completed
in 2008, an information science and technology centre in 2009 and a chemistry and
chemical engineering laboratory in 2010.
Fourteen Caltech professors, 17 alumni, and four professors, who were also alumni, have
won the Nobel Prize for breakthroughs in almost every major scientic eld. Caltech
made the rst astronomical survey of the entire sky visible from the Northern Hemisphere,
and virtually invented seismology. It was Caltech physicist Carl Anderson who discovered
anti-matter, chemist Linus Pauling who showed how atoms link up to form molecules,
psychobiologist Roger Sperry who devised the left brain/right brain theory, and
geophysicist Charles Richter, who invented the scale for measuring earthquakes. Among
its international alumni are former Israeli foreign and defence minister Moshe Arens and
Steingrmur Hermannsson, the former prime minister of Iceland. Alumni also include
Chester Carlson, the inventor of photocopying, Intel Chairman Emeritus Gordon Moore,
and Frank Capra, director of the lm classic Its a Wonderful Life. They are among a
select group: Caltechs living alumni hardly number more than 22,000.
Carlos Salazar-Lazaro was born in Peru and lived in Venezuela before his family moved
to the US. I chose Caltech because its a small school. I thought it might be a friendlier
environment and Id probably meet everyone here, he said.
www.facebook.com/California-Institute-of-Technology
Arts & humanities ........................................301-350
Engineering & IT .....................................................5
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................28
Natural sciences .....................................................8
Social sciences ....................................................126
Academic survey position .....................................26
Employer survey position ...................................96=
Students .......................................................... 2,196
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.9:1
International faculty ........................................ 5.2%
International students ................................... 22.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 13,619
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 161,356
Impact (citations per paper).............................430.3
9 (10) California Institute of Technology
Founded 1891 www.caltech.edu
www.topuniversities.com
60
10 (8) Princeton University
Founded 1746 www.princeton.edu
The second-smallest of the Ivy League universities, Princeton is planning a new campus
in central New Jersey to be built on a 400-acre, university-owned forest area, which it
claims will integrate the campus into natural systems of the environment. A stylish new
bridge already links the two sides of the science neighbourhood, where a new chemistry
building was added in 2010. But Princeton already has a reach far beyond its size. It accepts
less than one in ten applicants (some no doubt attracted by the pioneering nancial-aid
policy, replacing loans with outright grants, even for international students). It has see-
sawed with Harvard in the American league tables and even stolen some top faculty from
its rival. All full-time faculty members must teach in addition to doing research, another
tweak at Harvard, where students have complained that professors are more interested in
what they are doing in the lab than in the classroom.
All undergraduates are required to submit a senior thesis, something most other US
universities make optional. Students must also successfully complete two courses each in
literature and the arts, science and technology, and social analysis, plus one course each
in epistemology and cognition, ethical thought and moral values, historical analysis, and
quantitative reasoning. Even engineering students have to take at least seven humanities
and social sciences courses.
The emphasis placed on teaching doesnt affect Princetons robust tradition of research.
Some US$220 million a year in research is conducted here, US$77 million of it at the
Princeton Plasma Laboratory, which the university administers on behalf of the US
Department of Energy. Ten Princeton faculty members are Nobel laureates. Princeton
alumni include US presidents James Madison and Woodrow Wilson, after whom the
university named its Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
Architecture student Waqas Jawaid from Pakistan has found numerous opportunities to
explore academic and extra-curricular interests. One of the best things about Princeton
is that there are so many different ways incoming students are made to feel welcome.
He was slightly intimidated initially by the calibre of his peers and their ability to manage
schedules. It was a little challenging, but I think in retrospect I feel a sense of fullment
having gone through it and having learned that I can do more than I had expected of
myself, he said. www.facebook.com/PrincetonU
Arts & humanities ...................................................6
Engineering & IT ...................................................21
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................35
Natural sciences .....................................................7
Social sciences ......................................................10
Academic survey position .......................................9
Employer survey position ................................... 45=
Students ..........................................................6,393
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 40.4%
International students ................................... 20.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 16,177
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 142,213
Impact (citations per paper)............................. 157.7
Top 100 universities in the world
61
One of Americas oldest universities, opened under a royal charter from King George II, is
now undergoing one of the most ambitious expansions in the history of American higher
education: a US$7.4 billion explosion out of its fortress-like Morningside Heights campus
in Manhattan into neighbouring Harlem. The expansion will take 30 years and add 6.5
million square feet of labs, classrooms, ofces and housing. To help the process along,
the university met a US$4 billion fundraising target a year early and upped the target to
US$5 billion at the end of 2010. Columbia has completed its plan for the original campus
with a 14-storey interdisciplinary research building that is intended to link the university
with its local community. It is partly New York City that puts Columbia in such high
demand. The only Ivy League school in the city, Columbia attracts so many applicants it
has become one of the hardest American universities to get into, and can pick from the
cream of the student crop. It has the fourth-largest proportion of international scholars
at any American university. Many are from Asia, enrolling in engineering, public affairs,
business, and social sciences programs.
An aggressive licensing program has resulted in some 100 patents a year being awarded
to Columbia for discoveries and breakthroughs. The modern science of anthropology was
invented here, as was the eld of modern genetics, the laser, and system initial protocol
(SIP), the basis for instant messaging. The School of International and Public Affairs,
founded in the wake of World War II, is among the worlds best, and the highly selective
Graduate School of Journalism is considered the top one in America. Columbias early
graduates included some of the leaders of the American Revolution, its students were in
the forefront of the 1960s antiwar movement and it remains a hotbed of political activism.
Among Columbias prominent alumni have been many who may have made King George
regret his royal charter. They include John Jay, the rst chief justice of the United States,
Alexander Hamilton, the rst secretary of the treasury, Gouverneur Morris, the author
of the nal draft of the US Constitution and Robert Livingston, who helped draft the
Declaration of Independence. More recent graduates have included Presidents Theodore
Roosevelt, Franklin D Roosevelt, Dwight D Eisenhower and now Barack Obama. Former
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, author Isaac Asimov and anthropologist Margaret
Mead are among others. Martin Chale, Professor of Biological Sciences, won a share of
the 2008 Nobel Prize for chemistry.
Morakot Likhitpanichkul, who is now on the staff of Chiang Mai University in Thailand,
took a PhD in Columbias biomedical engineering department. Diversity among class-
mates, lab-mates and even faculty members in the department provides a friendly and yet
motivating study environment for all foreign students, she said of her time at Columbia.
www.facebook.com/pages/Columbia-University
Arts & humanities .................................................10
Engineering & IT ...................................................56
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................24
Natural sciences ...................................................23
Social sciences ........................................................9
Academic survey position .....................................14
Employer survey position ................................... 12=
Students ........................................................20,591
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 5.1:1
International faculty ........................................ 6.4%
International students ................................... 24.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 44,530
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........418,638
Impact (citations per paper).............................103.3
11 (11) Columbia University
Founded 1754 www.columbia.edu
www.topuniversities.com
62
Penn was founded by Benjamin Franklin and boasts it carries on his principles of
entrepreneurship, innovation, invention and the pursuit of practical knowledge. It has
174 research centres and institutes, and conducts more than US$700 million a year in
research. The faculty includes 11 Nobel laureates (there is a similar number of alumni with
Nobel Prizes). An ongoing US$3.5 billion fundraising campaign aims to add a nanoscale
research building and new clinical, research, and educational facilities for the school of
medicine, Americas oldest. It will also help pay for more faculty, student nancial aid,
new programs and research. Pennsylvanias Wharton School, the worlds rst collegiate
school of business and largest global business school, is consistently regarded among the
top three in America. The school of nursing ranks in the top three, while its school of arts
and sciences, and graduate schools of law, medicine, and veterinary medicine, rank in the
top ten.
The university has a global emphasis that is evident in its programs. Penns Solomon Asch
Center for the Study of Ethnopolitical Conict advises foreign governments, while medical
school faculty and students treat HIV-infected patients in Botswana. The graduate school
of education has teamed up with Beijing and East China Normal universities to offer the
rst education doctorates in China. Penn suffers somewhat from its West Philadelphia
setting, separated from the city centre by an industrial wasteland to the east that even
a university task force described as unattractive. Urban blight aficts the residential
neighbourhood to the west. The university hopes to transform both with an ambitious
expansion, starting with a new East Campus. Almost half of Penn students and many staff
already participate in some 300 volunteer and community service courses. More than 45
per cent also receive no-loan nancial support - up from 27 per cent in 2006 - under the
universitys needs-blind admissions policy.
Nine signers of the American Declaration of Independence and 11 signers of the
Constitution are associated with the University of Pennsylvania. Eadweard James
Muybridge, who pioneered motion photography, began his experiments under the
universitys auspices.
Lin Gan, from Beijing, whose family came to the US when she was nine, chose Penn for a
law degree after taking a BSc at Cornell University. She said: I feel that the friends I made
at Penn will last throughout my legal career and hopefully a lifetime. We strive to be better
together. There is so much to learn from other students and the excellence of our student
body guarantees a rich learning experience. Kathryn Maher adds on Facebook: The
fountain and pool area outside the University Museum is a wonderful place to collect
your thoughts; the museum itself is also a delightful distraction when you need one.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Pennsylvania
Arts & humanities .................................................30
Engineering & IT ...................................................72
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 33=
Natural sciences ................................................ 75=
Social sciences ......................................................15
Academic survey position .....................................31
Employer survey position ......................................18
Students ........................................................ 21,143
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 19.9%
International students ................................... 16.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 46,962
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........433,657
Impact (citations per paper)...............................89.7
12 (12) University of Pennsylvania
Founded 1740 www.upenn.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
63
Stanford Universitys US$1 billion annual research spend and its small-scale teaching
have made it an incubator for the likes of Google, Yahoo!, Cisco Systems, eBay, Sun
Microsystems, and 350 other cutting-edge companies that, in turn, helped fuel
Californias high-tech boom. Leland Stanford, who made his fortune selling provisions
to miners during the 1850s California gold rush, gave the school his ranch (students still
call the university the farm) making it one of the largest campuses in America. Today,
its distinctive red-tile-roofed buildings sit on 8,000 roomy acres in the otherwise densely
populated San Francisco Bay area and attract 150,000 visitors a year. It may be a big place,
but Stanford boasts small classes with individualised instruction at both undergraduate
and graduate levels: the majority of classes have fewer than 20 students.
The universitys Undergraduate Research Program not only encourages students to work
with faculty on research, 16 of which are Nobel laureates, it funds them to design their
own research projects to the tune of more than US$4 million a year. A Stanford surgeon
performed the rst human heart transplant in the US and the worlds rst heart/lung
transplant, while a lab at Stanford was the rst to isolate stem cells. The Stanford Institute
for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine is today among the top such research
centres in the world. The National Research Council also ranks Stanfords programs the
best in America in computer science, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering,
and rates it highly in aeronautics and astronautics, and civil engineering. One quarter
of the US$4 billion being collected in an ambitious fundraising campaign is earmarked
to encourage multidisciplinary research, in which Stanford has already launched several
initiatives. Philip Knight, founder of Nike and Stanford alumnus, pledged US$105 million,
of which US$100 million will go towards the large new business school campus.
Other alumni include Hewlett Packard co-founders William Hewlett and David Packard,
two of the US Supreme Court justices, US president Herbert Hoover, former Israeli prime
minister Ehud Barak, Dolby Laboratories founder Ray Dolby, golfer Tiger Woods, and Sally
Ride, the rst American woman in space.
Born in Hong Kong, Struan Brinkers came from a small school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,
to study product design at Stanford. Very few universities in the world offer a beautiful
setting, exemplary teaching staff, a range of courses and an engineering school as highly
acclaimed as that of Stanford, he said. After graduating, he hopes to join a family-owned
business. Whatever does transpire in my future, and whatever opportunities may arise,
I know that Stanford will have provided me with the necessary entrepreneurial, critical
thinking and deductive analytical skills to achieve success in any area.
www.facebook.com/stanford
Arts & humanities ...................................................8
Engineering & IT .....................................................2
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................4
Natural sciences .....................................................6
Social sciences ........................................................6
Academic survey position .......................................5
Employer survey position ........................................6
Students ........................................................ 13,531
Student faculty ratio .........................................7.4:1
International faculty .......................................11.0%
International students ................................... 34.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 48,582
Research strength (Scopus) citations .......... 460,960
Impact (citations per paper)............................. 251.2
13 (16) Stanford University
Founded 1891 www.stanford.edu
www.topuniversities.com
64
Considered one of the pre-eminent universities of the American South, Duke describes
itself as a global gateway, requiring its students to take foreign language and
international courses. Nearly half of all undergraduates take part in the Study Abroad
Program (the highest proportion among the leading US research universities) and Duke
offers instruction in 25 languages. Many of the students are pre-med, while others
are engineering majors. All undergraduates enrol in either the Trinity College of Arts &
Sciences, or the Pratt School of Engineering, and half study abroad at some point during
their degree, ve times the US average. The business school plans to establish a network
of campuses around the world to conduct research and deliver programs in key economic
and cultural centres, including New Delhi, St Petersburg, Dubai, London and Shanghai.
Undergraduates are also encouraged to take the Civic Engagement Program, which was
one result of soul-searching at Duke in the wake of, what turned out to be, unfounded
allegations that members of one of its sports teams had raped a black woman. The
scheme involves community service over a summer or semester, largely in the surrounding
city of Durham, North Carolina, with an organisation that promotes awareness about
sexual health, rape prevention, alcohol and drug use.
Anchoring the so-called Research Triangle in North Carolinas Piedmont region (its other
corners are North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina), Duke
has sprouted cutting-edge facilities on its Gothic revival-style campus that have given the
university a lead in fast-growing and emerging elds more closely associated with rivals
in the North. They include the new US$97 million Fitzpatrick Center for Interdisciplinary
Engineering, the US$41 million Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, and the US$115
million French Sciences Building. Dukes Levine Science Research Center is the largest
single-site interdisciplinary research facility at any American university.
Prominent alumni have included President Richard Nixon, Senator Elizabeth Dole and
the former president of Chile, Ricardo Lagos. Melinda Gates, co-founder of the Bill and
Melinda Gates Foundation also studied at Duke, as did the current or former heads of
companies including Bear Stearns, Boston Scientic, Cisco Systems, ExxonMobil, General
Motors, Northwest Airlines, PepsiCo and Pzer.
Amin Saleem, a Pakistani student, came to Duke thinking he wanted to major in
mathematics, but he is studying public policy instead. Duke encourages you to
step out of your academic comfort zone and try more classes that arent just in your
specialty, he said. Amin is a particular enthusiast of Dukes freshman campus for
undergraduates. Its like a separate university on its own, with dorms, a dining
hall and gym. Its always a hub of activity with people playing frisbee on the lawn.
www.facebook.com/pages/Duke-University
14 (14) Duke University
Founded 1838 www.duke.edu
Arts & humanities ..............................................38=
Engineering & IT ...............................................117=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................27
Natural sciences ................................................ 92=
Social sciences ......................................................26
Academic survey position .....................................38
Employer survey position ......................................33
Students ........................................................14,325
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.2:1
International faculty ........................................ 6.6%
International students ................................... 14.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 37,245
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........352,365
Impact (citations per paper).............................102.9
Top 100 universities in the world
65
More than 107,000 people can t inside the football stadium at the University of Michigan,
the most at any university. And theres seldom an empty seat. Michigan elds some of the
most dominant university sports teams in America and has more alumni (420,000) than
any other US school. But while athletics garners much of the attention here, Michigan is
cementing its academic reputation having, along with MIT, the biggest four position
rise up the top 20 of the latest QS World University Rankings

. The university conducts an


almost unrivalled US$1.1 billion a year in research, a tradition that began with government
grants in the Cold War and the space race in the days when nearby Detroit was the world
centre of the automotive industry. One in ve undergraduates specialises in engineering,
which is also the universitys pre-eminent graduate program on the agship campus at
leafy Ann Arbor. Michigan has top-ight laboratories for research into manufacturing
engineering, manufacturing systems, and, not surprisingly, transportation. Now, with the
auto industry struggling, Michigan has announced the University Research Corridor, with
Michigan State and Wayne State universities, to help reinvigorate the local economy by
incubating technology and alternative energy companies.
The rst American university to use the seminar method of teaching, Michigan offers
more than 70 seminars for rst-year students, each capped at an enrolment of 20. Later,
students can nd themselves in huge lecture classes taught by graduate students rather
than faculty, but 900 undergraduates a year do have a chance to work with faculty
on research. A multibillion-dollar fundraising campaign will underwrite nearly 170
more endowed professorships along with student nancial aid and buildings including
a hospital, drama centre, the new Gerald R Ford School of Public Policy, and a new
home for the school of public health. In the middle of the credit crunch, retail pioneer
Alfred Taubman gave US$20 million to the university taking his total gifts to a massive
US$80 million.
President Gerald R Ford played football at Michigan while other university athletes have
gone on to high-prole careers in sports. Yet such achievements are found further aeld.
So many astronauts have graduated from the university that there is an alumni chapter
on the moon, marked by a plaque left on the lunar surface by the all-Michigan crew of
Apollo 15. Other alumni include the playwright Arthur Miller, actors James Earl Jones and
Lucy Liu, Madonna, Iggy Pop (though he never graduated), and Swedish Holocaust hero
Raoul Wallenberg.
Terumi Hiraoka, who came from Japan to take a Global MBA at Michigans Ross School
of Business, said: The friendships I formed with my Global MBA classmates are the most
valuable takeaway from my MBA experience. www.facebook.com/universityofmichigan
Arts & humanities .................................................18
Engineering & IT ................................................ 19=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 33=
Natural sciences ................................................38=
Social sciences ......................................................14
Academic survey position .....................................21
Employer survey position ......................................16
Students ........................................................35,854
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 6.1:1
International faculty .......................................17.3%
International students ....................................12.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............59,210
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........485,189
Impact (citations per paper)..................................82
15 (19) University of Michigan
Founded 1817 www.umich.edu
www.topuniversities.com
66
16 (15) Cornell University
Founded 1865 www.cornell.edu
Ambitious partnerships with universities in India, Singapore and China, and a medical
campus in Qatar, have led Cornell to call itself the worlds rst transnational university.
But its attention is also rmly rooted at home, where it has been working to move back
up the pre-eminent American league tables. Cornells large size, with 70 undergraduate
specialities, makes it the most comprehensive university in the elite Ivy League. It is also
unique in a country where universities are divided between public and private. Cornell is
both: partly private and partly run (as well as being nancially underwritten) by the state
of New York, in whose rural (and often very cold and snowy) west central reaches it is set.
It also has specialties unusual among the Ivies. Its College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
is the third largest in the United States, and rated as one of the best, while its School
of Hotel Management, which has the largest faculty and curriculum of any program of
its kind, attracts a sizeable international enrolment. The College of Veterinary Medicine
is the nations most respected, where among other things, salmonella was discovered.
Despite its location, a distant ve hours drive northwest of New York City, Cornell is one
of Americas most international campuses. It is also aiming to be one of the greenest and
is on course, by 2012, to reduce its utilities emissions by one third of their 1990 level.
A US$80 million donation in 2010 will boost the work of its Interdisciplinary Research
Center on Sustainability.
An enormous amount of research is conducted at Cornell: annual research expenditures
exceed US$600 million and the university ranks rst in National Science Foundation
funding for academic science and engineering. Cornell has set out to raise US$4 billion to
build on these strengths, a signicant amount of it for a new biomedical research centre
attached to its satellite Weill Cornell Medical College in New York City.
Cornell can boast afliation with 40 Nobel laureates; three are on the current faculty.
Alumni include US Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, former US Attorney
General Janet Reno, the former presidents of Taiwan and Cuba and the former prime
minister of Iran. The inventors of the iPod, the pacemaker and the Heimlich Manoeuvre,
as well as the founders or heads of businesses including Citigroup, Grumman Aerospace
Corporation, and Burger King have also been through Cornell.
Alexandra ONeill, who is taking a joint degree in French studies and sculpture, was
attracted by the breadth of American higher education after early specialisation at school
in France. Cornell has a wonderful aura that Ive never felt anywhere else, she said.
Theres an accepting attitude towards others, which, as a result, attracts really interesting
people and generates a stimulating intellectual culture. www.facebook.co/CornellUniv
Arts & humanities .................................................16
Engineering & IT ................................................ 19=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................25
Natural sciences ...................................................19
Social sciences ......................................................22
Academic survey position .....................................15
Employer survey position ...................................28=
Students ........................................................20,522
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.7:1
International faculty ...................................... 33.7%
International students ................................... 16.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............36,433
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........283,477
Impact (citations per paper)................................107
Top 100 universities in the world
67
Although it can demonstrate quality across the board, Johns Hopkins is famous for its
medical school. It was here that neurosurgery, urology, endocrinology, paediatrics and
renal dialysis were developed. The school receives, by far, the most government research
funding in America and the Bloomberg School of Public Health alone gets a quarter of
all federal research money awarded to the 28 US schools of public health. No wonder
a disproportionate number of Johns Hopkins undergraduates are pre-med. Almost
all freshmen, a clear majority of whom are male, live on campus and choose from 50
majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering. A US$950
million construction project is adding two new clinical towers for cardiovascular and
clinical care. The universitys Whiting School of Engineering is also highly selective and
bioengineering is a popular major that spans both of the universitys principal strengths.
Seventy per cent of engineering students and 50 per cent of other undergraduates
work with faculty on primary research for pay or academic credit. This tradition of close
student-faculty interaction dates from Johns Hopkins legacy as Americas rst university
modelled on the European research institution, teaching through seminars instead of
solely through lectures.
The universitys renowned School of Advanced International Studies is named after Cold
War architect Paul Nitze, who co-founded it in 1943. That division is based in Washington,
45 minutes by train from the universitys park-like, Georgian-style main campus in Baltimore.
Johns Hopkins has been aggressive about extending its reach globally. Its Bologna campus
houses the only full-time, resident American Graduate School of International Relations in
Europe. It has a centre in Florence for its Italian studies program, another in Nanjing, and
two in Singapore, including a collaboration between its Peabody Institute of Music and
the National University of Singapore to establish a music conservatory. The next addition
will create Malaysias rst private teaching hospital with research facilities.
Alumni include President Woodrow Wilson, Vice President Spiro Agnew, novelist John
Barth, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, pianist Andr Watts, Nobel economics
winner Merton Miller, Nobel Peace Prize winner Jody Williams, biologist and author
Rachel Carson and IBM Chief Executive Samuel J Palmisano.
Reiri, an engineering student from Tokyo, said: I like how you can be as active as you
wish in class. Some professors will know your name and sincerely help you out if you
contribute positively to class. The university also has many resources to prepare people to
go to graduate studies or get a job. www.facebook.com/pages/John-Hopkins-University
Arts & humanities ..............................................64=
Engineering & IT ...................................................88
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................7
Natural sciences ................................................ 71=
Social sciences ......................................................77
Academic survey position .....................................36
Employer survey position ....................................129
Students ........................................................ 19,712
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 5.1:1
International faculty ........................................ 6.4%
International students ................................... 13.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............60,781
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........618,484
Impact (citations per paper).............................158.7
17 (13) Johns Hopkins University
Founded 1876 www.jhu.edu
www.topuniversities.com
68
18 (20=) ETH Zurich Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
Founded 1855 www.ethz.ch
The Eidgenssische Technische Hochschule (ETH) is Switzerlands largest and oldest
federal university. It was the countrys only federal higher education institution until
1969, when Lausannes cole Polytechnique also acquired federal (Fdrale) status.
ETHs departments of architecture, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemistry,
forestry, plus a department including mathematics, natural sciences, literature and social
and political sciences, were key players in the modernisation of Switzerland and in the
brilliant engineering works, especially roads, railways, bridges and tunnels, which marked
the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Entrance to ETH is open to all Swiss citizens
who have passed the Matura school-leaving exam, while foreign students have to sit a
separate admissions exam. For all, there is a rigorous selection procedure after the rst
two semesters. ETH was among the rst European universities to adopt the three-plus-
two degree structure of the Bologna process, and the changeover from four and ve year
degrees appears not to have affected the institution. The 34 masters programs available
at ETH outnumber the 24 bachelors degrees, most of which are, in any case, merely the
basis for a subsequent masters program. ETH claims that its work in chemistry, physics
and architecture is among the most advanced in the world, and that the Department
of Biology is rapidly reaching the same level. A basic element of research policy is the
creation of inter-disciplinary platforms for work on a specic eld. The award-winning
Science City campus, on the Hnggerberg site, combines science, business and public
spaces. A US$90 million nanotechnology laboratory is due to open in 2011.
ETH has an impressive list of 21 Nobel Prize winners. Albert Einstein, who studied there
from 1896 to 1900, returned to teach physics from 1912 to 1916. Others include Wilhelm
Conrad Rntgen for physics in 1901 and Felix Bloch, in 1952, also for physics, while the
most recent is ETH Professor Kurt Wthrich for chemistry in 2002.
Sogol Jafar Zadeh, who came from Iran to take a Masters in Environmental Sciences,
said ETH is a wonderful school with professional and friendly staff. I had the great
opportunity to get to know some of the best scholars and some promising students
with diverse backgrounds. ETH allowed me to join the research group of my choice and
to feel at home right away. Zurich is a vibrant multicultural city that has a lot to offer in
many areas such as science, art, leisure and nature. My program allowed me to travel to
many places in Switzerland and Europe and to broaden my scientic and cultural view
throughout my studies.
With 1,500 fans, the ETH Facebook page is growing, but still in its infancy.
www.facebook.com/pages/ETH-Zurich
Arts & humanities ............................................144=
Engineering & IT .....................................................8
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................32
Natural sciences ...................................................10
Social sciences ...................................................96=
Academic survey position .....................................27
Employer survey position ......................................44
Students ........................................................14,527
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 57.0%
International students ................................... 32.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 22,098
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 146,165
Impact (citations per paper)................................ 113
Top 100 universities in the world
69
Top-ranked in Canada for six years in a row, McGill University has become a xture in
the top 20 of the QS World University Rankings

. The universitys research pillars have


traditionally been medicine and law, giving the university a reputation in the elds of
neurosciences, genomics, cancer, human rights and social policy. The engineering faculty
has spawned specialties in nanotechnology and biomedical engineering. It also has a dental
faculty, a school of environmental sciences, a large music faculty and a full complement
of arts and sciences. Determinedly international, McGill attracts more than a third of
its non-Canadian students from the US, but nearly half of the international contingent
claim a rst language other than English. France and China both send large numbers to
the Montreal university. As a sign of its determination to recruit more French-speakers,
the medical school has stopped using the US-based Medical College Admission Test
because it is only available in English. McGill is one of Canadas most research-intensive
universities, with the countrys highest per-faculty research funding in three of the past
four years. Work has begun on the CA$2.25 billion Glen Campus, which will house two
hospitals and a new medical research centre. Among McGills current researchers, Henry
Mintzberg is the most distinguished of contemporary management authors, legal scholar
Payam Akhavan is an authority on human rights and genocide and Mark Wainberg is an
internationally recognised scientist in the eld of HIV/AIDS research. They follow some
illustrious predecessors: in 1948, John Humphrey, a McGill graduate and law professor,
authored the rst draft of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Four McGill graduates have won Nobel Prizes: Andrew Victor Schally for medicine in 1977,
Val Fitch for physics in 1980, David Hubel for medicine in 1981 and Rudolph Marcus for
chemistry in 1992. Ernest Rutherford uncovered the alpha particle and Norman Bethune
designed the worlds rst mobile medical unit. Other notable alumni include poet and
musician Leonard Cohen and William Shatner, best known as Captain James T Kirk of Star
Trek, although the university can lay claim to real astronauts Dave Williams, Robert Thirsk
and Julie Payette.
Mohan Plakkot from Cochin, India took his rst degree and worked in his native homeland
before choosing McGill for an MBA. The Desautels Faculty of Management was my
number one choice in Canada given its international student body and exible second
year program, he said. Montreal, too, presented a avour of Europe in North America,
making it a unique place to learn about business and people. In just the rst few months
I have worked with people from at least 15 different countries who have taught me so
much about themselves, their culture, their countries and myself.
http://www.facebook.com/McGillUniversity
Arts & humanities .................................................28
Engineering & IT ...................................................29
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................22
Natural sciences ...................................................35
Social sciences ......................................................27
Academic survey position .....................................25
Employer survey position ......................................19
Students ........................................................24,377
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 21.9%
International students ................................... 27.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............28,728
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........202,033
Impact (citations per paper)...............................54.5
19 (18) McGill University
Founded 1821 www.mcgill.ca
www.topuniversities.com
70
Despite slipping slightly in this years QS World University Rankings

, the Australian
National University (ANU) remains the highest-placed institution outside Europe and North
America and the only one in the top 20. It was the rst university to be created by an act
of the federal parliament and the rst to be founded in Australias capital, Canberra. The
ANU is the only Australian member of the International Alliance of Research Universities
and one of the nations Group of Eight research-intensive institutions. The ANU campus,
of 10,000 trees spread over 145 hectares, is adjacent to the city centre of Canberra,
but there are also smaller sites, including the astronomy observatories at Mount Stromlo
west of Canberra and Siding Spring near Coonabarabran in western New South Wales.
The university launched a Korean Institute in 2008 and also signed a memorandum of
understanding with Yonsei University in Seoul. Academics at ANU carry out research
and teaching in seven colleges covering the arts, Asian and Pacic studies, economics
and business, engineering and IT, science, medicine and health sciences, and law. About
80 per cent of the universitys core funding is spent on research. A prime example is the
Climate Change Centre, opened in 2008, which adopts an interdisciplinary approach,
drawing together expertise from the universitys seven colleges.
The ANU has four Nobel laureates among many of its distinguished scholars who have
achieved international recognition: John Eccles, John C Harsanyi and, joint-winners, Rolf
Zinkernagel and Peter Doherty. It also has more Federation Fellows (lucrative fellowships
awarded by the Australian Research Council) than any other Australian university
and claims more members of the Royal Society on its staff than any of its Australian
counterparts. Kim Beazley, the former leader of the Labor Party and once deputy Prime
Minister, now Professor of Political Science and International Relations at the University of
Western Australia, became the ANU Chancellor in January 2009.
Parameita Winnie Adhipuri, an Indonesian undergraduate student chose ANU because
it is the top university in Australia and one of the worlds best. Its international relations
program is also widely recognised. ANU has relatively few Asian students compared
to other universities, allowing me more opportunities to improve my English. It also
has comprehensive programs and experienced lecturers, she said. Canberra has
many advantages for study because of its beauty, small size, lack of distractions,
cultural diversity, well educated local population and many national institutions.
www.facebook.com/pages/Australian-National-University
Arts & humanities .................................................17
Engineering & IT ...................................................45
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................36
Natural sciences ...................................................20
Social sciences ......................................................13
Academic survey position .....................................18
Employer survey position ......................................64
Students ........................................................ 11,526
Student faculty ratio .........................................7.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 46.6%
International students ................................... 28.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 14,913
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............78,981
Impact (citations per paper)...............................53.5
20 (17) Australian National University
Founded 1946 www.anu.edu.au
Top 100 universities in the world
71
Kings College set itself the goal of becoming one of the top 25 in the world by 2016, but
its already there and stands on the verge of joining the top 20 in the QS World University
Rankings

. A member of the Russell Group of 20 leading research universities, Kings is


one of the oldest institutions in UK higher education. Having been known primarily for
science, it now also excels in Portuguese, Byzantine Greek, law and war studies. Previous
achievements include discovering the structure of DNA with a Cambridge team. Its prime
location on Londons Strand is another attraction for international students, while a
500 million redevelopment on ve sites close to the River Thames is nearly complete.
Once nished, it will include the largest university building in London, where 2,800
students study health and life sciences. Biomedical sciences, medicine and dentistry have
also acquired new buildings. Science students dominate, but there is a wide range of
interdisciplinary combinations. Alongside their degree all students can take lectures on
ethics, philosophy, theology, biblical studies and Christian doctrine. Health subjects have
been the fastest-growing in recent years: Kings is the only UK university to have ve
Medical Research Council centres and boasts Europes largest centre for medical and
professional healthcare education. Links with China were extended in 2008 with the
establishment of the Centre for the Study of Christianity in China. Other activities include
collaboration on studies of traditional Chinese medicine and links between the law school
and Tsinghua University in Beijing. There are Global Institutes in London focusing on
Brazil, China and India.
A history of distinguished faculty is headed by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins, the
discoverers of DNA, Lord Lister, pioneer of antiseptic surgery, and Sir Edward Appleton,
whose work on atmospheric layers paved the way for modern telecommunications.
Florence Nightingale established the rst professional school of nurse training at St Thomas
Hospital, now also part of the medical school. Famous alumni include the Romantic poet
John Keats, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, and conductor Sir John Eliot Gardiner.
Nik Nasmi Nik Ahmad, who took his A levels in Malaysia, chose Kings for his law degree
on the basis of its reputation and after discussion with Malaysian students already in
the UK. He was impressed by the quality of teaching and found the course academically
rigorous. Being in London exerted a big inuence on me in making my decision. I wanted
to be in a vibrant city which would be great fun, with lots of culture, and London was
the denite choice. Kings is also centrally located near where all the legal action takes
place. At the end of my student life, I can certainly say that I made the right decision.
www.facebook.com/pages/Kings-College-London
Arts & humanities .................................................26
Engineering & IT .............................................. 162=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................30
Natural sciences .................................................133
Social sciences ...................................................46=
Academic survey position .....................................49
Employer survey position ......................................49
Students ........................................................ 18,153
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 35.2%
International students ................................... 24.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 21,761
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 151,313
Impact (citations per paper)...............................52.2
21 (23) Kings College London
Founded 1829 www.kcl.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
72
22 (20=) University of Edinburgh
Founded 1582 www.ed.ac.uk
Founded as the Tounis (Towns) College, the University of Edinburghs local roots are
matched by an international outlook. It has declared an ambition to be a place of rst choice
in the minds of the world and is only just outside the top 20 in the QS World University
Rankings

. As Scotlands largest and most research-intensive university, its cutting edge


research in medicine was boosted by the opening in 2005 of the 49 million Queens
Medical Research Institute. This facility brings together hundreds of elite researchers in
inammation research, cardiovascular medicine and reproductive biology, who work on
conditions from diabetes and heart disease to cancer and menstrual disorders. The 60
million Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine is due to open in 2011 and will include
researchers from a range of disciplines, including stem cell research. Edinburgh is also
building on its considerable strength in informatics and is a prominent player in Scotlands
pioneering research pooling ventures in physics, chemistry, geosciences, engineering
and mathematics, enabling researchers in different universities to work together and
share expensive equipment. It is also drawing on American experience to develop an
ambitious 350 million fundraising campaign with a top priority of increasing the number
of scholarships and bursaries. Edinburgh is often stereotyped as Scotlands Oxbridge,
attracting wealthy, privately educated English students. But it has been strenuously
combating its elitist image with widening access schemes, and is already putting some
15 million into scholarships. Edinburgh offers a blend of innovation and tradition: Old
College, designed by alumnus Robert Adam, dates from the late 18th century and is in
the centre of a World Heritage Site. The historic city is a magnet for tourists, especially
during the Edinburgh Festival, but its leisure facilities are thoroughly up-to-date. A new
veterinary medical school will open in 2011 at the Easter Glen Bush campus, seven miles
south of the city, which will also house the Roslin Institute and a cancer research centre.
Notable Edinburgh graduates include Charles Darwin, David Hume, James Hutton and
writers Sir Walter Scott, Robert Louis Stevenson and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Two of
todays best known Scottish writers have Edinburgh connections: Ian Rankin, creator of
detective John Rebus, is an Edinburgh graduate, while Alexander McCall Smith, author
of the No. 1 Ladies Detective Agency, was professor of medical law until he retired to
concentrate on writing.
Vanessa Willott came from the south of England to study physics and meteorology at
Edinburgh, taking the four-year broad based program rather than going straight into the
second year of her undergraduate course. I felt very privileged to go to such a beautiful (if
rather cold) city as Edinburgh, she said. The university itself is pretty impressive offering
a huge range of clubs and societies. www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Edinburgh
Arts & humanities .................................................14
Engineering & IT ...................................................46
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................17
Natural sciences ................................................ 41=
Social sciences ......................................................41
Academic survey position .....................................28
Employer survey position ......................................26
Students ........................................................ 22,199
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.5:1
International faculty .......................................29.1%
International students ................................... 23.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............20,023
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........143,360
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 48.4
Top 100 universities in the world
73
The University of Hong Kong, (HKU), topped last years inaugural QS Asian University
Rankings and ranks consistently among the top 25 in the world. The former colonys rst
university has long had an international outlook. Its coat of arms features two Chinese
phrases from Confucius: illustrious virtue and the investigation of things, combined
with the Latin motto sapientia et virtus meaning wisdom and virtue. The universitys
international outreach is reected in more than 400 formal links with overseas universities
and ongoing student exchanges with over 180 partner institutions. There are big
expansion plans as it approaches its centenary in the form of a new Centennial Campus.
Due to be completed in 2011, the 42,000 m-square, state-of-the-art campus will enhance
the teaching and research facilities as well as increase student numbers by over 3,000 in
preparation for the territory-wide introduction of four-year degrees. Included in the plans
are another 1,800 residential places.
As Hong Kongs pre-eminent research institution, HKU receives the lions share of
government research grants. It dedicates itself to providing outstanding teaching and
world-class research. The latter was demonstrated in 2003 when the inuenza research
team at the universitys Faculty of Medicine identied the coronavirus that triggered the
2003 SARS epidemic. While faculty members and researchers worked to discover the origins
of the virus and its mode of transmission, they also met with local and international media
to explain its causes and educate the public on keeping it at bay. From this experience,
the university was subsequently appointed by the Chinese Government to establish a
State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases and a State Key Laboratory of Brain
and Cognitive Sciences. The MBA program is also highly regarded, particularly in Asia. Its
curriculum was further enhanced by partnerships that allow students to take classes at
London Business School and Columbia Business School.
Famous alumni include Dr Sun Yat-sen, founding president of the Republic of China, who
attended Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese, HKUs predecessor institution, and
whose statue stands at the heart of the modern university. Many recent graduates work
in the Hong Kong SAR Government and as senior managers of private rms.
For Michael Godin, a German student at HKU, the University of Hong Kong is a true
gateway to Asia. Being surrounded by a large number of international students, there are
so many opportunities to experience different cultures just here on campus. Inspired by the
sincere openness towards development and strong ties to its own history and traditions,
every day at the University of Hong Kong is an inspiring experience worth telling.
With over 2000 fans of the page and counting, the HKU Facebook page is slowly becoming
more vibrant. www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Hong-Kong
Arts & humanities .................................................35
Engineering & IT ................................................ 52=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................37
Natural sciences ...................................................56
Social sciences ......................................................35
Academic survey position .....................................34
Employer survey position ......................................85
Students ........................................................15,632
Student faculty ratio ........................................ 5.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 55.9%
International students ....................................31.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............18,891
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 111,058
Impact (citations per paper)..................................41
23 (24) University of Hong Kong
Founded 1911 www.hku.hk
www.topuniversities.com
74
The University of Tokyo (Todai) is the oldest in Japan and the most prestigious, receiving
the biggest direct government grant. Like other Japanese universities, it has been
struggling with annual cuts in government subsidies and has been trying to increase its
endowment to compensate. The university started out as a law school before setting up
science and liberal arts departments. Today, it has ve campuses, two in the heart of Tokyo
and its legacy as a training institution in a country of powerful bureaucracy persists to this
day: the universitys law graduates dominate the top civil service posts. Tokyo is the only
university in Japan that has a system of two years of general education before students
choose their specialisms. The Komaba Campus, which houses the College of Arts and
Sciences and two graduate schools, is the cornerstone of general education, attended by
all freshmen and sophomores. The university is striving to raise its international prole,
attracting overseas students and researchers, which is also the education ministrys
objective. As one of the 13 universities receiving extra funding from the governments
Global 30 program, Tokyo has introduced ve-year graduate level courses taught in
English in architecture and urban design, bio-engineering and international technology
management. The university is modernising fast, especially with new investment at its
Kashiwa science campus. The Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe
(IPMU) was launched in 2007. It uses English as its ofcial language and 60 per cent of its
full-time staff of 65 come from outside Japan.
In a country where Nobel Prize triumphs make huge newspaper headlines, the University
of Tokyos record has not been illustrious: only one award has been given to a serving
member of faculty, the physics Prize which went to Professor Emeritus Masatoshi
Koshiba in 2002. Faculty also includes architect Tadao Ando, winner of the 1995 Pritzker
Architecture Prize. But six alumni have won Nobels, the latest being Professor Yoichiro
Nambu, who was awarded a share of the 2008 physics Prize. Other notable alumni
include six prime ministers since 1946, mathematician Kunihiko Kodaira (Fields Medal
winner), Nobel literature laureates Yasunari Kawabata and Kenzaburo Oe, writer Yukio
Mishima, Nobel physics laureate Leo Esaki and industrialist Eiji Toyoda of Toyota.
A PhD engineering student from South Korea said: I came to Todai because Japan is the
most advanced location for my research into building materials, and I wanted to do my
research under a Todai professor who is the leading gure in my eld. Todai has a great
environment for research but I wish the library was open later.
The ofcial Facebook page has around 2000 members, but they are outnumbered by the
more active Facebook group, set up by students, which has over 3500.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Tokyo
www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2209866143
24 (22) University of Tokyo
Founded 1877 www.u-tokyo.ac.jp
Arts & humanities .................................................20
Engineering & IT .....................................................7
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................6
Natural sciences .....................................................9
Social sciences ......................................................20
Academic survey position .......................................8
Employer survey position ................................... 21=
Students ........................................................ 27,992
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.4:1
International faculty ........................................ 4.6%
International students ................................... 10.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............58,785
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 333,912
Impact (citations per paper)...............................75.9
Top 100 universities in the world
75
Kyoto University vies with the University of Tokyo for the accolade of top institution in
Japan in the QS World University Rankings

the two are separated by less than a point


in the latest edition. Set in the ancient capital of Japan, Kyoto is the oldest university in
the country outside Tokyo. It originally taught science, engineering, medicine and law, but
has since expanded to cover nearly all aspects of education and research. The universitys
commitment to academic freedom was a hallmark of the institution, even in pre-war
Japan under a military government. But overseas recruitment is limited, even though
it is only two hours from Tokyo by bullet train. Language is a major barrier, as nearly
all lectures and seminars are in Japanese, although many faculties accept postgraduate
theses in English. The university is one of 13 selected for the Global 30 grogram, intended
to boost the number of international students at Japanese universities. Competition for
undergraduate places is intense, based on national entrance exams and the universitys
own entrance exam, both of which are set in Japanese. There is a special selection process
for foreign students and foreign-educated Japanese. The university has recently embarked
on a number of new research initiatives. The Institute for Integrated Cell-Material
Sciences (iCeMS), established in 2007, aims to be a global cross-disciplinary research hub
integrating diverse science disciplines around the key concepts of meso-control and stem
cells. The Hakubi Project offers researchers a position of associate or assistant professor,
with a guaranteed salary for a xed term and no administrative duties.
Kyoto has produced more Nobel Prize and Fields Medal winners than any of its domestic
rivals. In 1949, physicist Hideki Yukawa was the rst Japanese ever to win a Nobel Prize.
Since then, it has produced three winners in physics and science, most recently in 2008
when Toshihide Masukawa won the Nobel Prize for physics. Makoto Kobayashi, his
fellow laureate for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry, which predicts the
existence of at least three families of quarks in nature, was also a research associate at
Kyoto. In 1999, mathematician Shigefumi Mori won the Fields Medal. Shinya Yamanaka
was awarded the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in September 2009 for
his work in stem cell research.
Angelica Naka, from Peru, studying for a Masters in Environmental Management,
said: I chose Kyoto University because of its prestige, the high quality of its education
and research, and because of its many bilateral academic exchanges with universities
throughout the world. The thing I appreciate most is that education at Kyoto University is
based on hands-on experience.
The universitys Facebook page is still in its infancy, with only around 1,000 members and
so far, little discussion. www.facebook.com/pages/Kyoto-University
Arts & humanities .................................................40
Engineering & IT ...................................................17
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................18
Natural sciences ...................................................13
Social sciences ......................................................39
Academic survey position .....................................20
Employer survey position ................................... 45=
Students ....................................................... 22,860
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.4:1
International faculty ........................................ 5.5%
International students ..................................... 7.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 41,670
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 229,615
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 54.3
25 (25) Kyoto University
Founded 1897 www.kyoto-u.ac.jp
www.topuniversities.com
76
Northwestern has taken its place back in the top 30 of the QS World University Rankings


for the rst time since 2007. Although a major private research university, Northwesterns
main campus at Evanston, on the shores of Lake Michigan, feels like a small college.
At exactly 9pm on the Sunday before nals week each term, students traditionally lean
out their windows and collectively unleash a primal scream. Nearly three-quarters of
classes have fewer than 20 students, and the 1,000 undergraduate faculty (not including
graduate assistants) teach more than 95 per cent of the courses. The research agenda
at Northwestern University is ambitious. Founded in an ofce over a hardware store
by Chicago civic leaders anxious to win respect for their gritty frontier town, it now
has ve doctoral programs ranked in the top ten per cent in America by the National
Research Council and ten others in the top 25 per cent. Many international students
come to Northwestern to attend its top-rated Kellogg School of Business, where a third
of the students are from outside the US. Its Global Initiatives in Management includes
two weeks of eld study in such places as Central Europe, China, Russia and Vietnam.
Northwesterns small Chicago-based School of Law includes a nine-month masters
program for graduates of foreign law schools to learn American law and legal processes.
The Center for Wrongful Conviction, staffed largely by students from the law school
and the universitys Medill School of Journalism, famously proved nine inmates to be
innocent on Illinois death row, causing the states governor to declare a moratorium on
executions. The universitys McCormick School of Engineering is among the top-rated
in America, with a program that gives rst-year students the chance to work with real
engineers on projects with major companies. Engineering First stemmed from concerns
that the engineering education previously emphasised scientic analysis at the expense
of practical design. A 50-year development plan for the Evanston campus includes new
facilities for molecular therapeutics and diagnostics, even encroaching into the lake to
make more space for residential accommodation. Further aeld, Northwestern has taken
its journalism degree to Qatar, with a base in Dohas Education City.
Northwesterns theatre program has graduated the likes of Charlton Heston, Warren
Beatty, Ann-Margret, Patricia Neal, Clancy Brown, Shelley Long and Tony Roberts. Other
prominent alumni include Chairman and CEO of General Dynamics, President and CEO of
the Campbell Soup Company, and David J Skorton, President of Cornell University.
Jose Canto, who came to Northwesterns Graduate School from Georgetown University,
said: Many say that you are only as good as the people you work with. So I chose NU
because I wanted to work alongside the best. The intelligence, work-ethic, and curiosity
of my faculty mentors and my fellow participants pushed me to become a cutting-edge
researcher in my eld. www.facebook.com/NorthwesternU
Arts & humanities .................................................94
Engineering & IT ...................................................73
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 75=
Natural sciences ................................................86=
Social sciences ......................................................28
Academic survey position .....................................55
Employer survey position ...................................36=
Students ........................................................15,830
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.7:1
International faculty ........................................ 4.8%
International students ................................... 16.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 22,165
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 150,713
Impact (citations per paper)...............................63.4
26 (32=) Northwestern University
Founded 1851 www.northwestern.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
77
The University of Bristol has climbed into the top 30 in the QS World University Rankings


for the rst time following several years of steady upward progress. The university is
among the most popular in Britain, with more than ten applicants for every undergraduate
place. A prominent member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, Bristol
has a strong research reputation across a range of disciplines. Almost two-thirds of the
work submitted to the UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) in 2008 was considered
world-class. In computer science, drama, economics, education, epidemiology and public
health, geography, mathematics and philosophy, at least 30 per cent of the research
was placed in the top category. Distinguished faculty members now include Professor Sir
Michael Berry, one of the worlds top physicists, and Professor Peter Fleming, whose work
on infant health and development physiology is credited with saving the lives of 100,000
babies worldwide. The University of Bristol is an old, city-based institution owning 400
hectares of land and 370 buildings. It is in the middle of a 250 million investment
program of new buildings, equipment and staff appointments. Major investments have
been completed or are under way in physics, mathematics, biological sciences and IT
facilities. The rst phase of modernisation of the library facilities was completed in 2009.
Improvements are also planned for the students union and student support services. The
university and the United Bristol Healthcare Trust have joined forces to build a new 6.6
million Clinical Research and Imaging Centre at St Michaels Hospital. The city of Bristol,
the largest in the southwest of England, is attractive and prosperous. Although relatively
expensive by UK standards, it is generally popular with students.
Four Nobel laureates have worked at Bristol: Paul Dirac (1933), Cecil Frank Powell (1950),
Hans Albrecht Bethe (1967) and Sir Neville Francis Mott (1977). There are 30 fellows of
the Royal Society and nine fellows of the British Academy on the active and emeritus staff.
Other famous Bristol alumni include: the playwright Harold Pinter, Rt Hon Theresa Villiers
MP, Minister of Transport, Sir Liam Donaldson, former Chief Medical Ofcer of England;
Will Hutton, former Chief Executive of The Work Foundation; Josh Lewsey, former rugby
union international; and the singer James Blunt.
Thalia Prastitou, who is completing a PhD at Bristol after taking an LLM in Commercial
Law, said: Apart from academic knowledge, I was really happy as I created a very
good relationship with my personal tutor, as well as with the other professors. What
has also made a great impression on me was the really friendly atmosphere within the
postgraduate ofce with the administrative staff. In general my year in Bristol was one
of the nicest years of my life. Mphoeng Othile adds on Facebook: I am really fond of
University of Bristol. An excellent institution with a great reputation.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Bristol
27 (34) University of Bristol
Founded 1876 www.bristol.ac.uk
Arts & humanities .................................................57
Engineering & IT ...................................................83
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................70
Natural sciences ...................................................40
Social sciences ................................................... 65=
Academic survey position .....................................53
Employer survey position ......................................15
Students ........................................................16,900
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 29.6%
International students ....................................17.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 17,988
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 119,311
Impact (citations per paper)...............................52.9
www.topuniversities.com
78
Despite suffering unprecedented budget cuts, like the rest of the University of California,
Berkeley has achieved one of the biggest rises in the upper reaches of this years QS
World University Rankings

. The rst and agship campus of the University of California,


Berkeley, can trace its origins to the gold rush era, when the nascent state was seeking
cultural legitimacy. With a generous amount of space set aside for its campus in the hills
above San Francisco Bay, and a curriculum modelled on Harvard and Yale, UC Berkeley
was an ambitious place. It still is: an impressive 48 graduate programs are ranked in the
top ten by the National Research Council (NRC), including top three nishes in agriculture,
chemistry, civil and environmental engineering, mathematics, mechanical engineering,
physics and political science. It produces more PhDs than any other US university, its library
holdings are the nations fourth largest, and it also ranks rst in the number of its research
programs the NRC considers distinguished. Research has always been UC Berkeleys
great strength, particularly in the sciences. It was here that the rst cyclotron, or circular
particle accelerator, was developed by physicist Ernest O Lawrence, who, along with other
UC Berkeley scientists, went on to help produce the atomic and hydrogen bombs. UC
Berkeley researchers also discovered the anti-proton and elements including plutonium,
isolated the polio virus, and contributed to the invention of the laser. Twenty members
of the faculty have won the Nobel Prize and eight laureates still work there. Research
opportunities arent limited to the universitys graduate students. Undergraduates can
apply to take part in the Undergraduate Research Apprentice Program and work side-by-
side with faculty in any discipline. UC Berkeley has been famous as a centre of student
and faculty activism since Vietnam protest days, but there is also an athletic tradition: a
recent venture is a US$593 million Student Athlete High Performance Center to add to the
impressive sports facilities.
Alumni include former Pakistan President Zulkar Ali Bhutto, Vietnam-era Defense
Secretary Robert McNamara, California Governor and onetime US presidential candidate
Jerry Brown, Apple Computer co-founder Steve Wozniak, Intel CEO Paul Otellini, MySpace
creator Tom Anderson, Vodafone CEO Arun Sarin, Korean Airlines President Choon Kun
Chom, The Gap CEO Don Fisher, and Stephen Bechtel, founder of the controversial
worldwide engineering rm that bears his name.
Shee Zhi Qiang, who came from Singapore to take a BSc in Forestry and Natural Resources,
says: You have the free speech movement that started here and a lot of environmental
action that goes on here, and I like to be in the centre of that. Nga Hang Nguyen adds on
Facebook: I always wanted to be part of Berkeley. I love the architecture, love the people
and moreover, love the library.
www.facebook.com/pages/Berkeley-CA/University-of-California-Berkeley
Arts & humanities ...................................................4
Engineering & IT .....................................................3
Life sciences & biomedicine ....................................5
Natural sciences .....................................................5
Social sciences ........................................................5
Academic survey position .......................................4
Employer survey position ........................................7
Students ........................................................31,204
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 35.3%
International students ................................... 19.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............36,108
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 311,104
Impact (citations per paper)...............................92.4
28 (39) University of California, Berkeley
Founded 1868 www.berkeley.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
79
Canadas biggest university, the University of Toronto, has cemented its place in the
top 30 of the QS World University Rankings

after a big rise last year. The university


has always aimed high with its stated mission and purpose: It is this human right to
radical, critical teaching and research with which the University has a duty above all to be
concerned; for there is no one else, no other institution and no other ofce, in our modern
liberal democracy, which is the custodian of this most precious and vulnerable right of
the liberated human spirit. This bold statement is an indication of the role assumed by
the university, which is also the countrys most international. Toronto claims the largest
overseas student population of any university in North America, with a student body
representing 150 different countries.
There are three campuses: the original downtown location in Toronto itself and two others
within 30kms of the city. The majority of students are based at the 180 year old St George
campus, which has seven colleges offering undergraduates every arts and science subject
in a smaller community within a large university. Some art students begin their degrees
at the Sheridan Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning. A new science research
building was opened in 2008 on the Scarborough campus, accommodating principal
investigators and post-doctoral fellows, as well as student researchers. In its latest gures,
Toronto accumulated C$854 million in research grants and contract support and has spun
off 103 companies. Its research library is one of the top four in North America and has
more than 15 million holdings. Research achievements have also been mammoth: the
university developed the rst electronic heart pacemaker, articial larynx, single-lung
transplant, nerve transplant and articial pancreas. Scientists have joined forces with
colleagues at Kyoto University in the area of stem cell research to bring therapies to the
market more quickly.
Alumni include authors Margaret Atwood and Michael Ondaatje, lm directors David
Cronenberg and Norman Jewison, eBays Jeff Skoll and former Canadian Prime Ministers
Paul Martin and Lester B Pearson. Sir Frederick Banting and J J R Macleod won the Nobel
Prize in 1923. Communications guru Marshall McLuhan was a faculty member, John
C Polanyi won the 1986 Nobel Prize in chemistry for pioneering work that led to the
development of the laser and geneticist Tak Mak was the rst to clone a T-cell gene, a key
part of the immune system.
Alison Kobayashi, an art and art history student at Toronto, said: The University of
Toronto and the Sheridan Institute both have amazing faculty that really care about you.
The Mississauga campus teachers really are very understanding of deadlines and artistic
practices. www.facebook.com/universitytoronto
Arts & humanities ................................................. 11
Engineering & IT ...................................................14
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................16
Natural sciences ...................................................14
Social sciences ......................................................17
Academic survey position ..................................... 11
Employer survey position ......................................31
Students ........................................................ 61,710
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 27.3%
International students ................................... 11.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............63,052
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 451,015
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 71.9
29 (29) University of Toronto
Founded 1827 www.utoronto.ca
www.topuniversities.com
80
Englands oldest civic university became Britains rst chartered university of the 21st
century and the largest single-site institution in the country when Victoria University
of Manchester merged with the University of Manchester Institute of Science and
Technology (UMIST) in 2004. It now claims to have the broadest range of undergraduate
and postgraduate programs in the UK. Since the merger, the university has set its sights
on becoming a world giant in terms of academic achievement and reputation by 2015.
It is already well on its way to achieving its aims, as one of the leading universities in
the UKs 2008 Research Assessment Exercise and, despite slipping in the latest edition,
well established in the top 30 in the QS World University Rankings

. Its sheer size and


impressive results have helped make Manchester the UKs most popular university among
British and international students applying for places on undergraduate courses. There
are more than 50 specialist research centres and groups focusing on areas ranging from
cancer treatments and genetic disorders to articial intelligence and aeronautics. The
university boasts the world-famous Jodrell Bank Observatory, the 35 million Manchester
Interdisciplinary Biocentre, the Photon Science Institute, and the 40 million Integrative
Centre for Molecular Cell Biology. Other new facilities include the Brooks World Poverty
Institute and a new centre for cancer research. Manchester University is funding these
developments with a massive 360 million capital investment program. As well as
improving academic facilities, the money is being used to enhance the universitys city
centre campus. Manchester guarantees university accommodation for the duration of a
course for all fee-paying overseas students. Its huge student population helps to make
the city of Manchester, which sees itself as the capital of the North of England, one of the
most vibrant in the UK.
The award of the 2010 Nobel Prize for physics to Professors Andre Geim and Konstantin
Novoselov brought the number of laureates on the current staff to four. Alumni include
more than 20 Nobel Prize winners such as Ernest Rutherford, who split the atom. WS
Jevons formulated the principles of modern economics, while AJP Taylor was the best-
known historian of his generation. Tom Kilburn and Sir Freddie Williams were among the
pioneers of computers in the 1940s.
Ali Pedram, an Iranian student taking a BEng in Aerospace Engineering has found
Manchester an ideal place to study his subject and has also taken to the city. Manchester
is multi-racial and there are many students from different backgrounds, so Iranian students
wont feel homesick, he said. There are mosques in the city and you can get Halal food
too. The fact that there are mosques here makes me think that British society is accepting
of new and different ways of life. www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Manchester
Arts & humanities .................................................48
Engineering & IT ...................................................25
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................39
Natural sciences ...................................................52
Social sciences ......................................................29
Academic survey position .....................................32
Employer survey position ...................................... 11
Students ........................................................34,799
Student faculty ratio ........................................ 8.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 30.3%
International students ................................... 24.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 27,147
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........160,297
Impact (citations per paper)...............................40.7
30 (26) University of Manchester
Founded 1824 www.manchester.ac.uk
Top 100 universities in the world
81
31 (30) National University of Singapore
Founded 1905 www.nus.edu.sg
The National University of Singapore (NUS) was in the top three in the inaugural QS
Asian University Rankings and has been in, or around, the top 30 globally since the QS
World University Rankings

were rst published in 2004. A joint medical school with Duke


University, a music conservatory with Johns Hopkins and plans for a liberal arts college
with Yale testify to its high standards and international outlook. NUS plays a leading role
in the Association of Pacic Rim Universities (APRU), as well as in the International Alliance
of Research Universities. The university also has ve overseas colleges: Bio Valley, Silicon
Valley, Shanghai, Stockholm and Bangalore.
Privatised in 2006, the university continues to receive a government subsidy as the
island-state seeks to maintain the highest all-round standards in education. It is set on a
1.5 km-square campus at Kent Ridge, scene of the heroic last stand by the Malay
Regiment in 1942, and is a beacon for the huge investment in education at all levels made
by the government of the Republic of Singapore. The law school has moved to a new
site at Bukit Timah in the centre of the island. Student intake is from a wide spectrum of
countries: more than two-dozen nationalities are represented in the law school. Facilities
in Singapore are of the highest international standard and include six libraries and four
museums, one of which, the Rafes Museum of Biodiversity Research, showcases over
500,000 specimens of ora and fauna. The university has opened a Cancer Science
Institute, which it hopes will become a world leader under the directorship of Professor
Daniel Tenen, formerly of Harvard Medical School.
Among its leading graduates NUS can number Goh Chok Tong, former Prime Minister
of Singapore, Kishore Mahbubani, Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at
NUS, and Choo San Goh, prominent choreographer of the Washington Ballet. Of the
current staff, Wong Lim Soon of the School of Computing has established an international
reputation in database theories.
Wu Yu, a Chinese student who took the international MBA run in collaboration with
Peking University, said: There are many things that make my NUS life so enriching: the
bright golden sunshine, the handy wireless LAN that allows me to surf the net when taking
a break at the pool, the kind smiles and meticulous efciency of the library administrators
and ve comfortable libraries that open till 10pm even on Saturday, the all-year-round
campus highlights ranging from wine appreciation to play-writing competitions organised
by the young or experienced in all kinds of clubs. So be prepared, days in NUS will y by,
and life is as short as it is full of wonders.
www.facebook.com/pages/National-University-of-Singapore
Arts & humanities .................................................23
Engineering & IT ..................................................9=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................13
Natural sciences ................................................25=
Social sciences ......................................................16
Academic survey position .....................................12
Employer survey position ......................................23
Students ........................................................32,257
Student faculty ratio ........................................ 6.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 64.4%
International students ................................... 38.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............32,092
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........158,302
Impact (citations per paper)...............................33.3
www.topuniversities.com
82
cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) has achieved one of the biggest rises in
this years QS World University Rankings

, a leap of ten places, continuing its dramatic


progress of recent years. EPFL was not even in the top 100 in 2007. Alongside ETH Zurich,
EPFL is one of the twin pinnacles of Switzerlands higher education and research sector.
They are the only two federal (rather than cantonal) institutions and have a common
national supervisory system. EPFL has a strongly international vision, since four out of
ten students and more than half of the faculty are from abroad. Many students are from
neighbouring Germany and France but others come from all over the world. In addition to
the professors, there are about 2,000 scientic collaborators, many of whom also teach.
The university won the most research grants of any institution in the 2009 allocations by
the European Research Council.
EPFL began life as the Schola Lausannensis, a religious institution for educating the
young and training adults as ministers of the church. It was only in the 19th century
that it developed into a modern university, or, rather, as the engineering and technology
wing of the University of Lausanne, under cantonal control. Emancipation came in 1969
with the establishment of EPFL as an autonomous federal institution. Today EPFL has
an agreement with the cantonal universities of both Lausanne and Geneva to distribute
sectors of research among the three institutions, striving for a critical mass on any given
project and to encourage networked, interdisciplinary programs. There is also a base in the
Middle East, collaborating on research and postgraduate programs in the Emirate of Ras Al
Khaimah. In Lausanne, EPFL has seven departments: architecture, civil and environmental
engineering, computer and communication sciences, basic sciences, engineering sciences
and techniques, life sciences, humanities, management and technology. The accent is
on applied, inter-disciplinary science and technology. One of EPFLs agship projects
is the research and development related to the Alinghi yacht that took the Americas
Cup for Switzerland in 2003 and 2007. Another is Solar Impulse, the development and
construction of a solar-powered aircraft to y round the world.
Alumni include Daniel Borel, one of the founders of Logitech, Aart de Geus, the founder
of Synopsis Inc, and Andr Gorz, the philosopher and economist.
Olivier Schmidt, a postgraduate in mechanical engineering, said: The universitys
management school really helped me professionally. When facing problems, I can use a
more factual approach thanks to the case studies and rm strategies taught during this
program. These cases and strategies help me think outside the box. I also enjoyed the
cohesion and team spirit of my class. The university is a great place to make friends with
people from different places, cultures, and academic backgrounds.
www.facebook.com/pages/Ecole-Polytechnique-Federale-de-Lausanne
Arts & humanities ........................................301-350
Engineering & IT ...................................................31
Life sciences & biomedicine ................................163
Natural sciences ...................................................49
Social sciences .............................................301-350
Academic survey position .....................................95
Employer survey position ......................................98
Students ......................................................... 6,988
Student faculty ratio ............................................5:1
International faculty ...................................... 68.8%
International students ................................... 45.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............12,888
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............74,005
Impact (citations per paper)...............................53.4
32 (42) cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne
Founded 1853 www.ep.ch
Top 100 universities in the world
83
33 (28) cole Normale Suprieure, Paris
Founded 1794 www.ens.fr
The cole Normale Suprieure (ENS) in Paris is one of the great institutions of revolutionary
France, a pioneering Grande cole created to train university and lyce teachers for the
agrgation, the competitive high-level teaching examination. Today ENS is Frances elite
training-ground, not only for academics and researchers, but for those seeking careers
in the upper echelons of the civil service, business or politics. Entry is generally by the
traditional concours (competitive exams) preceded by two years of post-baccalaurat
study in preparatory classes, but there are alternative entry methods for foreign applicants.
Like the other Grandes coles, the ENS has enjoyed more autonomy since the beginning
of 2010, but will be expected to collaborate further with Frances universities as it grows
to a community of 3,000 students from the current 2,300.
Still the highest-placed institution in France, despite slipping out of the top 30 in the latest
QS World University Rankings

, ENS is the only Grande cole catering for students of both


humanities and sciences. Its watchwords are interdisciplinarity and education through
research. Studies last three or four years, leading to a licence (bachelors equivalent) and
masters, awarded jointly with another higher education establishment. Many students,
including most on humanities courses, take the agrgation. ENS graduates might
otherwise continue at other Grandes coles to train as senior technocrats or follow
careers in sought-after elds such as the media or publishing. The school has agreements
with around 60 universities worldwide through which as many as 150 students embark
on exchange programs each year. About 60 foreign academics visit annually for a month
at a time; nearly 300 international researchers stay for periods of up to two years. The
ENS International Division caters for foreign students. Candidates are tested rigorously by
a panel of professors from French and foreign universities, who evaluate their capacity
for analysis, conceptualisation and synthesis, scientic and literary knowledge, intellectual
curiosity, and relevance of their chosen projects.
Among ENS alumni are numerous eminent scientists, writers, philosophers, social scientists
and politicians, including many winners of Nobel Prizes, Fields Medals and CNRS Gold
Medals. Graduates include chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, philosophers Jean-
Paul Sartre, Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida, social activist Simone Weil, acclaimed
French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, literaries Romain Rolland, Charles Pguy and French
political gures Jean Jaurs, Lon Blum and Georges Pompidou. Irish writer, dramatist and
poet Samuel Beckett taught at ENS.
Jane Weston, a British student, went to ENS as part of her course at Bristol University and
coped well because she already spoke good French. In a review on the iAgora (study and
work abroad) website, she said: ENS is denitely an experience. I loved it, but Im not
sure everybody would. www.facebook.com/pages/Ecole-normale-superieure-de-Paris
Arts & humanities .............................................. 41=
Engineering & IT ...................................................78
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................61
Natural sciences ...................................................12
Social sciences ...................................................96=
Academic survey position .....................................39
Employer survey position ......................................93
Students .......................................................... 1,591
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 10.2%
International students ................................... 18.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ................ 3,846
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 24,843
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 81.5
www.topuniversities.com
84
Carnegie Mellon (CMU) is a self-proclaimed global university with faculty members
working all over the world and on campuses in Silicon Valley, and Qatar and South
Australia. It has helped to establish universities and educational networks in Latin
America, Singapore, Brazil and India. The universitys scale and culture have encouraged
faculties to collaborate across disciplines with unconventional partnerships between
seemingly unrelated elds. Best known for science and technology, Carnegie Mellon has
top drama and business programs, and has seen applications double in the last ten years.
The university was founded as a technical school by the Scottish-American industrialist
Andrew Carnegie (members of the band, which includes bagpipers, still wear kilts) to train
the children of the working-class poor in industrial Pittsburgh. Its School of Computer
Science is one of the best in the world and includes the pre-eminent Robotics Institute,
the largest at any US university, which developed robots to clean up nuclear waste at
Three Mile Island and Chernobyl.
The highly regarded business school also takes advantage of Carnegie Mellons
specialisation in technology, while the Heinz School of Public Policy and Management
studies urban and social issues with an equally interdisciplinary approach. Its Human-
Computer Interaction Institute integrates computer science, design, social science and
learning science. Not surprisingly, the campus is among Americas most wired and is home
to a 10-teraop Cray XT3 computer called Big Ben, capable of ten trillion calculations
per second, or as much processing capacity as 30,000 personal computers. Scientists
have used it to model earthquake soil vibration, forecast severe thunderstorms and
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9s impact with Jupiter. Concerned about public perceptions that
universities with robust research programs neglect undergraduate teaching, Carnegie
Mellon was also one of the rst universities in America to establish a centre aimed at
helping faculty improve their classroom teaching.
Faculty includes 16 Nobel laureates. Among alumni are James Gosling, creator of the
Java programming language, Sun Microsystems co-founders Andy Bechtolsheim and
Vinod Khosla, and astronaut Judith Resnik, who died in the Challenger disaster. Carnegie
Mellons conservatory-style drama program has graduated the likes of George Peppard,
Jack Klugman, Holly Hunter, Ted Danson, Blair Underwood and producer Steven Bochco.
Steve Shengpeng Liu is studying chemistry at Carnegie Mellon and is president of the
universitys Chinese Student and Scholar Association. It is a very precious experience
for me to study at Carnegie Mellon where I can interact with students from different
countries and educational backgrounds, he said. Also, there are lots of student clubs
and extracurricular events in CMU which I can participate in to have fun and strengthen
the bonding with other friends. www.facebook.com/carnegiemellonu
Arts & humanities ...............................................108
Engineering & IT ...................................................12
Life sciences & biomedicine .............................166=
Natural sciences .............................................. 123=
Social sciences ...................................................70=
Academic survey position .....................................57
Employer survey position ................................... 55=
Students ..........................................................9,987
Student faculty ratio ............................................8:1
International faculty ...................................... 12.9%
International students ....................................29.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............13,866
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 72,101
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 57.7
34 (27) Carnegie Mellon University
Founded 1900 www.cmu.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
85
Californias well-publicised nancial problems led to a sharp rise in fees at the University
of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the rest of the states agship university system.
But efforts are being made to ensure that up to half of the undergraduate population
will continue to receive student aid. UCLA is rated in the top three US universities for
its contribution to the public good by improving social mobility, producing research and
promoting service. It has also been stepping up its efforts to recruit international students,
with missions to China, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea and Singapore in 2010. Money had
been owing for construction at UCLA, with some US$2 billion worth of new facilities
added in recent years. UCLA has more applications than any other US university - more
than 50,000 candidates every year - and nine out of ten students come from California.
The voluntary General Education Cluster Program allows entering students to work on
research with faculty on interdisciplinary topics by combining lecture classes with lab work
and discussion sessions. Alternatively, students can take a Fiat Lux Freshman Seminar in
groups of no more than 20, an honours-style course meant to encourage intellectual
discourse by investigating a specic question or topic, with no grades or homework.
Perhaps the best known feature of the campus is the School of Theater, Film, and
Television. It encompasses the largest university-based lm and television archive in the
world and its undergraduate division is usually ranked rst in the nation. Film directors
Francis Ford Coppola and Rob Reiner, actors James Dean and Tim Robbins, and agent Mike
Ovitz all attended UCLA. The benets of being at the centre of the entertainment world
have worked both ways. Record executive and DreamWorks co-founder David Geffen
gave UCLA US$200 million for what is now called the David Geffen School of Medicine.
The medical school is now ranked among Americas best; it was UCLA physicians who
identied the rst AIDS cases. There are nearly 300 research centres, labs, and institutes
at UCLA, including a prestigious civil rights research centre it stole from Harvard by
offering more money and free space. Five of the 4,000 UCLA faculty (and four of the
schools alumni) have won the Nobel Prize, a distinction considered important enough
that two have campus buildings named in their honour.
Chaohua Wang survived the Tiananmen Square massacre in Beijing to come to UCLA and
worked her way through a masters degree in Asian languages and cultures, to a PhD. I
am very grateful to UCLA, she said. In addition to nancial support over many years,
UCLA has given me the best intellectual training I could have ever imagined. It is also here
at UCLA that I learned a lot about the world beyond China.
www.facebook.com/uclabruins
35 (32=) University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)
Founded 1919 www.ucla.edu
Arts & humanities ...................................................7
Engineering & IT ...................................................15
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................10
Natural sciences ...................................................15
Social sciences ...................................................... 11
Academic survey position .......................................7
Employer survey position ......................................17
Students ........................................................ 37,681
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.9:1
International faculty ........................................ 1.6%
International students ......................................7.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............58,163
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 536,138
Impact (citations per paper)................................ 170
www.topuniversities.com
86
For over two centuries, Frances most prestigious engineering Grande cole, cole
Polytechnique, has trained distinguished scientists, captains of industry, military chiefs
and political leaders, as well as engineers. Its enduring strength was recognised as the
2010 winner of the French Excellence Award for the Grandes coles. Under the French
governments reform plans, it will be at the heart of one of ten new supercampuses
that are designed to improve the countrys standing in global higher education. cole
Polytechnique is a member of the Paris Tech Research and Higher Education Cluster
(PRES), which brings together all 12 Grandes coles in the capital. Founded as the cole
Centrale des Travaux Publics by Lazare Carnot and Gaspard Monge, it was re-established
as a military academy by Napoleon in 1804, with the motto Pour la patrie, les sciences
et la gloire (For the nation, science and glory). Students have military status and wear
a distinctive uniform on special occasions. Women were rst admitted in 1972. Entrance
is through a competitive exam after two years of study in post-baccalaurat preparatory
classes, though nowadays there is an alternative selection procedure for foreign students.
The school, nicknamed X, has an undergraduate program, graduate school and many
research laboratories mostly run in association with other institutions such as CNRS,
the National Centre for Scientic Research. cole Polytechnique specialises in biology,
chemistry, computer science, economics, pure and applied mathematics, mechanical
engineering, physics and social sciences. All students must study a broad range of
subjects including two languages and general cultural courses, and follow several work
placements. Annual intake for the engineering program is 500, with foreigners of 40
nationalities represented among the undergraduates. Half the masters students and a
third of all doctoral candidates are from abroad.
The academic staff includes 14 members of the Acadmie des Sciences. Alumni include
presidents Sadi Carnot and Valry Giscard dEstaing, astronauts Jean-Franois Clervoy
and Philippe Perrin, scientists Andr-Marie Ampre, Paul Lvy, Henri Poincar and Nobel
Prize winner for economics, Maurice Allais. Alfred Dreyfus and Generals Foch and Joffre
are among military Polytechniciens.
Dang Ngoc Duong, a Vietnamese student, said: cole Polytechnique offers such a variety
of subjects that every student can choose and study in their favourite domains. At the
same time, an excellent sports program helps me nd a good balance and brings a lot of
fun. Besides, living in a campus with a large community formed by people from all over
the world is an interesting experience for me.
There are over 4000 members in the cole Polytechniques active, French language
Facebook page. www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2382238262
Arts & humanities ................................................... -
Engineering & IT ...................................................35
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 247=
Natural sciences ...................................................31
Social sciences .................................................233=
Academic survey position .....................................92
Employer survey position ......................................20
Students ......................................................... 2,340
Student faculty ratio .........................................3.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 23.5%
International students ................................... 27.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .................5,321
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 27,505
Impact (citations per paper)...............................42.8
36 (36=) cole Polytechnique
Founded 1794 www.polytechnique.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
87
The sweeping lawns and Gothic Revival sandstone architecture of Australias oldest
university give the main campus on the edge of Sydneys central business district, a sense
of old world higher learning. But the University of Sydney has been modernising and
completed an AU$800 million program of renewal and rebuilding in 2010. The university,
which celebrated its 150th anniversary with the Sydney Olympics in 2000, is a member
of Australias Group of Eight research-intensive universities and has links with many
of the worlds leading research institutions. Indeed, it is one of only three Australian
institutions in the Association of the Pacic Rim Universities. This global network covers
research collaboration, joint teaching projects as well as staff and student exchanges
across Europe, North America and Asia. At present, China is the main focus: there are
4,000 Chinese students studying at Sydney, twice as many as ve years ago. Among the
new buildings is a seven-oor medical research and teaching facility, which opened in
November 2008 as part of an AU$950 million redevelopment of the North Shore Hospital
that is due to be completed in 2013. The university offers full fee scholarships with
stipends to cover living expenses to outstanding international candidates for the Doctor
of Philosophy program. Merit scholarships are also offered to international students
completing Australian nal-year high school examinations, as well as to continuing
undergraduate students. All Sydney undergraduates are eligible for scholarships awarded
for outstanding academic achievement. The university does not guarantee residential
accommodation for international students, although many nd places in campus colleges
or residences. It advises students to arrive 14 days early to attend orientation sessions and
nd a place to live.
Renowned graduates include Nobel laureates Professor Russell Robinson, Sir John
Cornforth and Dr John Harsanyi, former president of the World Bank James Wolfensohn,
academic and businesswoman Jill Ker Conway, lm makers Phil Noyce, Jane Campion and
Bruce Beresford, writers Germaine Greer and Clive James. The alumni also include four
prime ministers, including Australias rst, Andrew Barton, and more recent holders of the
ofce, Gough Whitlam and John Howard, as well as the Governor of New South Wales
and Chancellor of the University, Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir.
Mariam Hashemizadeh, who took her rst degree in economics at the University of
Bochum, in Germany, chose to study in Australia because the University of Sydney stood
out above the rest. I had offers from other universities, but Sydney has a great reputation
internationally, and had the specic course I wanted. My advice to prospective students is,
when you come to the University of Sydney, dont be afraid to venture out and join clubs
and societies. You will experience living among people from many nationalities and make
lifelong friends. www.facebook.com/sydneyuni
37 (36=) University of Sydney
Founded 1850 www.usyd.edu.au
Arts & humanities .................................................19
Engineering & IT ...................................................44
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................19
Natural sciences ...................................................36
Social sciences ......................................................30
Academic survey position .....................................24
Employer survey position ......................................32
Students ........................................................ 37,790
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 10.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 47.0%
International students ................................... 27.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............28,432
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........145,208
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 38.8
www.topuniversities.com
88
Melbourne University has reshaped its curriculum in recent years, becoming the rst
university in Australia to adopt a US-style graduate school structure. Students enrol in a
set of six broad undergraduate degrees leading to either professional graduate programs
such as architecture, law and teaching; the workplace; or higher research degrees. Law,
architecture, building and planning, as well as nursing and some education courses, are now
offered only as graduate programs. Other professional degrees, such as medicine, dentistry
and engineering are joining the list of graduate-entry programs in 2011. Nevertheless,
the so-called New Generation undergraduate degrees cover more the 80 broad areas of
study. Only about 20 per cent of Melbourne students will be in new graduate schools
and a further 10-15 per cent engaged in post-graduate research. The university shed
some staff, particularly in the arts, after a fall in its endowment caused by the global
recession, but its long-term plans remain on track. Melbourne is Australias second oldest
university and attracts a large number of students from socially advantaged homes and
top private schools. However, it also claims to offer the nations largest scholarship scheme:
8,000 scholarships worth AU$100 million over three years for highly able students. The
universitys impressive centralised campus, a few minutes tram ride from the central
business district, is in the heart of cosmopolitan Carlton. There are other small campuses
dotted around Victoria that focus on agriculture, forestry and rural medicine.
Many of Melbournes academics are among Australias most accomplished and sought-
after scholars accounting for 250 memberships of the four Australian learned academies.
Melbourne has three Nobel laureates on its staff: Peter Doherty, Sir Clive Granger and
Sir James Mirrlees. The university received AU$90 million in 2008 for the Peter Doherty
Institute of Infection and Immunity. In the recent Thomson Scientic Australian citation
survey Melbourne led, making Top Three appearances in 21 elds (11 by total citations
and ten by impact). In both citations and impact the university has also made its reputation
known in ve elds: neurosciences, physics, microbiology, pharmacology and psychology/
psychiatry. Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard completed her degree at Melbourne.
Peter Manasantivongs came to Melbourne for an MBA course after studying mathematics
at Harvard and linguistics at Cambridge. He was attracted by the small class sizes and
academically rigorous program. It is important to me to know the other students by
name and to interact with people from all over the world, he said. Its an intimate
setting where you build strong relationships. You dont get this type of experience at
other international schools. Dr Manasantivongs also enjoyed Melbourne itself. The city
appealed to me because of its excellent quality of life and cultural ambience. Its a great
atmosphere for an international experience, he said.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Melbourne
Arts & humanities .................................................21
Engineering & IT ...................................................32
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................14
Natural sciences ................................................ 32=
Social sciences ......................................................21
Academic survey position .....................................19
Employer survey position ........................................9
Students ........................................................35,887
Student faculty ratio .......................................12.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 28.0%
International students ................................... 28.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 28,185
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 169,318
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 58.2
38 (36=) University of Melbourne
Founded 1853 www.unimelb.edu.au
Top 100 universities in the world
89
Founded on College Hill, overlooking Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University was
the rst US school to admit students of all religious persuasions and the rst Ivy League
university to be headed by a black woman president. Its undergraduate engineering
program is the oldest in the Ivy League and it has the only undergraduate Egyptology
department in the western hemisphere as well as an undergraduate program in the
history of mathematics that was, until recently, the only one of its kind in the world.
Applications have been rising but Brown would still like to be better known internationally
and has been adding programs to appeal to non-Americans.
The university embarked on an ambitious US$1.4 billion campaign, known as Boldly
Brown, to increase the size of its faculty, expand research and improve facilities. It achieved
its fundraising goal 19 months ahead of target, but, like other US universities, Brown was
hit by the recession and began to impose budget cuts that anticipate a US$90 million
decrease in overall spending by 2014. The university has also reviewed its so-called New
Curriculum, under which there are no distribution requirements and grades are optional.
This means students get to choose from any of 2,000 courses in 40 departments while
forgoing the ruthless competition characteristic of other Ivy League schools. The review
recommended a 35 per cent increase in rst-year seminars among a host of reforms that
are still to be implemented. A survey published in 2010 found Browns students to be the
happiest in America, enjoying the atmosphere of a comparatively small school. Brown
conducts a relatively modest US$134 million in sponsored research. The young medical
school integrates premedical and medical education into a seamless eight-year program;
Brown also ranks in the top ve for students accepted to other medical schools. Boldly
Brown has already resulted in the Sidney E Frank Hall for Life Sciences, the most expensive
building in university history, with 30 laboratories designed to encourage scientic
collaboration. The university describes its new Mind, Brain and Behaviour building as an
attempt to make intellectual meeting places available because thats how you create an
intellectual powerhouse.
Alumni include former US Secretary of State and Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes,
Prince Faisal Bin Al Hussein of Jordan, Prince Nikolaos and Princess Theodora of Greece
and Denmark, Lady Gabriella Windsor, daughter of Prince Michael of Kent, John D
Rockefeller Jr and Allegra Versace.
Gillian Galford is taking the graduate program in biological and environmental sciences
run jointly by Brown and the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
Working with people who are excited about our research and mentorship is inspiring,
she said. My previous educational experiences led me to look for an opportunity such as
this. www.facebook.com/BrownUniversity
Arts & humanities .................................................37
Engineering & IT ..............................................108=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 65=
Natural sciences ..............................................140=
Social sciences ...................................................58=
Academic survey position .....................................61
Employer survey position ....................................101
Students .......................................................... 7,976
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 19.3%
International students ................................... 13.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............13,005
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............94,073
Impact (citations per paper)............................. 111.5
39 (31) Brown University
Founded 1764 www.brown.edu
www.topuniversities.com
90
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) is the youngest institution
in the latest QS World University Rankings

top 100, conceived with the goal of propelling


Hong Kong towards a knowledge-based economy. It was also placed fourth in the
inaugural QS Asian University Rankings in 2009. The teaching faculty is organised around
four schools: science, engineering, business and management, and humanities and social
science. A fth school, the HKUST Fok Ying Tung Graduate School in Nansha, Guangzhou,
is now open and capitalising on the regions dynamic growth. The main campus is also
being expanded to accommodate a projected rise in students with the introduction of the
government-initiated four-year degree program. The campus will dramatically increase
in size by 2012, with the addition of new student residences and more teaching and
research facilities, including a new School of Innovation and Technology Management,
an Executive Education Centre, and an Institute for Advanced Study. More than half of
all faculty members are from outside Hong Kong and Mainland China; almost a quarter
come from North America. The EMBA program, run jointly with the US Kellogg School of
Management, is consistently ranked among the best in the world, attracting over 50 per
cent of its students from outside Hong Kong. The MSc in Global Finance, offered jointly
with the Leonard N Stern School of Business of New York University, is the rst executive
format nance program in the Asia-Pacic Region.
HKUST laboratories have already made many groundbreaking discoveries, including
the fabrication and characterisation of the worlds smallest carbon nanotubes, genetic
associations in schizophrenia and the development of anti-ageing drugs. Two departments
in the engineering school are ranked among the worlds leaders for the number of faculty
papers published in key international journals. In 2006 the Institute for Advanced Study
was inaugurated at HKUST with a mission to further scientic advancement by inviting
the worlds foremost scientists to work in partnership with local academics in the elds of
nanotechnology and nanoscience, biotechnology and bioscience, information technology,
the environment and sustainable development. The 13-member international advisory
board consists of nine Nobel laureates.
Thomas Grifn, a British undergraduate who came to the business school on an exchange
from Northumbria University, UK, said: The university has got to be one of the nicest in
the world. How many universities can boast their own private beach? The facilities here
are excellent and very well maintained, and they are all free to use. The living costs here
are extremely cheap. For me, this has to be one of the best experiences of my life.
The university dominates its Facebook page, using it to keep its students up to speed with
campus information, deadlines and events. www.facebook.com/hkust
Arts & humanities ........................................301-350
Engineering & IT ...................................................26
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 62=
Natural sciences ...................................................94
Social sciences ...................................................58=
Academic survey position .....................................64
Employer survey position ......................................99
Students ..........................................................8,555
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 65.5%
International students ................................... 31.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............10,233
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 43,135
Impact (citations per paper)...............................35.9
40 (35) Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Founded 1991 www.ust.hk
Top 100 universities in the world
91
The largest private, non-prot university in the US, New York University (NYU) is back in
the global top 50 of the QS World University Rankings

. Having grown even bigger since


merging with the Polytechnic University, giving it an instant engineering school, it has also
opened a branch in Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates. It is the rst complete liberal
arts campus developed abroad by a US research university and it will borrow members
of the faculty on a rotating basis. More than a third of the initial entrants in 2010, were
Americans, with 8 per cent coming from the United Arab Emirates and 6 per cent from
China. At home, NYU is raising US$2.5 billion to make more nancial aid available to
students, expand its campus and add programs and faculty. Despite the huge enrolment,
most classes are of a reasonable size; about 80 per cent have fewer than 30 students. The
university is highly regarded in business, law, the sciences, and the performing arts. Its law
school and the Stern School of Business are among the nations most distinguished. Its
Institute of Fine Arts specialises in not only the history of art and archaeology, but also the
conservation and technology of works of art, collaborating with New Yorks superlative
museums, while its Gallatin School of Individualized Study lets students create their own
curriculum. NYUs interest in international affairs goes beyond its signicant proportion
(the fth highest in America) of students from abroad. The undergraduate division of its
business school requires, and pays for, all its students to go on an international business
trip. The universitys main campus wraps around Washington Square in bohemian
Greenwich Village, at the very centre of Manhattan. It now has 11 campuses overseas.
Some of NYUs best-known alumni attended the Tisch School of the Arts. They include
Spike Lee, Oliver Stone, Alec Baldwin, Amy Heckerling, Ang Lee and Tony Kushner. Among
the universitys other graduates have been Woody Allen, Angelina Jolie, Burt Lancaster,
Martin Scorcese, Billy Crystal, John Cusack, Ethan Hawke, Meg Ryan, former New York
City Mayor Rudy Giuliani and John F Kennedy Jr. Eleven NYU faculty members and an
equal number of alumni have won the Nobel Prize.
Shefali Anand, who spent three semesters at NYUs Arthur L Carter Journalism Institute,
said the masters program in business and economic reporting taught her a variety of new
skills. Equally important were the friendships and network of journalists I developed
while studying at NYU, she said. My class of nine students included one from Singapore,
one from China, one from Italy and the rest from the US. Talk about a meeting of minds
from around the globe! www.facebook.com/pages/New-York-University
Arts & humanities .................................................15
Engineering & IT .............................................. 212=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................92
Natural sciences .............................................. 123=
Social sciences ......................................................19
Academic survey position .....................................45
Employer survey position ......................................40
Students ........................................................35,554
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.2:1
International faculty ........................................ 8.8%
International students ................................... 13.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............23,707
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........186,563
Impact (citations per paper)...............................32.7
41 (52=) NYU New York University
Founded 1831 www.nyu.edu
www.topuniversities.com
92
Still less than 40 years old, the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) is a comprehensive
research university with philosophical foundations built on the traditions of bilingualism
and multiculturalism. As such, it is in a unique position to attract more overseas students
and faculty and to position itself as a university of choice in Asia. A Campus Masterplan
for 2021 promises a pedestrian-friendly and sustainable campus, conserving places of
cultural signicance while providing academic and recreational venues that will enhance
college life. Established through the amalgamation of three colleges, with the addition of
a fourth college in 1986, the university is the only one in Hong Kong that has a collegiate
structure and a bilingual policy that places equal emphasis on English and Chinese. Five
new colleges are being built, two of which are already open, as the university prepares to
increase its undergraduate intake in preparation for Hong Kongs move towards a four-
year degree structure in 2012. Three-quarters of the full-time students are undergraduates
but there are also several thousand students in professional and continuing education
leading to higher degrees. With the largest campus in Hong Kong (134 hectares) the
university provides over 6,000 hostel places and its member colleges play important roles
in fostering an intellectual community and providing pastoral care and support. Of the ten
previous Rhodes Scholars from Hong Kong, seven are from the university.
CUHK has an international faculty, nearly half coming from outside China and 93 per cent
holding overseas qualications. Among the research breakthroughs to which they have
contributed are the rst successful cloning of the plant gene, the development of the
worlds smallest Bluetooth communications module, the formulation of network coding
theory, advances in minimally invasive surgery and detection of foetal DNA in maternal
plasma. The universitys MBA programs are also highly-regarded. The Faculty of Business
Administration was among the rst in Asia to be accredited internationally.
The university is the only one in Hong Kong to have had Nobel laureates on its staff,
such as C N Yang for physics in 1957 and Sir James Mirrlees for economics in 1996.
Charles K Kao added to the total in 2009, winning the physics Prize for groundbreaking
achievements concerning the transmission of light in bres for optical communication.
Chan Tsz-Mei, who graduated in English and went on to an MPhil in Linguistics at Oxford
University, said: Besides a good academic environment, CUHK has wonderful professors
who I can talk to any time I want, and comprehensive recreational facilities that are
available at all times. I like to take walks on campus and I also enjoy college activities.
Colleges have different characters and so do their students. This diversity is excellent.
www.facebook.com/pages/Chinese-University-of-Hong-Kong
Arts & humanities ..............................................60=
Engineering & IT ...................................................85
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................67
Natural sciences ...................................................91
Social sciences ......................................................43
Academic survey position .....................................58
Employer survey position ....................................133
Students ........................................................ 15,122
Student faculty ratio ............................................8:1
International faculty ...................................... 41.0%
International students ................................... 22.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 17,281
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 78,161
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 41.2
42 (46) The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Founded 1963 www.cuhk.edu.hk
Top 100 universities in the world
93
The University of Queensland (UQ) is the oldest and most highly respected of the states
seven universities but its interests now extend well beyond northern Australia. Having
declared its ambition to become a global medical school, UQ has opened in Brunei,
is establishing a shared teaching site in Malaysia and has agreed to set up an outpost
in the US state of Louisiana. The university is large by Australian standards and is the
biggest in Queensland. The main campus is located on a tranquil site on the bend of the
Brisbane River about six kilometres from the central business district. But UQ also operates
at 50 locations across the state in hospitals, on tropical islands and even has its own
experimental mine. It is probably best known for a series of world-class research institutes
and centres which specialise in molecular bioscience, bioengineering and nanotechnology,
social science, sustainable minerals, magnetic resonance capabilities and neuroscience.
The university is a founding member of Australias Group of Eight research-intensive
universities. UQ accounts for about 70 per cent of Queenslands research as well as
being one of the top three universities in Australia in this regard. The university will be
at the forefront of renewed global efforts to eliminate malaria thanks to a new AusAID-
funded support centre at its School of Population Health. UQ will also lead a large-scale
partnership with the Chinese Academy of Sciences on clean energy technologies targeting
clean coal, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles, hydrogen production and energy storage. It is
also helping to increase medical support in rural communities through its new AU$4.2
million advanced clinical training facility. The university continues to pay tribute to Steve
Irwin, the crocodile hunter who died in 2006, by working with his former team on the
wildlife reserve on Queenslands Cape York Peninsula that bears his name. The university
praised Irwin for making a signicant contribution to crocodile research in Australia by
developing new methods to track these often wary animals.
UQs alumni include Nobel Prize winner Professor Peter Doherty, former state premiers, a
governor-general, chief justices as well as Oscar-winning actor Geoffrey Rush, and a list
of famous business people, writers, artists, doctors and engineers.
Seang Khi Preston Ng, who came to UQ from Malaysia, said: I would certainly
recommend the University of Queensland as the university to go to. UQ offers a wide
range of programs and courses to choose from with great exibility. Most importantly,
with its proven academic excellence and accomplished and qualied academic staff, UQ
is sure to give students a fullling internationally recognised degree. Bryan Grieg Fry
adds on Facebook: I love the intellectual powerhouse that is, University of Queensland.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Queensland/111629608855515
Arts & humanities .................................................97
Engineering & IT ...................................................62
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................40
Natural sciences ................................................ 71=
Social sciences ......................................................61
Academic survey position .....................................54
Employer survey position ...................................... 51
Students ....................................................... 30,833
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 44.1%
International students ....................................21.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............24,420
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........134,378
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 51.4
43 (41) University of Queensland
Founded 1909 www.uq.edu.au
www.topuniversities.com
94
Out on Canadas west coast, the University of British Columbia (UBC) offers a full range
of programs in the arts, sciences, medicine, law, commerce and other faculties. Its main
campus is in Vancouver with a smaller one in the provinces Okanagan Valley. There are
international students from over 140 countries studying at UBC and those who teach
and research are similarly cosmopolitan: 43 per cent earned their rst degrees from
institutions outside Canada. Neurosciences have become a leading discipline with UBCs
Brain Research Centre bringing together 175 interdisciplinary investigators. Physics and
astronomy researchers are among the most cited in Canada. In 2005, New Scientist ranked
UBC ninth in North America for life-science patents, the only Canadian university on the
list. Technologies invented by UBC researchers have broken the US$100 million mark
in cumulative licensing revenue. Burgeoning sales revenues have helped UBC develop
what it terms its world renowned biotech industry. The university also boasts a strong
creative writing program and is particularly proud of the fact that its runs Canadas largest
program in Asian Studies as well as housing the largest Asian library collection. Its Museum
of Anthropology is known internationally for a strong Pacic Northwest Collection and
the university was an active participant in the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. The
university has agreed to work with the city council to try to make Vancouver the greenest
city in the world by 2020.
UBCs mission is to prepare students to become exceptional global citizens, promote
the values of a civil and sustainable society, and conduct outstanding research to serve
the people of British Columbia, Canada, and the world. It says its values are of excellence
in research and teaching, global citizenship, sustainability and civil society. The late
Michael Smith, a Nobel laureate in chemistry, taught for decades at UBC, while physics
researcher Carl Wieman, recently hired to spearhead reforms in the teaching of science,
is the newest Nobel laureate. Opera singer Ben Heppner is a graduate of its School of
Music, while former Canadian Prime Ministers Kim Campbell and John Turner also call
UBC their alma mater.
Ali Vakil, an Iranian student taking a PhD is thermouids, says: The multicultural
society has kept me mesmerised from the very rst moment. I could learn from different
viewpoints and to live and study under a completely different education system. I found an
environment that allowed me to explore my full potential. I have learned so much within
these new boundaries in an environment based on mutual understanding and respect.
Mary Chow adds on Facebook: I came as an international student from Australia and
UBC was really good at setting me in the right direction. Speaking to student advisors
probably helped me out the most.www.facebook.com/universityofbc
Arts & humanities .................................................31
Engineering & IT ...................................................30
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................20
Natural sciences ...................................................18
Social sciences ......................................................18
Academic survey position .....................................17
Employer survey position ......................................68
Students ....................................................... 40,260
Student faculty ratio .......................................12.8:1
International faculty ........................................ 8.9%
International students ................................... 14.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............36,055
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........226,214
Impact (citations per paper)...............................71.8
44 (40) University of British Columbia
Founded 1908 www.ubc.ca
Top 100 universities in the world
95
Situated in a number of impressive buildings scattered around the countrys capital city of
Copenhagen, Denmarks top university has over 100 institutes, departments, laboratories
and research centres. The university, which is back in the top 50 in this years QS World
University Rankings

, is one of ten members of the International Alliance of Research


Universities. The group also includes Oxford, Cambridge and Yale. It is also a leading
member of the resund University Partnership, which brings together 14 universities from
eastern Denmark and southern Sweden; the largest concentration of higher research and
educational programs in Scandinavia. To appeal to an international audience, the university
offers a signicant number of courses in English each semester, across all faculties and
disciplines. However, all degree courses require prociency in Danish. A centre for
internationalisation and parallel language competencies opened in August 2008, shortly
after the university had welcomed the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University and
the Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences to its ranks. A new centre for stem
cell research, DanStem, will open in 2011, under the leadership of the eminent scientist
Henrik Semb. Students from Denmark and other EU/EEA countries do not pay tuition
fees but students from outside this region (exchange students are exempt) have paid fees
at all Danish universities since 2006/07. Charges for masters courses vary according to
faculty. The six faculties offer approximately 200 study programs in the humanities, health
sciences, social sciences, law, science and theology.
The universitys research prole is focused on what it calls four major interdisciplinary
research priority areas: religion in the 21st Century, body and mind, biocampus
(biotechnology), and Europe in transition. The spirit of this research is perhaps best
illustrated by ground-breaking research into breast cancer. A project run by the universitys
Institute of Molecular Biology and the Finsen Laboratory at Copenhagen University
Hospital has shown one particular enzyme, uPA, (urokinase-type plasminogen activator),
causes breast cancer to spread throughout the body.
Alumni include several Prime Ministers of Denmark, including Poul Nyrup Rasmussen,
eight Nobel laureates, including Aage Niels Bohr and Ben Roy Mottelson, who won the
physics prize in 1975, and Niels Kaj Jerne, a winner in medicine and physiology in 1984,
the existentialist Sren Aabye Kierkegaard, and Sir Ove Arup, the structural engineer.
Johannes Nygaard, who is taking an MA in Modern Culture, said the University of
Copenhagen is an excellent place to study. It combines top quality study programs,
great city life and interesting activities. The university has a vibrant community of
exchange students and offers lots of opportunities to get to know the Danish culture.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Copenhagen
Arts & humanities .............................................. 62=
Engineering & IT ..............................................209=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................56
Natural sciences ...................................................47
Social sciences ......................................................56
Academic survey position .....................................60
Employer survey position ................................. 126=
Students ........................................................23,873
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 18.9%
International students ....................................11.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............29,055
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........204,149
Impact (citations per paper)...............................35.5
45 (51) University of Copenhagen
Founded 1479 www.ku.dk
www.topuniversities.com
96
The University of New South Wales (UNSW) is one of the heavyweights of Australian
higher education offering more than 900 programs in 75 schools to undergraduates
and postgraduates. The universitys main campus is in Kensington, an inner suburb of
Sydney, but six others are scattered around the city. One of its most famous colleges,
the Australian Defence Force Academy based in Canberra, is the nations principal
military training institute. The Lowy Centre for Cancer Research opened in 2010, bringing
together Australias leading childhood and adult cancer researchers to form the largest
integrated cancer research institute in the Southern Hemisphere. Another strategic
priority is environmental sustainability; the UNSW Climate Change Research Centre
involves more than 60 researchers from various disciplines across the university making
it one of the largest centres of its kind. The university is also walking the talk with
sustainability initiatives aimed at making the UNSW campus the greenest in Australia. The
latest research development is the AU$20 million National Institute of Virology, which will
be part of the universitys growing effort to combat HIV Aids.
Although the origins of the University of New South Wales can be traced back to the
founding of the Sydney Mechanics Institute in 1843, it only became a university in 1949.
Initially, the universitys focus was on teaching and research in science and technology but
many courses also included humanities and commerce. They are still a crucial component
today along with engineering, law and medicine. Now a member of Australias Group of
Eight research-intensive universities, UNSW is also a founding member of Universitas 21,
the international alliance of, now, 23 leading universities in 15 countries. Its researchers
maintain more than 2,000 separate international and academic links with 500 universities
and research organisations across 90 countries. The university was top-rated in Australia
in 2009 under the federal governments Learning and Teaching Performance Fund for
science, engineering, computing and architecture, business, law and economics.
Famous alumni include Robert McClelland, Australias Attorney General; Bob Carr, the
former News South Wales premier; TV journalist Monica Attard; fast bowler Geoff
Lawson and comedienne/psychologist Pamela Stephenson.
Andres Sbarbaro, an Italian postgraduate taking a Masters of Food Technology,
participated in the universitys Peer Mentor Program for international students, which
provided an opportunity to meet students of other nationalities. I chose to study in
Australia because my friends told me it is a beautiful country and the education, especially
at UNSW, is well known, he said. Having a degree (Industrial Engineering) from a
non-English speaking country limited me to work only in Spanish speaking countries.
Nowadays, having this degree in English, I could work in any country around the globe.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-New-South-Wales
Arts & humanities ..............................................78=
Engineering & IT ...................................................42
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................46
Natural sciences ...................................................53
Social sciences ......................................................33
Academic survey position ..................................40=
Employer survey position ......................................35
Students ........................................................32,955
Student faculty ratio .......................................12.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 28.2%
International students ................................... 26.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............23,764
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 112,580
Impact (citations per paper)...............................42.3
46 (47=) University of New South Wales
Founded 1949 www.unsw.edu.au
Top 100 universities in the world
97
Peking University (often known as Bei Da) is one of the two institutions at the apex
of Chinas revamped higher education system. Along with Tsinghua University, it is the
leading institution of a group of nine that is receiving extra funding designed to propel
them up the world rankings. One of the oldest universities in China, it was originally
known as the Imperial Capital University but was renamed the National Peking University
in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution. In 1920 it became the second Chinese university,
after Nanjing University, to accept female students. During the Second World War, the
university moved to Kunming where it formed the National Southwestern United University
along with Tsinghua and Nankai. It returned to Beijing in 1946. After the founding of the
Peoples Republic of China in 1949, it merged with Yenching University and dropped
the National from its name, moving from central Beijing to the Yenching campus on
the citys north-west outskirts. It remains there today, literally across the road from its
rival Tsinghua. As one of Chinas designated national key universities, Peking competes
with Tsinghua to be regarded as the best university in the country. The academic staff
includes 53 members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the university has one of
the largest intakes of international students, about 40 per cent of whom are from South
Korea. While offering a comprehensive range of courses, Peking University is known
mostly for arts and science, and is heavily geared towards scientic research, although
its merger with Beijing Medical University in 2000 broadened its range still further. It has
216 research institutions, including two national engineering research centres. Among
new developments is a 17-oor Stomatology building opened in 2008 for medical care,
teaching and research. In recent years, the university has committed to improving its
teaching standards. The ultimate goal is to combine continued research with the training
of the specialised personnel needed for Chinas skill-hungry workforce.
Boasting many famous alumni, perhaps Pekings most notable was Lu Xun, the godfather
of modern Chinese literature; early chancellor and May Fourth Movement leader Cai
Yuanpei is also a strong contender. Chinese Communist Party co-founders Chen Duxiu
and Li Dazhao both worked there; the former as Dean of Letters, the latter as head
librarian. A young Mao Zedong was a part-time student there while working as an
assistant in the university library.
Laura Johnson, a British postgraduate, said: I chose to study for my MBA in China
because of Chinas increasing inuence on the global stage and because I knew it would
represent a challenge for me. Impressed by Pekings partners in Europe and the US, she
said the university offers a truly international standard education.
www.facebook.com/pages/Peking-University
Arts & humanities .................................................24
Engineering & IT ...................................................33
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................21
Natural sciences ...................................................21
Social sciences ......................................................23
Academic survey position .....................................22
Employer survey position ......................................38
Students ........................................................29,038
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.7:1
International faculty .......................................16.1%
International students ................................... 10.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 29,309
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............94,196
Impact (citations per paper)...............................18.4
47 (52=) Peking University
Founded 1898 www.pku.edu.cn
www.topuniversities.com
98
The University of Wisconsin-Madison has moved dramatically into the top 50 of the QS
World University Rankings

this year for the rst time, having improved on every measure.
While some large US research universities have begun dividing themselves up into smaller
units to give students the feeling they are at small colleges, UW-Madison revels in its large
size: its library holdings sit at 7.2 million volumes, it offers 136 undergraduate majors, 155
masters and 110 doctoral programs, has a variety of living arrangements and hundreds
of student organisations. Students and faculty alike take a break from their studies on
Saturdays in the Fall, when the entire surrounding community turns red to support the
schools American football team. The university does just under US$900 million a year in
research. It is fourth among all universities in research paid for by the national government,
second in non-federally funded research, fourth in total research expenditures and fth
in doctorates granted. UW-Madison is particularly highly ranked in the sciences, with
an emphasis on agricultural and life sciences. It is also extremely well-regarded for its
sociology and education programs. It is a centre for embryonic-stem-cell research and
the home of the National Stem Cell Bank, as well as being a principal partner of the US
Department of Energy in seeking new ways to produce energy and biofuels. Supported by
nancial contributions from its loyal alumni, UW-Madison has recently completed a new
building for health sciences, genetics and biotechnology, engineering and pharmaceutical
studies, as well as a chemistry research tower and a massive addition to its biochemistry
building, also renovating its physics building. A new Urban Research Park will target high
technology entrepreneurs, particularly in information technology, engineering, medical
devices and computer sciences start-up companies.
UW-Madison faculty have won 17 Nobel Prizes since the 1940s. Prominent alumni have
included aviator Charles Lindbergh, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, former Vice President
Dick Cheney, astronaut Jim Lovell, movie producers Walter Mirisch and Jerry and
David Zucker, authors Joyce Carol Oates and Eudora Welty, and Major League Baseball
Commissioner Allan H Bud Selig.
Martina Sklov was born in the Czech Republic, but moved to Wisconsin with her parents
while still at school. She chose the university because of her professor, Sally Chisholm, and
has not been disappointed. The faculty is wonderful. I havent had a single professor in
the School of Music who wasnt extremely passionate and devoted to music, she said,
adding: I love living in Madison, so much so that I actually spend my summers here even
though Im not taking summer courses. Barbara Lexer adds on Facebook: One of the
very best universities to receive a great education and lifelong friends.
www.facebook.com/UWMadison
Arts & humanities .................................................56
Engineering & IT ................................................60=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 47=
Natural sciences ...................................................63
Social sciences ......................................................31
Academic survey position .....................................42
Employer survey position ....................................140
Students ....................................................... 38,299
Student faculty ratio ............................................7:1
International faculty .......................................17.7%
International students ..................................... 9.2%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............39,401
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........281,382
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 51.4
48 (61=) University of Wisconsin-Madison
Founded 1848 www.wisc.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
99
Osaka University has the motto Live locally, grow globally, underlining the international
ambitions which have been at the heart of its activities since the semi-privatisation of
Japanese universities in 2004. About half of all international students receive grants
through the university, including some from the Japanese government. The sixth-oldest
national university in Japan and based in one of the commercial centres of Japan, 500
kilometres southwest of Tokyo, Osaka University was established in 1931. At the outset,
the university consisted only of medical and science schools, the two subjects which are
still the backbone of the university today. The latest stage in Osakas development came
in October 2007, when the university merged with Osaka University of Foreign Studies,
offering 25 modern languages as majors, including Urdu and Swahili. After the integration,
the university became the largest university for undergraduate students among national
universities in Japan, having 11 schools, 16 graduate schools, ve research institutes and
two hospitals. There are three campuses in Suita, Toyonaka and Mino. In 2009, Osaka
University was selected as one of the 13 core universities for internationalisation funded
by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Osaka
is aiming to double the number of its international students by 2020 and encourage a
big increase in the number of its own students studying abroad. New courses taught in
English have been established, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, mainly in
the sciences and engineering.
Among the universitys most cited scientists is Professor Shizuo Akira, a foreign associate
of the US National Academy of Sciences and winner of the Milstein Award in 2007. He won
the 2004 Robert Koch Prize for his discovery of the toll-like receptor that activates immune
system cells upon recognition of pathogenic organisms. He was also recently named the
hottest researcher by Thomson Scientic for outnumbering his peers in citation. Professor
Akira currently leads a government-funded project that seeks to combine microbiology
with immunology at the universitys Research Institute of Microbial Disease.
Osaka University alumni include manga artist and creator of Astro Boy, Osamu Tezuka,
Sony founder Akio Morita and Nobel physics laureate Hideki Yukawa.
Sun Youn Lee, a Korean student taking a PhD at the Osaka School of International Public
Policy, said: I chose Osaka University because my department provides a specic eld
of study you cannot nd in any other university and this will benet my future career. My
department has a very international atmosphere for research. However, I wish there were
more classes in English.
The universitys Facebook page is growing but, with under 1000 fans at the moment,
the interaction is still limited. www.facebook.com/pages/Osaka-University
Arts & humanities ............................................ 175=
Engineering & IT ...................................................59
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................54
Natural sciences ...................................................58
Social sciences .................................................... 127
Academic survey position .....................................68
Employer survey position .................................109=
Students ........................................................23,789
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.3:1
International faculty .........................................5.1%
International students ..................................... 7.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............42,558
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 217,671
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 57.3
49 (43=) Osaka University
Founded 1931 www.osaka-u.ac.jp
www.topuniversities.com
100
Traditionally pre-eminent in South Korea, Seoul National University (SNU) has been
given the opportunity to develop still further with the passing of a law that changes
its status from a nationalised organisation to a corporate body. This new autonomy is
intended to help SNU compete internationally by allowing it to determine its own budget,
structure and appointments without reference to the government. Students come from
33 different countries, more than half of them from China, and there are plans for an
international campus where all courses will be delivered in English. Only a small proportion
of courses have been offered in English up to now. The university has also announced a
new scholarship program to be known as the Silk Road scholarship for foreign students
wishing to study social sciences and humanities. The number of foreign universities with
which SNU has developed academic exchanges doubled in four years to almost 100. They
include prestigious universities such as Yale, Princeton, Vienna, Tokyo and Toronto. SNU
claims to have contributed signicantly to South Koreas spectacular economic progress
while spearheading democratisation efforts on the peninsula. A remarkable 68.8 per cent
of high-ranking government ofcials have SNU degrees. A new College of Engineering
building was completed in 2008, while a seven-storey research building, a College of
Natural Sciences and an Agriculture and Life Sciences Research Institute are on the way.
The Gwanaksa residential campus has been expanded and there are plans to establish a
College of Liberal Arts.
The best-known alumnus is Ban Ki-moon, the eighth and current UN Secretary-General
and former international relations student. SNUs philosophy department produced Kim
Young-sam, President of South Korea from 1993 to 1998. The university was required to
weather an international storm when one of its top research scientists, Hwang Woo-suk,
was dismissed after claims that his team had produced the rst stem cells from human
cloned embryos were shown to have been fabricated.
Dilshod Gulamov from Uzbekistan, an undergraduate In the College of Business
Administration, says: SNU has many regular and exchange foreign students so you can
feel comfortable and learn about the cultures of the East and the West. This environment
can also help you enhance your language skills or spark your interest in learning new ones.
There are plenty of foreign literature and textbooks in the SNU library so you can use
your foreign language skills while you write your papers or just get something to read.
He added: SNU has a wide variety of lectures that you can attend, which allows you to
obtain totally new knowledge about different areas of science, society and even culture,
both local and foreign.
SNUs Facebook page has over 2000 fans and is beginning to take off.
www.facebook.com/pages/Seoul-National-University
Arts & humanities .................................................54
Engineering & IT ...................................................38
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................38
Natural sciences ................................................38=
Social sciences ......................................................42
Academic survey position .....................................33
Employer survey position ................................. 142=
Students ........................................................26,030
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.3:1
International faculty .......................................11.0%
International students ................................... 10.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............36,781
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........152,658
Impact (citations per paper)..................................37
50 (47=) Seoul National University
Founded 1946 www.useoul.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
101
Heidelberg is perhaps Germanys best-known university and a member of the League of
European Research Universities that includes just 21 others. The university initially acted as
an ecclesiastical centre for the Holy Roman Empire but quickly established itself as a hub
for philosophers and independent thinkers, developing into a stronghold of humanism
in the 15th century. Grand Duke Karl-Friedrich of Baden turned it into a state-owned
institution in 1803, after which the city was discovered by poets, artists and intellectuals
like Friedrich Hlderlin, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph von Eichendorff and
Robert Schumann. From the early 20th century, one of its outstanding features has been
a tradition of interdisciplinary dialogue cultivated originally by Max Weber, the founder
of the modern social sciences. Today its roots are rmly planted in the sciences, but it
has still managed to keep its metaphysical traditions with large theology and philosophy
faculties all of which help attract students and professors from around the globe. No other
university played as signicant a part in the Large Hadron Collider, in Geneva, dubbed the
Big Bang Experiment. Some of Europes top research institutes are nearby, among them
the European Laboratory for Molecular Biology, the German Cancer Research Centre and
a number of Max Planck institutes who collaborate with the universitys 12 faculties and
its own research institutes. Heidelberg is also extending its international interests and
won an award in 2010 for the way that it welcomes internationally mobile researchers.
Heidelberg was one of only two German universities included in a separate ranking of
the top European institutions for the international orientation of its research in physics,
chemistry, biology and mathematics.
Max Weber is just one of many illustrious names who studied or taught at the university.
Others include nine Nobel laureates, among them Philipp Lenard, who won the physics
Prize for groundbreaking work on cathode rays, Hans Jensen, also physics, for helping to
develop the shell nuclear model, and Georg Wittig, for chemistry in 1979. Other notables
include Deutsche Bank founder, Georg von Siemens, chemist Robert Bunsen, after whom
the Bunsen burner was named, and former Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
Abigail Lynn Erkman, who came to Heidelberg on an exchange from the University of
Kentucky, found it a life-changing experience despite the unavoidable stress associated
with living in a foreign country. The classes were challenging without being sources of
unbearable stress and the professors were very understanding of the various needs of
foreign exchange students, who often need to turn in papers and assignments earlier
than other students, she said. Visiting the many classes spread throughout the beautiful
and historically rich city of Heidelberg was a source of education in itself. The universitys
most active presence on Facebook with discussions and wall postings in German and
some in English is: www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=5972619291
Arts & humanities .................................................36
Engineering & IT .............................................. 172=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................45
Natural sciences ...................................................24
Social sciences ......................................................82
Academic survey position .....................................48
Employer survey position ................................. 276=
Students ....................................................... 28,266
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 16.6%
International students ................................... 18.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 23,159
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........160,497
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 40.4
51 (57) Universitt Heidelberg
Founded 1386 www.uni-heidelberg.de
www.topuniversities.com
102
Generally acknowledged to be Irelands leading university, Trinity College Dublin is the
countrys oldest seat of higher education and the sole constituent college of the University
of Dublin. Most of the colleges activities are based on the 47-acre city centre campus
which contains much of Dublins nest architecture. The west end of the campus is laid
out in ve quadrangles with buildings from the 18th century including the Old Library,
which houses the priceless Book of Kells written in the ninth century. The magnicent
legal deposit library is also an invaluable resource to scholars. At the heart of Trinitys
strategy to meet the goal of a world reference point in key themes is a focus on
interdisciplinarity. Its agship interdisciplinary institutes are in areas such as nanostructures
and nanodevices, molecular medicine, neuroscience, and international integration studies.
The Irish government poured money into science and research before the recession and
the college was well poised to tap some of the additional funds. Now almost one in
three students is a postgraduate. The 100 million nanoscience facility, the Naughton
Institute, opened at the beginning of 2008. However, funding at undergraduate level is
an issue and the average student/staff ratio is high by international standards. Despite
planning a 15 per cent increase in overall student numbers by 2014, Trinity expects to
limit its undergraduate student population and to concentrate on widening access to
students from poorer families. More than half of its Irish students have at least 500 out
of a maximum 600 points in the Irish schools leaving certicate. Trinity met its target of
15 per cent intake of non-traditional learners, but has now increased this to 20 per cent.
One of Trinitys rst students, James Ussher, was a notable religious scholar and since then
many of its alumni have helped shape the history of Ireland and of the English-speaking
world. They include George Berkeley, Jonathan Swift, Edmund Burke, Theobald Wolfe
Tone, Edward Carson, Oscar Wilde, Oliver Goldsmith and William Rowan Hamilton. Two
alumni have won Nobel Prizes: Ernest Walton for physics in 1951 and Samuel Beckett
for literature in 1968. Both Mary Robinson, the former President of Ireland, and Mary
McAleese, the current President, were on the staff of its law school.
Anton Elkhov, who came from Moscow State University to study history and Irish, said:
Ive never studied abroad before so it was my rst experience. Im so glad Trinity College
justied all my hopes. What deeply impressed me was that Trinity has an incredible library
where I managed to nd most of the books required for my degree. I really liked the
qualied and very friendly personnel who helped me every time when I faced troubles.
www.facebook.com/trinitycollegedublin
Arts & humanities .................................................52
Engineering & IT ...................................................99
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................81
Natural sciences ...................................................81
Social sciences ................................................... 72=
Academic survey position .....................................63
Employer survey position ......................................63
Students ........................................................ 13,319
Student faculty ratio .........................................8.9:1
International faculty ...................................... 45.9%
International students ....................................21.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .................9,291
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............53,538
Impact (citations per paper)...............................35.9
52 (43=) Trinity College Dublin
Founded 1592 www.tcd.ie
Top 100 universities in the world
103
Warwick is aiming for a place in the top 50 universities in the world by the time it
celebrates its 50th anniversary in 2015. It is already close, having jumped 16 places in two
years in the QS World University Rankings

. The university has carved out a place among


the elite of British higher education, with excellent ratings in both teaching and research.
Two-thirds of the work entered by the university for the UKs 2008 Research Assessment
Exercise was considered world-leading or internationally excellent. The university, which
is divided into four faculties, did particularly well in lm studies, horticulture, history,
mathematics and French. The Faculty of Arts teaches everything from classics to lm and
television studies, whilst the science faculty teaches the key disciplines in their core forms,
avoiding the trend for academic dilution. The university also has faculties of social studies
and medicine, the latter only founded in 2000 after many years in which it concentrated
on its well-established links with industry and commerce.
Warwick is a member of the Russell Group of elite research universities, based on a rural
campus in the heart of England, near Coventry. It is planning to extend its international
activities by allocating a section of the campus to leading overseas institutions. It has
also launched an international arm of the National Academy for Gifted and Talented
Youth, which the campus hosts. The university has representative ofces in 20 countries
and a base in Venice for conferences and performances, and the teaching of history and
the history of art. The universitys freestanding international research and education
group, WMG, struck a 22 million deal with Siemens to provide access to software
for researchers, students and businesses using the new Warwick Digital Laboratory,
investigating areas such as digital manufacturing, e-security and mass customisation. The
student union is well organised and active. Union facilities have been refurbished, one of
many improvements to the estate brought about by 335 million of investment, which
helped the university to win a recent poll for the best campus in the UK. The Arts Centre,
the second largest in the UK, was refurbished with a 33 million UK-lottery grant.
Leading academics at Warwick include Professor Lord Bhattacharyya, Director of WMG,
economics Professor Andrew Oswald, and Lord Skidelsky, who recently retired as Professor
of Political Economy. Famous alumni include leading UK politicians Baroness Amos and
David Davis, and Tony Wheeler, co-founder of the Lonely Planet travel guides.
Midhfa Naeem, a Malaysian undergraduate student taking politics and international
studies, said she felt immediately at home at Warwick and has taken full advantage of the
universitys facilities, meeting students from many different countries and backgrounds.
The more you put into something, the more you get out. At Warwick, there are countless
opportunities to explore. www.facebook.com/warwickuniversity
Arts & humanities .............................................. 41=
Engineering & IT .............................................. 125=
Life sciences & biomedicine ................................129
Natural sciences ................................................54=
Social sciences ......................................................24
Academic survey position .....................................50
Employer survey position ................................... 12=
Students ........................................................ 17,527
Student faculty ratio ..........................................10:1
International faculty ...................................... 30.2%
International students ................................... 29.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .................9,624
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 41,924
Impact (citations per paper)..................................24
53 (58) University of Warwick
Founded 1965 www.warwick.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
104
Established after the Boxer Uprising as a preparatory school for Chinese graduates
pursuing further studies at American universities, Tsinghua is celebrating its centenary as
one of the top two universities in China. As such, it is also co-leader of the C9 group of
universities that has been described as Chinas Ivy League. Tsinghuas faculty includes 37
members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and 34 members of the Chinese Academy
of Engineering, more than any other university in China. The universitys once limited
appeal to overseas students and researchers has begun to turn national prestige into
global recognition. International students come from more than 122 different countries,
with Koreans by far the largest group. All international students are accommodated
on campus and there are 12 masters programs taught in English, in elds as diverse as
environmental engineering, Chinese law, architecture and global business journalism, the
most at any Chinese university. Located on the site of the Qing dynastys royal gardens
in the northwest of Beijing, Tsinghua was the only Asian university named among Forbes
Magazines 14 most beautiful campuses in the world. It is considered best in China for
engineering and business and the university has extensive ties with companies in Chinas
burgeoning high-tech sector. Arts and languages are weaker, acting mostly as support for
science and engineering students to get through government-mandated tests. However,
Tsinghua is keen to remedy this, and in 2005, acquired an independent art college in
Beijing. The university was also the rst in China to offer a masters program in US law,
and its law school now ranks as one of the best in the country. Three new institutes cover
strategic environmental assessment, climate change and energy, and real estate.
Many of Chinas top scientists, engineers and politicians are Tsinghua alumni. Among
them are former premier Zhu Rongji, present Chinese President Hu Jintao and the Nobel
Prize for physics laureate Chen Ning Yang. The present faculty includes such luminaries
as former Goldman Sachs President John L Thornton and computer scientist Andrew Yao,
who received the Turing Prize in 2000.
Gutemberg Pacheco Lopes Junior, from Brazil, is in the second year of a masters program
at the School of Public Policy and Management. He wanted to study development with
top academics in the worlds largest developing country and is glad to have chosen
Tsinghua. The campus is large, beautiful, well maintained and a great place to study.
It also has many sporting facilities and areas for leisure, he said. Getting into Tsinghua
is especially hard for the Chinese, so pretty much all of the local students are extremely
intelligent and friendly. The chance to interact with part of the intellectual elite of China is
priceless. The Facebook page has already just over three thousand fans.
www.facebook.com/pages/Tsinghua-University/11451032025
Arts & humanities ..............................................58=
Engineering & IT ................................................... 11
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................55
Natural sciences ...................................................27
Social sciences ...................................................46=
Academic survey position .....................................30
Employer survey position ...................................70=
Students ........................................................ 27,822
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 14.3%
International students ..................................... 7.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 42,548
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............86,737
Impact (citations per paper)...............................20.2
54 (49=) Tsinghua University
Founded 1911 www.tsinghua.edu.cn
Top 100 universities in the world
105
The University of Washington (UW) is back within sight of the top 50 of the QS World
University Rankings

after one of this years biggest rises. Some US$1.3 billion a year in
research is conducted at UW (locally pronounced U-Dub), more than any other US public
or private university, except Johns Hopkins. Much of it is linked to the entrepreneurship
that has given rise to Pacic Northwest powerhouse conglomerates such as Microsoft
and Boeing. Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, whose parents were alumni, has made
substantial nancial contributions to a new law school, provided a bioengineering and
genome sciences building and a medical school surgery pavilion, and funded scholarships
to recruit outstanding students and pay for student research. Meanwhile, fellow Microsoft
co-founder, Paul Allen, whose father was a U-Dub librarian, has underwritten a new library
and Center for Computer Science and Engineering. Home to the Cesar Pelli-designed
physics and astronomy building, which includes 20 physics labs built underground to
provide the most stable possible environment, the university is now planning a college
to be the leader in environmental research and education. Boeing, which designs and
manufactures its planes nearby, tests new models in the wind tunnels at the universitys
top-rated Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. U-Dub also has one of Americas
top-rated medical schools for training primary-care physicians, which opened new in-
patient facilities in 2008. The departments of bioengineering and computer science and
the school of social work are at the top of their elds, and the law and business schools
are highly regarded. The sprawling campus in Seattle was originally laid out for the 1909
world fair and incorporates some of the original buildings. Families that earn 65 per cent
of the states median income or less can send their children to the university tuition-free,
the most generous such allowance in America. Graduate students are eligible for stipends
and health insurance, an unusual benet.
Six current faculty members are Nobel laureates. Prominent alumni include the rst man
to y faster than Mach 2, the men who directed the lunar orbiter program and Rockwell
Internationals Apollo work, the head of the space shuttle program, many astronauts,
actors Patrick Duffy, Dyan Cannon and Bruce Lee, musician Kenny G and Marion Donovan,
who invented the disposable diaper.
Joanna Crook from Sydney said her experience at the university had been overwhelmingly
positive. I have excelled more than I ever expected, both academically and personally,
she said. From the challenges in the classroom and the lab, to climbing a mountain high
in the Cascades, I have always received top class instruction and incredible amounts of
encouragement and support that have made all the difference. Linda Sahlberg Gangnier,
on the universitys Facebook page, says: What a great experience, part of me wishes I
could still be a student there. www.facebook.com/UofWA
Arts & humanities ...............................................136
Engineering & IT ...................................................66
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................29
Natural sciences ...................................................60
Social sciences ................................................... 65=
Academic survey position .....................................52
Employer survey position ....................................203
Students ........................................................42,556
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.1:1
International faculty ........................................ 3.6%
International students ......................................7.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............54,018
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 514,632
Impact (citations per paper).............................134.7
55 (80) University of Washington
Founded 1861 www.washington.edu
www.topuniversities.com
106
The Universiteit van Amsterdam prides itself on ancient roots stretching back to the
Athenaeum Illustre, founded to educate students in trade and philosophy. The university
has since spread through the city, taking over old buildings and putting up modern
structures along Amsterdams famous canals and courtyards. The university emphasises
its comprehensive approach, taking in every discipline except technology and offering
a classical education that, it boasts, does not just cram students for the job market. It
has seven faculties: humanities, social and behavioural sciences, economics and business,
medicine and dentistry, and science, offering over 100 international study programs
taught in English as well as bachelors degrees taught in Dutch. In the arts and humanities,
Amsterdam is particularly strong in European studies, philosophy, lm and television
studies, linguistics and several areas of language and literature. Among the noted faculty
are John Neubauer, specialist in comparative literature, Latin scholar Harm Pinkster, and
Mieke Bal, professor of theory of literature and a founding director of the Amsterdam
School for Cultural Analysis. Unlike the rest of the university, the laboratories and research
institutes of the medical faculty have been extracted from the city and united with three
hospitals under the single roof of the academic medical centre. In 2005, a graduate school
was created to raise the prole of this part of the medical centres work. It has over 100
PhD graduations per year, divided over seven research institutes and 80 individual science
programs, ranging from genetic factors in cancer biology to public health screening
projects.
The golden age of science at the university was between 1901 and 1910, when three
of its professors won Nobel Prizes. Now the universitys strengths are very much on
the mathematical side and where mathematics touches on physics and astronomy. In
recent years it has picked up several Spinoza awards, the Dutch Nobels, for work in
these disciplines. Particularly distinguished is Ed van den Heuvel of the universitys Anton
Pannekoek Astrophysical Institute, who also led an international team researching the
origins of gamma-ray bursts which won an EU Descartes award in 2002. The university
can also claim Spinoza Awards for Daan Frenkel in macromolecular simulations and
Ronald Plasterk in molecular biology.
Karolina Kazird, a Polish student in the Graduate School of Social Sciences, said the
school has a great atmosphere. It is very international and multicultural, the staff very
kind and helpful. The University of Amsterdam is a university with traditions, built in a
perfect location; most of the classes I followed took place in the buildings in the heart
of the city. Moreover, theres always a nice place to have a coffee or lunch between the
classes or a borrel (Dutch gin) afterwards!
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Amsterdam/15178043782
Arts & humanities .................................................29
Engineering & IT .............................................. 123=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................50=
Natural sciences ................................................69=
Social sciences ......................................................32
Academic survey position .....................................47
Employer survey position .................................... 119
Students ........................................................30,555
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 12.8%
International students ..................................... 7.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............24,891
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 173,371
Impact (citations per paper)...............................53.6
56 (49=) University of Amsterdam
Founded 1632 www.uva.nl
Top 100 universities in the world
107
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) has been making rapid progress up
the QS World University Rankings

, rising nearly 100 places in ve years. The oldest public


university in the United States and one of the original eight schools known as a Public Ivy,
Chapel Hill is the agship of the University of North Carolina system. Medicine and law
are considered its greatest strengths, but admissions standards are high across the board.
The Chapel Hill campus is rated among Americas best and was one of 16 recipients of
the American Society of Landscape Architects Medallion Awards in 1999. Its building
program has been among the most extensive in US higher education and will soon total
more than US$2 billion. The latest addition is the North Carolina Cancer Hospital, which
opened in 2009.
Applications have risen by more than 20 per cent in ve years as UNC has maintained its
standing in US domestic rankings. The university has increased nancial aid to low and
middle-income families to ensure places do not become the preserve of the wealthy. It
was the rst major public university to introduce needs-blind admission and has won
several awards as the combination of top-ight academics and affordability. North
Carolina is also among the top public universities for research support and its researchers
attracted more than US$716 million in total contract and grant funding in 2009. However,
the university has not been immune to the pressures of the recession and had to cut
its budget to deal with revenue declines and endowment losses. UNC has a strong
sports record, most notably in mens basketball and womens soccer. It also has one of
the highest study abroad participation rates among all public universities, with 330
programs overseas.
Notable alumni include James Polk, US President in the 1840s, UNC President and former
White House Chief of Staff Erskine Bowles, writers Tom Wolfe, Shelby Foote, Russell
Banks and Jill McCorkle, basketball star Michael Jordan and golfer Davis Love III. Oliver
Smithies, UNCs Professor of pathology and laboratory medicine, was awarded the Nobel
Prize in medicine in 2007 for his work in genetics.
Juan Pedro Alvarez Lopez took bachelors and masters degrees in chemistry at the
University of Greenwich in London, before enrolling for an MBA at UNCs Kenan-Flagler
Business School. He nds the core curriculum challenging, but said: I have not stopped
learning, inside and outside the classroom, from professors, classmates and the schools
heritage. Students have the opportunity to create their legacy at UNC Kenan-Flagler.
Jane Stubbleeld Kaylor says on Facebook: I have fond memories of walking to class
during the Fall season. It was such a great time to think and enjoy the colours. I didnt
realise until now how much I miss it. www.facebook.com/uncchapelhill
Arts & humanities ............................................ 103=
Engineering & IT .................................................182
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................74
Natural sciences .............................................. 129=
Social sciences ......................................................45
Academic survey position .....................................86
Employer survey position .................................... 131
Students ........................................................24,205
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 7.7:1
International faculty ........................................ 4.0%
International students ..................................... 5.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 29,882
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........255,756
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 81.9
57 (78) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Founded 1789 www.unc.edu
www.topuniversities.com
108
The Technische Universitt Mnchen (TUM) has slipped slightly in the QS World University
Rankings

after making a prodigious leap last year. TUM began life as a polytechnic
school and it was more than 100 years before it was allowed to call itself a technical
university. The institute has grasped its new title with both hands and built upon its
prestige to such an extent that it was made one of Germanys rst three elite universities
in 2006. The success of its international graduate school of science and engineering and
the two clusters of excellence hosted by TUM, Cognition of Technical Systems and Origin
and Structure of the Universe, paved the way to substantial extra funding. There are
campuses in central Munich and outside in Weihenstephan and Garching, where further
expansion is planned. There is also an institute of science and technology in Singapore.
TUM, which styles itself the Entrepreneurial University, attributes much of its success
to continuity of leadership. Chemistry professor Wolfgang A Herrmann, renowned in
Germany for reforming higher education, has been president of the university since 1995,
having been twice re-elected. He was responsible for fundamental structural reforms at
TUM, which were followed by universities elsewhere in Germany and Austria. Unlike most
technical universities, TUM is strong in the life sciences, offering degrees in a variety of
areas including nutrition and food, biotechnology, bioinformatics and medicine. Much
of its innovative research and teaching has emerged from interdisciplinary collaboration
between its 12 faculties and numerous research centres. TUM prides itself on allowing
scientists the freedom to experiment and in 2005 set up the TUM Institute for Advanced
Study that claims to add entrepreneurial spirit to the academic world. TUM also aims
to become the most attractive technical university in Germany for female students and
academics. It has adopted a number of unconventional measures to meet the needs of
women, particularly those with young families, and more than a third of entrants were
female in 2009.
Alumni include Rudolf Diesel, who invented the engine that bears his name and aeroplane
designer Willy Messerschmitt. TUM can count six Nobel laureates: four in chemistry,
including Robert Huber, 1988, and Heinrich Otto Wieland, 1927. Rudolf L Moessbauer,
1961 and Klaus von Klitzing, 1985 won the prize for physics.
John Traxler, who came to Munich from the University of Illinois, said: TUMs exchange
program provided the opportunity to challenge myself by studying in a foreign language
at a top notch university. Many of the courses that I completed were not offered at my
home university, thereby making the experience even more valuable. I know that my TUM
experience will open many options in the future and on top of that it is amazing to have
great friends in Munich. www.facebook.com/TU.Muenchen
Arts & humanities ....................................... 351-400
Engineering & IT ................................................36=
Life sciences & biomedicine ................................133
Natural sciences ................................................ 32=
Social sciences ................................................. 261=
Academic survey position .....................................85
Employer survey position ......................................61
Students ........................................................24,394
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 15.6%
International students ....................................17.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 21,127
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 124,714
Impact (citations per paper)...............................26.4
58 (55=) Technische Universitt Mnchen
Founded 1868 www.tu-muenchen.de
Top 100 universities in the world
109
Birmingham University has dropped its self-proclaimed soubriquet of the Oxbridge of
the Midlands, but is no less proud of its reputation as one of Englands leading research-
led universities. Some 16 per cent of the work submitted for the UKs 2008 Research
Assessment Exercise was regarded as world-leading, much of it in music, physics,
computer science, mechanical engineering, European studies and law. Teaching also
scored well and Birmingham has been one of the best-placed of the big city universities
in the UKs annual national student satisfaction survey. It therefore comes as little surprise
that eight applicants contest every student place. The universitys prestigious medical
school has seen the largest expansion in the country with a new 11.8 million student
facilities building. The engineering department has also been bolstered, now offering
interdisciplinary courses combining technology with subjects as diverse as modern
languages and ood management. A total of 225 million has been invested in new
equipment, buildings and staff over the last ve years. The university and its partners
have won 15 million of funding for three new centres to train scientists and engineers.
The Birmingham Business School, the oldest in England, has also won a high level of
respect, being one of only a dozen UK business schools in the Financial Times global top
80 for MBA rankings. Birmingham was the rst redbrick university to be awarded a royal
charter and, like the city itself, the university is a melting pot of cultures and nationalities.
Echoing the 26.4 per cent of Birmingham residents who self-dened as non-white in
the 2001 census, the university has students from 150 countries. The city, about three
miles from campus, has a growing reputation among students, but many opt to use the
plethora of bars, shops and restaurants around the university itself.
The university boasts eight Nobel Prize winners among its alumni and former staff, the
most recent of whom was Sir Paul Nurse, who took the 2001 prize for medicine for his
work on the molecular level of cell cycles. Other famous former students include former
Prime Minister Sir Neville Chamberlain, as well as former prime ministers of the Bahamas
and St Lucia. Actor Tim Curry, UK politician Ann Widdecombe, and zoologist and TV
presenter Desmond Morris also hail from the university.
Charles Tiezen, an American student taking theology and religion chose the University
of Birmingham for the excellent reputation of its Centre for the Study of Inter-Religious
Relations and the unsurpassed supervision he knew he would receive there. The
diversity of the department and the city of Birmingham provide a wonderful environment
that allows me to practise in daily life what is taught in modules, learned in research, and
discussed in seminars, he said. www.facebook.com/unibirmingham
Arts & humanities ..............................................68=
Engineering & IT ................................................ 91=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................79=
Natural sciences .............................................. 138=
Social sciences ......................................................84
Academic survey position .....................................78
Employer survey position ......................................54
Students ........................................................24,204
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 9.7:1
International faculty ...................................... 27.6%
International students ....................................17.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ................17,519
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........104,287
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 41.6
59 (66) Birmingham University
Founded 1900 www.bham.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
110
Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) has been a national university since 1929.
Today, it is the largest higher education institution in Japan devoted to science and
technology. The institute is composed of three undergraduate schools, six graduate
schools and four research institutes. These are located in three campuses; two in the
heart of Tokyo and one in Yokohama city. The institute is particularly proud of its 12
government-sponsored centres of excellence of science and technology and its integrated
research institute. This corner of Tokyo Tech anticipates future trends and problems in
collaboration with industry in terms of novel technologies of environment preservation,
energy production, and biotechnology. Researchers and even undergraduates have access
to Tsubame, one of the worlds fastest supercomputers and also, according to a recent
ranking, one of the greenest.
Tokyo Techs slogan expresses its international ambitions: Leading the world in science
and technology. Students come from more than 70 countries and the overseas enrolment
has been increasing by an average of more than six per cent per year. Tokyo Tech runs joint
graduate courses with Tsinghua University in China and has overseas ofces in Thailand,
the Philippines, China and San Francisco. The institute has international graduate programs
conducted in English to allow students to graduate without Japanese language skills. It is
also organising the consortium of leading Asian universities of science and technology, the
ASIA League, which includes Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST),
KAIST (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,) Nanyang Technological
University in Singapore, and Tsinghua. The ASIA League will act as a hub for innovation
and contribute to the realisation of a sustainable world through the advancement of
research and human resource development in science and technology. It will also work
with the IDEA league, a consortium of ve leading technological institutions in Europe.
Many graduates have gone on to leading roles in society: Japans last Prime Minister,
Dr Yukio Hatoyama, was an assistant professor at Tokyo Tech, and his successor, Naoto
Kan, is a graduate. Professor Hideki Shirakawa won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 2000
for his work on conductive polymers and the current president of Tokyo Tech,
Kenichi Iga, is an inventor of the Surface Emitting Laser used in the PC mouse and many
portable phones.
Indonesian student Karlisa Priandana chose to study at Tokyo Tech because of its
international development engineering department. The research and study environment
is very conducive to gaining an international outlook. In my program I can do research and
take lectures in English. I found what I was looking for from a university. The university
has a few Facebook pages; this group has the most members and is the most active:
www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2785005774
Arts & humanities ........................................301-350
Engineering & IT ...................................................23
Life sciences & biomedicine ..............................117=
Natural sciences ................................................64=
Social sciences ........................................................ -
Academic survey position .....................................94
Employer survey position ......................................91
Students ......................................................... 9,999
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.6:1
International faculty ........................................ 8.1%
International students ....................................11.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 19,774
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 75,640
Impact (citations per paper)...............................49.6
60 (55=) Tokyo Institute of Technology
Founded 1881 www.titech.ac.jp
Top 100 universities in the world
111
Monash University has more students, staff and campuses around the world than any other
Australian university. It was the rst university created in Victoria since the University of
Melbourne, 105 years earlier. From an initial intake of 347 students, Monash grew rapidly.
The university also developed a wide range of courses in arts, commerce, engineering,
education, law, medicine and science and in 1990 began expanding, rst around
Melbourne, then outside the city, and nally beyond Australia. In 1998, the Malaysian
Ministry of Education invited Monash to set up a campus near Kuala Lumpur together
with the Sunway Group. A second offshore campus followed in South Africa in 2001 and
study centres were established in London and Prato, Italy, although the London centre has
since closed. Nearly 5,000 students were based on the Malaysian campus and 2,100 in
Johannesburg at the end of 2009, but the strength of the Australian dollar has contributed
to a decline in the number of applications from international students since then. Monash
is now a network of eight campuses and has partnerships with 110 institutions around
the world. International students are encouraged to apply for scholarships including
International Scholarships for Excellence, which provide up to AU$6,000 a year and
Monash Global Scholarships, which provide an AU$6,000 one-off grant.
Monash is one of the Australian Group of Eight research-intensive universities and is
home to 75 research centres. The university is best known for three large science and
technology projects: the AU$300 million Science, Technology, Research and Innovation
Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, which is one of the major tenants of the
precinct, and an AU$207 million synchrotron, the rst to be built in Australia. The
Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication opened next to the Clayton campus in 2010. A
new regenerative medicine research facility opened in 2008 and houses a multi-million-
dollar aquarium with thousands of tropical sh. Researchers are seeking breakthroughs
in elds such as heart disease. The universitys latest plans involve expansion on the
outer suburban campus at Berwick and its regional campus at Gippsland, as well as an
Advanced Studies Institute for high-achieving researchers.
Famous alumni include federal government ministers Simon Cean and Tony Robinson,
novelist Peter Carey and Americas Cup skipper John Bertrand.
Aashish Singh, who is taking a PhD in electrical and computer systems engineering, said
the culture at Monash Clayton Campus is vibrant. I have been here for three years now
and have met and made friends with people coming from different parts of the world
that I never imagined meeting in the rst place. The university and numerous student
associations on campus keep organising various fun events all year round. Its altogether a
lively place. The university Facebook page, with over 14,000 members, ranks among the
most lively around the world. www.facebook.com/Monash.University
Arts & humanities .................................................43
Engineering & IT ...................................................58
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................49
Natural sciences ................................................69=
Social sciences ......................................................34
Academic survey position ..................................40=
Employer survey position ......................................27
Students ....................................................... 44,035
Student faculty ratio .......................................... 11:1
International faculty ...................................... 15.9%
International students ................................... 30.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............20,369
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........100,552
Impact (citations per paper)..................................25
61(45) Monash University
Founded 1958 www.monash.edu.au
www.topuniversities.com
112
Uppsala University, situated 40 miles north of Stockholm, is the oldest university in
Scandinavia. Most Swedes associate the university with quaint traditions as much as
with teaching and research. For example, all Swedes don a peaked white cap when
they graduate from senior high school, a tradition that originated at Uppsala. But the
university has achieved another big rise in this years QS World University Rankings

,
breaking into the top 70 and overtaking Lund to become the highest-placed university
in Sweden. Uppsala has nine faculties distributed over three disciplinary domains:
humanities and social sciences, medicine and pharmacy, and science and technology. Of
its annual turnover of around SEK4 billion, approximately 60 per cent goes to graduate
studies and research. Recent research evaluation by 76 experts from 20 countries judged
over 50 research projects at more than 20 of the universitys departments to be world
leading. Theoretical physics, surgery, and linguistics were among those areas singled out
for special praise. The universitys 2009 Operational Plan promises increased funding for
research in areas including energy, peace and medicine, following supplementary funding
of SEK101.2 million from the state. The picturesque university buildings are located
around the historic centre of the city, close to the impressive cathedral. Recent expansion
has also seen the university occupy buildings in the southwest of the region. Arguably the
pearl in the universitys crown is the library with its extensive art and science collections.
Known locally as Carolina, the librarys foremost treasure is the Silver Gothic Bible Codex
Argenteus, which was seized when the Swedes stormed Prague in 1648.
Students typically belong to one of 13 nations, named after the provinces of Sweden.
Originally a way of showing a students origins, students are now free to join any nation
including Sknelandens, which was established in the 1960s as a legal ction to get
around the compulsory membership for students who prefer not to become afliated with
the traditional nations. In a bid to attract more international students the university has
recently started offering masters courses in English. The university provides information
for foreign students on a special student website www.uppsalastudentkar.nu.
Prominent alumni include eight Nobel laureates and notable scientists like botanist Carl
Linnaeus, astronomer Anders Celsius and the founding father of physical chemistry, Svante
August Arrhenius. The French philosopher Michel Foucault also studied at Uppsala.
Maryam Tavakoli, who is taking an MSc in Chemistry, took her rst degree at Bu Ali Sina
University in Hamedan, in Iran. She chose to study at Uppsala University because it is an
international university that ranks among the worlds top 100. What caught my interest
was that some of the worlds foremost academics have studied here, including several
Nobel laureates. Studying here can help me prosper. The ofcial Uppsala Facebook page
is still very much in its infancy: www.facebook.com/uppsalauniversity
Arts & humanities ..............................................60=
Engineering & IT ..............................................199=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................52
Natural sciences ................................................ 71=
Social sciences ................................................... 65=
Academic survey position .....................................65
Employer survey position .................................230=
Students ........................................................ 17,455
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 25.4%
International students ....................................11.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 20,364
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........133,285
Impact (citations per paper)...............................88.1
62 (75) Uppsala University
Founded 1477 www.uu.se
Top 100 universities in the world
113
More Microsoft employees have come from the University of Illinois (UI) than from any
other school, according to the companys founder Bill Gates. The computer has a long
association with this university, dating back to the development of ILLIAC, the rst
computer created and owned by an educational institution. UIs National Center for
Supercomputing Applications created the browser on which Microsoft Internet Explorer
is based, and is at work today to build the worlds fastest supercomputer, capable of
performing one quadrillion calculations per second. The university is also home to the
worlds largest virtual reality chamber at its Integrated Systems Laboratory. The Illinois
Center for Cryptography and Information Protection is one of only four university-based
cryptography centres in the world. The university also has one of the most highly regarded
semiconductor and nanotechnology research facilities in the US. By 2018 student
enrolment is expected to further grow by 70,000 through an ambitious online education
arm called Global Campus. But this school, on the plains of the agricultural Midwest,
isnt only focused on information technology. It is a principal partner in a US$500 million
research institute backed by BP to study biofuels, its academic library ranks third in size in
the US behind Harvard and Yale and the engineering library is the biggest in the country.
Its Food and Brand Lab studies why consumers buy what they buy and eat what they eat,
its Soybean Free Air Gas Concentration Enrichment program is studying the effects of
atmospheric change on agriculture, and in 2008 the university opened a new Business
Instructional Facility, the rst green building on campus. Illinois is also highly ranked
in accounting, civil, environmental, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering,
materials science, analytical science, kinesiology, and library and information sciences,
including the new eld of digital librarianship.
UIs 3,000 tenured professors include 11 Nobel laureates, while alumni have won another
ten Nobel Prizes. The university has also produced 19 Pulitzer Prize winners, either as
alumni or faculty members. Alumni include Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner,
actor Gene Hackman, director Ang Lee, architect Cesar Pelli, the co-founders of YouTube,
co-creators of Netscape, co-founders of Oracle, and the inventors of the plasma display.
Isaac Bonilla from Ecuador, describes the one-year MS in Technology Management
program as the most exciting educational experience of his life. It is an excellent
program that fullled my expectations, he said. Academic experience, experienced
professors, innovative curriculum and good friends from all over the world have been the
key benets of this program. Like the vast majority of American universities, Illinois has
very high numbers of Facebook members and the activity is constant.
www.facebook.com/illinois.edu
Arts & humanities ..............................................68=
Engineering & IT ...................................................16
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 75=
Natural sciences ...................................................34
Social sciences ......................................................44
Academic survey position .....................................35
Employer survey position ................................. 167=
Students ....................................................... 46,585
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 17.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 10.5%
International students ................................... 12.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 32,086
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 191,475
Impact (citations per paper)...............................73.2
63 (63=) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Founded 1867 www.uillinois.edu
www.topuniversities.com
114
Long in the shadow of MIT and with Harvard just across the Charles River, Boston University
(BU) has taken the head-down approach of the also-ran that has to work harder. It slips
ten places in this years rankings. It lobbies aggressively for the government money that
has paid for such things as a new building dedicated to the study of photonics, largely for
military applications. Its new high-rise residence halls and state-of-the-art tness centre
and arena were partly underwritten by, and are named after, an insurance company
rather than an academic or alumnus. But BU also has a tradition of social activism. The
School of Education took over the management of a nearby failed public school system
in an attempt to turn it around, and its medical school merged with a city hospital that
largely serves urban, low-income patients. A new ambulatory care building, partly funded
by tax credits, is designed to provide care to many more patients regardless of their ability
to pay. BU was the rst university to award a PhD to a woman and the rst to open all
of its divisions to females. Many students from outside the US are drawn to the business
school, which offers an unusual combined MS-MBA degree rooted in the connection
between information technology and business management. BU is also pre-eminent in
engineering, where much of the universitys US$312 million a year research takes place.
Yet, bucking the trend of other universities to focus on the sciences, BU has turned to
the arts. One of the few major research universities to also house a conservatory for the
performing and visual arts, the university is renovating its College of Fine Arts.
Alumni of BU include civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr, while alumni of the College
of Fine Arts include actors and actresses Faye Dunaway, Geena Davis and Olympia
Dukakis. The business school has graduated Executive Deputy Chairman of Benetton,
Alessandro Benetton and Shin Yong-il, CEO of Deutsche Asset Managemen (Asia). Others
include Ishrat Husain, former Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan and Faisal al-Fayez,
former Prime Minister of Jordan. Alexander Graham Bell was a professor at BU when he
invented the telephone. Among ve Nobel Prize winners in the last 35 years are Derek
Walcott, Saul Bellow and Elie Wiesel. The latest was Osamu Shimomura, who won the
chemistry Prize in 2008.
Jinghua Chen was attracted to BUs Master of Science in Arts Administration by the quality
of staff and the cultural reputation of the city. As an international student from China, I
envision myself practising arts administration from a global perspective and engaging in
cross-cultural communication. The international study courses are a unique opportunity
to explore different styles of arts administration, giving me a competitive advantage in
the job market. The facebook fan page is a hub of activity, driven mainly by the BU
students. www.facebook.com/BostonUniversity
Arts & humanities ..............................................83=
Engineering & IT .............................................. 158=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................98=
Natural sciences .............................................. 151=
Social sciences ......................................................63
Academic survey position .....................................89
Employer survey position ......................................94
Students ........................................................ 27,456
Student faculty ratio .........................................8.7:1
International faculty ........................................ 5.4%
International students ................................... 23.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............22,024
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........186,457
Impact (citations per paper)...............................59.2
64 (54) Boston University
Founded 1839 www.bu.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
115
Though only 50 years old, the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) is modelled on
some of the oldest universities, with Oxford and Cambridge providing the inspiration
for its residential colleges for undergraduates. Research, however, is cutting edge, and
the school prides itself on its local impact. Its middle and high Preuss School, dedicated
to providing intensive education for motivated low-income students, has been ranked
among the top ten US high schools. The university was built alongside the Pacic Ocean
in the southern California city of San Diego, joining the highly regarded Salk Institute
and Scripps Research Institute in this onetime Navy port. Specialising in science and
engineering, it has spun off more than 250 start-up companies, including 63 biomedical
start-ups, almost single-handedly transforming San Diego into a centre of biotechnology
and telecommunications. UCSD unapologetically looks towards the Pacic Rim, teaming
up on science programs with institutions in China, India and Singapore. The university
ranks third among major US research schools in the number of students who go abroad
for at least a full academic year and eighth in the number of international scholars. Student
numbers have increased 50 per cent in the last ten years. They study on a quarter system
similar to the University of Chicagos, instead of the more typical semesters.
UCSD conducts more than US$730 million a year in research, the seventh-highest US total.
It is home to one of the governments two supercomputing centres and was the ninth-
most-cited institution in the world based on its published research in science and the social
sciences from 1995 to 2005. The medical school alternates between rst and second in the
nation in research funding per faculty member. UCSDs biomedical engineering program,
which launched many of those spin-off companies, is considered among the nations best
and its California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology has also
made San Diego a centre for wireless technology. The Rady Business School, founded in
2001, specialises in the business of technology and will ultimately have about 65 full-time
faculty members and 1,200 MBA candidates.
Eight members of the faculty have won Nobel Prizes, one a Fields Medal and one the
Kyoto Prize. Alumni include the designer of the Macintosh computer, Nobel laureate in
medicine Susumu Tonegawa and biologist Craig Venter.
Charles Zhang, who was awarded his BSc in Management Information Systems at Nankai
University in China, is taking an MBA at the Rady Business School. With my background
from Asia, I am familiar with the importance of cost and efciency, but hoping to learn
more about innovation, he said. Thats also why I am here at Rady, a school saturated
with an incredible spirit of innovation.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-California-San-Diego
Arts & humanities .................................................71
Engineering & IT ...................................................34
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................12
Natural sciences ...................................................37
Social sciences ...................................................48=
Academic survey position .....................................29
Employer survey position ....................................182
Students ....................................................... 28,688
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 14.1:1
International faculty .........................................1.1%
International students ..................................... 5.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 31,710
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........289,918
Impact (citations per paper).............................142.6
65 (76=) University of California, San Diego
Founded 1960 www.ucsd.edu
www.topuniversities.com
116
Selected to become one of Germanys rst three elite universities, the Ludwig-
Maximilians-Universitt (LMU) in Munich is sharing a fund of 1.9 billion that is designed
to propel the countrys top institutions up the global higher education league. The move
certainly seems to be having the desired effect: LMU has enjoyed the biggest rise in
the top 100 of the latest QS World University Rankings

. Long recognised as one of


the strongest research universities in Germany, it is also one of the largest and most
internationally minded. Rector Bernd Huber says students from across the world travel to
Munich because of its unique academic diversity that covers all areas including humanities,
cultural studies, law, economics, sociology, medicine and the sciences. The university is
involved in 26 collaborative research centres funded by the German Research Foundation
(DFG), hosting 14 of them, and attracts external funding of more than 100 million a year
from both national and international sources. A centre for advanced studies has been
set up to promote and support interdisciplinary and international exchange. The LMU
was not always situated in the Bavarian capital, starting life in Ingolstadt and relocating
to Landshut in 1800, where it changed its name to the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt
two years later, in honour of two noblemen. Only in 1826 did the university nally move
to the larger city of Munich, now a major attraction for students. The main building has
been in use since 1840 and today there are 150 degree programs offered in numerous
combinations.
Thirteen Nobel Prize winners have been on the staff of the university, including Wilhelm
Conrad Rntgen, who in 1895 discovered the X-ray, and Konrad Lorenz, who won the
Prize for medicine in 1973 for his discoveries in individual and social behaviour patterns.
Interestingly all of the Nobel laureates who studied or taught at the LMU won prizes for
the sciences, reinforcing its reputation as a leader in this area. Alumni include Max Planck,
who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918, Konrad Adenauer, the post-War Chancellor
of West Germany, and Pope Benedict XVI.
Before coming from Beijing to study German and business administration, Qi Meimei,
a 26-year-old undergraduate student, particularly welcomes the opportunity to attend
lectures outside her own faculty and to choose from a wide range of optional courses
in addition to her mandatory basic courses. The academic standards of the university
are set very high, she said. As most courses are in German, I would recommend that
international students learn the language well. Students are not spoon-fed at the LMU:
they are expected to use their own initiative and actively participate in classes. Munich is
therefore not the right choice for passive students. The Facebook page currently exists
only in name at the time of writing.
www.facebook.com/pages/Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat
66 (98) Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen
Founded 1472 www.uni-muenchen.de
Arts & humanities .................................................34
Engineering & IT ..............................................209=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................50=
Natural sciences ................................................25=
Social sciences ......................................................40
Academic survey position .....................................44
Employer survey position ....................................209
Students ........................................................42,691
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 15.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 15.7%
International students ................................... 14.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............28,810
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 187,781
Impact (citations per paper)...............................66.5
Top 100 universities in the world
117
Everything is bigger in Texas, or so the saying goes, and that includes its agship
University of Texas at Austin (UT). One of the largest graduate schools in America, it
also has a big undergraduate enrolment on a vast campus centred around the 27-storey
UT Tower, six feet higher than the nearby Texas capitol building. Introductory classes
for undergraduates are large too, with as many as 400 students and discussion sessions
taught by graduate teaching assistants. Thanks in part to the pull of Texas politicians such
as President Lyndon Johnson, whose papers are kept in a campus archive with a robot
version of him that leans on a fence and tells jokes, UT has enjoyed federal grants for work
in space ight, defence, nuclear physics, and other elds. The university is also a centre
of nanotechnology research, spurred on by the demands of the semiconductor industry,
which has a strong presence in Texas. Moncrief Oil International pledged a gift that
could total US$500 million for the university from the potential proceeds from litigation
over the Yuzhno Russkoye gas eld in Russia. The money will go towards a program
to speed up the development of an alternative energy. Appropriately for a university
that was partly funded by oil discovered on its campus, UTs College of Engineerings
graduate program in petroleum engineering is considered the best in America. But it also
has top-rated divisions of aerospace, chemical, civil, computer, electrical, environmental,
and mechanical engineering. UT has one of the biggest cultural archives in the world,
including a Gutenberg Bible and the worlds earliest known photograph. Its new museum
of art is the largest at any US university and its academic library is the nations fth largest.
The surrounding city of Austin, known for its innovative music scene, is a lively setting.
Alumni include former First Lady Laura Bush, her daughter Jenna, Nobel laureate for
literature J M Coetzee, actors Farrah Fawcett, Jayne Manseld, Tex Ritter, Matthew
McConaughey and Rene Zellweger, singer Janis Joplin, lmmaker Wes Anderson, Dell
Computer founder Michael Dell, and Rex W Tillerson, Chairman and CEO of ExxonMobil.
Lorena Moscardelli, a Venezuelan PhD candidate at the Jackson School of Geosciences,
said Austin is a beautiful and diverse city with an interesting cultural and musical scene
in the heart of Texas. As a student at the Jackson School I have had the opportunity to
present several technical talks associated with my research in national and international
meetings. I have also been exposed to the industry because they fund part of our
research, and there is an active interchange of technical knowledge between academia
and companies. An incredible 200,000 people like the university steered Facebook
page, so the posts are very frequent indeed. www.facebook.com/UTAustinTX
Arts & humanities .................................................45
Engineering & IT ...................................................27
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................79=
Natural sciences ................................................ 41=
Social sciences ......................................................36
Academic survey position .....................................37
Employer survey position ......................................53
Students ....................................................... 45,299
Student faculty ratio .......................................16.5:1
International faculty ...................................... 18.3%
International students ..................................... 9.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............24,300
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 137,698
Impact (citations per paper)...............................50.2
67 (76=) University of Texas at Austin
Founded 1827 www.utexas.edu
www.topuniversities.com
118
The gothic ogee pinnacles and crockets that cap the distinctive clock tower of New
Zealands largest university are now surrounded by functional multi-storey structures,
an apt symbol of the universitys concerted effort in recent years to assert a reputation
based on the quality of its research rather than tradition. With six campuses situated
throughout the greater Auckland region, the University of Auckland describes itself as
New Zealands pre-eminent research-led university. It is the countrys only representative
in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings

and attracts the lions share of money


awarded through New Zealands Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF), which ranks
Auckland rst or second in 26 of the 41 subject areas in which it is assessed. Engineering
and medical research were particular areas of excellence, but anthropology, philosophy,
music, geology, sociology and theology also scored well. The business school has been
rated the best in the Oceania region. New Zealands rst Science and Technology Park
is taking shape at Aucklands Tamaki Campus with the support of the government and
city council. The university library is the biggest of its kind in New Zealand, while the
Owen G Glenn Building, which houses the universitys business school, has become an
Auckland landmark, with its 600-seat auditorium and digital technology. Science is the
largest of the eight faculties with almost 7,000 students, while arts and business and
economics each have more than 5,000. Education, engineering and medical and health
sciences also have substantial enrolments. The university has seen a ve-fold increase in
international students since 2002, about half of them Chinese. The picturesque city of
Auckland, rated fourth out of 215 world cities for quality of living in 2009, is a substantial
draw. The university has a New Zealand Centre on the campus of Peking University and
four multi-disciplinary institutes in Auckland focusing on China, the rest of Asia, Europe
and Latin America.
Notable Auckland alumni include New Zealands former Prime Minister Helen Clark and
Chief Justice Sian Elias, as well as novelist Maurice Gee and Tom Schnackenberg, design
coordinator for New Zealands Americas Cup wins in 1995 and 2000. Sir Graham Liggins,
who pioneered the treatment of babies in the womb, is remembered by the universitys
Liggins Institute, which carries out research on foetal and child health.
Aqeela Mowjood, who is studying for a conjoint Bachelor of Arts (Education) and
Bachelor of Science (Psychology and Statistics) degree, said the university had lived up to
its standard as a world-class institution. I have enjoyed the vibrancy and multiculturalism
of the city. Ive also really enjoyed tutoring within the Department of Psychologys
Tukana Program, gaining considerable cultural awareness working with Mori and
Pacic students. Student posts, comments and photos make this fan page a success.
www.facebook.com/UniofAkl
Arts & humanities ................................................. 51
Engineering & IT ...................................................55
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................41
Natural sciences ...................................................68
Social sciences ......................................................38
Academic survey position .....................................43
Employer survey position ......................................39
Students ........................................................29,291
Student faculty ratio .......................................15.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 35.0%
International students ................................... 30.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 11,975
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............59,343
Impact (citations per paper)...............................31.2
68 (61=) University of Auckland
Founded 1883 www.auckland.ac.nz
Top 100 universities in the world
119
A period of growth in student numbers and facilities has been followed this year by a sharp
rise up the QS World University Rankings

. The university has opened a new research


campus and the impressive new 23 million Information Commons, which operates 24
hours a day, provides 1,300 study spaces and 500 computers. Further building and the
conversion of a former womens hospital added extra facilities for the arts and humanities
in 2008, including a state-of-the-art rubber box development for the music department.
The university is within walking distance of the city centre, forming a mile-long corridor
of academic and residential buildings stretching into the afuent west side of Shefeld.
Derbyshires scenic Peak District is a short bus ride away. The university has always had
an international outlook, offering dedicated services for overseas students before many
of its rivals. Shefeld International College offers English language and other preparatory
courses and has just acquired extensive new premises on the edge of the main university
precinct. The university was also awarded national teaching centres for the arts and social
sciences and for enterprise learning, although research takes top priority in its mission
statement. Boeing is the senior partner of an advanced manufacturing research centre,
which forms the hub of the new technology park. The university is the lead institution for
systems engineering, smart materials and stem-cell technology in a network of European,
American and Chinese universities. A lively social scene is based on the student union,
which is considered among the best in Britain, town/gown relations are much better and
the crime rate lower than in most big UK cities. International students are guaranteed
university accommodation, most of which is within walking distance of lectures. A new
160 million student village has replaced several of the old halls of residence and increased
the number of residential places.
Famous alumni range from pioneering aviator, Amy Johnson, to Britains rst astronaut,
Helen Sharman. Nobel Prize winners include chemist Sir Harry Kroto and molecular
biologist Richard Roberts, who took the 1993 prize for medicine. The arts are represented
by the playwright Jack Rosenthal and comedian Eddie Izzard; politics and business by
former UK Home Secretary David Blunkett, and Penny Hughes, past President of Coca
Cola.
Alison Whalen, a Canadian student taking an MSc in Osteology and Archaeology, said:
I originally decided to study in Shefeld because I had heard amazing reviews of the
university and the city from both UK and international rankings, and from professors
and students. She added: The university aims its programs for people studying for
academic, vocational, or occupational reasons, and I considered myself studying for all
three reasons. www.facebook.com/theuniversityofshefeld
Arts & humanities ..............................................99=
Engineering & IT ...............................................112=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 105=
Natural sciences ..............................................199=
Social sciences ....................................................104
Academic survey position ...................................101
Employer survey position ......................................62
Students ........................................................20,631
Student faculty ratio .........................................8.6:1
International faculty .......................................27.5%
International students ................................... 19.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 17,457
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 101,026
Impact (citations per paper)...............................42.3
69 (82) University of Shefeld
Founded 1897 www.shef.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
120
Having entered the QS World University Rankings

top 100 with a massive 43-place


jump last year, Freie Universitt Berlin (FU Berlin) has continued its progress with another
big rise. The university was founded three years after the Second World War ended,
built with the support of the Allies and Berlin politicians in response to the persecution
of students in the Soviet sector of the divided city. After German unication in 1990
and increasingly since 2000, FU Berlin has revamped itself. Its research performance has
improved markedly, as counted by publications and PhDs granted. In 2007, FU Berlin
became the university with the most approved funding applications in the federal and
state Initiative for Excellence. It is one of nine German universities to receive extra funding
for its future development strategy. FU Berlin has Germanys broadest spectrum of
humanities research, under the auspices of the Dahlem Humanities Centre. One unique
feature is the large number of specialised subjects, such as Byzantine Studies and Jewish
Studies. Governance research is one highlight of the Otto Suhr Institute, one of the most
renowned political science institutes in Europe. In the natural sciences, a major focus
is the life sciences and earth sciences, as well as physics, mathematics, and computer
science. The broad spectrum also includes the Department of Veterinary Medicine, one
of ve veterinary schools in Germany, as well as the largest pharmaceutical educational
institution in Germany. CharitUniversity Medicine Berlin, a joint corporation of Berlins
Freie and Humboldt universities, is the largest medical school in Europe. Since 2003, it
has been pursuing an interdisciplinary cluster strategy that shapes its research prole. The
goal is to identify social, economic and cultural trends worldwide, and to develop relevant
research.
The foundation of FU Berlin was facilitated through international support and international
impulses have shaped its research ever since. The university has over 130 partnerships with
scholarly institutions worldwide. About 600 foreign scholars contribute to its diversity in
research and teaching. There are exchange agreements with more than 60 universities
and it operates in over 100 subject areas.
Frederika Tevebring, a Swedish student at the university said: Studying at Freie Universitt
Berlin is ideal for me because of the universitys openness to movement and cooperation
across departments and borders. The FU gives me endless possibilities to deepen my
knowledge in my chosen eld: it provides a beautiful and exciting environment to
pursue my studies. Not only the university, but also the city of Berlin is a magnet pulling
intellectual minds from all over the world. To study and live in this environment with its
many offerings is very inspirational. www.facebook.com/group.php?qid=2204916490
Arts & humanities .................................................25
Engineering & IT .............................................. 255=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................64
Natural sciences ...................................................66
Social sciences ......................................................53
Academic survey position .....................................56
Employer survey position ................................. 301+
Students ........................................................31,853
Student faculty ratio .......................................15.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 14.6%
International students ....................................18.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 28,883
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........189,534
Impact (citations per paper)...............................93.9
70 (94) Freie Universitt Berlin
Founded 1948 www.fu-berlin.de
Top 100 universities in the world
121
The University of Geneva (Universit de Genve) reects Genevas character as an
international capital and the countrys second-largest city. Geneva hosts scores of
international organisations including the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Red
Cross, as well as a number of international schools including the Ecole Internationale de
Genve (Ecolint). The citys large number of foreign residents is one reason more than
a third of students are non-Swiss. The university, which goes by the acronym UNIGE, is
Switzerlands second largest after ETH Zurich. It was founded as the Acadmie de Genve,
a seminary specialising in theology and the humanities. Although law was also taught,
theology remained its principal eld of study until the late 17th Century. During the Age
of Enlightenment, interest broadened out to many aspects of natural philosophy and the
then Acadmie developed further into legal studies. This led, by the mid-19th Century, to
its complete emancipation from the church and in 1873, with the opening of a medical
school, to its re-denition as a university belonging to the canton of Geneva. Most classes
are taught in French, but the three-month Geneva International Students Program
(GISP) includes multidisciplinary courses taught in English, as well as intensive French
language courses.
Full-time student numbers have been growing steadily, in particular in the faculties of
law and economic and social sciences. International exchanges for faculty and students
are strongly encouraged and, since 1996, the number of students taking part in the
European Unions Erasmus program has increased ve times. The university works on
a number of networked projects with the University of Lausanne, Lausannes EPFL and
the University of Neuchatel. UNIGE was a founding member of the League of European
Research-Intensive Universities. The Swiss National Science Foundation chose it to head
three of its rst ten National Centres of Competence in Research, in genetics, materials
and affective sciences, and added three more in 2010, in chemical biology, mental
disease and longevity.
Theologian Jean Calvin was the religious and ideological driving force for the universitys
establishment and Theodore de Beze, one of Calvins closest disciples, was its rst rector.
Throughout the centuries, the university has been a refuge for religious and political exiles
who have both drawn from, and contributed to, the institution. Among the nine Nobel
Prize winners is Werner Arber, laureate in physiology and medicine in 1978.
Delphine Doudeau, a student from Paris, was impressed by the universitys facilities and
organisation, which met all her needs. The city also had its advantages. The privileged
international inuence of Geneva, its openness to the world, the necessary use of English
or other foreign languages, and a multicultural environment, all add an international
measure to my education, she said. www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Geneva
Arts & humanities ..............................................89=
Engineering & IT ..................................................... -
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 131=
Natural sciences ................................................. 119
Social sciences ................................................. 176=
Academic survey position ................................... 135
Employer survey position ................................. 301+
Students ........................................................12,866
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 9.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 50.4%
International students ................................... 36.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 16,312
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........114,844
Impact (citations per paper)...............................81.4
71 (72) University of Geneva
Founded 1559 www.unige.ch
www.topuniversities.com
122
Lund has dropped slightly in the latest QS World University Rankings

but is still up more


than 30 places on its performance in 2007. The second-oldest university in Sweden, it is
located in a medieval city of 100,000 people in the south of the country, close to Denmark
and northern Germany. Lund has been rated the best place to live in Sweden: it is one of
the safest and wealthiest municipalities, the population is the youngest in Sweden and it is
home to some world-leading companies. The university has eight faculties and additional
campuses in the cities of Malm and Helsingborg. It belongs to the League of European
Research Universities and the global Universitas 21 network. The university centres on
the Lundagard park adjacent to Lund Cathedral, with various departments spread across
different locations in town. Most of the university, however, is concentrated in a belt
stretching north from the park to the university hospital area and continuing out to the
large campus of the Lund Institute of Technology, the universitys engineering faculty on
the north-eastern periphery of the town.
An evaluation of the universitys research by 17 external panels in 2008 found the
humanities and life sciences to be particularly strong. The centrepiece of the universitys
research is the climate initiative, which has identied 11 themes, including carbon cycle
processes and large-scale climate patterns, to be addressed by a variety of disciplines.
Almost 300 courses are, or can be, held in English for the benet of international
exchange students, although no complete undergraduate programs are taught solely in
English. As elsewhere in Sweden, there are no tuition fees for domestic or EU students,
although charges are being introduced for other international students in 2011. Lund
has a long history of welcoming international students and the university has the largest
number from overseas in Sweden. Student social life centres on the 13 nations, which
the university describes as somewhere between a student union and a social club. They
are spread across the city, each with their own character, offering food, drink, a place to
party, live music and accommodation.
Famous alumni include Nobel laureates Manne Siegbahn for physics (1924), Bertil Ohlin
for economics (1977), Sune Bergstrom for medicine (1982), and Arvid Carlsson for
medicine (2000). Swedish Prime ministers Tage Erlander and Ingvar Carlsson, and tennis
icon Bjrn Borg are also alumni.
Slave Petrovski came from the University of Melbourne on an exchange studying
bioinformatics. He said the seven months at Lund University are arguably his best university
experience both socially and academically. I had the opportunity to forge invaluable
friendships with other international students, network with both peers and seniors in
my eld of expertise, and additionally become exposed to an alternative approach to
studies. www.facebook.com/lunduniversity
Arts & humanities .................................................92
Engineering & IT .............................................. 101=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................58=
Natural sciences ...................................................67
Social sciences ......................................................76
Academic survey position .....................................67
Employer survey position .................................... 125
Students ........................................................ 27,597
Student faculty ratio .......................................12.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 12.6%
International students ................................... 10.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............22,327
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........146,376
Impact (citations per paper)...............................65.8
72 (67=) Lund University
Founded 1666 www.lu.se
Top 100 universities in the world
123
Nottingham is the UKs most international university, with campuses in China and Malaysia
and a host of overseas partnerships to supplement its popular base in the East Midlands.
Research-led, the university attracts a high volume of applications from overseas, as well as
being among the most sought-after by UK students. English language tuition is provided
on campus and online by a centre for English language education. Three attractive
campuses with award-winning buildings are all within easy reach of Nottingham city
centre. The main University Park campus is set around a lake with extensive greenery and
is regarded as one of the most attractive in the UK. This campus is the focus of university
life for most students and includes 12 halls of residence, a conference and exhibition
centre, sports facilities and an arts centre. Adjacent to University Park is Nottinghams
medical school. Jubilee campus houses the schools of education, computer science and
information technology, as well as Nottinghams business school. A new research and
innovation park is being developed here. Most biosciences students are based outside the
city on the Sutton Bonington campus, which is also home to the universitys new school
of veterinary medicine and science.
Nottingham guarantees international students university accommodation for the rst
two years of study. Support for them includes a foundation program offered both in
Nottingham and at the universitys two overseas campuses in China and Malaysia.
Both have echoes of University Park and its famous clock tower and offer a limited
version of the Nottingham curriculum. The Ningbo campus, in China, also boasts a new
research centre for international nance. Nottingham did well in the 2008 Research
Assessment Exercise, with almost 60 per cent of all research dened as world-leading
or internationally excellent. In both teaching and research, the university has a strong
record in healthcare, nanotechnology, biosciences, the built environment, international
relations and cultural studies. It is also certicating extra-curricular activities through the
Nottingham Advantage Award to help graduates in the employment market.
Distinguished faculty include Nobel Prize winners Sir Peter Manseld in the eld of
cognitive behaviour and scanning, and economist Sir Clive Granger. The novelist D H
Lawrence is the most famous alumnus, but table-tennis champion Deng Yaping enjoys
superstar status in her native China, while Najib Razak is Prime Minister of Malaysia.
Jennifer Martinez joined the universitys MA in Social and Global Justice after working for
ve years in a non-governmental organisation in the US. She fell in love with Nottingham,
which she considers a perfect blend of city and town. I nd myself inspired and
challenged by what is taught in the School of Politics and International Relations, she
said. www.facebook.com/TheUniofNottingham
Arts & humanities ...............................................109
Engineering & IT .................................................136
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................90
Natural sciences .................................................136
Social sciences ......................................................81
Academic survey position .....................................90
Employer survey position ......................................30
Students ........................................................27,605
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 30.3%
International students ................................... 23.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 17,247
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............92,505
Impact (citations per paper)..................................32
73 (91) University of Nottingham
Founded 1798 www.nottingham.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
124
Nanyang Technological University (NTU) was founded in the nal phase of colonial times
as Nanyang University. Like the National University of Singapore, it became private in
2006 but continues to receive government funding. Despite having set itself the target of
becoming the MIT of the East, NTU is now branching out in terms of academic breadth.
Undergraduates will be offered history as a major by 2012 and philosophy by 2013 as
part of a move towards becoming a comprehensive university. There are majors already in
Chinese, English, sociology and linguistics. Also in 2013, NTU is to open a medical school
in collaboration with Imperial College London. The university occupies the Yunnan Garden
campus designed by renowned Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, close to the world-
famous Jurong Bird Park in the south-west of the island. Well served by the republics
reliable and extensive public transport system, the campus was the athletes village at the
inaugural Youth Olympic Games in 2010. With 13 schools and departments, including
the incorporated National Institute of Education (NIE) and the Nanyang Business School,
NTU has high quality facilities throughout, including excellent libraries and laboratories.
NTU also has a strong reputation for leadership in technological innovation. It was the
rst higher education institution in Southeast Asia to open a virtual reality theatre that
highlights, among other things, research in biological and medical science. The universitys
Centre for Advanced Media Technology pursues leading-edge work in computer graphics,
scientic visualisation, simulation and animation, with a Reality Theatre that is available to
all departments. The Earth Observatory of Singapore, opened in 2009 with S$150 million
in state funding, is dedicated to hazards-related earth science. The university has also
opened a School of International Relations named after a prominent Singaporean Indian,
the late S Rajaratnam, as well as an art and heritage museum.
Among the outstanding graduates of NTU are Archbishop John Chew, head of the
Anglican church in Southeast Asia, Dr Liew Choong-Chin, a pioneer of cardiovascular
molecular medicine, Lip-Bu Tan, one of Asias foremost venture capitalists, Chang Long
Jong, deputy chief executive of MediaCorp TV and Lien Siaou Sze, named by Fortune
magazine as one of the ve most powerful women in business outside the US.
Ashima Khanna, who went to school in New Delhi, is currently studying for an economics
degree. An excellent academic environment, dedicated teaching faculty, a focus
on all-round personal development, various global programs and a highly impressive,
self-contained world-class campus were the key factors that attracted me to NTU, she
said. Now the recipient of a Nanyang Scholarship for a combination of co-curricular
activities, strong leadership qualities and outstanding academic results, Ashima will be
taking advantage of one of the many international exchange programs offered by NTU.
www.facebook.com/pages/Nanyang-Technological-University/103751092996487
Arts & humanities ............................................... 125
Engineering & IT ................................................36=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 174=
Natural sciences .............................................. 143=
Social sciences ......................................................60
Academic survey position .....................................76
Employer survey position ......................................82
Students ........................................................24,893
Student faculty ratio .........................................7.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 65.9%
International students ....................................33.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............19,399
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............59,063
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 18.1
74 (73=) Nanyang Technological University (NTU)
Founded 1955 www.ntu.edu.sg
Top 100 universities in the world
125
The University of Helsinki has re-entered the top 100 in the QS World University Rankings


in spectacular fashion, with a leap of more than 30 places. It is the oldest and largest
university in Finland, originally established in Turku, the then capital. It transferred to
the new capital, Helsinki, in 1928 and is one of the founding members of the lite
League of European Research Universities. There are 11 faculties and 20 independent
research institutes. The university has implemented a new strategy focusing on research
and internationalisation, with the aim of doubling the number of foreign undergraduate
and doctoral students. There are no tuition fees for foreign students, irrespective of
their country of origin. The university advises students to budget on spending 600-
900 a month, but offers dozens of start-up grants of 1,000-1,500 for those taking
international masters programs. The grant is available for 27 programs, from Bayesian
statistics and decision analysis to translational medicine, all of which are taught in English.
Undergraduate teaching is entirely in Finnish, as are the entrance tests, with the exception
of a degree in English Philology.
Many foreign students come through the European Unions Erasmus program. There are
also reciprocal arrangements with leading universities elsewhere in the world, including
the University of California, Berkeley, University of Tokyo and Moscow State University.
Dedicated services aimed at foreign students such as language courses, cultural guidance
and career guidance are also being improved and extended. Russia, Estonia, China,
Germany, the UK and the US top the list of countries of origin for foreign students,
among almost 100 different nationalities currently represented. Helsinki fared well in an
international research evaluation conducted in 2005 that gave high scores to two thirds
of its 75 research units (ve independent institutes and 70 faculty departments). Among
recent improvements has been the addition of a learning centre for students and staff to
supplement the facilities of the library, which is also Finlands national library.
Well-known alumni include Jorma Ollila, former chief executive of Nokia, and Linus
Torvalds, developer of the Linux software system. Seven out of the eleven Finnish
Presidents studied at Helsinki University, including Tarja Halonen, the incumbent, and
Mari Kivinieni, the Prime Minister. There have been three Nobel Prize winners, the most
recent in 1967, when Ragnar Granit won for medicine.
Feiran Long, a Chinese student taking econometrics, says: I had a friend who studied
here before and he recommended it. My rst impression was that the sky was so blue and
it was so clean. With all the trees, it was very lovely and there were lots of friendly people.
I couldnt speak any Finnish at all, but when I asked people which bus I should take, for
instance, they were always helpful. www.facebook.com/HelsinkiUniversity
Arts & humanities .................................................53
Engineering & IT ..............................................140=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................58=
Natural sciences ..............................................108=
Social sciences ......................................................87
Academic survey position .....................................71
Employer survey position ....................................229
Students ........................................................23,250
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 8.1:1
International faculty ...................................... 10.9%
International students ..................................... 4.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............26,753
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........190,503
Impact (citations per paper)...............................66.5
75= (108=) University of Helsinki
Founded 1640 www.helsinki./university
www.topuniversities.com
126
Although now established in the top 75 in the QS World University Rankings

and the
venue for a presidential debate in 2008, Washington University is still striving for the
name recognition of the best schools in America. It has to add the words in St Louis
to avoid being confused with George Washington University in Washington, DC, the
University of Washington, and the nearly 20 other US higher education institutions with
Washington in their titles. But, Wash U, as students call it, is sixth in the nation in
doctoral degrees awarded and fth in federal research support. Its George Warren Brown
School of Social Work is at the top of its eld, as is its school of laws clinical training
program. Washington Universitys medical school is also considered among the nations
best. So many of the universitys undergraduates are pre-med, they are given their own
orientation when they arrive. A new Masters of Public Health has been introduced for
people committed to improving the health of vulnerable communities. While those pre-
med students nd themselves crowded into huge lectures for their introductory science
classes, the universitys comparatively small size means the faculty are usually accessible.
Almost all are involved in research and undergraduate and graduate students have the
chance to work alongside them. Wash U also disburses signicant nancial aid, about
US$53 million a year, to which international students are eligible. A $60 million gift in
2010 will enable the university to strengthen its student support while also pursuing new
academic opportunities. Its quiet, Gothic-style campus borders a large public park and
quiet suburbs of St Louis, a city better known for barbecues than academics. The nearest
big city, Chicago, is about ve hours away by car.
The poet T S Eliot was the grandson of Washingtons founder and took a diploma at
the university, while American playwright Tennessee Williams was also a student in the
1930s. Adventurer Steve Fossett was a more recent alumnus, as was Sam Fox, the US
ambassador to Belgium and owner of Harbour Group Industries. The most recent of 22
Nobel laureates was Aaron Ciechanover, who took the chemistry Prize in 2004.
Yining Huang, a graduate of Peking University in the second year of research for a PhD
in Chemistry, said: I am thankful for Washington University because Im working
and being educated in a creative laboratory which tops the nation for state-of-the-
art technologies. He nds the setting relaxing and adds: Looking east through the
Brookings Hall archway toward St Louis Gateway Arch, I deeply believe that just like
this city is the American gateway to the west, Washington University is my gateway to
success. www.facebook.com/wustl
Arts & humanities ................................................... -
Engineering & IT ......................................... 351-400
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................42
Natural sciences ..........................................301-350
Social sciences ................................................. 192=
Academic survey position ................................... 176
Employer survey position ....................................270
Students ........................................................12,250
Student faculty ratio .........................................4.4:1
International faculty ........................................ 5.4%
International students ................................... 13.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 29,896
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 297,985
Impact (citations per paper).............................106.2
75= (73=) Washington University in St Louis
Founded 1853 www.wustl.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
127
Glasgow has always attracted a high proportion of undergraduates from the surrounding
area, perhaps owing in part to being the rst of Scotlands four ancient universities to
start widening access. It now aims to have a truly diverse student community, with
increasing proportions of both international and postgraduate students. A recent survey
of international students placed Glasgow fourth in the UK for student satisfaction and the
university has also been doing well in the UKs own annual student satisfaction survey. The
university has a strong focus on research, its 116 million annual income from research
grants and contracts placing it among the top ten in the UK on this measure. Almost 70
per cent of the work submitted to the UKs last Research Assessment Exercise was rated
world-leading or internationally excellent.
Glasgow is a leading player in Scotlands research pooling initiatives to bring together
researchers from different universities and has a Synergy partnership with neighbouring
Strathclyde University. This has created some 200 collaborations, including the merger
of Strathclydes department of ship and marine technology with Glasgows department
of naval architecture and ocean engineering. The Centre for International Development
is the rst of its kind in Scotland and the largest in the UK, helping to secure more than
20 million in research income, including 4.7 million from the Wellcome Trust to enable
African scientists to complete research fellowships. Glasgows medical faculty has been
a pioneer of new teaching methods, establishing an undergraduate curriculum around
problem-based learning. The faculty of veterinary medicine was only the third European
school to win approved status from the American Veterinary Medical Association. The
fourth-oldest university in the UK, Glasgows neo-Gothic main building dominates the
citys skyline. The university has been spending around 30 million annually on building
projects and is committed to cutting energy costs and environmental pollution. Its
newest buildings are at the forefront of sustainable construction. Sport plays a big part in
university life, with students regularly representing Scotland in a range of different sports.
Glasgow has a distinguished roll of scholars, including physicist Lord Kelvin and economist
Adam Smith, who were both students and professors. James Watt conducted some of
his early experiments with steam power while working at the university, and John Logie
Baird, a pioneer of television, was a student when the First World War intervened.
Mohammed Basheer Aliyu from Sokoto, Nigeria, believes that an MSc in Finance and
Economic Development will give him an edge in the international labour market. I always
yearned to study at one of the best universities in the world, he said. The University of
Glasgow satised this with ultra-modern, user-friendly facilities and great support from all
staff. I am particularly impressed with the excellent library and sports centre.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Glasgow-Student-Network/32246452232
Arts & humanities ..............................................85=
Engineering & IT .................................................106
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................95
Natural sciences ................................................. 115
Social sciences ................................................. 118=
Academic survey position .....................................88
Employer survey position .................................109=
Students ........................................................ 20,191
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.3:1
International faculty ...................................... 20.8%
International students ................................... 14.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............14,674
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 99,458
Impact (citations per paper)...............................45.8
77 (79) University of Glasgow
Founded 1451 www.gla.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
128
Dr Indira Samarasekera, the University of Albertas President, has set her institution the
goal of winning a place among the top 20 public universities in the world, but it has
dropped back down the QS World University Rankings

after a big rise last year. Located


atop a river valley in Edmonton, the university offers undergraduate and graduate students
the choice of 400 programs, including 60 doctoral, in 300 research areas. Of note is the
Native Studies program, the only such program in Canada that boasts a faculty and not
just a department. Alberta also has the countrys only faculty of rehabilitation medicine.
The university developed the rst vaccine for hepatitis B, has made numerous discoveries
in medicine and swine research, which led to the development of the Edmonton Protocol
islet transplant method to treat Type 1 diabetes, and combined the elds of oncology and
nanotech engineering to develop devices for faster and less expensive cancer screening.
The university is home to the Canadian Circumpolar Institute of more than 200 researchers
focused on the North. It is also home to Orlando, the worlds largest text base on British
women authors, available to scholars and readers worldwide, while the Timms Centre
for the Arts is regarded as the countrys leading theatre teaching facility. The Enterprise
Square Campus opened in downtown Edmonton in 2009, while the Campus Saint-Jean,
six miles from the main campus, offers the only substantial range of university courses
in French west of Winnipeg. The university has also received the largest gift of land ever
to a Canadian university for research: the St Albert Research Station will be used for
agricultural and environmental research.
Distinguished alumni include Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, Beverley
McLachlin, physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Taylor and former Canadian Prime
Minister Joe Clark. Distinguished faculty include ecologist David Schindler, recipient
of the Stockholm Water Prize, computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer, whose articial
intelligence program solved the game of checkers, palaeontologist Phil Currie who digs
in the dinosaur badlands of Alberta, and physicians Ray Rajotte and James Shapiro,
collaborators on the Edmonton Protocol.
Daisy Raphael is a postgraduate student studying gender and politics at Alberta. Her BA
in Politics and English at the University of Lethbridge included a dissertation on media
representations of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin in the 2008 US presidential election.
As a result she was attracted to Albertas political science department because of its
commitment to her chosen specialist eld. I love Edmonton for all of its great food and
music and the beautiful river valley views, she said. In my spare time, I like to relax with
my friends and family, watch movies, eat delicious food, or head to the mountains to go
skiing. www.facebook.com/ualberta
Arts & humanities ............................................ 114=
Engineering & IT ...................................................74
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................86=
Natural sciences ................................................86=
Social sciences .................................................140=
Academic survey position .....................................84
Employer survey position ...................................96=
Students ........................................................35,353
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 33.4%
International students ................................... 16.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 28,668
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 157,250
Impact (citations per paper)...............................43.5
78 (59) University of Alberta
Founded 1908 www.ualberta.ca
Top 100 universities in the world
129
Koreas Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) has dropped back in the
latest QS World University Rankings

, but is still more than 100 places better off than


it was ve years ago. Its meteoric rise reects the ambition of Nam Pyo Suh, KAISTs
president, to turn the institute into Koreas equivalent of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT). Professor Suh is a Korean who has spent most of his life in the US
and was head of mechanical engineering at MIT before returning to KAISTs campus at
Daejeon in the centre of the country. KAIST was set up as a specialist graduate school
with a specic political remit to improve the quality of Korean science, technology and
innovation. Its special status has allowed it to avoid some of the heavy central control the
Korean government exerts on other universities. KAIST began teaching undergraduates
in 1986. Students admitted to the schools four-year program do not have to choose their
main subject denitively, which again allows more exibility than is usual in the Korean
system. They will nd a full spread of engineering and IT subjects on offer, plus biological
and physical sciences and a business school. But there is no medical school, and culture
and the arts are present only on a small scale. KAIST is the place to be if you want a
management or technology job in Koreas high-technology sector, which, these days,
runs far deeper and wider than Samsung and LG. In 2009, KAIST absorbed the nearby
Information-Communications University, adding to its strength in this area. Two KAIST
projects, on electric vehicles and ports, have been chosen for special Korean government
funding for green technology.
KAISTs list of distinguished alumni reects its role as the academic arm of Korean high
tech. Koreas rst astronaut, Yi So-yeon, did her PhD there. She now works at the Korean
Aerospace Research Institute, one of a number of national research centres close to KAIST.
Other graduates include Min Whoa Lee, chief executive of the Korea Technology Transfer
Center, Oh-Hyun Kwon, president of Large Scale Integration (of electronic devices)
at Samsung, and Sam-Soo Pyo, chief executive of the Korean arm of US database colossus
Oracle.
Andrii Omelianovych, a KAIST undergraduate student from Ukraine, never regretted
coming to KAIST, for several reasons. I have met a lot of smart and interesting people
here. Its also great to discover new cultures and explore the different ways of thinking of
students from all over the world. I have also enjoyed a number of opportunities for self-
development such as internship programs and leadership training that KAIST provides.
Finally, I have earned a lot of valuable experience that has literally changed my personality,
and hence my life. www.facebook.com/pages/KAIST/105675392799431
Arts & humanities ...............................................265
Engineering & IT ...................................................24
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 82=
Natural sciences ...................................................57
Social sciences .................................................230=
Academic survey position .....................................80
Employer survey position ................................. 185=
Students ..........................................................8,091
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 13.6%
International students ..................................... 7.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 13,817
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............43,073
Impact (citations per paper)...............................34.3
79 (69) KAIST Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology
Founded 1971 www.kaist.edu
www.topuniversities.com
130
Like other specialist institutions in the arts and social sciences, the London School of
Economics and Political Science (LSE) tends to feel undervalued in university rankings. It
does not have the advantage of a medical school or big science departments, although
it has never been out of the top ve for the social sciences in the QS World University
Rankings

. LSE has also suffered in funding terms from successive UK governments


emphasis on science and technology.
The school describes itself as the worlds leading social science institution for teaching
and research. An immodest claim perhaps, but when half its departments have been rated
internationally outstanding, who can blame it? LSE is a top destination for future heads
of state and Nobel Prize winners. An international feel on campus, therefore, comes as no
surprise. The student population spans 24 European Union (EU) countries and 113 non-EU
countries. The school is also planning 20 per cent more places, having acquired former
government buildings near its central London headquarters. LSE is more multidisciplinary
than its name suggests: law, management and history receive top ratings for teaching
quality. Business, economics, psychology and mathematics also produce good results.
Research specialisms include maths, media, anthropology, communications, economic
history, accounting, international relations and social policy. A pan-European survey
showed LSE students to be more active in student associations, more entrepreneurial
and more open to working abroad than those at other leading universities. The schools
academics have been in the headlines even more than usual during the onset of the
global recession. The International Growth Centre (IGC) was launched in December 2008
as a partnership between LSE and Oxford University. It provides practical help to the
governments of developing countries to support growth and improve their ability to cope
with the effects of the economic downturn.
Some 29 country leaders and 16 Nobel Prize winners have studied or taught at LSE. Among
them the former Italian prime minister Romano Prodi, former Canadian Prime Minister
Pierre Trudeau and former Indian President Shri K R Narayanan. Socialist luminaries Sidney
and Beatrice Webb and George Bernard Shaw founded the school. Former UK Labour
Prime Minister Clement Attlee was a lecturer and LSE is also the alma mater of Rolling
Stones front man Mick Jagger.
Abby Tinuola Kalejaye, who took a BSc in Economic History, says: For me the best thing
about studying at LSE is the variety and calibre of staff and students you get here. LSE
is full of ambitious people and it has helped me to realise that you cant set goals high
enough. It is incredibly difcult to be an under-achiever here and Ive learned how to
balance a fabulous social life with a demanding study load.
www.facebook.com/pages/LSE/6127898346
Arts & humanities .................................................33
Engineering & IT ..................................................... -
Life sciences & biomedicine .................................... -
Natural sciences ......................................... 351-400
Social sciences ........................................................4
Academic survey position .....................................59
Employer survey position .....................................4=
Students ..........................................................9,226
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 11.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 55.0%
International students ................................... 68.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ................. 3,513
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............10,280
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 12.5
80 (67=) LSE London School of Economics & Political Science
Founded 1895 www.lse.ac.uk
Top 100 universities in the world
131
Having established itself among the worlds top 100 universities, Southampton has
enjoyed a big rise in the latest QS World University Rankings

. A member of the Russell


Group of leading UK research universities, Southampton also belongs to the Worldwide
Universities Network of 16 research-led institutions in Europe, North America, Australia
and China. The proportion of income derived from research at Southampton is among
the highest in Britain. Southampton is a pleasant, if architecturally undistinguished city,
on the south coast of England, little more than an hours travelling time from London. The
universitys location has also encouraged strong links with Europe and there has been a
determined drive to attract more international students who are guaranteed a place in the
universitys residential accommodation. Its website has an introduction to the university in
21 languages, while its student body includes more than 100 nationalities.
The main Higheld campus, in a leafy location two miles from the city centre, has been
the focus of a 250 million development programme. A Centre for Banking, Finance and
Sustainable Development opened in 2008 and a new student services centre provides
learning support and other advisory facilities, backed up online for students in other areas
of the university. The National Oceanography Centre, a 49 million joint project with
the Natural Environment Research Council, was ranked top in the world in 2009 for the
impact of peer-reviewed research papers. The universitys new supercomputer has the
power of 4,000 PCs and is the fastest university-owned machine in England, 74th in the
world. Southampton was also placed among the leading universities in Europe for its
chemistry research in 2010. Social and sports facilities have recently been expanded and
upgraded with a new state-of-the-art indoor sports complex and swimming pool. Art
courses are based in historic Winchester, 12 miles north of Southampton.
Sir Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web, is on the staff of the School of
Electronics and Computer Science. John Denham, a former Labour cabinet minister
who was the UKs rst and only Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills,
was president of the students union. Lord Plant of Higheld was Professor of European
Political Thought before becoming Master of St Catherines College, Oxford. Singer/
songwriter Brian Eno studied art at Winchester.
Thu Nguyen applied to Southampton from Vietnam and was impressed to receive a
conditional offer of a place for a BSc in Mathematics almost by return. She is grateful
for the friendliness of the academics and has made a lot of student friends of different
nationalities. Three years as a student is an important time in life and I decided to study
and enjoy it. Southampton is now my second home. The people are friendly and very
kind. www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Southampton
Arts & humanities ............................................146=
Engineering & IT ................................................ 52=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 192=
Natural sciences .................................................106
Social sciences ....................................................168
Academic survey position ...................................105
Employer survey position ......................................95
Students ........................................................ 19,793
Student faculty ratio .........................................8.7:1
International faculty ...................................... 30.6%
International students ................................... 19.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............16,499
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 89,682
Impact (citations per paper)...............................39.4
81 (95=) University of Southampton
Founded 1862 www.soton.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
132
Legend has it that William of Orange offered the people of Leiden a choice of rewards
for withstanding a Spanish siege: they could be excused from paying certain taxes or he
would establish a university. They chose the university, thinking it would last longer than a
tax cut. Whether or not the story is true, the university has endured and, until a sharp drop
this year, had been making consistent progress up the QS World University Rankings

. It
is the oldest university in the Netherlands and was the rst to practise freedom of belief
and religion, providing the environment for philosophers such as Descartes and Spinoza
to develop their ideas. Today the university gives a venerable academic air to a modestly
sized city between Amsterdam and The Hague.
Leiden has a broad academic range, from archaeology and the arts to mathematics
and natural sciences. It added a new humanities department for the 2008/09 academic
year, bringing seven subjects such as history and philosophy under one roof. There is a
strong international focus with all research masters and PhD students obliged to take a
placement abroad. The nine faculties offer some 50 bachelors and 70 (mostly English)
masters degree programs while post-academic training is provided in education and
environmental science. A separate campus in The Hague specialises in post-academic
training in law and political science.
The university scores especially strongly on citations, reecting its strength in scientic
research, although it is also in the top 40 in the QS World University Rankings

for arts
and humanities. Leiden researchers have done well from the Smart Mix program, run by
the Dutch Ministries of Economic Affairs and Education, Culture and Science, recently
attracting 14 million for medical and biological research.
Leiden also has an impressive record in the Spinoza awards, the highest Dutch academic
award, with ten winners from elds as diverse as clinical epidemiology, educational
psychology, languages, linguistics, mathematics and physics. This builds on a tradition
that includes two Nobel Prizes in physics for Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Hendrik Antoon
Lorentz, and associations with gures such as Einstein, the sixth US President John Quincy
Adams, ethologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and physicist and mathematician Paul Ehrenfest.
More recently, Leiden has been the place of study for members of the Dutch royal family, as
well as former European Commissioner Frits Bolkestein and lm director Paul Verhoeven.
Manmeet Singh, an Indian student in the School of Management, came from New Delhi
to Leiden. He chose Leiden because of its international diversity. There are students from
Indonesia, China, India, Greece, Taiwan and America. Its like taking a world tour in the
eld of learning, sitting in one class in one year.
www.facebook.com/pages/Leiden-University/103754482996217
Arts & humanities ..............................................38=
Engineering & IT ..........................................301-350
Life sciences & biomedicine ..............................112=
Natural sciences ................................................64=
Social sciences ...................................................70=
Academic survey position .....................................72
Employer survey position ....................................223
Students ........................................................18,280
Student faculty ratio ..........................................16:1
International faculty ...................................... 23.4%
International students ..................................... 6.5%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 19,171
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........153,047
Impact (citations per paper).............................133.5
82 (60) Leiden University
Founded 1575 www.leiden.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
133
Utrecht University mixes ancient and modern, boasting a century long heritage plus
an ultra-modern campus with buildings by Rem Koolhaas. It can also claim to be the
largest Dutch university in terms of student numbers. The university has taken steps to
further improve the quality of its intake of bachelors students, including quotas and
selection processes. Once admitted, students can choose a minor subject from any of
the programs offered by the university, while honours programs cater to the needs of
outstanding students. International degrees are offered through University College
Utrecht, an international bachelors program in economics, and almost 90 international
masters programs. They are popular with students: the International Student Barometer
placed Utrecht in the top 10 of 59 universities around the world for student satisfaction.
Lecturers expertise and prociency in English scored particularly highly. Graduate
research programs are clustered in six schools, each covering related research masters
and PhDs, the aim being to stimulate interactions between the various research areas.
There are also prestige masters programs linked to research areas in which Utrecht holds
a world leading position. Students are closely involved in the international activities of
these research groups and spend part of their program abroad. Utrecht has signed an
agreement with the University of California to allow students to study in the US for a
period of six months. Research collaboration will also be enhanced.
Utrecht is one of the few Dutch universities that can claim a living Nobel laureate in the
form of Gerard t Hooft. He shared the 1999 physics Prize with Martinus Veltman (his
former supervisor at Utrecht, who later went to the University of Michigan) for their
work on the weak force. Professor t Hooft still works at Utrecht. Other Nobel laureates
are physicists Nicolaas Bloembergen, Peter Debye, Christiaan Eijkman, Willem Einthoven,
Wilhelm Rntgen and Martinus J G Veltman, Tjalling Charles Koopmans (mathematician,
physicist and economist) and Lavoslav Ruzicka for chemistry.
Ozan Aksoy, a Turkish student in the Graduate School of Social and Behavioural Sciences,
already has a masters degree from Utrecht University. I studied one of the Prestige
Masters: Sociology and Social Research, so I already knew Utrecht University and the
people in my department. I like the environment and approach of the faculty and I was also
very satised with the masters program. I made a deliberate choice to do my PhD here,
he said. Im in the Department of Sociology, but my project sounds more like economics
or mathematics. In fact, Im doing mathematical models in the social sciences using game
theory. The cross-disciplinary approach at Utrecht University is very helpful; there are
many psychologists working in the Department of Sociology. This is an advantage for my
project. www.facebook.com/pages/Utrecht-University/112241645456381
Arts & humanities .................................................70
Engineering & IT ................................................. 171
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................73
Natural sciences ...................................................48
Social sciences ....................................................103
Academic survey position .....................................74
Employer survey position ....................................190
Students ........................................................29,229
Student faculty ratio .........................................9.8:1
International faculty ...................................... 13.5%
International students ..................................... 5.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............26,760
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 181,978
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 61.2
83 (70=) University of Utrecht
Founded 1636 www.uu.nl
www.topuniversities.com
134
Aarhus University is among the younger universities in the QS World University Rankings

.
Having merged with several other educational institutions, it is today a comprehensive
university, with one of the largest medical schools in northern Europe, a business school
and strong educational and research environments in natural sciences, social sciences
and arts, all bringing new diversity to the university. The attractive main University
Park campus is located in the centre of Aarhus, where the wide variety of buildings, all
composed of the same yellow bricks and roong tiles, is listed among Denmarks ten most
important architectural icons. Aarhus has the largest proportion of residents aged 17 to
34 in Denmark. More than 50,000 people, or every sixth resident of Aarhus, are either
a student or an employee at the university or another higher education institution in
the city, with whom the university collaborates closely. Most departments, institutes and
other educational institutions are within walking distance of each other.
The university is a founding member of the Coimbra Group of elite European universities.
Its research covers the broadest range of elds of any Danish university. Three-quarters of
its resources are allocated, directly or indirectly, to research. Interdisciplinarity is one of the
hallmarks of Aarhus University, the iNANO-centre and Centre of Functionally Integrative
Neuroscience being prominent examples. Aarhus University accounts for almost a quarter
of the researchers employed at Danish universities and number of the countrys research
contributions. The university offers a broad range of degrees and a growing number of
full-time and part-time programs in English. The summer university, also taught in English,
is growing rapidly. Every year Aarhus University hosts more than 3000 international
students. The large International Centre helps with nding accommodation, practical
issues and hosts social events for international students.
Professor Jens Christian Skou was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1997. In 2010
Dale T Mortensen, a Niels Bohr professor in economics at Aarhus University, received the
Nobel Prize in economic sciences. Among well-known alumni are Queen Margrethe II of
Denmark, NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen, CEO of the Maersk Group,
Nils Smedegaard Andersen, and Bjrn Lomborg, the environmentalist.
Juanna Schrter Joensen, who took a PhD in economics, said: I was born and grew up
on the Faroe Islands, where you are more or less automatically drawn towards Denmark
when choosing further and higher education. Aarhus University appealed to me among
other things because of the high-quality education, the united campus and because the
city of Aarhus offers a broad range of sports clubs.
www.facebook.com/pages/Aarhus-University/104035819633435
Arts & humanities .............................................117=
Engineering & IT .............................................. 214=
Life sciences & biomedicine ................................ 116
Natural sciences ...................................................89
Social sciences ....................................................129
Academic survey position ................................... 111
Employer survey position ................................. 192=
Students ........................................................19,503
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 18.7%
International students ................................... 16.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............18,865
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 129,725
Impact (citations per paper)..................................36
84 (63=) University of Aarhus
Founded 1928 www.au.dk
Top 100 universities in the world
135
The University of Leeds has recorded a big rise up the latest QS World University Rankings

,
making signicant progress towards its goal of becoming one of the top 50 institutions
by 2015. It remains one of the most popular universities in the UK for both British and
international students. A member of the Russell Group of UK research universities, as well
as the Worldwide Universities Network, it has links with over 250 universities around the
world. Leeds is in the midst of a 194 million campus development plan to upgrade its
98-acre site, which is within walking distance of a city centre that is well equipped with
shopping opportunities and nightlife. The universitys buildings are a mixture of Victorian
and modern. Recent additions include a theatre, a student services centre and a striking
new building for health sciences, enterprise and innovation. The latest developments
include a swimming pool and tness centre, childcare centre and a new building for the
School of Earth and Environment.
Almost a quarter of the undergraduates now take dual honours or interdisciplinary
combinations including subjects such as nanotechnology, womens studies or
international studies. The university was chosen to house national centres of excellence
in interdisciplinary teaching and in assessment and learning in medical practice settings.
More than 60 per cent of the universitys submission for the UKs 2008 Research
Assessment Exercise was rated as world-leading or internationally excellent, with electrical
and electronic engineering producing the best results in the country. Sports and social
facilities are rst rate. The already large students union, famous for its long bar and big-
name rock concerts, has been extended to cope with the latest phase in the universitys
expansion.
Famous Leeds academics include JRR Tolkien, author of Lord of the Rings, who was a
professor of English, and Sir William Henry Bragg, who won the 1915 Nobel Prize for
physics. The many notable alumni include Wole Soyinka, who won the Nobel Prize for
literature in 1986, Jack Straw, the UK former Secretary of State for Justice, Paul Dacre,
editor of the Daily Mail newspaper, and Mark Knoper, the rock musician.
Charles-Martin Jjuuko, from Uganda, an MA student in communications studies, said the
best thing about Leeds is its multicultural nature. It has got people who have come from
all corners of the globe to live or study here. For the rst time in my life, I met someone
from Vietnam, a place that seemed too distant from my country, only previously seen in
movies. One of the classmates in my group is from Cardiff, the friend I watch football
with at the students union bar is from Liverpool, the workers at my takeaway are from
Afghanistan. It all provides for a proper learning environment.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Leeds
Arts & humanities .................................................49
Engineering & IT ................................................. 111
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 65=
Natural sciences .............................................. 145=
Social sciences ................................................. 159=
Academic survey position .....................................83
Employer survey position ......................................48
Students ........................................................ 27,738
Student faculty ratio .......................................10.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 24.4%
International students ................................... 23.1%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............15,344
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 81,763
Impact (citations per paper)...............................30.7
85 (99) University of Leeds
Founded 1831 www.leeds.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
136
Founded by Pope Martin V, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KULeuven) is the oldest
existing Catholic university in the world and the oldest university in the Benelux region. It
is also the largest of Belgiums Flemish universities with 14 faculties, ve hospitals, three
afliated hospitals and a campus at Kortrijk, in West Flanders, for undergraduates, most
of whom take the later years of a degree in Leuven. For much of its history the academic
discourse in French was at odds with the Dutch spoken in the town, but the university has
been bilingual since 1911. However, the language divide continued to produce tensions
and following student unrest in 1968 it was decided to split the university. The French
speakers set up a new campus, and a new town, at Louvain-la-Neuve, while the Dutch
speakers remained in Leuven. The university offers more than 60 international academic
programs, taught in English, aimed both at Belgian and international students. Most
are masters, although full bachelors degrees are also offered in English in theology and
philosophy. The international masters are closely linked to the leading research areas at
KULeuven, but span the whole range of disciplines, from theology and philosophy, to law
and economics, pharmaceutical science and bio-engineering. The university specialises in
guided independent learning, emphasising the close link between teaching and research,
and making students responsible for their own learning. KULeuven tempted back
Catherine Verfaillie, a pioneer of work with adult stem cells, from Minnesota, to lead a
new stem cell institute. The university also has an international reputation in cryptography
and was home to Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen, the two researchers who developed
the Rijndael advanced encryption standard adopted by the US government. It is a world
leader in Alzheimers research.
In the 2010 round of Flemish Nobels, awarded every ve years, KULeuven faculty won
three of the ve awards. They went to Peter Carmeliet, director of the Vesalius Research
Centre, for his work on blood vessels in the ght against cancer, Bart De Moor for research
in linear algebra, and Paul Rutgeerts for his work on the origins of intestinal disorders.
Alumni include Frank Vandenbroucke, the former education minister in Belgiums Flemish
government, humanist and theologian Desiderius Erasmus, Dr A Q Khan, the founder of
Pakistans nuclear program and cartographer Gerard Mercator.
According to Kassianidou Chrysoula, a Greek student who took the Masters of European
Politics and Policies (MEPP) program: Someone said you must learn not only to dream,
but also to follow your dreams and I believe the city of Leuven, the university and the
MEPP program could help you to realise the signicance of this quote. Indeed, it was one
of the best experiences I have ever had!
www.facebook.com/pages/Katholieke-Universiteit-Leuven
Arts & humanities ..............................................64=
Engineering & IT ................................................ 76=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................91
Natural sciences ...............................................112=
Social sciences ................................................... 74=
Academic survey position .....................................69
Employer survey position ....................................123
Students ........................................................33,393
Student faculty ratio .......................................16.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 16.3%
International students ................................... 14.7%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 22,560
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 130,514
Impact (citations per paper)...............................63.5
86 (65) Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Founded 1425 www.kuleuven.ac.be
Top 100 universities in the world
137
In late 2001, when other US universities were reining in spending and enrolments in
the slowdown that followed the terrorist attacks of that year, Purdue made a strategic
decision to do the opposite. The campus of the Midwestern school, about an hour from
Indianapolis and two hours from Chicago, so vast it has two golf courses and one of
Americas only university-owned airports, erupted in a urry of new construction. Purdue
went on a US$800 million building spree, adding, among other things, a bioscience centre
and a nanotechnology centre that was recognised as one of the nations best almost
as soon as it opened. A US$126 million interdisciplinary research area called Discovery
Park was established and Purdue hired 300 new faculty in ve years, many of whom
were women and from minorities. Although the university has since faced post-recession
budget cuts, the investment enabled faculty salaries to be raised, class sizes to be lowered
and the proportion of classes taught by faculty rather than by graduate teaching assistants
to be increased. It is now among the countrys top 20 public universities, according to US
News and World Report.
Purdues College of Technology is the largest producer of engineering technology
undergraduate degrees among US public institutions. Its divisions of industrial, nuclear,
aeronautical and astronautical engineering are particularly highly ranked. Its analytical
chemistry, hospitality and tourism, and undergraduate landscape and architecture design
programs are also at the top of their elds. Purdue is in the top ve US universities for
international student recruitment. In collaboration with Indianapolis universities, it is
creating the Indiana Consortium for Research in Energy Systems and Policy. Purdue was
the rst university in the US to establish a department of computer science in 1962. Under
its Engineering Projects in Community Service program, undergraduates use engineering
and technology to solve problems for community service and educational organisations,
while OWL (Purdue Online Writing Lab,) owl.english.purdue.edu answers grammar and
punctuation problems for more than 20 million users annually. Purdue is also a big name
in American football and other sports, as a member of the Big Ten Athletics Conference.
Purdue has turned out 22 American astronauts including Neil Armstrong, the rst man to
walk on the moon, and Gene Cernan, the last, more than any non-military US institution
apart from MIT. Others include Amelia Earhart, the aviator, George Peppard, the actor,
and Super Bowl-winning quarterbacks Bob Griese and Drew Brees.
Zhongyin John Daye, who is studying for a PhD in Statistics, was born in Xian, China but
grew up in California where he studied engineering and computer science. Whether one
hopes to pursue a career in academia or industry, Purdue offers an invaluable opportunity
to learn about research and to build lasting relationships with both faculty and students,
he said. www.facebook.com/PurdueUniversity
Arts & humanities ........................................301-350
Engineering & IT ...................................................28
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................86=
Natural sciences ................................................. 118
Social sciences ................................................. 170=
Academic survey position .....................................87
Employer survey position ................................... 41=
Students ........................................................37,986
Student faculty ratio .......................................13.2:1
International faculty ...................................... 36.5%
International students ................................... 14.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............25,972
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........120,403
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 41.9
87 (87=) Purdue University
Founded 1869 www.purdue.edu
www.topuniversities.com
138
Having established a worldwide reputation as a relatively small university, focused on a
limited range of subjects, York has begun to grow by almost 50 per cent, adding a second
campus and moving into new academic areas. The new site is adjacent to the original
campus on the outskirts of the ancient city of York and took its rst students in 2009,
with a new college providing accommodation for 617 students and ve staff. Law, theatre,
television and lm studies were the rst subjects to be added, and the additional space
will be used for research, teaching, student colleges, sport, cultural facilities and spin-out
companies. Nursing and midwifery courses arrived with the takeover of a nearby college
of health studies, and medicine has been offered since 2003 in a joint initiative with Hull
University. Although less than 50 years old, the university is a regular xture near the
top of domestic UK league tables. It appeared in the top 100 of the QS World University
Rankings

for the rst time in 2008, thanks partly to strong support from employers.
York also did well in the latest UK Research Assessment Exercise, with English, sociology
and health services research all producing the best results in the country. The university
has been among the top performers in the UKs annual National Student Survey, perhaps
due in part to every student having a supervisor responsible for his or her academic and
personal welfare.
Students join one of eight colleges which mix academic and social roles. Most departments
have their headquarters in one of the colleges, but the student community is a deliberate
mix of disciplines, years and sexes. International students are guaranteed residential
accommodation and most choose to live on campus. Nursing apart, only archaeology and
medieval studies are located off campus, sharing a medieval building in the city centre.
Alumni include Anibal Cavaco Silva, the president and former prime minister of Portugal,
Greg Dyke, former director general of the BBC, and the universitys Chancellor and Rt
Hon Harriet Harman QC MP, deputy leader of the UK Labour Party and former Lord Privy
Seal of the British Parliament. The writer and critic Hermione Lee taught English at York
for more than 20 years and Marxist intellectual Alex Callinicos was Professor of politics.
Lisa Jing Yao, a chemistry postgraduate from the Chinese city of Nanjing, said she has met
many good people she can trust and rely on during her time at the University of York.
They kindly offer a helping hand whenever and wherever I need it, make me feel at home
and never left alone. Besides the academic excellence, wonderful views, and wide range
of student activities, it is the people here that make the University of York so special.
www.facebook.com/universityofyork
Arts & humanities .................................................75
Engineering & IT .............................................. 218=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 139=
Natural sciences ..............................................209=
Social sciences .................................................... 124
Academic survey position ................................... 124
Employer survey position ......................................66
Students ........................................................ 10,913
Student faculty ratio........................................8.6:1
International faculty ...................................... 26.0%
International students ................................... 20.4%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ................. 8,867
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 49,915
Impact (citations per paper)...............................39.4
88 (70=) University of York
Founded 1963 www.york.ac.uk
Top 100 universities in the world
139
The University of Western Australia (UWA) is the oldest and richest university in the giant
state where it is based. It has a beautiful campus, adjacent to Perths most afuent suburbs,
a mere ve kilometres from the city centre. Because of its age, status and reputation, it
attracts the highest proportion of students from Australias top private schools and enrols
more than eight in ten of the states top school-leavers. A member of Australias Group
of Eight research-intensive universities, UWA focuses on research into the exploration,
production and development of minerals, oil and gas; the management of agricultural
and natural ecosystems; the humanities and social sciences; health and bio-medicine, as
well as international management and business studies. It is ranked second in Australia
for the quality of its undergraduate programs and its research. In 2008 the university
opened a new Centre for Integrated Human Studies, set up to tackle issues as diverse
as obesity, the well-being of migrants, the health benets of romance and the health
of mining communities. In 2009, a AU$50 million business school and AU$100 million
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research followed, the latter in partnership
with Curtin University of Technology. There are strategic partnerships with Australian
industry, professions and government, and numerous links with international universities
and research organisations. Because Perth is close to many southeast Asian cities, having
links with Malaysia and Singapore, many Asian students nd it nearer and cheaper to
go to UWA than to travel another 3,000 kilometres to the other side of Australia. Most
international undergraduates are from Singapore, Malaysia or Indonesia, and the business
school delivers programs in Singapore, Manila, Hong Kong and Shanghai. Colleges
adjacent to the campus provide accommodation for approximately 700 students.
Apart from Nobel laureates Professor Barry Marshall and Dr Robin Warren who won
the 2005 prize for medicine, other notable UWA graduates include the former Australian
Prime Minister Bob Hawke and former opposition leader Kim Beasley, as well as
former WA Premiers, the majority of the most recent Australian Ambassadors to China
and international political leaders, including senior ministers in the Indonesian and
Singaporean governments.
Elena Mamouni, who took her rst degree at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
in Greece, chose UWAs School of Environmental Systems Engineering for her PhD in
Sustainability Assessment Frameworks. She said the UWA campus is fantastic and
the level of education provided is of the highest standard. The environment is highly
multicultural and within a short period of time I felt completely adjusted. The Universitys
International Centre, and in my case also the Graduate Research School, contributed to a
smooth transition in my studies and a continuous protection of my needs and interests.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Western-Australia
Arts & humanities ............................................ 154=
Engineering & IT ..............................................108=
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 62=
Natural sciences .............................................. 151=
Social sciences ................................................. 163=
Academic survey position ...................................104
Employer survey position .................................... 118
Students ........................................................16,792
Student faculty ratio .......................................12.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 47.9%
International students ................................... 22.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............13,298
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 68,492
Impact (citations per paper)...............................50.4
89 (84) University of Western Australia
Founded 1911 www.uwa.edu.au
www.topuniversities.com
140
Dartmouths reputation remains high, despite slipping down the QS World University
Rankings

in the last two years. It has one of the top scores for citations and US News and
World Report rates it the top American university for undergraduate teaching. Located
on the Connecticut River and surrounded by the White Mountains, Dartmouth looks
like a Hollywood vision of the quintessential New England university. But its size, the
smallest in the Ivy League, and picture-postcard campus shouldnt be mistaken for merely
being quaint. Admission is among Americas most competitive, with barely 15 per cent
of applicants accepted. They can choose from some 1,600 courses in 29 departments
and ten inter-disciplinary programs. Student study follows an unusual academic calendar
divided into quarters with three vacation, or leave, terms and up to three terms of off-
campus study during the typical undergraduate degree course. Sophomores spend a
summer term at Dartmouth, but nearly 60 per cent of students have a period of study
abroad and more than 40 per cent are involved in research conducted in world-class
laboratories that are beneting from a fundraising campaign which has already passed
the US$1 billion mark. Among other beneciaries will be the three professional schools
of business, engineering and medicine, and there are plans for a new undergraduate
college, although the recession has forced the administration to seek budget cuts of
100 million over two years. The medical school is the fourth oldest and the engineering
school the oldest in America, while the graduate school of management was the rst
in the world. To unwind, students at scenic Dartmouth famously party, in spite of the
universitys best efforts to curb social excess. Its Alpha Delta Phi fraternity was a model
for the movie Animal House, and in a prank that became a cult favourite on YouTube,
prospective students and their parents on a campus tour are interrupted by a bell that
triggers drinking time.
Notable alumni include senator and statesman Daniel Webster, poet Robert Frost and
former Surgeon General C Everett Koop. In all, more than 160 Dartmouth graduates have
served in the US Congress and two on the Supreme Court. Alumni also serve, or have
served, as the founders or heads of IBM, eBay, General Electric, NBC Television, Goldman
Sachs and the San Diego Padres baseball team.
Amma Serwaah-Panin, an economics undergraduate from Ghana who attended an
international high school in Swaziland, said: Ive really loved my time at Dartmouth.
Im so grateful for all the support Ive found and the opportunities to explore social
issues further and see how I can be most useful in addressing them. I denitely feel
like Im prepared to go out into the world and effect positive, meaningful change.
www.facebook.com/pages/Dartmouth-College/108070979213771
Arts & humanities ............................................188=
Engineering & IT ..............................................289=
Life sciences & biomedicine ........................ 351-400
Natural sciences ......................................... 351-400
Social sciences ................................................. 147=
Academic survey position ...................................231
Employer survey position ......................................75
Students ..........................................................5,655
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.5:1
International faculty ........................................ 4.0%
International students ................................... 12.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 11,055
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............ 89,068
Impact (citations per paper)................................103
90 (85) Dartmouth College
Founded 1769 www.dartmouth.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
141
Nagoya University has consolidated its position in the top 100 of the QS World University
Rankings

, having made its debut last year, and is well-established on the Japanese higher
education scene. It was founded as a temporary hospital and medical school, but in 1939
became the last of the seven imperial universities. Its relatively late establishment had
the effect of drawing a large number of outstanding young scientists, particularly in
physics and chemistry. Unlike some Japanese universities, it still encourages students to
challenge existing knowledge and to interact openly with their professors. Today, Nagoya
has 13 graduate schools, nine undergraduate schools, three research institutes and 18
research centres. Flagship departments are in the basic natural and physical sciences,
agricultural science, engineering, and medicine. The university also boasts strong
social science faculties, notably in law, economics, the humanities and international
development. As one of the 13 universities selected for the governments Global 30
program to internationalise their provision, Nagoya has been adding courses in English
and also revamping its teaching of Japanese for overseas students. International students
will be offered cultural and functional courses to help them assimilate into Japanese
society, while Japanese language courses will become appropriate to business and other
employment elds, rather than simply conversational.
Nagoya has academic exchange agreements with 270 universities and research institutes
in 45 countries and regions around the world. Many Nagoya students take advantage
of these international exchange programs, while incoming students receive intensive
Japanese language education and participate in both academic and cultural activities.
Nagoya is Japans fourth largest city, has an international airport, as well as a lively
cultural scene, good shops, restaurants and leisure facilities. The university is the premier
academic institution in the Chubu region, which is the manufacturing base for industrial
giants such as Toyota and Mitsubishi. It plays a leading role in technological innovation, as
well as supplying graduates with relevant skills for Japanese industry.
Four of Japans seven Nobel Prize winners during the 21st Century are graduates or
professors of Nagoya University, the most at any of the countrys universities. Ryoji Noyori
in 2001 and Osamu Shimomura in 2008 each won a Nobel Prize in chemistry, while
Toshihide Maskawa and Makoto Kobayashi shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 2008.
Frenchman Thomas Laurent, a student of nutritional biochemistry, said: Nagoya
University has a huge campus with modern facilities, cafeterias and shops. And it offers
students the opportunity to use highly technical instruments and equipment that are
needed to conduct successful research projects. There are a variety of Facebook pages
involving the university, but currently all are very small.
www.facebook.com/pages/Nagoya-University/111878445495188
Arts & humanities ............................................188=
Engineering & IT .............................................. 101=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..............................112=
Natural sciences .............................................. 125=
Social sciences .................................................... 214
Academic survey position ...................................123
Employer survey position ................................. 126=
Students ........................................................15,854
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.6:1
International faculty ........................................ 6.8%
International students ..................................... 7.9%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 23,900
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 111,966
Impact (citations per paper)...............................46.7
91 (92=) Nagoya University
Founded 1871 www.nagoya-u.ac.jp
www.topuniversities.com
142
Surprisingly for a university that invariably features among the top 10 in the UK, this is
Durhams rst appearance in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings

since
2005. But an 11-place rise, aided by particularly strong support from employers, suggests
that it may be back to stay. With a picturesque and historic setting and a collegiate
structure, it is inevitable that the university is seen as the North of Englands answer to
Oxford and Cambridge. Students apply to one of 16 colleges, which vary in size from 300
to 1,100 places and are the focal point of social life, although all teaching is carried out
in central departments. The others range from the historic University College, in Durham
Castle, to modern buildings on the outskirts of the city and on the Queens Campus, 23
miles away in Stockton-on-Tees.
The university dominates the small historic city of Durham, which is only fteen minutes
by train from Newcastle upon Tyne. A new Learning Centre incorporates lecture theatres,
seminar and conference facilities. A landmark Gateway development due to open in 2012
will contain a new law school, extension to the university library and new student services
centre. Sports facilities are excellent, and Durham is among the premier universities in
national competitions. Even at undergraduate level, most teaching takes place in small
groups and most assessment is by written examination. However, the establishment of
Queens Campus in industrial Stockton-on-Tees broke the traditional mould. Stockton is
now home to a wide range of courses including applied psychology, business and business
nance, anthropology and primary education. The campus has also seen the fullment
of Durhams long-held ambition to restore the medical education it lost when Newcastle
University became independent in 1963. Medical students take the rst two years of their
training at Stockton before transferring to Newcastle to complete their degree. More than
60 per cent of Durhams entry for the UKs most recent Research Assessment Exercise
was rated world-leading or internationally excellent. Applied maths, archaeology and
theology and religion achieved among the best results in the country, while music, English
and geography and environmental science also did well.
Famous alumni include the conductor Sir Malcolm Sargent, General Sir Richard Dannatt,
former head of the British Army, the current and former England cricket captains Andrew
Strauss and Nasser Hussain, and a remarkable three James Bond actors: Sean Connery,
George Lazenby and Roger Moore.
Charles Robin, of Hateld College, says: You meet so many people from day one in
college and theres a great community feel; its like a big family. One of my highlights has
been getting involved in loads of things I hadnt done before. Anyone at university can
come away with a good degree, but few can leave with the life skills and experience that
a college gives you. www.facebook.com/pages/Durham-University/109600695725424
92 (103) Durham University
Founded 1832 www.dur.ac.uk
Arts & humanities ..............................................78=
Engineering & IT ..................................................... -
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 147=
Natural sciences ................................................95=
Social sciences ................................................. 114=
Academic survey position ...................................122
Employer survey position ......................................24
Students ........................................................14,422
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 10.7:1
International faculty .......................................33.1%
International students ....................................17.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ................. 8,156
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............55,259
Impact (citations per paper)............................... 41.1
Top 100 universities in the world
143
Russias oldest state university, Moscow State University was founded by Mikhail
Lomonosov, a native of St Petersburg who, as a young man in pursuit of education, set
out on foot for Moscow. His passion for obtaining the best education then available took
him to the University of Marburg, in Hesse, Germany, then one of Europes top colleges,
before he returned to Russia to teach in St Petersburg, eventually founding Moscow
University on Tatianas Day, January 12 (now January 25), which to this day is celebrated
across Russia as a holiday for students.
Although commonly known the world over by its Soviet-era name, Moscow State
University (or MGU in its Russian initials), is now Lomonosov Moscow State University.
As Russias leading university, it has an international reputation for scientic research,
particularly in physics, counting a number of Nobel laureates in the subject among
its graduates and professors. It is also noted for its excellence in mechanics, nuclear
physics, lasers, astronomy, molecular biology, biorganic chemistry, anthropology,
materials science, ecology and the humanities. The university houses Russias most
powerful supercomputer.
Lomonosov occupies a green and leafy campus covering 205 hectares, with commanding
views of Moscow from the Sparrow Hills, south-west of the city centre. The main building,
an imposing Soviet-style monolith, was one of Stalins seven towers. It is said to contain
5,000 rooms and to be the tallest educational building in the world. Some faculty
buildings are in central Moscow and there are overseas campuses in Ukraine, Kazakhstan
and Uzbekistan. In Moscow, students from 80 different countries take a wide range of
undergraduate and postgraduate courses, mostly taught in Russian. All courses in the 27
faculties are open to foreign students, subject to their prociency in Russian. The Centre
for International Education runs Russian language courses for foreign students before
they enter the main faculties.
The eight Nobel laureates include Aleksandr Prokhorov, who won the 1964 Prize for
physics for his work in quantum electronics, just two years after Lev Landau, a professor
of theoretical physics, was recognised for his pioneering theories on condensed matter,
particularly liquid helium. In 1958, Igor Tamm was one of a group of three Russian
physicists awarded the Nobel Prize for their discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov
effect. Tamm, who graduated from MSU in 1918 and taught there 1924-37, went on to
head a department in the Lebedev Institute of Physics, founded by another famous MSU
graduate, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev. Other notable alumni include the former Soviet
leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Anton Chekhov, abstract painter Wassily Kandinsky and Andrei
Sakharov, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975.
www.facebook.com/pages/Lomonosov-Moscow-State-University/108582159167131
93 (101) Lomonosov Moscow State University
Founded 1755 www.msu.ru
Arts & humanities .................................................98
Engineering & IT ................................................96=
Life sciences & biomedicine ...............................98=
Natural sciences ...................................................29
Social sciences ................................................. 161=
Academic survey position .....................................70
Employer survey position ......................................67
Students ....................................................... 34,963
Student faculty ratio ......................................... 3.7:1
International faculty ........................................ 3.6%
International students ....................................11.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............19,294
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............41,005
Impact (citations per paper).................................4.3
www.topuniversities.com
144
National Taiwan University (NTU) is another institution to consolidate its position in
the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings

after entering for the rst time last


year. NTU was founded by the Japanese as Taihoku (Taipei) Imperial University with two
elements: the College of Liberal Arts and Law, and the College of Science and Agriculture,
which had a combined total of 60 students. The College of Medicine and the College
of Engineering were added in 1936 and 1943 respectively. There are now separate
colleges of science, agriculture and forestry, medicine, and a graduate institute of tropical
medicine. After World War II and Taiwans return to Chinese sovereignty, the Republic of
China (ROC) government resumed the administration of the university, which by then had
about 500 students, reorganising and renaming it National Taiwan University. It now has
11 colleges, 54 departments, 96 graduate institutes (which offer 96 masters programs
and 83 doctoral programs), as well as research centres: the Division of Population and
Gender Studies, the Centre for Condensed Matter Sciences, the Centre for Biotechnology,
Japanese Research Centre, and the Biodiversity Centre. A new library was built in 1998
and contains over 3,000,000 volumes.
Based in Taipei with a farm, botanical garden and experimental forest outside the city,
the university is by far the biggest in Taiwan and the best-resourced, spending more
per student than all but one of its peers. The university has six campuses in Taiwan,
occupying a total of almost 350,000,000 square meters. Known colloquially as Taida,
NTU has grown from a mere 1,400 students in 1947 to more than 30,000 today and
has almost doubled in size over the last 20 years. Growth has been particularly strong
in postgraduate programs, which now account for almost half the student population.
The Global MBA program (GMBA) is conducted entirely in English and recruits nearly half
of its students from outside Taiwan. In other areas, the numbers of international students
remain relatively modest, but this should not be mistaken for isolationism. There were 290
partnerships with other universities in 2008. Most undergraduates take a mandatory core
curriculum comprising Chinese, English, physical education and public service. In addition,
the medical school requires each of its students to take philosophy and sociology classes as
well as seminars in ethics and thanatology. Traditionally, medicine, electrical engineering
and law are the three most selective majors. Most majors take four years to complete
while the medical degree takes seven.
Many inuential people in Taiwanese society received their education at NTU, including
government ofcials in both main political groupings. The university has also produced
one Nobel laureate, Lee Yuan-tseh, who won the chemistry Prize in 1986. He was
the rst Taiwanese to receive the Nobel Prize.
www.facebook.com/pages/National-Taiwan-University
Arts & humanities ..............................................58=
Engineering & IT ...................................................41
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................43
Natural sciences ................................................50=
Social sciences ................................................... 72=
Academic survey position .....................................46
Employer survey position .................................... 115
Students ........................................................33,254
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 13.1:1
International faculty ........................................ 6.7%
International students ..................................... 5.3%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .............. 36,496
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........140,543
Impact (citations per paper)...............................55.4
94 (95=) National Taiwan University (NTU)
Founded 1928 www.ntu.edu.tw
Top 100 universities in the world
145
St Andrews is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in Britain. Its ancient
customs and enduring academic reputation have made it a favourite not just for Scottish
students, but for English and those from much farther aeld, notably the US. The large
international intake gives a cosmopolitan feel to this small, coastal community. The
windswept scenery is stunning and academic standards high. The town of St Andrews,
with 18,000 inhabitants, is steeped in history and is the centre of the golng world.
Despite being apparently isolated, airport and rail links make St Andrews within easy
reach of the city of Dundee. Although small, St Andrews offers a wide range of courses.
The universitys reputation has always rested primarily on the humanities, but a full range
of physical sciences is taught, with sophisticated lasers and the largest optical telescope
in Britain. A 45 million medical sciences building opened in 2010, bringing together
medics, biologists, physicists and chemists to form one of the UKs fully-integrated
medical schools and science facilities.
Many of the main university buildings date from the 15th and 16th Centuries, and although
sciences are taught nearby at the modern North Haugh site, everything is within walking
distance. The universitys popularity soared while Prince William studied there, but its
attractiveness has outlived the royal connection and the university is trading instead on
good ratings, particularly from its own students: St Andrews has been among the UKs
best-liked universities in the annual National Student Survey. New students (known as
bejants and bejantines) are given third and fourth-year parents to ease them into
university life, and on Raisin Monday give their academic guardians a bottle of wine in
return for a receipt in Latin, which can be written on anything. All international students
are guaranteed a place in university-owned residences, which accommodate more than
half of all students.
As well as Prince William and his ance, Kate Middleton, the universitys royal alumni
include King James II of Scotland. More academic connections include Nobel Prize winners
James Black and Alan McDiarmid, as well as John Napier, the inventor of logarithms.
Political luminaries include Alex Salmond, First Minister of Scotland and leader of the
Scottish National Party.
Naomi McLeod, an American student in the nal year of a PhD in Spanish, said: In
addition to my academic expectations being surpassed from the outset, it has most
certainly been the sense of community that separates the St Andrews experience from
any other Ive been involved in. I am condent that both the professional and personal
relationships formed over the past few years will reach far into the future and the shared
collective experience is one that will not easily be forgotten.
www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-St-Andrews/109059935780205
Arts & humanities .................................................55
Engineering & IT ..........................................301-350
Life sciences & biomedicine .............................300=
Natural sciences .............................................. 182=
Social sciences .................................................188=
Academic survey position ...................................144
Employer survey position ......................................77
Students .......................................................... 7,970
Student faculty ratio .........................................8.9:1
International faculty ...................................... 35.6%
International students ................................... 38.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers .................5,859
Research strength (Scopus) citations .............34,531
Impact (citations per paper)...............................38.6
95 (87=) University of St Andrews
Founded 1413 www.st-andrews.ac.uk
www.topuniversities.com
146
The University of Minnesota is back in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings


after a surprise absence in 2009. In the longer term, it aspires to be nothing short of one
of the three best public research universities in the world. Minnesota has seen nearly
double-digit percentage growth annually, rising to eighth among US public universities
with US$741 million a year in sponsored research. The university anticipated erosion in
funding as early as 2005 and embarked on an ambitious, if controversial, restructuring.
The university merged several colleges, streamlining departments, but also added a writing
requirement and an honours program for undergraduates, expanded undergraduate
research, began a training program for new faculty, and channelled funding towards
biomedical sciences, clinical research, science and engineering. These are areas in which
the university is already strong. The US National Research Council rates many of its
programs in the top 20, nationally.
With its own nine square mile conservation reserve, the University of Minnesota has
also positioned itself as a top school for the study of ecology and evolution. Its Cedar
Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve, a half-hour drive from the main campus, is the meeting
point of North Americas western prairies, northern evergreen forests, and eastern leafy
forests, and where the modern science of ecosystem ecology was conceived. Its Saint
Anthony Falls Laboratory on the Mississippi is the worlds only uid-mechanics laboratory
that uses a natural waterfall as its prime water source. The universitys main campus is
decidedly urban, making it one of only a handful of US public universities located in a
major city, or, in this case, two cities: friendly, and, in the winter, freezing Minneapolis and
St. Paul. With architecture that ranges from Norman and Romanesque to contemporary
(the art museum was designed by Frank Gehry), the campus anks the Mississippi, its two
halves connected by a bridge, an enclosed walkway, and shuttle buses, and its buildings
linked by skywalks and tunnels so its students (it boasts the fourth-largest enrolment in
America) can stay out of the cold. Minnesota is also prominent in university athletics,
particularly dominant in men and womens ice hockey. It is building a new US$300
million, 50,300-seat American football stadium.
Nineteen past and present faculty or alumni have won Nobel Prizes, including the
economist Milton Friedman and Ernest O Lawrence, creator of the cyclotron. Other
prominent alumni include supercomputer architect Seymour Cray.
Tryggvi Thayer, a doctoral student from Iceland in the College of Education and Human
Development, considers the universitys large size an asset. Its very interdisciplinary, he
says. We have access to, and are expected to take, courses from other departments. The
breadth of expertise and types of courses that are offered here has a really positive impact
on the quality of the education. www.facebook.com/UofMN
Arts & humanities ...............................................120
Engineering & IT ...................................................80
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................96
Natural sciences .............................................. 120=
Social sciences ......................................................50
Academic survey position .....................................79
Employer survey position .................................230=
Students ........................................................48,035
Student faculty ratio .......................................18.4:1
International faculty ........................................ 4.2%
International students ..................................... 7.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............41,440
Research strength (Scopus) citations .......... 289,688
Impact (citations per paper)............................. 111.2
96 (105) University of Minnesota
Founded 1851 www.umn.edu
Top 100 universities in the world
147
A mammoth 25-place rise has propelled the University of Freiburg into the top 100 of
the QS World University Rankings

for the rst time. The university was founded by the


Habsburg dynasty as the second university in the empire after the University of Vienna.
It is the fth-oldest university in Germany, with a long and distinguished tradition of
teaching the humanities, social sciences and natural sciences. There are 11 faculties and
students from across Germany as well as from over 120 other countries. The university,
which doubled in size in the second half of the 20th century, is a member of the League of
European Research Universities. Within Germany, only the Technical University of Munich
nished ahead of Freiburg in the European Commissions ranking of leading European
research universities scientic impact. Freiburg was joint sixth overall.
The university received funding in all three categories of the German Universities Excellence
Initiative, designed to help the countrys top universities compete internationally. The
Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine, and the Centre for Biological
Signalling Studies were the main beneciaries, while the university also established the
Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies with funding for Windows for Research, which
aims to promote a high level of interdisciplinarity between research elds and attract
scientists from all over the world. Freiburg will receive over 130 million in additional
funds over ve years from 2007 as one of nine German universities qualifying for all three
funding streams. The university has since been successful in a nationwide competition for
excellence in teaching, held by the Stifterverband fr die Deutsche Wissenschaft.
There are three large campuses: the university centre next to the historic city centre,
the institutes quarter and the applied sciences campus, with other buildings scattered
throughout Freiburg. The university complex contains a mixture of picturesque buildings
and more modern structures such as the University Library, built in the 1970s and in the
process of renovation.
The University of Freiburg has hosted some of the greatest minds of the Western tradition,
including such eminent gures as Johann Eck, Max Weber, Friedrich Meinecke, Martin
Heidegger, Hannah Arendt, and Friedrich Hayek. West German Chancellor Konrad
Adenauer, philosopher Herbert Marcuse and biochemist Hans Krebs were more recent
alumni. A total of 19 Nobel laureates are afliated with the University.
Chun-Yi Chan, from China, who studies Romance Studies, Spanish, English Language and
Economics, said: After being at the Uni Freiburg my life has changed completely. Not
only my academic ability, but also my personal development have both reached a level
that I could never have imagined. The university has provided me with so many resources
to pursue my goals and dreams.www.facebook.com/pages/University-of-Freiburg
Arts & humanities .................................................47
Engineering & IT ..........................................301-350
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................. 110=
Natural sciences .............................................. 129=
Social sciences ................................................. 135=
Academic survey position .....................................97
Employer survey position ................................. 301+
Students ........................................................19,536
Student faculty ratio .........................................5.7:1
International faculty ...................................... 14.9%
International students ................................... 16.6%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............16,520
Research strength (Scopus) citations ...........105,760
Impact (citations per paper)...............................30.9
97 (122) Universitt Freiburg
Founded 1457 www.uni-freiburg.de
www.topuniversities.com
148
Pennsylvania State University, universally known as Penn State, is back in the top 100
of the QS World University Rankings

for the rst time since 2007 after a rise of more


than 20 places. The university, founded as an agricultural school and once known largely
for the success of its American football team, now attracts more than US$700 million a
year in research funding and is one of the top-ranked public universities. The athletics
program is still among the most successful in the US, but it is also second in the nation
for the amount of research underwritten by industry, as opposed to the government. The
university is a leader in renewable energy and energy science; indeed, part of the Penn
State eet is fueled by hydrogen power from what was the rst hydrogen refueling station
on the East Coast. It has a top-rated materials science program and is home to the Center
for the Study of College Student Mental Health. The ve-story Penn State Cancer Institute
provides cancer diagnosis and care, but also undertakes research.
Penn States business and engineering schools are particularly highly rated in supply chain
management and logistics, and industrial and manufacturing engineering. One in 50
professionally licensed engineers in the United States, and one in four meteorologists,
is a Penn State grad. The Design Futures Council rates its architecture program highly,
and it is also well regarded in landscape architecture and nuclear engineering, and for
its doctoral programmes in geology, hydrology, and geochemistry. The Applied Research
Lab, a partner with the US Defense Department, has 1,000 researchers and support staff
that conducts work largely for the US Navy.
There are more than 20 campuses across Pennsylvania, making the university one of the
biggest in the US. University Park, the largest and most prestigious campus, was chosen to
be at the centre of the state. Class sizes are generally on the larger side: nearly 40 per cent
of courses have 30 or more students in them. But there is also an Honors College with
smaller classes and extracurricular activities tailored to the most academically talented
students. Applicants often choose the Honors College over admission to Ivy League
schools, lured in part by guaranteed scholarships for everyone who enrols.
Faculty have included authors John Barth and Joseph Heller, and philosopher Ivan Illich.
Alumni include Nobel chemistry laureate Paul Berg, KPMG Chairman emeritus and former
CEO Eugene OKelly, NASA space ight director Heather Rarick, and William Schreyer,
Chairman emeritus and former CEO of Merrill Lynch.
Louise Bennicoff Johnson says on the universitys lively Facebook pages: I graduated in
1979, over thirty years ago. Have the time of your life at PSU, the best is yet to come.
www.facebook.com/pages/Pennsylvania-State-University
98 (120=) Pennsylvania State University
Founded 1855 www.psu.edu
Arts & humanities ...............................................198
Engineering & IT ................................................86=
Life sciences & biomedicine .............................189=
Natural sciences ................................................78=
Social sciences ......................................................86
Academic survey position .....................................96
Employer survey position ....................................103
Students ....................................................... 42,844
Student faculty ratio ....................................... 12.7:1
International faculty ........................................ 9.0%
International students ..................................... 9.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............35,870
Research strength (Scopus) citations ........... 217,328
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 64.2
Top 100 universities in the world
149
Appropriately for a university in one of the worlds largest sea ports, Rotterdams university
has its roots in commerce. Initially, the citys leading merchants founded the Netherlands
School of Commerce to train academics who could contribute to Rotterdams economic
development. Later known as the Netherlands School of Economics, it merged in 1973
with the citys teaching hospital to form Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR). Later years
have seen the development of law, culture and society as complementary areas of study.
Economics and management remain among EURs strongest areas, both as academic
disciplines and through the post-experience masters programs that the university has
developed with industry, professional bodies and government. Around 4,000 students,
most of them graduates with several years of working experience, participate in these
programs each year. In addition to the inevitable MBA, these include subjects such as
global transport and logistics, maritime management and housing and urban studies. The
university is also strong in development studies, with the International Institute of Social
Studies in the Hague part of EUR since 2009. The universitys other strength is in medicine
and health. Its medical faculty merged with the University Hospital Rotterdam in 2002 to
form the Erasmus Medical Centre. With 47 research departments, it is particularly strong
in cardiovascular diseases, cell biology and genetics, and molecular medicine. Its virology
department, led by celebrated virus hunter Albert Osterhaus, acts as a World Health
Organization reference laboratory for inuenza and exotic viruses such as Ebola and Lassa.
About 60 per cent of the students come from the Rotterdam area, but there is a growing
cohort from overseas. International students are offered courses taught in English, from
business economics, business administration and communication at undergraduate level
to 25 masters programs. The Woudestein campus is being developed with international
students in mind, offering residential accommodation as well as learning spaces to aid
assimilation into Dutch society.
Erasmus Universitys most famous academic was Jan Tinbergen, the rst Nobel laureate in
economics, who helped establish the econometrics institute that bears his name in 1956.
Famous alumni include Ruud Lubbers, the former Prime Minister of the Netherlands, the
European Commissioner Neelie Kroes and Meles Zenawi, the Ethiopian Prime Minister.
Iwona Tekielak, a Polish student who took her rst degree at the Academy of Economics in
Katowice, said: The outstanding facilities at Erasmus University Rotterdam attract many
foreign students. This creates great opportunities to meet people from all over the world
and to better understand cultural differences. It is not always easy to leave everything
behind in order to move to another country for study purposes. However, the last few
months have been such an experience, that I would denitely advise everyone to study at
Erasmus. www.facebook.com/pages/Erasmus-University-Rotterdam/112945975385816
Arts & humanities ................................................... -
Engineering & IT ..........................................301-350
Life sciences & biomedicine ............................... 93=
Natural sciences ..................................................... -
Social sciences ......................................................57
Academic survey position ...................................188
Employer survey position ................................... 41=
Students ........................................................23,859
Student faculty ratio .......................................10.2:1
International faculty .......................................11.5%
International students ................................... 18.8%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ...............25,058
Research strength (Scopus) citations .......... 206,639
Impact (citations per paper).............................. 88.4
99 (108=) Erasmus University Rotterdam
Founded 1913 www.eur.nl
www.topuniversities.com
150
The University of Oslo is Norways rst entrant to the top 100 of the QS World University
Rankings

. The largest and most prestigious university in Norway, it was modelled on


the then recently-established University of Berlin and founded as the Royal Frederick
University, only taking its current name in 1939. Just the Faculty of Law remains on the
original site, near the Norwegian parliament in central Oslo. Most other departments are in
more modern buildings on the main campus at Blindern, a few minutes out of the centre.
Oslo Universitys strategic plan for 2010-2020 prioritises international collaboration, with
a particular emphasis on universities in the southern hemisphere. Oslo has recently been
making strenuous efforts to internationalise, although it acknowledges that Norway is an
expensive country in which to live. Although there are no tuition fees even for international
students as yet, the university advises prospective students to budget for the equivalent
of nearly 1,000 a month for basic expenses. Students from EU countries may have part-
time jobs for up to 20 hours a week if they register with the police. More than 40 masters
programs are available in English, across the universitys curriculum and even extending to
Tibetan studies, Sanskrit and Nordic Viking. International applicants are also encouraged
to apply for some bachelors programs, but the teaching is in Norwegian and there is a
mandatory, year-long course in the language before entry. The university also has bilateral
agreements with more than 150 universities around the world, many including student
exchanges. Eight centres of excellence are supported by the Research Council of Norway:
molecular biology and neuroscience, the physics of geological processes, mathematics
for applications, cancer biomedicine, theoretical and computational chemistry, immune
regulation, ecological and evolutionary synthesis, and the study of the mind in nature.
Five researchers have become Nobel laureates, the most recent in 1989, when Trygve
Haavelmo won the Prize for economics. The university took two Nobels in 1969: Ragnar
Frisch for economics and Odd Hassel for chemistry, while Ivar Giaevers success in physics
in 1973 completes the post-War list. Among the other distinguished alumni are Jens
Stoltenberg, the Prime Minister of Norway, and Gro Harlem Brundtland, who held the
post three times before becoming Director General of the World Health Organization.
Lin Chen, a Chinese student, said: I love that students have such freedom at Oslo
University. For example, I have my background in computer science and now I study
something new. I didnt need to follow my background studies like we have to in China.
I just got an opportunity to study a new course and grab new knowledge. I think it
is a beautiful university. There are so many nice people around and lots of activities
for international students. This International students union page has around 1,000
members, who organise parties, sporting events and cultural events.
www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=46008382664
Arts & humanities .................................................87
Engineering & IT .............................................. 255=
Life sciences & biomedicine ..................................78
Natural sciences ................................................. 157
Social sciences ...................................................99=
Academic survey position ...................................100
Employer survey position ....................................201
Students ....................................................... 16,604
Student faculty ratio .........................................6.4:1
International faculty ...................................... 13.9%
International students ....................................17.0%
Research strength (Scopus) papers ............... 14,721
Research strength (Scopus) citations ............. 82,745
Impact (citations per paper)...............................31.8
100 (101) University of Oslo
Founded 1811 www.uio.no
Universit Paris Diderot
www.univ-paris-diderot.fr
Contact :
relations-internationales@univ-paris-diderot.fr
Universit Paris Diderot is located in a new
area of Paris, Rive Gauche, and includes

within an urban environment combining

services and gardens


hW
undergraduate, graduate and doctoral
/
100 research laboratories and 7 university

Medicine and Odontology


Arts , Literature, Sciences
Languages - Human and Social Sciences
Paris Rive Gauche: an outstanding

immersed in the city, immersed in life
&
25,000 students, including 6,000
2,000
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6,300D
350 PhDs granted annually
Frances top multidisciplinary
university, in the heart of Paris
Frances top multidisciplinary
university, in the heart of Paris


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152
Four
What to study?
Your choice of university will often depend on the subject you wish
to study, which can be just as challenging a decision in its own right.
This chapter helps you identify the best subject and course. It includes
information on different disciplines, and ideas about the career directions
they can point you in. You will also nd the worldwide ranking of the 100
best universities in the ve major academic areas according to the 2010
QS World University Rankings

:
Subject area page number
Social sciences & management 154
Arts & humanities 159
Science 165
Biomedicine 169
Technology 173
People dont just go to university. They go to study aeronautics or art; chemical
engineering or archaeology. And if you are going to spend several years of your life, and
a lot of money, on getting a qualication, you might as well get a good one. Finding
the right program is vital to the enjoyment of your university experience, and to your
future career.
You may already know which subject is for you. If so, this chapter will help you to think
where you might study it. And if you dont yet know exactly what you want to study,
you might nd some ideas in these pages. Either way, you will need to seek detailed
advice on specic subjects and universities to back up what you read here. In addition,
you will need to look at other chapters in this book to nd out more on important
issues such as how to nance your studies, and about the realities of university life
abroad. University prospectuses and websites are the places to nd detailed subject-
specic information for each institution. You should also consult other specialist sources
such as subject associations, professional societies and research institute websites to get
a fuller picture.
153
What to study?
Search for a course
On www.topuniversities.com you will nd a searchable course listing for every university
featured in these pages. This information includes a classication of the worlds
top institutions according to their size and style. You can use it to choose a large,
medium-sized or small university: you can choose one that has a higher or lower level of
research activity: and you can choose between a full-service university which offers the
full range of subjects, or somewhere more specialist.
We are sure you will nd this information valuable. But in a new and innovative departure,
QS plans to supplement it during 2011 with data on the top universities for specic subjects
ranging from physics to economics. These rankings will use information on research
success, employability and other factors. Among subjects being considered for analysis
are accounting and nance, biological sciences, and management, chemistry, cultural and
media studies, computer science, economics, education, various engineering disciplines,
geography and area studies, history, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, physics and
astronomy, politics and international studies, and psychology. This information will be
published rst on www.topuniversities.com, so keep checking there.
www.topuniversities.com
154
Studying social sciences & management
Unlike subjects such as medicine or mechanical engineering, many social sciences are
taught at high school, including sociology and economics. But if the study of human
society is your thing, look a little deeper before choosing a subject. Some social sciences
such as anthropology, science policy or population studies are less familiar from the high
school classroom but make fascinating degree subjects. Social scientists invented the idea
of globalisation. But they are also subject to it. The social sciences are becoming more
globalised as they adopt similar methodologies and collect data in standardised ways. For
example the European Social Survey gathers consistent data from 28 European countries.
While the arts and humanities are mainly about individual achievement, the social sciences
are about group behaviour. They help us to judge whether TV drug campaigns make
people more or less likely to take drugs, why people become criminals, or how society
changes as the population gets older. Because they help us to understand the rapid social
change that characterises modern societies, the social sciences are of growing importance.
An obvious example is climate change. If we are going to do something about it, we will
need engineers to produce new types of cars, power stations and household appliances.
But much of the technology we need to cut energy use already exists. Social science can
tell us why householders do not insulate their homes, and help develop the messages that
might persuade them to do so.
Because they answer important questions about society, the social sciences lead to many
interesting and satisfying jobs and careers. In recent decades, the big rewards in the social
sciences have been captured by holders of MBAs and other business degrees. Management
and business have become important to universities as well as to students, not least for the
fees they bring in, which is why we term this subject area social sciences and management.
Once MBAs were mainly for private sector high yers, but nowadays employers in the
public and non-prot sectors value them too. If your ambitions lie in this direction, it is
worth thinking whether you need a business qualication from an institution of recognised
world standing, or one that will cost a lot less and t better with a local employer. QS has
a wealth of valuable information on MBA programs at www.topmba.com. Bear in mind
that many MBAs and other business courses are taught in specialist graduate institutions.
Some renowned or local specialist schools, such as IMD or INSEAD, do not appear in the
subject rankings in this chapter, which are intended to measure the performance of large,
general universities.
As well as business behaviour, the social sciences analyse the performance of societies
as a whole, and include politics and government. These are obvious subjects, along with
law, for anyone planning a career as a politician. But they are also of value if you plan
on a less visible career in public service. A qualication in government could just give
you the extra wisdom you need to propel yourself into the higher ranks of the public
sector instead of spending decades at a lower level. Economics is perhaps the ultimate
career-propelling social science, and is also one of the oldest; it is the course of choice
for aspiring journalists, politicians and top civil servants. Most big companies, even those
far from the nancial sector, employ economists. They are often powerful in strategy
formation and can be enviably well paid.
The social sciences fascinate students, academics and policymakers alike because at their
best, they produce evidence-based truths about society and how to change it. But to tackle
many of them properly you will need to know about statistics, research design and the
like, as well as the subject matter you are studying. Condence with mathematics will be
essential. Many social science courses have demanding entry qualications. Top students
are willing to pay big fees and travel long distances to get to the right institutions, such as
the Harvard Kennedy School of Government (HKS) or London School of Economics (LSE).
Many specialist topics in the social sciences such as medical sociology, population studies
or technology policy are taught mainly as postgraduate subjects.
155
What to study?
Finally, a word about arguably the most inuential of the social sciences: teacher training
is the original business of many of the worlds universities, and education is still the
biggest department in many universities in terms of student numbers. On that measure, it
is the biggest social science. While many students cross borders to study education, make
sure that the qualication you plan to take will be accepted by the education ministry back
home. Some countries insist that secondary school teachers have a rst degree followed
by specialist training; others do not. Despite research evidence that primary and preschool
education are the key to life achievement, the qualications expected for teachers of
younger children are lower in many parts of the world than those for secondary school
teachers. Some people know from an early age that they want to be teachers, while
others know from an equally early age that they do not. In between is a group who
may consider the idea. If you are one such, the current economic climate may help your
decision. Teachers are one group you never see mentioned in news stories about job cuts.
Our table of the top social science institutions worldwide shows that big, English-language
universities have most of the prestige. Harvard is regarded as best in the world by some
distance. It has the worlds most prestigious business school, as well as HKS, perhaps the
worlds top politics department. After Berkeley we reach the big-hitters of the UK social
science scene: Oxford, Cambridge and LSE. US and UK universities make up the top ten
in the social sciences. But ve universities in positions 11-20 are in Australia, Singapore,
Canada and Japan, starting with the Australian National University at 13. Note, too, that
despite the parade of big, old, English-language universities that dominate this table, only
54 of the 100 universities we show here are in the US, the UK, Canada and Australia,
with 29 in the US. In all, 26 nations from Indonesia to Scandinavia are represented. Many
nations have a capital city university such as Tokyo to supply government with its top
thinkers. Tokyo University in 20th place is the highest-ranked social science university not
working mainly in English.
1 Harvard University US 100.0 4.5
2 University of Oxford GB 90.3 2.8
3 University of Cambridge GB 89.7 3.0
4 London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) GB 84.1 2.9
5 University of California, Berkeley US 83.7 3.8
6 Stanford University US 80.5 4.6
7 University of Chicago US 74.1 3.4
8 Yale University US 72.9 4.0
9 Columbia University US 68.7 3.7
10 Princeton University US 67.2 5.3
11 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) US 66.5 3.7
12 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) US 64.8 6.0
13 Australian National University AU 61.0 2.2
14 University of Michigan US 56.8 4.3
15 University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) US 56.4 3.9
16 National University of Singapore SG 56.0 1.9
17 University of Toronto CA 55.6 2.8
18 University of British Columbia CA 54.8 3.4
19 New York University (NYU) US 54.3 3.7
Top 100 in social sciences and management
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
www.topuniversities.com
156
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
Top 100 in social sciences and management continued
20 University of Tokyo, The JP 53.9 1.4
21 University of Melbourne AU 49.9 2.1
22 Cornell University US 49.8 3.4
23 Peking University CN 47.8 1.3
24 University of Warwick GB 46.7 2.5
25 UCL (University College London) GB 46.5 3.0
26 Duke University US 46.4 4.0
27 McGill University CA 46.1 2.4
28 Northwestern University US 45.6 4.1
29 University of Manchester GB 45.1 3.0
30 University of Sydney AU 44.0 1.8
31 University of Wisconsin-Madison US 43.2 4.0
32 University of Amsterdam NL 41.9 3.1
33 University of New South Wales AU 41.0 2.0
34 Monash University AU 40.7 1.6
35 University of Hong Kong HK 40.3 1.7
36 University of Texas at Austin US 39.3 2.8
37 Universit Paris 1, Panthon-Sorbonne FR 38.1 0.9
38 University of Auckland NZ 38.0 3.0
39 Kyoto University JP 37.0 1.5
40 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen DE 36.8 2.6
41 University of Edinburgh GB 36.7 2.8
42 Seoul National University KR 36.4 1.2
43 Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 35.9 2.0
44 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign US 35.5 3.8
45 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill US 35.0 3.7
46= Kings College London GB 34.9 4.0
46= Tsinghua University CN 34.9 0.7
48= University of California, San Diego US 34.7 4.7
48= Universit Commerciale Luigi Bocconi IT 34.7 2.9
50 University of Minnesota US 34.5 3.3
51 Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin DE 34.4 1.5
52 Sciences Po, Paris FR 34.0 0.6
53 Freie Universitt Berlin DE 33.7 2.3
54= Fudan University CN 33.1 0.7
54= Universit Paris Sorbonne, Paris 4 FR 33.1 0.6
56 University of Copenhagen DK 32.7 2.1
57 Erasmus University Rotterdam NL 32.5 3.8
58= Brown University US 31.9 4.6
58= Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HK 31.9 2.9
157
What to study?
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
60 Nanyang Technological University SG 31.8 1.4
61 University of Queensland AU 31.7 2.1
62 Universitat Pompeu Fabra ES 31.6 4.0
63 Boston University US 31.4 3.0
64 Stockholm School of Economics SE 31.3 2.5
65= Imperial College London GB 31.0 2.9
65= University of Bristol GB 31.0 2.7
65= University of Washington US 31.0 3.5
65= Uppsala University SE 31.0 2.2
65= Universit Catholique de Louvain BE 31.0 2.9
70= Carnegie Mellon University US 30.7 5.0
70= Leiden University NL 30.7 3.9
72= Trinity College Dublin IE 30.2 1.6
72= National Taiwan University TW 30.2 1.1
74= Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BE 30.1 2.7
74= Universitt Mannheim DE 30.1 2.2
76 Lund University SE 29.9 1.9
77 Johns Hopkins University US 29.6 3.7
78= Universit di Bologna IT 29.5 2.2
78= Chulalongkorn University TH 29.5 1.9
80 University of Essex GB 29.4 2.3
81 University of Nottingham GB 29.3 2.4
82 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg DE 29.1 2.1
83 Universit Toulouse 1, Capitole FR 29.0 1.7
84 University of Birmingham GB 28.9 2.3
85 Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona ES 28.0 1.4
86 Pennsylvania State University US 27.8 2.7
87 University of Helsinki FI 27.7 1.5
88= Ohio State University US 27.5 3.0
88= Waseda University JP 27.5 0.7
88= HEC Paris, ParisTech FR 27.5 2.0
91 SOAS - School of Oriental and African Studies GB 27.4 0.0
92 Stockholm University SE 27.3 2.6
93 Lancaster University GB 27.1 2.9
94 Maastricht University NL 27.0 3.5
95 University of Indonesia ID 26.9 1.9
96= ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) CH 26.8 2.3
96= cole Normale Suprieure de Paris FR 26.8 2.0
96= University of Western Ontario CA 26.8 3.3
99= University of Oslo NO 26.6 2.0
99= Georgetown University US 26.6 2.2
In 2007, New York University Tisch School of the Arts Asia opened in
Singapore, and since then over 150 students from 25 countries have
enrolled in the schools legendary arts training programs.
For more information, visit: www.tischasia.nyu.edu.sg
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159
What to study?
Studying the arts and humanities
If you have opened this book, you may be contemplating crossing an ocean, or at least
an international frontier, to further your higher education. If your aim is an MBA, or
a PhD in some high-tech discipline, you may well be planning to attend an institution
with international standing where you will get an education whose quality is recognised
around the world. If you study engineering at MIT, or get an MBA from London Business
School, you will end up with a qualication whose worth is understood across the planet.
But things are not quite the same in the arts and humanities. A discovery in chemistry
which is made in France is also a discovery for chemists in Brazil. But despite globalisation,
each nation has its own culture, and that means that the arts and humanities are not as
global as the other subjects in these pages. While many arts and humanities subjects are
studied in English around the world, you will still be embedded in Japanese culture if you
study the arts in Kyoto, and Italian culture if you choose a university in Rome.
It can also be a little tricky to dene the arts and humanities. We probably know what
the arts are. They range from visual art to theatre, music of all types, lm and TV, and
increasingly to digital art too. But the humanities are harder to nail down. They certainly
include languages, history, archaeology (even though many archaeologists work like
scientists), literature, theology and many other big subjects. Some topics such as law,
politics and anthropology may be counted as social sciences in some countries and as
humanities in others.
But the era is past when the arts and humanities were a social luxury, while real economic
activity was about hitting pieces of metal with hammers. Only about 13 per cent of the UK
economy is now accounted for by manufacturing. Other industries are bigger, including
nance, public services, and the arts. Publishing, TV and theatre create jobs. And think
of the last time you went to the cinema. You probably left before the credits had nished
rolling, because of the sheer number of people it takes to make a movie. As one observer
pointed out, the most successful spinout from Oxford University was not a pharmaceutical
company or a breakthrough in electronics, but the Lord of the Rings franchise.
The table of the top universities in arts and humanities shows that big, old institutions
in the English-speaking world have the most academic prestige. The Sorbonne in Paris,
ranked 13th, is the rst on the list not to work wholly or mainly in English. Most of the
non-English speaking institutions we list are in continental Europe, whose culture, even
today, appears to have more global prestige than that of Africa, Asia or other civilizations.
But 25 nations are represented in the table and there is a welcome appearance of
institutions in Korea and Thailand. But there is no doubt that English-speaking institutions
tend to dominate. The reason may be that academics around the world feel the need to
know what is happening in English-based culture more than Russian, Italian or French,
for example, despite the undoubted remarkable artistic achievements of these nations.
While much of the worlds higher education is going over to English language provision,
the arts and humanities remain a partial exception. Take history. Here there are two
issues: key documents may not be in English, and, despite immense progress in recent
years, they may not be fully available online. Often the historian must make his or her
way to a former colonial power to investigate todays developing world. To see the grand
record of Spains involvement in Latin America, the Archive of the Americas, you must
go to Seville in Spain. And to read the equivalent record of British involvement in India,
you must head for London, where the British Library has now absorbed the papers of the
Raj and its predecessor, the East India Company. This archive encompasses millions of
documents in English and many other languages.
The arts and humanities embrace a vast range of highly practical courses, which lead to a
complete range of careers. Some, such as librarianship, are studied by tens of thousands
of people around the world each year and lead to solid, if not spectacularly rewarded,
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160
Top 100 in the arts and humanities
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
jobs: a good option if you want a professional challenge that comes with above-average
job security. Todays librarians love books, but their jobs also involve providing digital
media to professionals in universities, companies, government departments and other
corners of the knowledge economy. They often nd themselves negotiating big-money
deals with publishers and other information providers. Applicants for librarianship courses
often have language and literature qualications, and take a one-year masters course.
If you have the artistic temperament but also like the idea of professional status, take
a look at architecture. It is perhaps the most prestigious humanities topic, with a real
mission to meet the human need for shelter, and is changing fast as building styles
respond to climate change, natural threats such as earthquakes, and sustainability issues.
In any country in the world, architecture courses are highly sought-after. They have high
fees, they take a long time, and they involve a lot of learning about materials, structures
and other aspects of engineering, as well as an artistic imagination. It is not universally a
highly paid profession but some architects can earn reasonably and those who achieve
high recognition can become strikingly well paid. In fact, relatively few corners of the arts
and humanities produce such potential wealth for their practitioners.
Many arts academics perform, maybe in music or the theatre, as well as teaching and
doing research. These lifestyles may be less nancially rewarding and less secure than
other options discussed in these pages. Many musicians and linguists have portfolio
careers in which they combine teaching and practice. However, research on musicians
plural careers, carried out at the Institute of Education in London, shows that they are
often exceptionally satisfying.
1 University of Oxford GB 100.0 0.8
2 University of Cambridge GB 97.9 1.0
3 Harvard University US 97.4 0.6
4 University of California, Berkeley US 85.3 1.1
5 Yale University US 80.2 0.4
6 Princeton University US 74.8 0.7
7 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) US 70.9 0.9
8 Stanford University US 70.1 0.9
9 University of Chicago US 66.4 0.8
10 Columbia University US 65.9 0.5
11 University of Toronto CA 58.9 0.4
12 UCL (University College London) GB 58.2 0.6
13 Universit Paris Sorbonne, Paris 4 FR 57.8 0.1
14 University of Edinburgh GB 57.2 0.8
15 New York University (NYU) US 55.6 0.7
16 Cornell University US 54.2 1.2
17 Australian National University AU 53.3 1.3
18 University of Michigan US 52.1 0.5
19 University of Sydney AU 51.6 0.4
20 University of Tokyo, The JP 51.4 1.2
161
What to study?
21 University of Melbourne AU 50.8 0.7
22 Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin DE 50.5 0.7
23 National University of Singapore SG 49.9 1.4
24 Peking University CN 48.4 0.1
25 Freie Universitt Berlin DE 47.6 0.3
26 Kings College London GB 46.9 0.7
27 Massachusetts Institute of Technology US 46.7 2.4
28 McGill University CA 45.9 0.8
29 University of Amsterdam NL 45.8 0.9
30 University of Pennsylvania US 45.3 0.8
31 University of British Columbia CA 44.2 0.8
32 Universit Paris 1, Panthon-Sorbonne FR 43.9 0.1
33 London School of Economics and Political Science GB 43.3 0.7
34 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen DE 42.7 0.5
35 University of Hong Kong HK 42.6 0.9
36 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg DE 42.3 0.1
37 Brown University US 42.2 0.7
38= Duke University US 41.9 0.6
38= Leiden University NL 41.9 0.6
40 Kyoto University JP 41.8 1.1
41= cole Normale Suprieure de Paris FR 41.1 0.5
41= University of Warwick GB 41.1 0.4
43 Monash University AU 40.5 0.8
44 University of Vienna AT 39.2 0.6
45 University of Texas at Austin US 38.8 0.7
46 Universit di Bologna IT 38.6 0.1
47 Universitt Freiburg DE 38.0 0.5
48 University of Manchester GB 37.5 1.0
49 University of Leeds GB 37.4 0.5
50 SOAS - School of Oriental and African Studies GB 37.2 0.5
51 University of Auckland NZ 37.1 0.6
52 Trinity College Dublin IE 36.9 0.3
53 University of Helsinki FI 36.7 0.6
54 Seoul National University KR 36.4 0.5
55 University of St Andrews GB 36.3 0.7
56 University of Wisconsin-Madison US 35.8 0.5
57 University of Bristol GB 35.3 0.6
58= Tsinghua University CN 34.4 0.5
58= National Taiwan University TW 34.4 0.5
60= Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 34.2 0.6
60= Uppsala University SE 34.2 0.3
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
www.topuniversities.com
162
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
62= University of Copenhagen DK 34.0 0.4
62= Stockholm University SE 34.0 0.6
64= Johns Hopkins University US 33.2 0.4
64= Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BE 33.2 0.3
64= Fudan University CN 33.2 0.0
67 Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen DE 33.1 0.8
68= University of Birmingham GB 32.4 0.6
68= University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign US 32.4 0.9
70 Utrecht University NL 31.9 0.5
71 University of California, San Diego US 31.4 1.1
72= University of Zurich CH 31.3 0.2
72= Universitat de Barcelona ES 31.3 0.6
72= Sapienza Universit di Roma IT 31.3 0.5
75 University of York GB 31.1 0.6
76 Waseda University JP 31.0 1.4
77 Yonsei University KR 30.7 0.2
78= University of New South Wales AU 30.3 0.5
78= Durham University GB 30.3 1.0
78= Chulalongkorn University TH 30.3 0.0
81 Goldsmiths, University of London GB 30.2 0.1
82 Korea University KR 30.1 0.2
83= Boston University US 29.8 0.3
83= Universidad Complutense de Madrid ES 29.8 0.1
85= University of Glasgow GB 29.7 0.3
85= Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick US 29.7 1.3
87 University of Oslo NO 29.6 1.0
88 Indiana University Bloomington US 29.5 0.4
89= University of Geneva CH 29.3 0.4
89= University College Dublin IE 29.3 0.2
89= Macquarie University AU 29.3 0.4
92 Lund University SE 29.2 1.1
93 Birkbeck College, University of London GB 28.5
94 Northwestern University US 28.3 1.4
95 Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona ES 27.6 0.3
96 Queen Mary, University of London GB 27.5 1.8
97 University of Queensland AU 27.2 0.8
98 Lomonosov Moscow State University RU 27.1 1.0
99= University of Shefeld GB 27.0 0.6
99= University of Pittsburgh US 27.0 1.3
Top 100 in the arts and humanities continued
DESIGN
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Admissions to Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programs
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Humanities and Social Science HKUST Fok Ying Tung Graduate School
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inviting applications for undergraduate and postgraduate programs
leading to bachelors, masters and doctorate degrees in its four schools in
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THE HONG KONG UNIVERSITY OF
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165
What to study?
Studying science
Governments all over the world want universities to produce more scientists. After all,
they are responsible for the advances in knowledge that have created the modern world.
Governments reason that the number of scientists we need is bound to grow, as humanity
struggles with climate change, resource depletion and other crises.
That is the big picture, but what is the life of a scientist really like? At its heart it involves
asking a question that a planned experiment can answer. This is the scientic method, a
unique and highly productive way of working, developed during the seventeenth-century
scientic revolution by Galileo and others. It has given us big ideas, such as relativity, and
evolution by natural selection, and the technology that surrounds us today, from satellite
television to hip transplants. It sounds simple but in practice, designing an experiment that
really does answer the question you want it to is incredibly difcult. Staying level with the
subject you work in is tough, and is essential if you want to be asking the right questions
in the rst place.
Science is also big business. The National Science Foundation in the US, one of the worlds
biggest science funders, spends nearly US$7 billion a year, 20 per cent of the federal
research funding going into US universities. UK universities receive over 3.3 billion
per year in research awards, with about half for science. The European Commissions
current Framework Program for research has a budget of more than 50 billion over
seven years. This means that there are plenty of jobs for scientists, and unemployment is
low. Because governments want more scientists, there are often special scholarships or
fee breaks available to study science or engineering that are not available to students in
other areas. Despite the current climate of fear over government spending cuts, science
budgets are set to suffer less than other forms of public expenditure. The same goes for
industry spending on research. Work carried out for the European Commission in late
2010 showed that European rms had cut their research spending by less than three per
cent at a time when their prots had fallen by 21 per cent.
The way into a scientic career is probably clearer than for almost any other category
of employment discussed in this book. You must almost always go to university and get
a science degree. Most of the subjects you can study are old stagers in the university
curriculum. The big ones are chemistry, physics, mathematics and biology. But in recent
years, many smaller subjects such as environmental science have grown rapidly, while
traditional options such as physics and chemistry have struggled to build numbers. Most
notable has been the rise in the number of people studying forensic science, driven by the
popularity of TV shows such as CSI and Silent Witness. Many of these are old-fashioned
courses in biology, psychology or other subjects to which a few modules of forensic
science have been added.
If you really know that you want to be an astronomer or a forester, you may as well go to
university and study your chosen subject. If you change your mind later, you will still have
a training that will impress employers. But for most people, a broader degree that keeps
options open may be the best choice. If you study chemistry for your rst degree, you can
always become a forensic scientist later.
Biology is one area where course titles have changed in response to advancing knowledge.
Our awareness that life is really one big system has led to subjects such as botany or
zoology becoming less usual as single subjects for a whole degree. So look for a course
whose structure allows you to specialise in the area that interests you in the second or later
years. Watch out, too, for name changes made in the interests of marketing. Molecular
science is in fact chemistry: still a fascinating and vital science. Note, too, that not all
science is taught in science departments. Materials science is a fast-changing eld because
of the demand for new materials for renewable energy and other emerging priorities, and
the emergence of nanotechnology. But because it has grown out of metallurgy, many
universities put it in the engineering faculty. Agriculture is often in a department of its
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166
own and has perhaps the most unusual intake of any university subject, being dominated
by the sons, and just sometimes the daughters, of the previous generation of farmers.
Science is now generating new knowledge at a massive rate. Over a million articles are
published each year in scientic journals, each one supposedly containing new knowledge
about some aspect of the universe. You cannot learn enough in a bachelors degree course
to become a scientist. You will need a higher degree, probably a doctorate. A PhD is
the basic scientic training in how to generate new experimental knowledge rather than
learning what other people have discovered. It also allows you to position yourself in a
specic research eld. It is the driving licence that shows the world that you are a capable
researcher, and this is especially true in science.
Very few scientists are unemployed anywhere in the world. Many have academic careers,
but even these can lead them into lucrative options such as spin-off businesses that are
not open to historians and linguists. Scientists who do not mind leaving the lab can get to
senior posts in industry, public service and consultancy, all of which value their numerical
and analytical skills.
The science ranking table shows that big general universities, such as Cambridge and
Harvard, mix with specialist institutions, such as the Massachusetts and California
Institutes of Technology, at the top of the league of scientic world esteem. It is true
that these universities have the big budgets and the top teams. But the private sector,
in particular, may be less inclined to look only at graduates from these top universities
when it hires scientists than it would be in other subject areas. The appearance of
Moscow State University, now well-established in this science ranking, allows us to hope
that Russia, once a formidable science superpower, may be staging a comeback on the
world science scene.
1 University of Cambridge GB 100.0 9.7
2 Harvard University US 91.8 13.7
3 University of Oxford GB 91.1 9.8
4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) US 87.8 11.0
5 University of California, Berkeley US 87.7 12.9
6 Stanford University US 76.4 10.8
7 Princeton University US 73.7 12.4
8 California Institute of Technology (Caltech) US 71.6 15.4
9 University of Tokyo, The JP 69.4 6.8
10 ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) CH 67.5 9.4
11 Imperial College London GB 66.4 8.8
12 cole Normale Suprieure de Paris FR 57.6 8.3
13 Kyoto University JP 57.4 6.3
14 University of Toronto CA 57.2 9.7
15 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) US 57.1 11.1
16 University of Chicago US 54.5 13.6
17 Yale University US 54.1 11.3
18 University of British Columbia CA 52.4 9.3
19 Cornell University US 52.2 10.9
Top 100 in science
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
167
What to study?
20 Australian National University AU 50.6 7.4
21 Peking University CN 49.0 5.1
22 Universit Pierre et Marie Curie FR 48.2 7.5
23 Columbia University US 47.0 11.6
24 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg DE 46.4 8.1
25= National University of Singapore SG 45.7 5.7
25= Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen (LMU) DE 45.7 8.0
27 Tsinghua University CN 43.9 4.0
28 University of California, Santa Barbara US 43.5 11.9
29 Lomonosov Moscow State University RU 43.4 2.5
30 Sapienza Universit di Roma IT 43.1 5.6
31 cole Polytechnique, ParisTech FR 42.9 8.2
32= University of Melbourne AU 41.7 8.8
32= Technische Universitt Mnchen DE 41.7 7.1
34 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign US 41.0 10.6
35 McGill University CA 40.5 7.9
36 University of Sydney AU 39.4 7.5
37 University of California, San Diego US 39.2 9.0
38= University of Michigan US 38.4 10.6
38= Seoul National University KR 38.4 6.1
40 University of Bristol GB 38.3 8.3
41= University of Edinburgh GB 38.1 10.9
41= University of Texas at Austin US 38.1 10.3
43 Universit Paris 11, Sud FR 36.2 7.3
44= Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin DE 36.0 7.3
44= Technion - Israel Institute of Technology IL 36.0 6.0
44= Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn DE 36.0 8.3
47 University of Copenhagen DK 35.5 7.9
48 Utrecht University NL 35.2 8.1
49 Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne CH 35.0 9.3
50= UCL (University College London) GB 34.9 8.1
50= National Taiwan University TW 34.9 5.6
52 University of Manchester GB 34.8 7.0
53 University of New South Wales AU 33.8 6.2
54= University of Warwick GB 33.7 6.4
54= Universitat de Barcelona ES 33.7 7.8
56 University of Hong Kong HK 33.0 6.3
57 KAIST - Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology KR 32.8 5.2
58 Osaka University JP 32.7 5.3
59 RWTH Aachen DE 32.6 8.7
60 University of Washington US 32.5 11.3
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
www.topuniversities.com
168
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
61 Universidad Autnoma de Madrid ES 31.8 7.5
62 University of Vienna AT 31.7 5.9
63 University of Wisconsin-Madison US 31.6 8.0
64= Tokyo Institute of Technology JP 31.4 5.8
64= Leiden University NL 31.4 7.1
66 Freie Universitt Berlin DE 31.3 6.8
67 Lund University SE 31.0 8.5
68 University of Auckland NZ 30.7 6.7
69= University of Amsterdam NL 30.5 8.6
69= Monash University AU 30.5 6.9
71= Johns Hopkins University US 30.4 14.7
71= University of Queensland AU 30.4 7.7
71= Uppsala University SE 30.4 6.6
71= Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona ES 30.4 8.9
75= University of Pennsylvania US 30.3 14.2
75= Tel Aviv University IL 30.3 7.6
77 University of Science and Technology of China CN 30.1 4.9
78= Pennsylvania State University US 29.9 9.1
78= Universitt Karlsruhe DE 29.9 7.1
80 University of Waterloo CA 29.7 6.6
81 Trinity College Dublin IE 29.6 7.5
82 Technische Universitt Berlin DE 29.5 6.4
83 Universit di Pisa IT 29.3 6.8
84= Delft University of Technology NL 29.2 6.9
84= Hebrew University of Jerusalem IL 29.2 8.2
86= Northwestern University US 28.9 8.4
86= University of Alberta CA 28.9 6.2
88 Georg-August-Universitt Gttingen DE 28.6 7.3
89 Aarhus University DK 28.2 9.6
90 Universit di Bologna IT 28.1 8.2
91 Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 28.0 5.4
92= Duke University US 27.5 9.6
92= Fudan University CN 27.5 5.2
94 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HK 27.1 7.7
95= Durham University GB 27.0 12.1
95= Universit de Strasbourg FR 27.0 8.9
95= Universit Grenoble, Joseph Fourier FR 27.0 7.1
98 Universitt Hamburg DE 26.9 6.8
99= KTH, Royal Institute of Technology SE 26.8 5.5
99= Universitt Innsbruck AT 26.8 7.7
Top 100 in science continued
169
What to study?
Studying biomedicine
Not long ago, biology was simple. If things were green and stood still, they were botany.
If they ran away, they were zoology. If they were too small to see, they were microbiology.
And, if they could speak, they were raw material for the medical school. But now we are
aware that we share most genes with our near relations, which is no surprise given that
we have been biologically separate from them for a mere few hundred thousand years. So
there is no longer a subject called medicine, existing in isolation from the rest of science.
Instead, the life sciences are becoming a single unit, resting on a common appreciation of
DNA and protein formation as the underlying way in which life reproduces and functions.
But medicine is still a distinct area of the life sciences, because it involves our own species:
if you are planning a medical career, you will need to be able to deal with people. This
entails more than a reassuring bedside manner. Humans vary wildly in their reaction to
drugs and other treatments. Many experiments prove that the placebo effect, whereby
people feel better after taking pills with no active ingredients, is completely real. And the
continuing popularity of homoeopathy suggests that patients can feel the benet from
liquids which do not contain a single molecule of any pharmaceutical.
Biomedicine is the term for this nexus of medicine, biology, human behaviour and other
subjects. Under its umbrella comes a massive range of subjects, specialisms and careers,
which can lead to unparalleled personal satisfaction and impressive nancial rewards.
Medicine itself includes a wide range of specialisms. To get involved in one of them, you
will need a medical degree. In many countries, you can enter university from high school
to take one. But in the US and some other countries you need to take a rst degree and
then enter a medical school which teaches the subject as a graduate course. People who
take this route typically read some biological subject at bachelor level, but many do not,
studying even arts subjects or languages.
While there are many medical specialisms, from oncology to childcare, you will have plenty
of time at medical school to work out which appeals. But be aware that medical courses
take a long time, involve huge amounts of work, and incur some of the heftiest fees
in higher education. Many students end their courses with so much debt that they are
tempted, like the ctional doctor in the song by satirical writer Tom Lehrer, to specialise
in diseases of the rich.
If being a full-scale doctor or surgeon seems a little forbidding, or the time and cost of
qualifying are not feasible, the range of other medical specialisms has been expanding
in recent years. There is growing demand for nurses, physiotherapists, dieticians and
other professionals who can solve real problems without resorting to full-bore medical
intervention. Indeed, modern medicine is now so complex that many practitioners rarely
go near a sick person. Sports medicine specialists treat people who are by denition t
and well. Others such as histologists look at tissue samples, not people.
Other options emerge from the convergence of technology and medicine. We are used
to the idea that chemists, pharmacologists and other types of scientist develop drugs for
medical trials and eventual use. But just think how much engineering is involved in modern
medicine. Scanners allow us to spot problems with any part of the body from the brain to
the lungs. While many people working in medical instrumentation have backgrounds in
mainstream engineering, there are also specialist medical engineering courses at graduate
and undergraduate level.
When technology reaches the body itself, things can get even more exciting. Remember
those science ction tales where people can grow back lost limbs or withered organs? In
November 2008, something close to this happened in Spain. A woman whose windpipe
had been damaged by disease got it replaced. Instead of doing a transplant from another
person, the doctors took a windpipe from a deceased donor, washed every living cell
out of it, and used the inert structure to grow a new one from the recipients own cells,
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170
avoiding all problems of rejection. This case shows how science, engineering and surgery
are combining in new ways. In future it could be heart valves or even brain cells that are
made in the same way. And the Spanish-UK team that did the work shows that this is a
competitive and global eld.
The biomedicine table reects the fact that modern biomedicine is expensive and calls for
big budgets. That gives the US a head start. It has 32 entries in the top 100, the most of
any of the ve featured subject areas. Harvard is at the top, because of the power, wealth
and status of Harvard Medical School. The top dozen places are taken by North American
and British universities, separated only by Japans Tokyo University in sixth place. The
ageing Japanese population is calling for better health care and this could mean growing
research budgets: Kyoto joins Tokyo here in 18th position. Another notable success here
is King Saud University in Saudi Arabia. Many Arab nations have ambitions to build world-
class universities, and the cash to try. King Saud entered this table in 2010 in 97th position
and is now at 58. Its appearance here, and at 221 in the QS World University Rankings,
shows that at least one of these attempts is starting to bear fruit.
Many medical breakthroughs are not made at universities but at independent research
centres. The 2008 Nobel Prize for medicine was given to three people who work in such
institutions. However, the 2009 award went to one researcher from Harvard University,
one from Johns Hopkins, and a third from the University of California at San Francisco
(UCSF). All three are in the ranking table: Harvard in top slot, Johns Hopkins in seventh,
and UCSF at 26. The 2010 winner Robert Edwards, who invented in-vitro fertilisation,
worked partly at Cambridge, number two here, but was mainly based at the nearby Bourn
Hall Clinic.
Top 100 in biomedicine
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
1 Harvard University US 100.0 13.5
2 University of Cambridge GB 92.4 11.4
3 University of Oxford GB 82.2 11.9
4 Stanford University US 75.3 12.0
5 University of California, Berkeley US 70.2 11.8
6 University of Tokyo, The JP 65.8 7.5
7 Johns Hopkins University US 65.7 11.4
8 Massachusetts Institute of Technology US 63.9 16.2
9 Yale University US 63.3 11.2
10 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) US 60.0 11.0
11 Imperial College London GB 58.3 10.2
12 University of California, San Diego US 56.7 13.2
13 National University of Singapore SG 53.6 6.2
14 University of Melbourne AU 52.9 7.9
15 UCL (University College London) GB 52.7 8.7
16 University of Toronto CA 51.7 8.8
17 University of Edinburgh GB 50.0 9.9
18 Kyoto University JP 49.7 8.2
19 University of Sydney AU 48.8 6.3
20 University of British Columbia CA 48.7 8.4
21 Peking University CN 47.8 3.4
171
What to study?
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
22 McGill University CA 45.7 9.6
23 Karolinska Institute SE 45.6 8.7
24 Columbia University US 45.1 11.9
25 Cornell University US 44.8 9.3
26 University of California, San Francisco US 44.6
27 Duke University US 43.6 11.5
28 California Institute of Technology US 43.4 15.3
29 University of Washington US 43.1 12.0
30 Kings College London GB 42.6 8.2
31 University of Chicago US 42.4 11.2
32 ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) CH 41.4 10.6
33= University of Pennsylvania US 40.6 10.5
33= University of Michigan US 40.6 10.6
35 Princeton University US 40.4 11.5
36 Australian National University AU 40.3 7.4
37 University of Hong Kong HK 38.5 8.0
38 Seoul National University KR 38.1 5.0
39 University of Manchester GB 36.7 8.4
40 University of Queensland AU 36.4 7.1
41 University of Auckland NZ 36.2 6.8
42 Washington University in St. Louis US 35.8 11.4
43 National Taiwan University TW 34.6 5.0
44 University of California, Davis US 34.5 7.7
45 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg DE 34.1 8.4
46 University of New South Wales AU 33.9 6.9
47= University of Wisconsin-Madison US 33.4 9.4
47= Rockefeller University US 33.4
49 Monash University AU 33.3 7.2
50= University of Amsterdam NL 32.2 8.6
50= Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen (LMU) DE 32.2 7.1
52 Uppsala University SE 31.8 7.9
53 University of Zurich CH 31.6 8.6
54 Osaka University JP 31.1 8.1
55 Tsinghua University CN 31.0 4.5
56 University of Copenhagen DK 30.6 8.1
57 University of Otago NZ 27.8 6.0
58= Lund University SE 27.7 8.4
58= University of Helsinki FI 27.7 9.3
58= King Saud University SA 27.7 1.7
61 cole Normale Suprieure de Paris FR 27.4 10.5
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172
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
62= Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HK 27.3 6.3
62= University of Western Australia AU 27.3 7.1
64 Freie Universitt Berlin DE 27.2 7.2
65= Brown University US 27.1 9.5
65= University of Leeds GB 27.1 7.2
67 Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 27.0 6.0
68 Universitat de Barcelona ES 26.8 8.0
69 Fudan University CN 26.7 2.8
70 University of Bristol GB 26.6 8.8
71 Universit Pierre et Marie Curie FR 25.7 8.0
72 Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin DE 25.2 8.9
73 Utrecht University NL 25.1 8.2
74 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill US 25.0 11.0
75= Northwestern University US 24.9 9.9
75= University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign US 24.9 7.5
75= Baylor College of Medicine US 24.9
78 University of Oslo NO 24.5 6.8
79= University of Birmingham GB 24.4 9.1
79= University of Texas at Austin US 24.4 8.0
81 Trinity College Dublin IE 24.3 7.0
82= KAIST - Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology KR 24.2 8.4
82= McMaster University CA 24.2 9.4
82= University of Dundee GB 24.2 9.7
85 University of Adelaide AU 24.1 6.4
86= University of Alberta CA 23.9 7.5
86= Purdue University US 23.9 6.7
86= Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen DE 23.9 7.7
89 Yonsei University KR 23.8 3.8
90 University of Nottingham GB 23.6 7.2
91 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BE 23.3 9.0
92 New York University US 23.1 9.4
93= Erasmus University Rotterdam NL 23.0 9.9
93= Tokyo University of Science JP 23.0 4.8
95 University of Glasgow GB 22.9 10.2
96 University of Minnesota US 22.7 8.7
97 Queen Mary, University of London GB 22.6 7.6
98= Boston University US 22.5 10.5
98= Lomonosov Moscow State University RU 22.5 3.6
100= Stockholm University SE 22.4 8.0
100= University of Newcastle AU 22.4 6.2
Top 100 in biomedicine continued
173
What to study?
Studying technology
In many parts of the world, especially in Germany, Russia and East Asian countries,
engineer is a term of honour in the same league as being a doctor or a lawyer. But in the
English-speaking world, engineering holds less prestige. Here the term technology tends
to be preferred, even though US and British engineers were responsible for inventions
ranging from the railway to the telephone and the World Wide Web.
Governments from Singapore to Scotland have seen how universities such as Stanford
helped create Silicon Valley and, with it, major corporations and thousands of jobs. In
an attempt to share in the next generation of this high-technology growth, they are
encouraging technological universities to integrate into the regions in which they are
located, in the hope that they will create new enterprises there. So you can expect the
engineering course you might take to be more closely connected to employers than in
the past.
It can be argued that economic life is no longer all about manufacturing. But even fashion,
publishing and the creative arts cannot achieve much without energy supplies, equipment,
buildings and vehicles, let alone computer systems and mobile phones. And despite the
current economic slowdown, globalisation means more ships, trucks and aircraft, and
they have to be built and kept working safely.
One big decision you will face is whether to go for a traditional degree subject,
probably involving the word engineering, or for something with a newer feel such
as nanotechnology or robotics. The old standbys such as chemical, electrical, civil and
mechanical engineering have been added to over time by electronics, IT, and design,
while metallurgy has broadened into materials science, as polymers and other new types
of material have come along. But new content is likely to lurk behind even a traditional
course name. For instance, a competent course in mechanical engineering will introduce
you to robotics. One idea would be to choose a degree with a title that will still make
sense in 30 years. By then, there may not be a subject called nanotechnology. Some
forecasters think that in years to come, nanotechnology will just be the way in which
engineers and scientists do their work.
Even older and well established areas of technology change over time. Mining, nautical
engineering, automotive engineering and agricultural engineering have all been altered
by the IT revolution and by new materials and methods. You will also nd that curricula
across the technology eld are changing in response to climate change and our growing
awareness of the need for sustainability. It is engineers who will have to produce the
zero-carbon buildings, the fuel-sipping cars, the renewable energy sources and the ood
defences we will need to get us through the coming decades.
Another choice to be considered is whether to combine engineering with another subject.
This could include languages: Japanese was in fashion a few years ago, but global change
has now made Chinese the favourite. Another option might be to study technology
alongside management or business studies. Take some advice from teachers, employers
or other experts before deciding on this course of action. There is a denite risk of diluting
your primary qualication if you take this route.
One problem with engineering as a university subject is the continuing and rapid increase
in the amount of knowledge in all areas of technology. Engineering courses are famously
hard work, because of the amount of material you have to absorb and the number of
projects you have to complete. These, by the way, will give you teamwork skills that you
will need in later life. An engineering degree may take longer than other courses, except, of
course, medicine. In recognition of this, many universities have dropped bachelor degrees
in engineering and go straight for the masters level. But even when you have got through
the degree, you will still have work to do. Engineers take decisions that can kill people, so
admission to the profession will require approval from some national organisation. This
www.topuniversities.com
174
is similar to being certied as a doctor, except that medics make mistakes that kill people
one at a time. A defective bridge, ship or aircraft can take out hundreds.
In engineering, a PhD is only really needed if you plan to become an academic. For
most engineers, the usual career path is to get a job and continue taking professional
qualications while you work. This means that you get paid and can repay your debts
instead of adding to them. But there can be a problem in the early career development
of engineers. Research led by Professor Michael Eraut at the University of Sussex, UK,
suggests that engineers can be a little under-challenged in their rst jobs. While the
team you belong to may be designing an IT system that is vital to national security, or a
spacecraft that will go to Mars, your role will be a tiny one. Dont be afraid to push for
more responsibility.
Our table shows that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is the worlds top
technology institution by some distance, scoring 100 compared to 83.3 for second-placed
Stanford. Behind these come Berkeley, Cambridge and Caltech. Imperial College, London
is sixth, after which we nd Tokyo and ETH Zurich in seventh and eighth positions.
Many specialist institutions show up well here including ve separate parts of the Indian
Institute of Technology, starting with Bombay (Mumbai) in 47th place. 25 nations appear
in this table, including Indonesia, with the Bandung Institute of Technology. China and
Hong Kong have nine top 100 institutions between them, starting with Tsinghua at 11,
and are pushing ever-more resources into high technology.
Top 100 in technology
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) US 100.0 3.3
2 Stanford University US 83.3 3.5
3 University of California, Berkeley US 82.7 4.1
4 University of Cambridge GB 72.5 3.5
5 California Institute of Technology US 68.3 3.7
6 Imperial College London GB 67.1 2.3
7 University of Tokyo, The JP 64.4 1.4
8 ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) CH 61.8 2.6
9= University of Oxford GB 58.7 2.2
9= National University of Singapore SG 58.7 2.3
11 Tsinghua University CN 58.4 1.1
12 Carnegie Mellon University US 55.1 2.5
13 Georgia Institute of Technology US 54.4 2.5
14 University of Toronto CA 54.1 2.8
15 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) US 53.4 3.4
16 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign US 52.5 2.4
17 Kyoto University JP 49.6 1.4
18 Delft University of Technology NL 49.1 1.6
19= University of Michigan US 46.3 3.0
19= Cornell University US 46.3 3.3
21 Princeton University US 45.2 4.0
22 Harvard University US 45.1 3.9
23 Tokyo Institute of Technology JP 44.5 1.4
175
What to study?
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
24 KAIST - Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology KR 44.2 1.8
25 University of Manchester GB 43.5 2.7
26 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology HK 43.1 2.1
27 University of Texas at Austin US 42.9 2.4
28 Purdue University US 42.8 1.5
29 McGill University CA 42.5 2.0
30 University of British Columbia CA 42.4 2.0
31 Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne CH 41.9 2.5
32 University of Melbourne AU 41.6 2.5
33 Peking University CN 41.0 1.0
34 University of California, San Diego US 40.8 3.2
35 cole Polytechnique, ParisTech FR 39.3 2.0
36= Technische Universitt Mnchen DE 39.2 1.5
36= Nanyang Technological University SG 39.2 2.1
38 Seoul National University KR 38.4 2.0
39= University of Waterloo CA 37.8 1.7
39= RWTH Aachen DE 37.8 2.1
41 National Taiwan University TW 37.6 2.2
42 University of New South Wales AU 37.5 1.7
43 Shanghai Jiao Tong University CN 37.3 1.0
44 University of Sydney AU 37.2 2.1
45 Australian National University AU 35.6 1.8
46 University of Edinburgh GB 35.5 1.9
47 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay IN 35.0 1.8
48 Technische Universitt Berlin DE 34.8 1.9
49 Universitt Karlsruhe DE 34.3 1.9
50 Eindhoven University of Technology (TU Eindhoven) NL 33.7 2.5
51 UCL (University College London) GB 33.5 2.3
52= University of Hong Kong HK 32.9 2.0
52= University of Southampton GB 32.9 2.0
52= Indian Institute of Technology Delhi IN 32.9 1.8
55 University of Auckland NZ 31.9 1.5
56 Columbia University US 31.8 2.6
57 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology IL 31.7 2.0
58 Monash University AU 31.6 1.7
59 Osaka University JP 31.3 1.2
60= University of Wisconsin-Madison US 30.9 2.4
60= KTH, Royal Institute of Technology SE 30.9 1.5
62 University of Queensland AU 30.6 2.2
63= University of California, Santa Barbara US 29.7 4.8
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176
Rank Institution Country Score Citations
per paper
63= Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) IN 29.7 1.6
63= Politecnico di Milano IT 29.7 1.6
66 University of Washington US 29.4 3.0
67 National Tsing Hua University TW 28.9 1.6
68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) IN 28.7 1.8
69 Technical University of Denmark DK 28.5 2.5
70 Hong Kong Polytechnic University HK 28.4 1.9
71 University of Science and Technology of China CN 28.3 1.3
72 University of Pennsylvania US 28.2 3.2
73 Northwestern University US 28.1 3.0
74 University of Alberta CA 27.8 1.6
75 Technische Universitt Darmstadt DE 27.7 1.7
76= Katholieke Universiteit Leuven BE 27.5 2.3
76= Chalmers University of Technology SE 27.5 1.8
78 cole Normale Suprieure de Paris FR 27.0 3.8
79 Zhejiang University CN 26.8 1.1
80 University of Minnesota US 26.6 2.4
81 Yale University US 26.5 3.1
82 Virginia Polytechnic Institute (Virginia Tech) US 26.4 1.7
83 University of Bristol GB 26.3 2.1
84 Universitt Stuttgart DE 26.1 1.2
85 Chinese University of Hong Kong HK 25.9 2.4
86= University of Chicago US 25.7 2.7
86= Pennsylvania State University US 25.7 1.9
88 Johns Hopkins University US 25.2 2.8
89 RMIT University AU 24.7 0.9
90 Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) IN 24.6 1.8
91= University of Birmingham GB 24.5 2.0
91= Texas A&M University US 24.5 1.5
93 Bandung Institute of Technology ID 24.4 0.5
94 Tohoku University JP 24.1 2.0
95 Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya ES 24.0
96= Lomonosov Moscow State University RU 23.7 0.5
96= University of Maryland, College Park US 23.7 2.0
98 Vienna University of Technology AT 23.6 1.5
99 Trinity College Dublin IE 23.5 5.0
100 Politecnico di Torino IT 23.4 1.3
Top 100 in technology continued
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179
Five
Study abroad
In this chapter you will nd information and advice on study abroad and
the benets it could bring for your future career. We prole the most
popular international study destinations and several up-and-coming
ones to watch: Australia 182, Canada 184, France 186, Germany 188,
Ireland 191, Japan 192, South Korea 195, the Netherlands 197, the Nordic
countries 200, New Zealand 202, Scotland 203, Singapore 204, Spain 207,
Switzerland 209, the UK 210 and the US 213. You will nd information on
universities, cost of living and student lifestyle. At the end of the chapter
there is a list of national and international organisations where you can
get much more information on study around the world in those countries
we prole and many others.
An opportunity not to be missed
Statistics released from national and international agencies indicate the popularity of
international study continues to grow. In the US alone, the Open Doors 2010 research by
the Institute of International Education (IIE) www.iie.org, showed 690,923 international
students had chosen to study at US colleges and universities in 2009/2010, an increase of
three per cent on an already annually growing gure.
As an international student studying abroad for your higher education qualication,
youll soon nd your friends are made up of people from different cultures and countries
all over the world. Its one of the highlights of choosing to go abroad for your degree.
Although at times it may be difcult, moving to the other side of the world to pursue
a tertiary education will certainly put you out of your comfort zone thousands of
students have been before you, and thousands of students are studying internationally
now. So why not join them?
Studying abroad youll experience a different teaching style, a different culture and a
different way of living that can only add to your education. Youll be able to assert your
independence, and add a unique element to your CV that will be benecial to your
career upon graduation. Choosing to pursue an undergraduate or masters degree is a
challenge in itself, so why not go one step further and add the extra challenge of studying
abroad on top of it all. You wont know what its like until you try it!
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180
University life is all about socialising and making friends, said Mina, a Vietnamese
student who studied abroad in the UK for her LLB at the University of Birmingham. Living
away from my family meant that most of the time I was surrounded by friends. We did
everything together such as cooking, shopping and hanging out. I think it is the most
enjoyable part of being a student.
Study abroad and your career
But one of the most profound aspects of a period of study abroad is likely to be the impact
it has on your career. Top quality graduates are in constant demand by international
employers, and studying abroad can certainly improve your employment prospects.
An increased prociency in English or another major language is just one of the many
advantages. Nadine completed her undergraduate degree in her home country of
Germany before pursuing a masters in Australia. Having to do everything in English,
from writing assignments to buying bus tickets, was a challenge, but it meant my English
language skills improved and that has increased my ability to get good work back home
in Europe, she said.
Already, the overriding view from top employers is, if you have an excellent academic
track record, your nationality is no barrier to your future employment. In fact, if you can
demonstrate a real passion to work in an international environment, bringing with you
the qualication and skills you gained while studying abroad, you will very often be more
attractive to employers than others without that experience.
Of paramount importance is ensuring you apply yourself and your skills in the most
effective way, and knowing where, and how, to nd the opportunities. If an employer is
torn between two like-for-like candidates, your study abroad experience could prove to
be a deciding factor. Convey your international experience as a valuable marketing tool for
yourself. On job applications and in interviews, point out that your choice to study abroad
was a benecial career decision and will add to your personal and occupational attributes.
Put simply, you need to prove your study abroad experience has given you added value
and wasnt just about fullling your backpacking dream.
However, as a graduate in todays world of global mobility and opportunity, you will
face competition from increasing numbers of other top graduates around the world. Do
not expect to simply walk into a great job just because you are qualied with a rst
degree, masters or PhD qualication. It is how you convey those skills and demonstrate
your ability to apply them to the employment opportunities you are presented with that
will see you succeed.
International postgraduate study
The study abroad experience is not limited to undergraduate students. Those interested
in pursuing their masters, PhD and MBA qualications are also looking further aeld
than the institutions in their home countries. Data from the QS World Grad School Tour
underlines how buoyant the interest in international masters and PhD study currently is,
and the countries students are considering for their higher education.
Study abroad
181
Top ten most popular countries for masters or PhD study
Rank Country Interest (% preference)
1 US 80
2 UK 63
3 Canada 38
4 Australia 28
5 France 25
6 Spain 20
7 Singapore 16
8 Germany 16
9 Switzerland 15
10 Italy 13
Source & copyright: QS Research 2008
Where to study abroad?
The following proles may help you choose. First, each country is briey introduced with
information on must-see places, cultural activities, the great outdoors, festivals, and
food. We then look at the education system: how their universities are ranked; which
institutions offer vocational training; what degree programs are available and how long
they take to complete. We look at entry requirements and accommodation available to
you as an international student. We give an overview of fees, nance and the cost of
living and outline some of the scholarships available. (More detail on fees, nance and
scholarships worldwide can be found in Chapter Six.) Finally we give you a glimpse of
student life: there are plenty of clubs and societies for international students to join, and
we survey opportunities to work while studying abroad.
Country prole page number
Australia 182
Canada 184
France 186
Germany 188
Ireland 191
Japan 192
South Korea 195
The Netherlands 197
Nordic countries 200
New Zealand 202
Scotland 203
Singapore 204
Spain 207
Switzerland 209
UK 210
US 213
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182
Study in Australia
Pros & cons
+ Possible to work while you study
+ Attractive country to live in
+ Internationally recognised degrees
- Strict criteria for entry visas
- High number of international students on some programs
- Increased level of savings required upon application
Why Australia?
Warm sunny beaches, bustling cafs, surf schools, theatres, and nature sound like the
perfect holiday? Choose to study in Australia and not only will you have the perks of a
holiday lifestyle, youll earn an internationally recognised degree at the same time. From
the barrenness of the Outback, to the underwater spectacle that is the Great Barrier Reef,
alongside some of the most visited and sought after tourist experiences are a host of
world class universities.
Universities
Seven Australian universities appear in the top 100 of the 2010 QS World University
Rankings

, a performance that shows Australia is a major player in the international


education arena. Australian National University (ANU) maintained its dominance, once
again taking top spot of all Australian universities at place number 20, leading an
impressive total of 18 Australian universities to be ranked in the top 300 of the world.
Australias leading universities have joined together to form The Group of Eight (Go8).
This group incorporates the major research institutions of the University of Adelaide,
Australian National University, University of Melbourne, Monash University, University of
New South Wales, University of Queensland, University of Sydney and the University of
Western Australia, www.go8.edu.au. Read more about these Oxbridges of Australia on
www.topuniversities.com
Australian higher education institutions comprise universities and government-funded
technical and further education institutes (TAFE), which offer more vocationally-oriented
courses for students pursuing a specic hands-on career. Bachelors degrees take three to
four years to complete and masters degrees require a further one to two years of study.
Certicates, diplomas and advanced diplomas offered in TAFE institutes usually need one
or two years of study.
Australian institutions set their own entry requirements, but for most university programs,
12 years of education is the minimum standard. Bridging qualications are offered for
those students who have yet to reach the standard required for degree level programs.
If a students education has not been conducted in English, he/she will need to submit a
recognised language qualication, the level of which will be set by the institution.
Every international student, wishing to study in Australia for more than three months,
must apply for a student visa granted by the Australian Department of Immigration and
Citizenship (DIAC) and meet minimum academic requirements. The DIAC requires students
with English as a second language to demonstrate prociency through the IELTS

test.
The student visa gives access to Australias subsidised health cover and permission to work
part-time. For more information on student visas go to www.studyinaustralia.gov.au.
Study abroad
183
Fees, nance & cost of living
Tuition fees are set by individual universities according to faculty and program. On
average, fees vary from AU$14,000 per year for an arts degree at a smaller university,
to AU$50,000 per year for a medical degree at one of the countrys most prestigious
institutions. However, degree programs in the elds most popular for international
students such as business, law and engineering, tend to range between AU$18,000 and
AU$25,000 per year.
The Australian government offers a number of different scholarships for international
students, as do individual institutions and charitable organisations. These often need
to be applied for in the students home country, not in Australia itself. A comprehensive
database of Australian scholarships available to both domestic and international
students can be found at: www.studyinaustralia.gov.au which also provides other
student information.
In 2010, regulations changed with regard to the basic living costs for international students.
Students wishing to study abroad in Australia must now have access to AU$18,000 a
year to meet the living cost requirements. This will cover books, accommodation, food,
utility bills and entertainment. To give an idea of prices, a loaf of bread in Australia costs
AU$2.50 to AU$3.00, while a bottle of soft drink can cost up to AU$3.00.
Accommodation is available in on-campus residential colleges, apartments and houses
both on and off campus, or in private homes and as at share. Students can search
for available accommodation or post their details free at the Study Connect forums
www.studyconnect.com
Medical care is not free in Australia and all students are expected to maintain Overseas
Student Health Cover (OSHC), an insurance policy that allows them to claim back the cost
of their medical treatment from their individual health funds.
International students are permitted to work a maximum of 20 hours a week during term
time and full-time in vacations. Before applying for work, students need a work permit
from the local ofce of the Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous
Affairs (DIMIA).
Student life
One of the most exciting parts of studying abroad in Australia is being able to explore
other parts of the country, from Darwin in the north to Tasmania in the south. Check out
www.topuniversities.com for a guide to the top ten things every student should do while
down under. You can also read about students experiences studying abroad in Australia
such as those of Shiddhantha Rajbhandari, from Nepal, who shares the experience of
Australian BBQs, Mardi Gras festivals and living away from home.
www.topuniversities.com
184
Study in Canada
Pros & cons
+ A diverse range of internationally recognised programs
+ Numerous scholarships available for international students
+ Opportunity to work while studying and upon graduation
- Length of application time
- Variation in application requirements
Why Canada?
Ski the slopes of Whistler, tap your foot to the music of Montreals international jazz
festival, or cheer out loud at an ice hockey game studying abroad in Canada, youll
be the envy of many. Canadas student visa process is relatively straightforward. Its
institutions offer exible degree programs, which also give you direct access to teaching
professors, many of whom are experts in your chosen eld of study and who may offer
you the opportunity to participate directly in research. Whats more, Canada is as large as
Europe, so in between your studies, youll have plenty to explore.
Universities
Ten Canadian universities feature in the top 200 of the 2010 QS World University Rankings

.
McGill University is the top ranked university at 19, followed by the University of Toronto
which ranks within the worlds top 30. Each of Canadas provinces and territories runs
its own education system and the country therefore has 13 different systems, although
there are many similarities across the board. For more results of Canadian universities, visit
www.topuniversities.com.
Undergraduate degrees in Canada consist of three or four years of study, depending on
the province and whether the degree is general or specialised. Honours degrees, or a
baccalaureate program, which indicates a higher level of academic achievement, may take
an additional year to complete. Each university sets its own entry standards. These tend
to vary according to the program of study. Usually there will be a set minimum academic
average and, in some instances, course pre-requisites for admission to the program,
particularly in the sciences and engineering.
Canada has two ofcial languages, English and French, but the majority of tertiary
education is delivered in English. Therefore, students who have not been educated in
English will be expected to demonstrate their language ability through an IELTS

, MELAB
or TOEFL

result. Increasingly, Canadian institutions are also recognising the Pearson Test
of English Academic (PTE Academic) as an accurate and authentic measurement of real-
life English ability. All Canadian institutions set application deadlines and recommend
students check and apply six to eight months before their intended start date. Some
universities will offer January, May and September start dates although the typical
academic year runs from September to April.
Most Canadian universities follow a trimester system with three sessions: fall, winter/
spring and summer, the latter being optional for many students. Assessment is based on
a combination of mid-term examinations, term papers and class presentations. University
colleges, institutes of technology and advanced learning, community colleges, and
colleges of applied arts and technology, are also able to grant degree level qualications
to students, although many of the community colleges offer diplomas, certicates and
associate degrees. As one of the largest systems of higher education in the world,
Study abroad
185
Canada has an extremely robust quality assurance and accreditation process ensuring
degree-level studies are recognised internationally. Most Canadian universities subscribe
to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (www.aucc.ca) principles of
institutional quality assurance.
Fees, nance & cost of living
Tuition fees are set by each individual institution and vary between private and public
institutions and subject area. Most undergraduate programs range from C$10,000 to
C$24,000 per year, depending on the chosen location and program of study. Full-time
students are permitted to work on campus without a work permit and off campus, up to
20 hours per week during the academic term and full-time during vacations. Graduates of
public post-secondary institutions, and degree programs at private institutions, may work
in Canada, with a work permit for up to three years, depending on the length of their
program of study. Students are able to live reasonably well on approximately C$10,000
to C$12,000 per year. A bus ticket, for example, can cost between C$2 and C$3 while
movie tickets range from C$8 to C$12. Accommodation is often provided at a reasonable
cost by universities in the rst year of a program. An education cost calculator at
www.educationau-incanada.ca may help students prepare a budget.
Scholarships and other forms of nancial aid are available for international students.
The best source of funds tends to be individual universities and colleges themselves.
A free service coordinates most national scholarship information and is also available
at www.educationau-incanada.ca. Another website, www.scholarships.gc.ca allows
students to type in their country of origin and nd information on relevant scholarships.
When it comes time to putting your application together, check out the guide to the
scholarship application process at www.topuniversities.com.
As an international student in Canada, you will enjoy all of the freedoms that protect
Canadians: respect for human rights, equality and a stable and peaceful society. Just ask
those international students who have gone before you on Canadas university network
forum http://www.universitynetwork.ca/forums/. Access to medical care for students is
dependent on the province of study. Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan cover
international students under their provincial health care plans. All other provinces require
students to make their own arrangements and to have sufcient private healthcare cover
for the length of their studies.
Student life
Its unlikely youll run out of things to do while studying abroad in Canada, but to help
choose where to start, at www.topuniversities.com, the team at Top Universities has
come up with the top ten things every undergraduate student should do while living and
studying in this part of the world, from the vibrant city centres of Vancouver, Toronto and
Montreal to the environmental spectacles of the Niagara Falls and Banff National Park, not
to mention taking in a bit of ranch culture at the Calgary Stampede in Alberta.
www.topuniversities.com
186
Study in France
Pros & cons
+ Large number of highly reputable universities
+ Government grants for international students
+ Choice of masters offered in French and English
- Most undergraduate programs in French only
- Difculty of gaining post-study employment visa
- Tough criteria for entry visas
Why France?
From the art collections of the Louvre, to the medieval history of Brittany; the vineyards of
the Loire Valley, to the slopes of the French Alps, home to some of the best skiing in the
world, France offers so much as a study abroad destination. And, if youre searching for a
world class education from an internationally recognised institution that wont break the
bank, look no further. With such education, history, culture, architecture and cuisine on
offer, is there any reason not to study abroad in France.
Universities
France continues to show why it is a country where more than 200,000 international
students choose to study each year. In the 2010 QS World University Rankings

the number
of French universities in the top 200 increased to ve, with a total of 21 French universities
featuring in the worlds top 500. The countrys ten best-performing universities, led by
cole Normale Suprieure de Paris (ENS Paris) in place 33, all improved their positions by
an average of eight places.
There are more than 3,000 institutions of higher education in France, including 87
public universities, 240 engineering schools and 230 business schools. Another 2,000
institutions offer tertiary qualications in specialised vocational elds. The French higher
education system is based on a common architecture of tertiary qualications, LMD:
licence (bachelors degree), masters, and PhD, embarked upon once a student has passed
his or her baccalaurat (nal high school exam). Information on the LMD system can be
found at www.topuniversities.com. Foreign students currently in higher education in their
home country can apply for admission to a comparable French institution, as long as they
meet the entry requirements.
There are two main types of tertiary education institution: universits, and grandes
coles; the latter are uniquely French. Created in the early 19th century, in parallel to the
university system, in grandes coles are extremely selective and offer education at a very
high level. French engineering schools are internationally recognised and all 240 share
common characteristics. This guarantees the quality of the engineering degree, which
covers all areas of engineering science at masters level.
Business schools in France are also highly regarded. Six of the top ten Masters in
Management programs come from French-based business schools, according to Financial
Times rankings. Further specialised institutions offer higher-level training in areas such
as art, design, fashion, tourism, paramedical services and social services. There are three
types of art schools: the coles nationales suprieures dart, which offer a national
diploma after four or ve years of study; schools for applied art, supervised by the Ministry
of National Education; and schools of ne art, the domain of the Ministry of Culture,
offering diplomas after three or ve years of study. All have selective admissions criteria.
Study abroad
187
There are also 20 architecture schools, overseen by the Ministry of Culture, offering the
DPLG (Diplme par le Gouvernement) architectural diploma, the only qualication in the
eld recognised for those working as architects in France. Studies last for six years in
three cycles of two years. CampusFrance, an agency responsible for promoting higher
education, has information on more than 30,000 higher education courses in France. It
also has everything a student considering studying abroad in France needs to know, from
admission requirements to visa applications www.campusfrance.org.
Fees, nance & cost of living
International students pay the same fees as domestic students at most French universities
and on most academic programs. At national universities, the state pays a very large
part of each students study expenses (about 10,000 per year), keeping admission fees
relatively low. The French government, through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, funds over
20,000 international students every year with two schemes. The rst provides scholarships
offered jointly by the French government and the students country of residence. The
second enables French higher education institutions to enrol the best foreign students,
while developing international university cooperation. The French Ministry of Education
also offers grants to international students.
Cost of living indices suggest that Paris is about 15 per cent less expensive to live in
than London. A metro (underground) ticket costs 1.70, a croissant about 1 and, if
youre feeling energetic, pay 5 and you can walk up the Eiffel Tower. Other French
cities are less expensive than Paris. Student accommodation in France, especially in Paris,
can be pricey and although the overall standard is good, the quality can vary between
different campuses. CROUS, the student social support service, offers six types of student
accommodation: rooms in university residences, renovated rooms, studios, small ats,
low rent apartments (HLM) as well as accommodation in town. Student group health
plans are available for international students to cover all, or part, of their medical bills not
covered by the basic national system. To be eligible for the national student health plan,
students must be under 28 and enrolled in a participating institution. Students 28 and
older can obtain the special CMU health insurance.
Student life
Parlez-vous franais? What better way to learn, practice or perfect your French than by
studying abroad in France? Join a sports club, a cultural, dance, or drama club and youll
be uent in French before you know it. Then of course there is the rest of France to
explore. Top Universities suggests on www.topuniversities.com that you could begin by
hitting the beaches of Frances most glamorous coastline, the Cte dAzure, then do the
Vendanges thats picking grapes to make wine. Or, take time to pay your respects
at the battleelds of the Somme and bask in the opulence of the Chteau de Versailles.
www.topuniversities.com
188
Study in Germany
Pros & cons
+ Low tuition fees for international students
+ Strong showing of universities in world rankings
+ Support services for international students
- Lengthy admissions procedure
- Small number of programs taught in English
Why Germany?
Each year, almost 150,000 students choose to study abroad in Germany. With numerous
student cities, such as Freiburg, Heidelberg and Munich offering a lifestyle of learning,
culture and fun, not to mention the history on offer in Berlin, the beer at the Oktoberfest
and the annual revelry of Karneval, Germany is a destination for those in search of an
education both inside and outside of the classroom.
Universities
German universities made their presence felt in the 2010 QS World University Rankings

.
The number of German institutions in the worlds top 200 increased to 12, with the more
than six hundred year old University of Heidelberg one of the top performers, climbing six
places to 51 in the world. Overall, 42 of Germanys 300 institutions were ranked among
the worlds best. Check out www.topuniversities.com for an in-depth analysis of the
performance of German universities in the QS World University Rankings

.
Germanys higher education system, steeped in historical tradition, is one of the largest
in Europe and one of the most internationally recognised. There are seven main types
of higher education institution. The two most signicant are university (Universitt)
and university of applied sciences (Fachhochschule). Universities offer programs in
which research and study are very closely aligned, resulting in graduates gaining a rm
grasp of the theoretical nature of their subject. The Fachhochschule offers students
the opportunity to combine a basic level of academic knowledge with a more practical
application relevant to the work environment. Other categories of institution include
art and music colleges, church-sponsored universities, vocational universities in certain
German states and private colleges. Universities offer different types of degrees, many of
which are unique to the German system. The Diplom, Magister Atium and Staatsexamen
all represent qualications that are currently available in many subject areas. In line with
the Bologna Process, the length of time it takes to study for a degree is now three to
four years for a bachelors and an additional one or two for a masters. Many German
students choose to complete their education with doctoral studies (Promotion). With
the advent of Bologna, an increasing number of international programs are now being
offered in English. The minimum entry requirement for study at a German university is the
equivalent of the German Abitur, the local high school qualication, taken after 12 years
of education. However, international students may also be required to take an admission
assessment test (Feststellungsprfung) that varies according to the type of institution
being applied to. Students have to demonstrate knowledge of German if the program of
study they wish to pursue is taught in the local language.
Value for money is important in Germany and an ofcial accreditation council implements
standard procedures for all German tertiary institutions that wish to have government
recognition and uses additional agencies to support and enforce this process.
Study abroad
189
Fees, nance & cost of living
One of the major attractions of studying in Germany is the almost universal support of
students by the 16 state governments. In other words, there are very low, tuition fees for
international students. In most German states, local and international students pay fees
in the region of 1,000 per year. Students from outside of the EU need a student visa.
(See www.study-in-germany.de for exemptions.) International students are required to
take out public health insurance before they are permitted to register for their classes.
This costs less that 50 a month and covers most, but not all, of your medical expenses.
Students over the age of 30 are not eligible for this cover and must obtain private
health insurance.
In common with many European destinations, the cost of living is relatively high in
Germany, though students are able to live economically on 600 to 800 per month. The
majority of students live in shared ats, off campus, known as a Wohngemeinschaft (WG
for short), but you may also nd some international student accommodation on site. The
Studentenwerk (student ofce) at your university of choice will be able to provide you
with more information.
Many universities have Semestertickets for students which give free travel on a citys
public transport network, as well as access to student canteens where meals can cost as
little as 3. Many student discounts are available at theatres, museums and even on some
mobile phone contracts. If youre a fan of the cinema, make sure you go on student day
when ticket prices can be reduced up to 20 per cent or more.
A range of awards exist that support students living and study expenses. Many of these
awards are offered by the individual German states and are specic to the country of origin
of the student applying for the award. A number of public and private organisations,
as well as church groups, offer scholarships to students. The DAAD (German Academic
Exchange Service), with ofces worldwide, is an invaluable source of information on all
aspects of study in Germany, including scholarships: www.daad.de.
Student life
If you love the outdoors study abroad in Germany. If youre fascinated with history
study abroad in Germany. If you love music, arts, and theatre study abroad in Germany.
You wont be short of things to do in this European country, as Top Universities top ten
things to do in Germany shows, (see www.topuniversities.com) but you may well need
some pocket money to get you around. Fortunately, students can work without a permit
while studying in Germany, although some students from outside the EU are limited to 90
days or 180 half-days per year. Many universities have ofces which coordinate part-time
student work opportunities.
National University of Ireland
MAYNOOTH
Contact Details:
International Ofce, National University of Ireland Maynooth,
Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Email:international.ofce@nuim.ie | Tel: +353 1 708 386
The National University of Ireland
Maynooth is the fastest-growing university
in Ireland, with over 8,000 students from
over 50 countries. Situated 25km west of
Dublin, Irelands capital city, NUI Maynooth
is located in Irelands only university town.
Students enjoy the safety, charm, and peace
of the local area, with easy and frequent
access to Dublin city centre.
NUI Maynooth offers programmes from
undergraduate to doctorate levels in a range
of disciplines including humanities, media
studies, education, anthropology, business,
sciences, climatology, immunology, social
sciences, music, computer science and
electronic engineering.
NUI Maynooths location is adjacent to the
Irish silicone valley, home to the European
headquarters of many multi-national
companies, such as Intel, HP, Facebook and
Google. NUI Maynooths strong links with
industry create employment opportunities
for graduates.
Student life at NUI Maynooth is
very active, with over 150 clubs and
societies, catering for all interests! NUI
Maynooth also offers great facilities for
sports, including an on-campus swimming
pool and tness centre.
If you want to nd out more about
studying at NUI Maynooth, visit us
at http:// international.nuim.ie or nd
us on Facebook as NUI Maynooth
Study Abroad.
Study abroad
191
Study in Ireland
Pros & cons
+ Three universities in worlds Top 200
+ Internationally recognised qualications
+ Opportunity to work during and after study
- High fees for international students
- The weather can be unpredictable
Why Ireland?
If youre thinking of studying abroad, consider Ireland. Its been voted the friendliest
country in the world (Lonely Planet 2010), has a talent for producing famous musicians
(think U2, Westlife and the Corrs), is historically one of the worlds largest exporters of
software, and its governments have invested heavily in the education system. Experience
capital city Dublin or beautiful Cork, the countryside of Donegal, the festivals of Galway,
and the temperature of the Irish Sea! Ireland will soon become your second home.
Universities
Three Irish universities are ranked in the top 200 of the 2010 QS World University
Rankings

. Trinity College Dublin at 52 remains Irelands top university, followed by


University College Dublin (UCD) at 114, and University College Cork (UCC) at 184. Overall,
eight Irish institutions, including Dublin Institute of Technology appear in the 2010 QS
World University Rankings

. Find out how Irish universities performed in the subject


rankings at www.topuniversities.com.
Undergraduate degrees take three to four years to complete. Masters and PhD
qualications require an additional two to three years. All qualications are taught in
English. The National Framework of Qualications (NFQ) allows students to compare
qualications and ensure they are quality assured and recognised at home and abroad.
Irelands Institutes of Technology also offer students a diverse range of qualications.
Fees, nance & cost of living
International student undergraduate tuition fees vary between around 9,000 and
45,000 depending on the subject and type of degree. An additional 800 fee on
most courses covers student examinations, registration and services. Students are advised
to budget between 7,500 and 12,000 per year for living and lifestyle costs. You
can research student accommodation at: www.accommodationforstudents.com/ireland.
The Irish government and Irish colleges have scholarships available for international
students: details at www.educationireland.ie. Students from outside the EU are likely
to need a student visa. Education Ireland has extensive information on applications, visa
requirements, funding and accommodation, as well as further information on the NFQ:
www.educationireland.ie.
Student life
Irish universities offer international students numerous cultural and sporting opportunities.
Trinity College Dublin reputedly has 50 student sports clubs. You can also work during
and after your studies, adding valuable experience to your international qualication.
www.topuniversities.com
192
Study in Japan
Pros & cons
+ Strong rankings performance relative to other Asian universities
+ Large number of international student scholarships
+ Universities ranked highly in subject rankings
- Expensive destination to live and study
- Few programs taught in English
- Competitive entry requirements
Why Japan?
Japan is a country of contrasts: a country where ancient traditions stand side by side
with modern technology and architecture; a country where the energy and vibrancy of
international cities such as Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto are balanced with the tranquillity of
island life and the spirituality of temples. Japan opens its arms to tourists, business people,
and international students alike. No matter how long you spend studying abroad in Japan,
the countrys dynamic culture will captivate you.
Universities
Three Japanese universities have cemented their place among the top 50 of the world,
according to the 2010 QS World University Rankings

. The University of Tokyo, at 24,


is Japans top ranked university, followed closely by Kyoto University at 25 and Osaka
University at 49. But Japanese universities are also performing well in international
subject rankings. Five Japanese universities are ranked in the top 100 for engineering
and technology, while the top 100 lists for life sciences and medicine, and natural
sciences, contain four Japanese universities. Visit www.topuniversities.com for a full list of
subject rankings.
Japanese higher education is split into ve types of institution: college of technology,
professional training college (senmom gakko), junior college, college and university,
and graduate school. There are over 700 universities in Japan, the majority of which are
private. Others are either local, national or public. Undergraduate programs tend to last
four years, with some six-year programs in dentistry, medicine and veterinary science.
Almost all instruction is in Japanese. Junior colleges offer two-year diplomas, generally
vocational in emphasis. Professional training colleges also provide for more vocational
education, offering courses lasting between one and four years.
When applying for an undergraduate degree, students must be 18, have completed 12
years of education and have a recognised high school qualication. Students with only 11
years of schooling may enrol in one of the university preparatory courses. Each university
has its own application procedure, the schedules of which are announced in June for
programs beginning in April the following year. Some universities also have a September
or October admissions procedure. Not all universities accept direct applications from
international students. Details are available at the Japan Student Services Organization
(JASSO), www.jasso.go.jp. Students must also pass an entrance exam for Japanese
universities. The Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students
(EJU) is administered by JASSO. Each university sets its own timetable. The exam is usually
offered twice a year in June and November and includes Japanese as a foreign language,
science (physics, chemistry, biology), Japan and the world, and mathematics. Students
can choose to sit the exam in either Japanese or English. Additionally, some universities
Study abroad
193
require non-native Japanese applicants to complete the Japanese Language Prociency
Test (JLPT) before admission is granted. This test is held worldwide in early December
and tests vocabulary, grammar, reading and listening abilities. There is no interview or
oral exam.
Fees, nance & cost of living
Japan is regarded as one of the most expensive countries in the world. However, the
tuition fees for most institutions of higher education are very competitively priced.
Universities, language institutes, junior colleges and professional training colleges all have
different fees, which depend on the subject area. The tuition fee is approximately 30
per cent higher for the rst year of a program to cover admissions fees. Scholarships
are available for international students, although they are less numerous in professional
training colleges and language institutes. Scholarships are administered through the
individual institutions and cover some, or all, of the tuition fees, plus an amount for living
costs. Japanese government Monbukagakusho scholarships provide up to JPY125,000
a month for potential undergraduate students. Additional funding is available from
JASSO, local government, individual educational institutions, corporate bodies and
private foundations. Students who have received superior scores on their EJU university
entrance exam are eligible to receive an honours scholarship for privately nanced
international students.
Living expenses vary according to where you choose to study. On average, students
can spend JPY130,800 per month on living expenses, including housing, study and
entertainment. The majority of this goes towards accommodation approximately
75 per cent of international students choose to live in private accommodation and
travel expenses (although there are student discounts on travel). Food is cheap if you
nd the right places to go. A lunch of sushi will cost about US$9, a Starbucks coffee,
about US$3. Meanwhile, a local bus ticket will cost you US$1.50 and your mobile phone
bill about US$60 per month. All students must enrol in the national health insurance
system. Payments are made monthly and vary according to where students live. Under the
scheme, students pay only 30 per cent of their medical expenses for treatment covered
by the insurance.
Student life
Dont be surprised if you nd yourself eating rice at every meal including breakfast,
or see someone buying a can of beer when you walk past a vending machine. These
are just two of the unique experiences youre likely to have studying abroad in Japan,
but there are plenty more [http://facts-about-japan.com/interesting.html]. However, as
an international student studying abroad in Japan youll rst need to apply for an alien
registration card within 90 days of arrival and carry it with you at all times. You can work
up to 28 hours a week in paid employment during termtime and a maximum of eight
hours a day during vacations. Students can also stay on in Japan to work after graduation
but must have their immigration status changed. The Cooperative Society (Co-op) on
campus, a membership organisation similar to a Students Union, provides support and
services to students such as a travel agency, housing association, bookshop, food stores
and restaurants.
Study abroad
195
Study in South Korea
Pros & cons
+ Lower tuition and living costs compared to the West
+ Some courses in English
+ Opportunity to experience a different culture
- Language barriers
- Political and religious association of institutions
Why South Korea?
Its capital city Seoul is one of the worlds dominant economic hubs, its universities are
competing on the world stage, and its culture is unlike anywhere else in Asia, so start
packing your bags for an undergraduate experience in South Korea. Ancient temples,
ornate palaces and a colourful history live side by side with innovation and technology.
From the streets of Busan to the noraebang (song room) of the karaoke clubs, step out of
your comfort zone and study abroad in South Korea.
Universities
Thirteen of South Koreas universities were ranked among the best in the world in
the 2010 QS World University Rankings

and also performed well in life sciences and


medicine. Seoul National University is the highest ranked university at 50 and the leading
university in four of the ve subject areas alongside the Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology (KAIST). South Koreas universities are also recognised for their
degrees in biotechnology, information technology and communications. Undergraduate
degrees take four years to complete, masters degrees an additional two to three. Students
are recommended to start the application process three to four months before the
application deadline.
Fees, nance & cost of living
There are two types of university in South Korea: national and private. National universities
tend to have lower fees than private universities averaging from US$3,500 to US$6,000
per year. The Korea Foundation sponsors foreign students as does the South Korean
Ministry of Education, Science & Technology. Individual universities also have scholarships
available. Students studying in Korea on a D-2 visa can work up to 20 hours per week
after one semester. There is no limit on the number of hours students can work during
vacation. Students must ensure they take out insurance to study in South Korea.
Student life
South Korea is less expensive to live and study in than many Western countries and, as
such, attracts international students from all over the globe. Student life is centred around
celebrating festivals, clubs known as Tongari, dining out or sipping soju (Korean vodka).
Whatever attracts you to study abroad in South Korea, youll be rewarded with a unique
experience symbolic of this exciting country.
Leiden University College The Hague
Leiden University College The Hague offers a three year bachelor degree in Liberal Arts and
Sciences, taught in English, for a group of excellent and motivated (inter)national students.
At this residential college in the judicial capital of the world, a combination of studying, living and social
activities is offered. The college offers students a provocative and broad education, and prepares them
for leading positions in the international community. The interdisciplinary programme of the college is
called Global Challenges and focuses on Peace, Justice and Sustainability.
Building knowledge for a better world.
LUC students are:
Highly motivated
Internationally oriented
Ambitious & talented
Socially engaged
Eager to make a difference
Leiden University College The Hague is an honours college of Leiden University, the oldest university in the
Netherlands which was founded in 1575. LUC The Hague is located in Leiden Universitys rapidly growing
second site, Campus The Hague.
More information, including application details, can be found on the website: www.lucthehague.nl
LUC offers:
3 year Liberal Arts & Sciences BA/BSc (Honours) programmes
Inter- and multi-disciplinary approach to Global Challenges
Majors in: Global Justice, Comparative Governance, Human
Interaction, World Politics, and Sustainability
Residential setting in The Hague; International City of Peace & Justice
Intensive, high quality education in small groups
Study abroad
197
Study in the Netherlands
Pros & cons
+ Unique problem-based learning tradition
+ Easy application procedure
+ Many programs taught in English
- Difcult to stay on and work after graduation
- Dutch qualications relatively less well-known internationally
Why the Netherlands?
It may be one of Europes smaller countries, but study abroad in the Netherlands has
many things to recommend it. While weekdays may be spent in the classroom, with the
Netherlands long tradition of learning, weekends are almost certainly going to be spent
travelling. For starters there are the cities like Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Maastricht,
the Hague, Delft and Leiden. Then there are the 17,000km of designated cycle tracks to
pedal along, the low-lying chain of Frisian Islands to explore, and the numerous jazz, ower,
cultural, and cuisine-themed festivals to enjoy. Not least, the location of the Netherlands
makes many other European countries like Germany and France very easily accessible. Its
no wonder 76,000 international students currently study in the Netherlands.
Universities
The Netherlands boasts 12 universities in the top 200 of the 2010 QS World University
Rankings

, with the University of Amsterdam (UVA) leading the way at 56. Overall, Dutch
universities dropped in relative performance in the latest rankings, with seven universities,
including UVA, slipping from their 2009 positions. Yet as more Dutch universities offer
programs in English, the Netherlands is fast becoming a popular choice for international
study. Top Universities has looked at English-language degrees worldwide including your
options in the Netherlands (www.topuniversities.com).
Dutch higher education programs have secured a reputation for high quality and well
organised content. All programs are checked against a list of criteria to ensure consistent
standards and, in some cases, Dutch programs are accredited by another countrys
national accreditation organisation. The overall style of education in the Netherlands is
known as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) and is regarded as one of the best approaches to
higher education in the world today.
There are two distinct types of higher education institution: research universities
(universiteiten) and universities of applied sciences (hogescholen). Most programs
are offered in English, making them very accessible for international students. The
14 government-approved research universities, which currently cater for more than
200,000 students, focus on research and teaching from an academic point of view. Three
of these universities specialise in engineering. The 42 government-approved universities
of applied sciences prepare about 400,000 students each year for the workplace. These
institutions offer a range of qualications, predominantly in agriculture, engineering and
technology, economics and business administration, healthcare, ne and performing arts,
education (teacher training) and social welfare. There are also 11 International Education
Institutes, offering advanced courses exclusively in English for international students.
These institutions focus on development-related subjects taught in small groups of
various nationalities.
Entry requirements vary according to the type of university and are based on a students
qualications, language skills, and any specics of the chosen academic eld of study.
www.topuniversities.com
198
As a minimum, a student will have to have the equivalent of a Dutch VWO Diploma,
awarded after 13 years of education. For students with 12 years of education, bridging
courses are available. Because so many programs are available in English, students do not
need to demonstrate language prociency in Dutch, but they will be expected to show
competence in English through an IELTS

or TOEFL

exam. Applying to Dutch universities


is straightforward with application deadlines in April or May of the year in which studies
commence. Find further information on studies in the Netherlands at www.nufc.nl.
Fees, nance & cost of living
Tuition fees at Dutch institutions are subsidised by the national government and
undergraduate fees vary by subject. Popular areas such as business, economics, law
and management are more expensive than literature and history, with fees anywhere
between 2,000 and 12,500 a year. There are few nationally organised undergraduate
scholarships available, but a number of major schemes exist for postgraduate programs.
Some undergraduate scholarships exist for students from specic countries around
the world and these tend to be administered by local Netherlands Education Support
Ofces (NESO). Some individual universities organise, fund and award scholarships to
international students. There is an online search facility helpful in locating scholarships
offered by Grantnder: www.grantnder.nl. The cost of living in the Netherlands
is relatively expensive. Many students live on between 700 and 900 a month, with
accommodation costs either in university or private residences accounting for between
300 and 450 of that budget. Student discounts and subsidised food costs at institutions
can offset some of the expenses of being a student. All international students need to
have health insurance to obtain an entry visa into the Netherlands. If a student is under
the age of 30, working part-time or staying longer than three years, the health cover
situation alters. Details are available from each institution or at www.studyinholland.nl.
There are excellent infrastructure and travel links throughout the Netherlands. In cities
and towns, many people use a bicycle to get around. For longer journeys trains, buses and
planes provide reasonably priced fares all over the Netherlands and further aeld.
Student life
Students from outside the European Economic Area (EEA) are allowed to work while
studying, although you must have a work permit and there are restrictions on what you
can do. Students must choose to either work full-time during June, July and August, or
part-time for a maximum ten hours per week throughout the year. International students
are also eligible to apply for a highly skilled migrant visa which allows you to stay for
one year after your studies. So, if you havent managed to visit, taste, and listen to all
ten recommendations of things to do as an international student in the Netherlands on
www.topuniversities.com, youll have some added time to experience them.
small country
big opportunities
Amsterdam
Diemen
Hilversum
Haarlem
Leiden
Den Haag
Delft Gouda
Rotterdam
Utrecht
Breda
Middelburg
Vlissingen
Breukelen
Barneveld
Velp
Arnhem
Deventer
Enschede
Hengelo
Dronten Zwolle
Kampen
Leeuwarden Groningen
Haren
Assen
Emmen
Ede
Wageningen
Buren
Nijmegen
s- Hertogenbosch
Tilburg
Eindhoven
Venlo
Heerlen
Maastricht
more than 1,500 study programmes taught in English
www.studyinholland.nl
www.topuniversities.com
200
Study in the Nordic Countries (Denmark,
Finland, Iceland, Norway & Sweden)
Pros & cons
+ High academic quality
+ Large range of programs taught in English
+ Plenty of student activities
+ Low or no fees
- One of the most expensive regions to live
- Some difculty with residence permits
Why the Nordic Region?
The ve countries that make up the Nordic region, most commonly referred to as
Scandinavia, are all individual in their own right. From Icelands bubbling geysers to
Denmarks little mermaid, Swedens midnight sun to Norways ords, not to mention
Helsinki Design Week in Finland. Whichever Nordic country you choose to study in,
chances are youll explore the others around you: take your skis to Lapland, go for a dip
in a frozen lake, enjoy the endless daylight hours or join in the festivals that occur in this
part of the world all year round.
Universities
Six Nordic universities appear in the top 100 of the 2010 QS World University Rankings

,
two more than in 2009. Denmarks University of Copenhagen is the top ranked at 45.
Both Denmark and Sweden have two universities in the worlds top 100, with Finland and
Norway boasting one a piece. In total, Sweden has the highest number of world-ranked
universities with eight in the top 500. Finland follows closely with seven, Denmark has ve
and Norway, four. Find out where they all rank on www.topuniversities.com.
The higher education systems of all the Nordic countries are similar. Each offers three or
four-year bachelors degrees and one or two-year masters programs. Universities tend
to offer degree-level teaching while university colleges and vocational colleges offer
diplomas and certicates in more applied and practical subjects. There is a high level of
English spoken in each of the Nordic countries with many domestic students, particularly
in Sweden, choosing to study in English in preparation for international careers. This
makes studying abroad in one of these ve countries easier for international students for
whom English is a common language.
Norway has the most private investment in higher education with 29 institutions holding
either program or institutional accreditation from the government. Finland provides the
largest number of English language programs in Europe outside the UK, within its parallel
binary system of universities (offering more academic-oriented programs) and universities
of applied sciences (where the more vocational and technical subjects are taught).
Sweden, where currently about 31,000 international students study, and Denmark, both
offer diverse systems of higher education, where vocational and academic programs are
readily available. Entry requirements are also similar. Students must have a minimum of
12 years of education although in Denmark, Finland and Norway, 13 years is preferred.
If a students qualication is not sufcient to meet the required entry levels, he/she may
need to complete a university preparatory course. In each of the ve countries, individual
universities have their own application processes and deadlines.
Study abroad
201
Fees, nance & cost of living
One of the great advantages of higher education in the Nordic countries is that tuition
fees are either reasonably priced or not yet in existence. Denmark charges market-rate
tuition fees on a modest scale. Individual universities or colleges may charge a small
administrative fee for every semester, but these amounts are not as high as the tuition fees
of other European countries. However, the cost of living in these countries is extremely
high. A cup of coffee in Norway can cost the equivalent of US$6, a ticket to the cinema
will set you back US$17, as for a Big Mac, expect to pay around US$15.
University or private accommodation tends to be the largest single expenditure for
students studying in this region but scholarships are available in most of the Nordic
countries. Denmark offers several government schemes and supports a range of EU
mobility programs. Norway administers a range of awards and scholarships through the
Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Higher Education (SIU) www.siu.no/
en. A Quota Scheme also exists for 1,100 students every year from developing countries,
Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Sweden and Iceland both offer scholarships to cover
living costs through their national agencies the Swedish Institute administers over 500
scholarships each year (www.studyinsweden.se/scholarships/) and in all countries
certain universities and colleges offer awards for specic countries or academic subjects.
Another element of life in the Nordic countries is the excellent welfare state, offering
protection for all in society. Students from the European Economic Area (EEA) are
covered for all medical care, including emergencies, by their own medical system. Other
international students are covered by the local system in Denmark (after a period of six
weeks), Finland (if you are a member of the Students Union), Iceland (if your program
of study is full-time), and in Norway and Sweden (if your program of study is longer
than a year).
International students can work in all ve Nordic countries, although each has specic
conditions that need to be satised in order for you to work legally. In most cases students
can work 20 hours a week in term time and full-time during vacations, depending on the
status of your study visa or residence permit.
Student life
As an international student, youll be able to partake in the full range of academic, social
and sporting activities organised by students for students, on or near your universitys
campus. Universities and colleges in the big cities tend to offer more facilities than those
in smaller centres. If you end up studying abroad in the Nordic region, youve chosen to
study in one of the most expensive parts of the world, but with some of the lowest fees,
and that means you wont be conned to the classroom either. Youll nd a whole range
of recommendations of things to do from sweating it out in a Finnish sauna to watching
wannabe musicians at the World Air Guitar Championships on www.topuniversities.com.
www.topuniversities.com
202
Study in New Zealand
Pros & cons
+ Large range of internationally recognised programs
+ Students can work 20 hours per week
+ Opportunity to seek employment after graduation
- Expensive fees for international students
- Long way from rest of world
Why New Zealand?
Its a land of adventure, adrenaline, culture and cuisine, and the experiences on offer in
New Zealand cant be found anywhere else. Bungy jump, swim with dolphins, watch a
rugby game or surf one of the best left hand breaks in the world it may take a while
to get to New Zealand but once you arrive you wont want to leave. It is quite simply a
country you will never forget. Find out more at www.newzealandeducated.com.
Universities
New Zealand has a total of just eight universities but four of these are in the top 300
of the 2010 QS World University Rankings

and a further two make it into the top 400.


The University of Auckland takes the crown as New Zealands top university, ranked 68
in the world, but it is the strength of New Zealands universities at subject level that
really impresses: ve New Zealand universities rank in the top 100 for social sciences and
management and the top 200 for natural sciences; four rank in the top 200 for engineering
and technology; and three appear in the top 100 for life sciences and medicine.
International students need a visa or permit to study here and to gain entry, students must
pass one of the recognised English language prociency exams; requirements and results
depend on the chosen program of study.
Fees, nance & cost of living
Fees for international students can be expensive but both the New Zealand government
and universities have scholarships available. International students studying in New
Zealand should budget NZ$20,000 a year in living expenses. Full-time students are also
permitted to work up to 20 hours per week. There is no limit on the time students can
spend studying in New Zealand as long as they have a current visa.
Student life
Undergraduate degrees take three to four years of study; conjoint and specialist degrees
up to six, so if youre thinking of studying in New Zealand youll be there long enough
to explore this country of just over four million people. But if youre wondering where to
begin, check out Top Universities top ten things every undergraduate student should do
while studying abroad in New Zealand at www.topuniversities.com.
Study abroad
203
Study in Scotland
Pros & cons
+ No fees for continental EU students
+ Research of a world leading standard
+ Three universities in the top 100
- The weather can be unpredictable
Why Scotland?
Dont let the cold put you off: it may conjure up thoughts of wind, rain and snow, but
Scotland is one of the worlds hottest study abroad destinations. Explore Edinburgh
Castle, enjoy the view from Arthurs Seat, but dont forget to explore the rest of Scotland.
Theres Glasgow, St Andrews and Stirling, the islands of Arran, Lewis and Skye, but no
time in Scotland is complete without the taste of haggis or the avour of whisky you
may need both to keep you warm!
Universities
In the 2010 QS World University Rankings

, Edinburgh, Glasgow and St Andrews


universities are all ranked in the top 100, as well as being some of the oldest universities
in the world. These are just three of Scotlands 20 higher education institutions all of
which deliver undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Of these, 15 are universities
and a further ve are small specialist institutions. Undergraduate degrees typically take
four years in Scotland; postgraduate courses take between one and three years. Find out
how other Scottish universities performed in the 2010 QS World University Rankings

at
www.topuniversities.com.
Fees, nance & cost of living
There are no tuition fees for Scottish students studying at home, nor for students from
most EU countries, however students from England, Ireland and Wales who choose to
study abroad in Scotland are charged tuition fees. For more details see www.scotland.
gov.uk. Fees for students outside the EU vary between institution, course and level of
study. There are a limited number of scholarships and grants available for international
students. Contact universities individually, or the British Council for further information
www.britishcouncil.org/scotland. Students are advised to budget approximately 600
per month for living expenses, although this can vary and be considerably less outside
Scotlands capital. Full-time students are permitted to work up to 20 hours per week
throughout their studies. Upon completion of a degree, international students can apply
for the Tier 1 (Post-study work) visa, allowing successful applicants to seek employment
and work in the UK for up to two years.
Student life
Scotlands universities have highly active student bodies and students also play an
important role in the governance of their institutions. If youre in need of extra support
and advice, contact your chosen universitys international ofce; they can help with
everything from initial enquiries to preparation for your arrival. And check out the advice
on www.topuniversities.com of one international student from Hong Kong who studied
abroad in Edinburgh for a year.
www.topuniversities.com
204
Study in Singapore
Pros & cons
+ Growing international reputation
+ Employment opportunities after graduation
+ Links with other universities around the world
- Lack of international awareness of Singapore qualications
- Many private colleges with unclear reputations
Why Singapore?
It may be the worlds fourth leading nance centre, but theres more to Singapore than just
business its also a country of unique culture. From Singapores high rise ofce towers,
to the streets of China town, the countrys night zoo to the historical riverside Clarke Quay,
now a hub for retail therapy, its in this cosmopolitan city/country that youll get memories
for a lifetime.
Universities
Two Singapore universities are ranked in the top 100 of the 2010 QS World University
Rankings

. The National University of Singapore (NUS) and Nanyang Technology University


(NTU) are ranked 31 and 74 respectively, a similar performance to 2009 and, once again,
they follow on from an earlier strong performance in the QS.com Asian University Rankings
(view on www.topuniversities.com). With such a reputation, Singapores top publicly-
funded universities attract more applications from local and international students than
there are places available. NUS, NTU and Singapore Management University (SMU), teach
a full range of academic subjects and all offer undergraduate degree qualications in
addition to postgraduate and research programs. The country also has ve polytechnics
offering two and three-year diplomas in many different subject areas which focus on
educating students in a more vocational way. Tightly regulated by the Singaporean
Ministry of Education, there are many private institutions offering undergraduate and
diploma programs. Several offer qualications with international curricula, such as for
the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) and the Association of Chartered Certied
Accountants (ACCA).
A further trend is the growth of offshore campuses. Universities in Australia, Finland,
New Zealand and the UK, and 16 universities from Asia, Europe and the US have opened
campuses in Singapore, providing a range of undergraduate programs. These international
partnerships allow students to study for a fraction of the cost of travelling overseas for
the same program.
Admission to both universities and polytechnics is dependent on individual program
requirements. At both levels, students should have completed at least 12 years of
education. For students wishing to study medicine or dentistry, an application requires
grades to be presented rather than predicted. Application deadlines vary depending on
the program of study and are made directly to the institution. Deadlines are either at the
end of December in the year before a student commences study, or at the end of February
in the year of study. Some programs require students to complete a TOEFL

or IELTS

test,
if English is not their rst language.
Study abroad
205
Fees, nance & cost of living
Individual institutions set tuition fees at the undergraduate level. Fees at the three local
universities tend to vary by academic subject but generally start around SG$30,000.
Exceptional programs, such as those in the medical eld, are priced much higher
and students can expect to pay anything up to SG$120,000 a year for tuition fees.
Singapores ve polytechnics offer a lower fee rate for their diploma programs with
annual costs starting around SG$5,000 for those students eligible for a tuition grant.
The cost of living in Singapore is reasonable. Students have access to both university
and private accommodation. The former tends to be the better option as it provides a
good introduction to life in the new environment and is the most economical. Those who
choose to live in private apartments will nd Singapore more expensive. Depending on the
type of accommodation, students will need to budget between SG$750 and SG$1,500
a month. This estimate should include transport, entertainment, health insurance and
books. If youre eating out, expect to pay about US$4 for a plate of dim sum and US$4.50
for a thirst-quenching glass of beer.
All national and international students are free to apply to the Singaporean Ministry of
Education for a tuition grant once they have been admitted to their program of choice.
This scheme allows for a grant of between SG$14,000 and SG$16,000 for most programs
to be paid against tuition fees. For programs such as medicine and music, the grant can
be as high as SG$65,500 a year. However, international students are required to sign
a bond in order to obtain a tuition grant, committing them to work in Singapore for
three years after the completion of their university or polytechnic program. Scholarships
and bursaries are also available from either the Ministry of Education (www.moe.gov.sg)
or individual universities. Such schemes include the ASEAN Undergraduate Scholarships,
offered by National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technology University and Singapore
Management University, and the Singapore Technologies International Scholarships. All
institutions support their international student population through their International
Student Services. The Overseas Students Association also supports all international
students over the age of 16. Students are recommended to have medical insurance while
studying in Singapore.
Student life
With an excellent transport system, superb infrastructure, and reputation for safety,
Singapore is one of the worlds favoured destinations. Full-time students can work up to
16 hours a week during term time and full-time during vacations. However, in some cases
a students immigration status may prevent him or her from seeking employment. Details
can be found at www.mom.gov.sg. Whats more, with its central location in the heart
of Asia you can also explore the south-eastern Asian countries of Cambodia, Vietnam
and Laos or Singapores neighbour, Malaysia. www.topuniversities.com has a guide on
what to do in the region to get you started, including testing those taste buds with some
chilli-infused cuisine.
Develop your
professional career
in a modern European
university, leader in
promoting high-quality
research, located in
an important scientific
and technological pole.
Universitat Autnoma
de Barcelona is known
for the top quality of its
teaching and innovation
and the wide range of
graduate programmes
it offers.
Contact us at:
www.uab.es
CAMPUS OF INTERNATIONAL
EXCELLENCE
CEI
Study abroad
207
Study in Spain
Pros & cons
+ Opportunity to learn one of the most important world languages
+ Same fees for national and international students
+ Active social and cultural life
- Few English language programs
- Difcult to work after studies
- Few ranked Spanish universities
Why Spain?
Whether its a stroll past the royal palace in Madrid, or a walk down Las Ramblas in
Catalan Barcelona, Spain is a fascinating country of contrasts to explore. Sip Sangria, dine
on paella, and partake in the many festivities throughout the year theres La Tomatina
and Pamplonas Running with the Bulls for starters. Known for their colour, character and
spirit, the Spanish will welcome you with open arms. From the beaches of the Costa del
Sol to the history of Seville, this formerly less known study destination is fast turning into
a popular choice for international students.
Universities
Spains ten best-performing universities improved their positions by an average of 19
places in the 2010 QS World University Rankings

. Universitat de Barcelona led the way,


increasing in world rank from 171= in 2009 to 148 in 2010. Made up of 77 universities,
Spains university system offers a range of bachelors and masters degrees in areas such
as arts and humanities, experimental sciences, health sciences, social and legal sciences,
engineering and architecture. Undergraduate degrees in Spain require three to four years
of study; masters degrees one to two years. Find more detail on Spains higher education
system at www.topuniversities.com.
Fees, nance & cost of living
International and domestic students pay the same fees at most universities. Fees for a
bachelors degree (Grado) at a public university vary between 500 and 1,100 per
academic year. Private universities are more expensive. Students in Spain spend an average
of 600 per month on living expenses, depending on the city. The differences are due
mainly to the cost of accommodation which tends to be higher in the larger cities. Food
prices and the cost of other services tend to be similar all over Spain.
Student life
Spain has quickly recognised the value international students bring to the country and
as a result, universities offer good support services for international students. One of
the main attractions for international undergraduate students considering Spain as a
study destination is the chance to immerse themselves in one of the worlds most vibrant
cultures and to learn one of the worlds most important languages. Spanish is spoken by
more than 400 million people across 21 countries!
www.opendays.usi.ch
Come visit us!
Masters
ARCHITECTURE*

ECONOMICS
Banking & Finance
Economia e Politiche Internazionali*
Finance
Management
COMMUNICATION
Communication, Management & Health
Gestione dei Media*
LINGUA, LETTERATURA E CIVILT ITALIANA*
ECONOMICS AND COMMUNICATION
Corporate Communication
Financial Communication
International Tourism
Marketing
Public Management and Policy, PMP*
ECONOMICS AND INFORMATICS
Management and Informatics
INFORMATICS
Applied Informatics
Computational Science
Distributed Systems
Embedded Systems Design
Intelligent Systems
Software Design
*In Italian. All other programmes are held in English.
USI
Universit della
Svizzera italiana
Enjoy top quality Swiss education.
Let our innovative Masters inspire you!
USI Lugano/Mendrisio
studyadvisor@usi.ch
www.usi.ch master.usi.ch
Study abroad
209
Study in Switzerland
Pros & cons
+ Affordable tuition fees
+ Strong rankings performance of universities
+ Option to work while studying
- Tough application requirements
- Expensive country (but many student discounts)
Why Switzerland?
Swiss chocolate, Swiss skiing, Swiss watches: some of the best of the best can be found
in Switzerland and that includes education. It may be one of the smallest countries in
the middle of Western Europe, but Switzerland can certainly hold its own against the
neighbouring powerhouses of France, Germany and Italy. From the art exhibitions in Basel
to the lakes of Geneva, experience all that Switzerland has to offer when youre not off-
piste in the Alps of course!
Universities
In the 2010 QS World University Rankings

three Swiss universities are ranked in the top


100. ETH Zurich (18) and Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (32) both appear in the
top 50, with the University of Geneva improving on its 2009 performance to be ranked
71 in the world. There are two categories of tertiary education in Switzerland: universities
of applied sciences, which offer professional training, and higher technical schools, which
give students professional or vocational qualications. A rst degree requires three years
of study; masters a further two. Many Swiss universities offer courses in English, but
students do need a high level of language comprehension in German, French or Italian,
depending on the canton (local region) of study. Students must include a state-recognised
Swiss maturity certicate or equivalent foreign certicate as part of their application.
Fees, nance & cost of living
International students must ensure they have sufcient funds to support themselves if
they wish to study abroad in Switzerland, although most Swiss universities are publicly
funded, making international study relatively affordable. The Swiss government and some
universities also offer scholarships to international students. Student accommodation,
mainly atshares, is advertised on university notice boards or student websites such as
www.students.ch and www.semestra.ch. International students are entitled to 15 hours a
week paid employment and those staying longer than three months must take out health
insurance. Find out more about visas, applications and language requirements to study
abroad in Switzerland at www.topuniversities.com.
Student life
Switzerland has a reputation for being a relatively expensive country but university student
association membership enables students to receive many discounts around town. A train
discount card offers free travel on train, bus or boat after 7pm for students under 25.
Check out where to go with your discount card at www.topuniversities.com where you
will nd Top Universities recommendations of the top ten things every undergraduate
student should do while studying abroad in Switzerland.
www.topuniversities.com
210
Study in the United Kingdom (UK)
Pros & cons
+ Home to the worlds top university
+ All programs taught in English
+ University places held for international students
- High cost of tuition and living expenses
- High numbers of international students on some programs
Why the UK?
The UK is an exciting part of the world to live at any time, but as the nation gears up
for the 2012 Olympics, not to mention the 2011 royal weddings, there has never been a
better time to study abroad in the UK. Youve not only got your choice of West End shows
in London to watch, rolling countryside in Wales to ramble over, art galleries in Glasgow
to visit, or the Giants Causeway in Northern Ireland to step across, youve got the worlds
top university - and numerous other world class institutions to choose from.
Universities
For the rst time since the beginning of the QS World University Rankings

in 2004,
a UK institution has topped the list. The University of Cambridge was ranked number one
in the world in 2010. Cambridge is one of four UK universities in the worlds top ten, and
leads a list of 30 UK universities in the top 200, including names such as the University of
Oxford, Kings College London, University of St Andrews and Queens University of Belfast.
For a full list of UK universities ranked in the 2010 QS World University Rankings

visit
www.topuniversities.com.
There are more than 140 institutions in the UK offering undergraduate degrees to 1.6
million full-time students, 99,000 of whom are international students. Another 500
colleges offer educational programs of differing kinds. Comprehensive and multi-
faculty UK universities and colleges offer the full range of academic subject areas from
accountancy to zoology. No separate institutions exist for subjects such as business,
law and medicine at the undergraduate level, though some universities offer subject
specialisations such as the London School of Economics (social sciences), the School
of Pharmacy (pharmaceutical sciences) and the Institute of Education (teacher training
and education). Almost all universities in the UK are state-nanced. Universities and
colleges offer ve broad types of qualication. Colleges tend to teach the Higher National
Certicate (HNC), Higher National Diploma (HND), Foundation Degree and Diploma of
Higher Education. All last between one and two years and are the equivalent of the early
stages of a bachelors degree. Universities tend to teach three or four-year undergraduate
degree programs that are more academic in nature and lead to a bachelors qualication.
Degree programs that are four years in length tend to include a period in industry or
commerce, or a period of study abroad, such as an exchange scheme in Europe or the
US. Students must have completed 13 years of education prior to coming to the UK and
have a local high school qualication equivalent to UK A-levels. Students without 13 years
of education are able to apply to UK universities and colleges that offer foundation or
bridging programs. Applications are generally made through a central system administered
by the Universities and Colleges Application Service (UCAS): www.ucas.ac.uk. Students
who dont speak English as a rst language should check with their chosen institution to
see what test results or certicate they need to complete prior to making their application.
Study abroad
211
Fees, nance & cost of living
After a review of the higher education system in 2010, the UK government has voted
to allow universities to charge UK students up to 9,000 a year for tuition from 2012
onwards, three times the previous amount. Students can nd a Q&A to these funding
changes on www.topuniversities.com. These changes affect domestic students more
than international students, who already pay higher fees.
International students can continue to expect to pay somewhere between 6,500 and
13,000 a year, depending on whether a program is classroom or laboratory based.
Students permanently resident in Scotland do not have to pay tuition fees, however
a proposal to increase Scottish education fees for students from England, Wales and
Northern Ireland is currently planned. International students, including those from EU
and EEA countries will pay differing fee amounts dependent on the university they have
chosen to study at. Meanwhile, fees in Wales are set to rise but resident Welsh students
will be subsidised should they choose to study in the UK.
Costs for accommodation, utilities and books are generally high, although there are
regional differences. London and the southeast have a higher cost of living than other
parts of the UK. As a student you will have access to discounts on all sorts of services such
as movies, theatre, museums, tourist attractions and travel. Students can expect to pay
anywhere between 5,500 (outside of London and the southeast) and 7,500 upwards
a year for living costs. The UK transport system is well developed but can be expensive if
you dont book well in advance. Train, bus and ight networks cover the entire country
and allow you to travel easily and quickly. Students also have access to free medical care
if their program of study is over six months in length.
Scholarships are difcult to obtain in the UK at undergraduate level. There are no schemes
administered by government organisations and only partial funding offered by individual
universities and colleges. Most schemes require you to hold an offer of admission
before seeking an application for nancial aid. Relevant information is available on
the international or undergraduate university admissions web pages for each
institution. The British Council also has information on funding and visa applications:
www.britishcouncil.org.
Student life
University life is all about socialising and making friends, says Mina Huynh, a
Vietnamese student who studied for her LLB at the University of Birmingham. Follow in
Minas footsteps and make the most of the opportunities UK universities and colleges
offer to international students. Theres a range of services including clubs, sports facilities
and special interest societies such as debating clubs, political and cultural groups, as
well as performing arts. All students are eligible to join the National Union of Students,
an organisation that campaigns for the rights of students. Students from the European
Economic Area (EEA) can work freely in the UK; other international students can work up
to 20 hours a week in term time and full-time during vacations. Read more about Minas
experience studying abroad in the UK country section on www.topuniversities.com.
Loyola Marymount University is a Jesuit university offering
more than 90 majors and programs, each providing rigorous
and practical preparation for your life and your career. Nestled
in one of the worlds most dynamic cities with extraordinary
views of the Pacic Ocean and Downtown Los Angeles, LMUs
serene campus offers one of the most exhilarating academic
locations anywhere.
Take your rst step to discovering more about LMU at:
lmu.edu/international, or e-mail international@lmu.edu.
LMU is consistently
ranked as one of
the best universities
of its kind.
- U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT
Los Angeles:
Your ideal education destination
Study abroad
213
Study in the US
Pros & cons
+ Many of the worlds top public and private universities
+ Student support services
+ Scholarships/nancial aid for many international students
- Tough student visa requirements
- Difcult to gain a visa for employment after graduation
- High tuition fees
Why the US?
Home to Hollywood, Central Park, and the Golden Gate Bridge; known for basketball,
movie stars, and lengthy presidential campaigns, theres no denying the US has a major
presence on the world stage, but if you really want to experience this country of 50 states
and over 300 million people, pack your bags. From the hustle and bustle of some of the
worlds most famous cities, to the dust and dirt of the Wild West, the US wont disappoint
as a study abroad destination.
Universities
US universities retain their stronghold in the 2010 QS World University Rankings

. Harvard
University, which for the rst time was in second place in the rankings, led the group of
six US universities that dominate the top ten. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
was one of the stand-out performers, climbing from ninth place to fth. Overall, there are
53 US universities in the top 100. Link to them all on www.topuniversities.com.
Seventy ve per cent of US universities are private institutions including the prestigious,
independent Ivy League schools funded by income from student fees, research awards
and endowments. The remaining 25 per cent are state funded, have much lower fees and
are the destination of 75 per cent of US students. State universities include some of the
top ranked universities in the world such as several of the Universities of California. The US
education system also works on a credit system, which enables students to change their
majors without losing any time during their degree. This credit system makes transferring
between universities relatively straightforward.
Studying medicine or law in the US is different from the rest of the world. There are
almost no undergraduate medical degrees (Northwestern University is one of the only
exceptions), or undergraduate law degrees. Students interested in medicine must study
another subject in their rst degree, while preparing for their MCAT (nine hours of
multiple choice testing) to gain entry to medical school. Students interested in law tend
to study for a liberal arts degree, while having to pass the LSAT test to gain entry to law
school. Find out more about these tests at www.topgradschool.com.
The US also has many of the worlds foremost undergraduate business programs and
MBAs. US universities publish general entry criteria on their websites. For prospective
international students who achieve top ten per cent grades in their home country, the
chances of gaining entry to the top ten per cent of US universities are high, but there will
be exceptions. Some country high school qualications are considered more advanced
than US equivalents. For example, UK A-level grades can count towards credits for
many US degrees, potentially taking as much as 12 months off the length of the degree.
Domestic applicants have to take the SAT exam. If SAT results are a long way short of the
average, it is generally not worth applying.
www.topuniversities.com
214
Fees, nance & cost of living
The elite US universities are the most expensive in the world. At the same time, they can
be a gateway to the most attractive employment market in the world, and provide value
for money in terms of class time and good access to professors. An added attraction
for international students is the huge number of scholarships and nancial aid packages
available at many well-funded private universities, making them open to even the most
disadvantaged, but bright, students. University scholarships tend to be awarded on
nancial need and/or merit. Merit can encompass special talent in sports, performing
arts, community service participation or extracurricular involvement as well as outstanding
academic performance. Many scholarships are renewable over a students four years of
study, providing specied academic standards or grades are maintained. For UK students,
the Fulbright Commission has scholarships available to promote UK and US exchanges:
www.fulbright.co.uk. Many US universities nancial aid departments ask for a statement
of your familys nancial situation. If they decide your family can only contribute US$1,000
per year, then that is all you will pay in tuition fees. Alternatively, the institution may have
an international student loan scheme. Students whose families can afford the bills should
be prepared for tuition and fees varying anywhere between US$3,500 and US$60,000
per academic year based on a nine-month academic year from September to May. Books,
travel and living costs need to be added. Costs vary by city, with New York, Boston
and San Francisco among the most expensive. Students must provide proof of having
purchased private health insurance as part of their application.
American universities encourage students to work alongside their studies. Employment
ofces provide paid work on campus, for which an international student visa will sufce.
You will need to apply for a social security number, at which point you can take any
campus job such as a teaching assistant or sports attendant. As part of your international
visa, you are allowed one year of optional practical training (OPT), enabling you to work
anywhere in the US. The year allocation can be used in batches during summer internships
or in full after your degree.
Student life
From Legally Blonde to Dead Poets Society, the life of a university student in the US has
often been depicted on the big screen, but to nd out what its really like, join the clubs
and societies at your chosen university. You may also get to experience the infamous
fraternities and sororities. But whatever you do, dont forget to explore the rest of
America while youre there. Take a drive down Highway Number 1, marvel at American
history in Washington DC, hit the slopes of Colorado, and listen to real New Orleans
jazz thats what Top Universities recommends anyway, see www.topuniversities.com.
DEVELOP
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www.topuniversities.com
216
Study abroad information*
General websites
Academic Programs International for www.academicintl.com
US students
American Institute For Foreign Study (AIFS) www.aifsabroad.com
(US based)
Arabian Campus LLC www.arabiancampus.com
an academic service provider for the purpose
of promoting accredited higher education programs
and institutions within the Arabian region
The Education Abroad Network www.educationabroadnetwork.org
(Australia& US based)
Estudios Internacionales internacional.universia.net
(Spain based)
Go Abroad www.goabroad.com
(US based)
IIEPassport Study Abroad Directories www.iiepassport.org
(US based)
Study Abroad www.studyabroaddirectory.com
(US based)
Top Universities www.topuniversities.com
Worldwide Classroom www.worldwide.edu
(US based)
National websites
Argentina AR Study in Argentina www.argentina.gov.ar
www.en.argentina.ar
Australia AU IDP Education Australia www.idp.com
Austria AT AD Austrian Exchange Service www.oead.ac.at
Brazil BR Study in Brazil www.studyinbrazil.org
Canada CA Canadian Education Centre Network www.studycanada.ca
China CN China Study Abroad www.chinastudyabroad.org
Denmark DK CIRIUS Study in Denmark www.studyindenmark.dk
Finland FI CIMO Centre for International Mobility www.studyinnland.
France FR Agence CampusFrance www.campusfrance.org
Germany DE DAAD German Academic Exchange Service www.daad.de
The portal for students www.uni-pur.de
Greece GR Study Abroad Greece www.studyabroadgreece.com
Study abroad
217
Hong Kong HK Hong Kong Higher Education studyinhongkong.edu.hk
India IN University Grants Commission www.ugc.ac.in
Iran IR International Student Information System
www.iran-student.com
Ireland IE Education Ireland www.educationireland.ie
Italy IT MIUR www.study-in-italy.it
CIMEA www.cimea.it
Japan JP JASSO Japan Student Services Organization www.jasso.go.jp
Kazakhstan KZ Study in Kazakhstan studyinkazakhstan.com
Korea, South KR NIIED www.studyinkorea.co.kr
Malaysia MY Study Malaysia www.studymalaysia.com
Mexico MX Secretaria De Educacin Publica (SEP) www.sep.gob.mx
Netherlands NL NUFFIC www.studyin.nl
New Zealand NZ Education New Zealand www.newzealandeducated.com
Norway NO SIU www.studyinnorway.no
Philippines PH Study in Philippines www.studyinphilippines.com
Poland PL Study in Poland www.studyinpoland.pl
Russia RU The School of Russian and Asian Studies www.sras.org
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of SA
Ministry of Higher Education Portal www.mohe.gov.sa/en
Singapore SG Singapore Education www.singaporeedu.gov.sg
Slovenia SI CMEPIUS www.cmepius.si/en
South Africa ZA Study South Africa www.studysa.co.za
Spain ES Eduespaa www.eduespa.org
Sweden SE The Swedish Institute www.studyinsweden.se
Switzerland CH Studying in Switzerland www.switzerland.isyours.com
Rectors Conference of the Swiss Universities www.crus.ch
Taiwan TW Ministry of Education www.studyintaiwan.org
Thailand TH About Thailand Info www.aboutthailand.info/university.asp
Turkey TR Study Turkey www.studyinturkey.net
UAE AE Arabian Campus www.arabiancampus.com
UK GB The British Council www.educationuk.org
US US Education USA www.educationusa.state.gov
* This compilation copyright QS 2011
EDHEC
Business School
Contact: International.admissions@edhec.edu
Master in Management
2-year double degree programme driving you from knowledge to
competencies. Final year of study leading to a specialised Master of
Science programme.
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Masters of Science
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LILLE, NICE, PARIS, LONDON, SINGAPORE
219
Six
Fees, nance and scholarships
An important question for all prospective students and their parents is
how much will your studies cost and how will you pay for them? This
chapter provides an overview of the costs associated with studying, and
some of the ways in which you might nance your degree program, either
through a scholarship or other options. You will nd a survey of relative
study and living costs around the world followed by a list of fees at the top
200 universities. The second part of this chapter looks at nancing your
study, and reviews some of the most prominent organisations offering
scholarships in popular destination countries. The gures in the data
tables are averages so further investigation is recommended in every case.
Studying at university is a major investment, one of the most important of your life.
Having to study hard for several years and accumulate signicant debt may seem like a
bad proposition, but when you review the career options for todays top graduates, it
becomes clear that a good degree is an excellent investment. Studying at a top university
will have a positive impact on your future earnings potential and international study can
be even more highly regarded by top employers. With thousands of universities in the
world and millions of students, it is little surprise that the availability and participation in
higher education varies, as do study and living costs. Today, smart students and parents
can shop around the world to search out the best value, according to their career aims,
their specic interests and their budget. All prospective students and their parents need
to assess budgets and return on investment, so it is important to understand the true
costs of study at different institutions, and their quality, in order to make the best study
choices possible.
An end to free universities
The world of higher education is undergoing great change, increasingly refered to as a
perfect storm. These forces are creating many changes, but the overwhelming change
is that university education is no longer available without fees for the majority of people,
even in their home countries. Most institutions today charge, or plan to introduce charges
for tuition. Private and public universities alike have passed on some or all of the study
costs to their students, with the implementation of full-cost tuition fees now being
commonplace throughout Europe, Asia and North and Latin America. Across the world, a
www.topuniversities.com
220
free university education is rapidly becoming a thing of the past. As a consequence, many
young people are shopping internationally for the best available deals in higher education;
not necessarily the lowest overall cost, but the best price for the quality and the reputation
of the degree they hope to obtain. This calculation will vary according to the type of
program that is chosen, the country of choice, the length of stay, as well as other factors.
University study costs worldwide
Variations in study costs across the world may play a part in your choice of university,
but these costs should always be considered alongside the quality of the university and
program. The following table of average tuition costs by country, for domestic and
international students for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs, provides a
quick basis for comparison. The data collected from the 600 universities listed in the
Directory at the back of this book forms the basis of these gures.
University fees in the US are, on average, the highest in the world. By contrast, Norway
continues to levy no tuition fees on domestic or international students. There are now
very few exceptions to paying tuition fees, with Finland, Sweden and Germany now
implementing some element of tuition fees. Fees remain low in a number of other
European countries, although universities in The Netherlands, the UK and Ireland tend to
charge higher fees. Nevertheless, the countries where fees are set at a relatively high level
remain popular with international students.
There are great variations in approach to tuition costs from country to country, and
between and within individual universities, depending on academic area and program,
so further detailed research on tuition fees is recommended. Singapore, for example, has
a unique arrangement which can reduce the net cost of study. Any student accepted for
study will be eligible for a Ministry of Education grant if he or she signs a deed of covenant
agreeing to work in Singapore for three years after graduation.
Tuition fees at the worlds top 200 universities
In most countries, private universities charge higher fees than public universities. The fact
that the top 200 universities in the QS World University Rankings

include private and


public institutions explains some of the wide variation in fees, even within single countries.
Not surprisingly, many of the most expensive universities in the world are some of the top
ranked US private institutions. It is important to look at these costs in association with
the detailed information elsewhere in this book: the QS World University Rankings

, the
proles of the top 100 universities worldwide, and the subject area rankings. This will help
put them in perspective relative to the quality of the course and the institution.
Tuition fees also often vary for different program types within universities, for example,
many professional graduate degrees are more expensive than the averages quoted, while
other courses are less expensive.
The following tables are a guide to average undergraduate and postgraduate fees for
domestic and international students at the top 200 universities according to the QS World
University Rankings

. It is very important to research further to establish precise study


costs for your chosen program and university. Your study decision should always follow
written conrmation of the tuition fees you will pay for the specic program you want
to study.
Fees, nance and scholarships
221
Domestic International
Country undergraduate postgraduate undergraduate postgraduate
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual university tuition costs by country US$
Argentina 2,370 4,403 2,370 4,908
Australia 5,834 6,639 20,638 20,504
Austria 0 0 998 998
Bangladesh 41 53 500 500
Belgium 933 933 3,309 3,309
Brazil 1,633 0 1,633 0
Canada 4,236 4,394 16,038 11,896
Chile 5,697 10,317 5,697 10,317
China 1,106 2,691 2,969 4,239
Colombia 3,548 6,029 3,617 6,143
Czech Republic 0 0 8,364 8,364
Denmark 0 0 18,305 18,305
Egypt 9 9 254 326
Estonia 2,585 2,933 2,585 2,933
Finland 0 0 0 0
France 236 467 236 422
Germany 1,127 1,127 1,127 1,127
Greece 0 0 - -
Hong Kong 5,418 8,937 10,618 11,215
Hungary - - - -
India 865 1,023 - -
Indonesia 1,121 1,685 3,066 3,950
Iran 2,088 3,941 5,950 7,350
Ireland 5,954 8,371 18,443 17,520
Israel 4,796 5,993 3,264 8,256
Italy 1,778 2,618 1,778 2,699
Japan 6,995 6,724 6,766 6,478
Kazakhstan 2,120 3,370 2,120 3,370
Korea, South 5,077 5,728 4,513 4,827
Lebanon 6,643 17,628 6,643 17,628
Lithuania 1,866 4,096 2,934 2,934
Malaysia 597 1,503 1,961 2,962
Mexico 3,606 6,005 5,484 7,148
Netherlands 2,296 2,296 9,733 14,162
New Zealand 3,605 4,387 17,336 19,032
Norway 0 0 0 0
Pakistan 653 910 59 1,482
Peru 3,285 10,285 10,285 10,285
Philippines 1,585 1,436 2,407 2,273
www.topuniversities.com
222
Domestic International
Country undergraduate postgraduate undergraduate postgraduate
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual university tuition costs by country US$ continued
Poland 0 3,947 0 6,545
Portugal 1,330 2,609 1,330 2,609
Romania 867 935 2,130 2,160
Russia 4,701 5,413 4,800 4,734
Saudi Arabia - - - -
Singapore 6,593 6,960 9,592 11,032
Slovenia 3,652 3,858 3,652 3,858
South Africa 3,544 3,127 6,887 5,276
Spain 2,103 4,040 2,206 4,235
Sri Lanka - - - -
Sweden 0 0 0 0
Switzerland 1,190 1,190 1,190 1,190
Taiwan 1,499 1,276 1,758 1,361
Thailand 1,884 2,024 4,782 3,219
Turkey 5,150 6,994 6,716 8,562
United Arab Emirates - 7,787 - 7,787
United Kingdom 4,820 6,520 19,075 19,675
United States 19,903 19,788 28,344 26,806
Uruguay 3,453 4,067 3,453 4,067
Venezuela 1,020 780 1,020 780
Note on tuition costs table:
A dash (-) in the table indicates no data available.
Costs are calculated based on the average of the numbers supplied by, or for, institutions in each
country as part of the QS World University Rankings

2010; exchange rates as at 12 February 2010


at www.oanda.com. An average has only been calculated if a minimum of two separate values are
available for that country in each column. Any data updates or corrections will be published on
www.topuniversities.com.
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as a value-added service for all our higher education clients at no cost to them.
We invite our current and potential customers in Asia, Middle East and Africa to send in
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Program developments
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Besides featuring news and views, QS News-2-WOW-U will also have a pictorial section
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Fees, nance and scholarships
225
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for domestic students US$
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
1 University of Cambridge 5,141 5,376
2 Harvard University 34,976 34,976
3 Yale University 37,595 37,595
4 UCL (University College London) 5,141 6,950
5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 32,445 32,445
6 University of Oxford 5,141 5,470
7 Imperial College London 5,141 5,298
8 University of Chicago 40,188 40,188
9 California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 34,989 34,989
10 Princeton University 35,340 36,610
11 Columbia University 39,296 39,850
12 University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) 40,514 40,514
13 Stanford University 38,700 38,700
14 Duke University 40,575 40,500
15 University of Michigan 13,095 22,755
16 Cornell University 39,666 39,450
17 Johns Hopkins University 40,680 40,680
18 ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) 1,593 1,086
19 McGill University 1,861 1,861
20 Australian National University 5,757 5,757
21 Kings College London 5,141 6,642
22 University of Edinburgh 2,844 6,642
23 University of Hong Kong 5,418 5,418
24 University of Tokyo, The 6,022 5,938
25 Kyoto University 6,022 6,022
26 Northwestern University 39,840 26,560
27 University of Bristol 5,141 6,954
28 University of California, Berkeley 9,402 13,352
29 University of Toronto 6,008 6,380
30 University of Manchester 5,141 8,517
31 National University of Singapore 6,081 5,269
32 Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne 1,738 1,185
33 cole Normale Suprieure de Paris 261 395
34 Carnegie Mellon University 41,500 39,062
35 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) 9,285 9,285
36 cole Polytechnique, ParisTech 110 7,469
37 University of Sydney 5,901 5,901
38 University of Melbourne 5,901 5,901
39 Brown University 38,048 38,048
40 Hong Kong University of Science & Tech 5,418 -
www.topuniversities.com
226
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for domestic students US$ continued
41 New York University 37,866 39,870
42 Chinese University of Hong Kong 5,418 11,572
43 University of Queensland 5,901 5,901
44 University of British Columbia 4,188 4,024
45 University of Copenhagen 0 0
46 University of New South Wales 5,901 5,901
47 Peking University - -
48 University of Wisconsin-Madison 8,313 10,516
49 Osaka University 6,022 6,022
50 Seoul National University 4,893 4,893
51 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg 1,373 1,373
52 Trinity College Dublin 5,741 7,888
53 University of Warwick 5,141 8,512
54 Tsinghua University - -
55 University of Washington 7,125 10,660
56 University of Amsterdam 2,296 2,296
57 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 6,666 9,782
58 Technische Universitt Mnchen 1,373 1,373
59 University of Birmingham 5,141 5,709
60 Tokyo Institute of Technology 6,022 6,022
61 Monash University 5,757 5,757
62 Uppsala University 0 0
63 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 16,022 16,022
64 Boston University 39,314 39,314
65 University of California, San Diego 11,339 12,635
66 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen (LMU) 1,373 1,373
67 University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) 9,557 11,362
68 University of Auckland 3,733 4,309
69 University of Shefeld 5,274 5,298
70 Freie Universitt Berlin 0 0
71 University of Geneva 1,373 936
72 Lund University 0 0
73 University of Nottingham 5,141 7,001
74 Nanyang Technological University 5,597 4,920
75= University of Helsinki 0 0
75= Washington University in St. Louis 39,400 39,400
77 University of Glasgow 2,844 6,642
78 University of Alberta 4,823 3,393
79 KAIST - Korea Adv. Inst. of Science & Technology 13,514 15,653
80 London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) 5,141 19,372
Fees, nance and scholarships
227
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
81 University of Southampton 5,141 5,417
82 Leiden University 2,296 2,296
83 Utrecht University 2,296 2,296
84 Aarhus University 0 0
85 University of Leeds 5,141 5,376
86 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 775 775
87 Purdue University 9,070 8,330
88 University of York 5,141 5,298
89 University of Western Australia 5,901 5,901
90 Dartmouth College 39,978 39,978
91 Nagoya University 6,022 6,022
92 Durham University 5,141 8,623
93 Lomonosov Moscow State University 7,677 7,418
94 National Taiwan University - -
95 University of St Andrews 2,844 5,313
96 University of Minnesota 9,794 13,868
97 Universitt Freiburg 1,373 1,373
98 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) 12,794 15,884
99 Erasmus University Rotterdam 2,296 2,296
100 University of Oslo 0 0
101 University of Zurich 1,895 1,292
102 Tohoku University 6,022 6,022
103 University of Adelaide 5,901 5,901
104 University of Maryland, College Park 8,053 11,304
105 Fudan University - -
106 Georgia Institute of Technology 7,070 8,636
107 Emory University 35,150 33,800
108 Delft University of Technology 2,296 2,296
109 Hebrew University of Jerusalem 2,582 3,371
110 University of California, Davis 11,984 9,402
111 Maastricht University 2,296 2,296
112 Pohang University of Science & Tech. (POSTECH) 4,525 5,071
113 University of Southern California 38,570 38,570
114 University College Dublin 9,083 8,636
115 Rice University 33,120 33,120
116 University of California, Santa Barbara 7,473 7,947
117 University of Aberdeen 2,844 5,313
118 Universit Pierre et Marie Curie 235 398
119 University of Pittsburgh 14,730 18,529
120 University of Groningen 2,296 2,296
121 University of Liverpool 5,141 5,298
122 Cardiff University 5,141 5,298
www.topuniversities.com
228
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for domestic students US$ continued
123 Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin 343 343
124 Universit Catholique de Louvain 1,114 1,114
125 Ohio State University 8,706 10,440
126 Eindhoven University of Technology 2,296 2,296
127= Case Western Reserve University 37,300 35,310
127= University of Rochester 40,282 40,282
129 City University of Hong Kong 5,418 -
130 University of Virginia 9,870 12,644
131 Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen 1,373 1,373
132 Queens University 4,660 5,479
133 University of Bergen 0 0
134 Vanderbilt University 38,952 38,952
135 University of Otago 3,560 4,626
136 Universit de Montral 1,861 1,861
137 University of Basel 1,922 1,311
138 Tel Aviv University 11,274 11,274
139 cole Normale Suprieure de Lyon 235 317
140 Newcastle University 5,141 6,618
141 Technical University of Denmark 0 0
142 Yonsei University 8,312 5,851
143 University of Vienna 0 0
144 University of Bath 5,141 6,876
145 University of Waterloo 5,254 4,016
146 University of California, Irvine 11,961 11,260
147 Queen Mary, University of London 5,141 8,686
148 Universitat de Barcelona 978 1,955
149 Radboud University Nijmegen 2,296 2,296
150 KTH, Royal Institute of Technology 0 0
151 Shanghai Jiao Tong University 1,583 -
152 University of Lausanne 1,593 1,086
153 Kyushu University 6,022 6,022
154 University of Science and Technology of China - -
155 Georgetown University 38,616 36,744
156 University of Sussex 5,141 7,071
157 Tufts University 40,342 38,138
158 RWTH Aachen 1,373 1,373
159 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology - -
160 University of Arizona 8,238 9,028
161 University of Cape Town 4,193 3,890
Fees, nance and scholarships
229
162= University of Bern 1,648 1,123
162= McMaster University 4,593 5,069
164 University of Western Ontario 4,601 5,474
165 University of Calgary 4,880 5,068
166= Hong Kong Polytechnic University 5,418 12,319
166= Universitt Karlsruhe 1,373 1,373
168 Stockholm University 0 0
169 University of Leicester 5,141 5,657
170 University of Colorado at Boulder 7,932 8,928
171 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam 2,296 2,296
172 University of Tsukuba 6,022 6,022
173 Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona 2,574 2,471
174 Georg-August-Universitt Gttingen 1,373 1,373
175 Hokkaido University 6,022 6,022
176 Universit di Bologna 2,073 2,073
177 Nanjing University - -
178 Wageningen University 2,296 2,296
179 University of Antwerp 775 775
180 Chulalongkorn University 4,616 677
181 Lancaster University 5,141 6,517
182 Waseda University - 9,479
183 University of Gothenburg 0 0
184 University College Cork 0 7,414
185 University of Reading 5,141 5,298
186 Universit Paris Sorbonne, Paris 4 235 398
187 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) 1,074 1,074
188 University of Iowa 7,417 8,579
189 University of Canterbury 3,525 4,118
190 Sapienza Universit di Roma 1,057 1,057
191 Korea University 6,975 10,658
192 University of Ghent 780 780
193 University of Florida 5,020 10,050
194 Stony Brook University 4,970 8,370
195 Universitt Frankfurt am Main 1,373 1,373
196 National Tsing Hua University - -
197 Queens University of Belfast 5,141 5,407
198 Texas A&M University 5,152 6,652
199 University of Twente 2,296 2,296
200 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn 1,373 1,373
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
Copyright: QS Quacquarelli Symonds 2010
For more information, please contact
Mandy Mok at +65 9841 9121 / mm@qs.com
QS Education Trust
is pleased to announce

the inaugural

www.qsmaple.org
FIRST QS MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
PROFESSIONAL LEADERS IN EDUCATION
CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION
1-2 May 2011
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Helping to promote the development of higher education in the Middle East and
Africa in the global context, stimulate international partnership, and support the
processes of institutional evaluation and upgrading that will lead to greater worldwide
recognition of their universities.
Organiser
Organising Partner
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231
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for international students US$
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
1 University of Cambridge 19,398 20,256
2 Harvard University 34,976 34,976
3 Yale University 37,595 37,595
4 UCL (University College London) 24,077 24,405
5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 32,445 32,445
6 University of Oxford 20,472 20,472
7 Imperial College London 31,021 32,037
8 University of Chicago 40,188 40,188
9 California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 34,989 34,989
10 Princeton University 35,340 36,610
11 Columbia University 39,296 39,850
12 University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) 40,514 40,514
13 Stanford University 38,700 38,700
14 Duke University 40,575 40,500
15 University of Michigan 35,974 33,026
16 Cornell University 39,666 39,450
17 Johns Hopkins University 40,680 40,680
18 ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) 1,086 1,086
19 McGill University 13,714 12,711
20 Australian National University 20,461 21,467
21 Kings College London 21,801 21,025
22 University of Edinburgh 17,268 19,867
23 University of Hong Kong 12,870 12,870
24 University of Tokyo, The 6,022 -
25 Kyoto University 6,022 6,022
26 Northwestern University 39,840 39,840
27 University of Bristol 20,980 20,980
28 University of California, Berkeley 32,281 26,221
29 University of Toronto 19,537 16,090
30 University of Manchester 19,925 22,494
31 National University of Singapore 8,847 11,615
32 Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne 1,185 1,185
33 cole Normale Suprieure de Paris 261 395
34 Carnegie Mellon University 41,500 39,062
35 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) 32,002 32,002
36 cole Polytechnique, ParisTech 110 7,469
37 University of Sydney 27,386 25,871
38 University of Melbourne 28,778 24,340
39 Brown University 38,048 38,048
40 Hong Kong University of Science & Tech. 10,296 -
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232
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
41 New York University 37,866 39,870
42 Chinese University of Hong Kong 10,296 11,572
43 University of Queensland 23,427 12,491
44 University of British Columbia 19,199 7,847
45 University of Copenhagen 19,223 19,223
46 University of New South Wales 22,952 20,982
47 Peking University 4,091 4,895
48 University of Wisconsin-Madison 23,063 25,072
49 Osaka University 6,022 6,022
50 Seoul National University 4,893 4,893
51 Ruprecht-Karls-Universitt Heidelberg 1,373 1,373
52 Trinity College Dublin 21,863 16,882
53 University of Warwick 20,707 20,707
54 Tsinghua University 4,267 5,897
55 University of Washington 23,800 24,000
56 University of Amsterdam 13,044 15,790
57 University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 25,280 25,307
58 Technische Universitt Mnchen 1,373 1,373
59 University of Birmingham 19,339 19,339
60 Tokyo Institute of Technology 6,022 6,022
61 Monash University 23,033 23,708
62 Uppsala University 0 0
63 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 30,164 30,164
64 Boston University 39,314 39,314
65 University of California, San Diego 33,360 27,329
66 Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt Mnchen (LMU) 1,373 1,373
67 University of Texas at Austin 31,823 22,355
68 University of Auckland 20,069 19,062
69 University of Shefeld 19,805 20,019
70 Freie Universitt Berlin 0 0
71 University of Geneva 936 936
72 Lund University 0 0
73 University of Nottingham 19,956 19,956
74 Nanyang Technological University 8,145 8,437
75= University of Helsinki 0 0
75= Washington University in St. Louis 39,400 39,400
77 University of Glasgow 19,339 21,000
78 University of Alberta 17,710 7,733
79 KAIST - Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Tech. 13,514 15,633
80 London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) 21,379 26,667
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for international students US$ continued
Fees, nance and scholarships
233
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
81 University of Southampton 18,519 20,081
82 Leiden University 9,350 21,067
83 Utrecht University 11,671 19,223
84 Aarhus University 16,751 16,751
85 University of Leeds 19,613 19,613
86 Katholieke Universiteit Leuven 6,865 6,865
87 Purdue University 26,622 25,881
88 University of York 20,433 18,817
89 University of Western Australia 23,061 28,531
90 Dartmouth College 39,978 39,978
91 Nagoya University 6,022 6,022
92 Durham University 19,620 20,185
93 Lomonosov Moscow State University 7,677 7,418
94 National Taiwan University 3,520 4,750
95 University of St Andrews 19,691 20,297
96 University of Minnesota 21,424 16,736
97 Universitt Freiburg 1,373 1,373
98 Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) 18,949 22,001
99 Erasmus University Rotterdam 8,925 16,614
100 University of Oslo 0 0
101 University of Zurich 1,292 1,292
102 Tohoku University 6,022 6,022
103 University of Adelaide 20,064 20,575
104 University of Maryland, College Park 23,990 24,384
105 Fudan University 4,432 5,740
106 Georgia Institute of Technology 25,280 26,204
107 Emory University 35,150 33,800
108 Delft University of Technology 7,292 12,107
109 Hebrew University of Jerusalem 3,228 4,214
110 University of California, Davis 34,005 24,096
111 Maastricht University 11,671 16,476
112 Pohang University of Science & Tech. (POSTECH) 4,525 5,071
113 University of Southern California 38,570 38,570
114 University College Dublin 23,925 17,259
115 Rice University 33,120 33,120
116 University of California, Santa Barbara 30,190 22,989
117 University of Aberdeen 16,643 17,283
118 Universit Pierre et Marie Curie 235 398
119 University of Pittsburgh 25,671 29,816
120 University of Groningen 11,053 13,089
121 University of Liverpool 17,558 17,558
122 Cardiff University 18,011 19,222
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234
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
123 Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin 343 343
124 Universit Catholique de Louvain 8,506 9,681
125 Ohio State University 22,278 25,302
126 Eindhoven University of Technology 7,292 12,107
127= Case Western Reserve University 37,300 35,310
127= University of Rochester 40,282 40,282
129 City University of Hong Kong - 10,975
130 University of Virginia 31,870 22,644
131 Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen 1,373 1,373
132 Queens University 15,427 11,257
133 University of Bergen 0 0
134 Vanderbilt University 38,952 38,952
135 University of Otago 17,246 22,049
136 Universit de Montral 13,562 11,410
137 University of Basel 1,311 1,311
138 Tel Aviv University - -
139 cole Normale Suprieure de Lyon 267 361
140 Newcastle University 19,341 21,511
141 Technical University of Denmark 21,097 21,097
142 Yonsei University 8,312 5,851
143 University of Vienna 998 998
144 University of Bath 19,535 20,160
145 University of Waterloo 17,570 10,094
146 University of California, Irvine 34,830 26,268
147 Queen Mary, University of London 18,422 18,753
148 Universitat de Barcelona 1,955 3,910
149 Radboud University Nijmegen 11,502 11,502
150 KTH, Royal Institute of Technology 0 0
151 Shanghai Jiao Tong University 3,624 5,436
152 University of Lausanne 1,086 1,086
153 Kyushu University 6,022 6,022
154 University of Science and Technology of China 3,799 4,749
155 Georgetown University 38,616 36,744
156 University of Sussex 19,886 16,370
157 Tufts University 40,342 38,138
158 RWTH Aachen 1,373 1,373
159 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology 3,228 12,299
160 University of Arizona 24,596 24,890
161 University of Cape Town 7,768 6,815
162= University of Bern 1,123 1,123
QS World University Rankings

2010 Top 200


Average annual tuition fees for international students US$ continued
Fees, nance and scholarships
235
Rank Institution Undergraduate Postgraduate
162= McMaster University 12,098 12,554
164 University of Western Ontario 13,851 12,197
165 University of Calgary 17,844 12,542
166= Hong Kong Polytechnic University 10,296 10,559
166= Universitt Karlsruhe 1,373 1,373
168 Stockholm University 0 0
169 University of Leicester 17,711 18,078
170 University of Colorado at Boulder 28,186 24,048
171 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam 12,357 16,476
172 University of Tsukuba 6,022 6,022
173 Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona 2,574 2,471
174 Georg-August-Universitt Gttingen 1,373 1,373
175 Hokkaido University 6,022 6,022
176 Universit di Bologna 2,073 2,073
177 Nanjing University - -
178 Wageningen University 7,552 13,016
179 University of Antwerp 775 775
180 Chulalongkorn University 3,658 2,371
181 Lancaster University 17,659 20,410
182 Waseda University - -
183 University of Gothenburg 0 0
184 University College Cork 21,797 17,561
185 University of Reading 17,581 17,581
186 Universit Paris Sorbonne, Paris 4 235 398
187 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) - -
188 University of Iowa 23,713 22,999
189 University of Canterbury 17,537 18,916
190 Sapienza Universit di Roma 1,057 1,057
191 Korea University 6,975 10,658
192 University of Ghent 780 780
193 University of Florida 27,300 28,490
194 Stony Brook University 12,870 13,250
195 Universitt Frankfurt am Main 1,373 1,373
196 National Tsing Hua University 1,654 751
197 Queens University of Belfast 18,441 17,190
198 Texas A&M University 19,462 14,962
199 University of Twente 7,292 10,663
200 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitt Bonn 1,373 1,373
Copyright: QS Quacquarelli Symonds 2010
www.topuniversities.com
236
Living costs
In addition to tuition fees, you will need to consider a variety of additional costs. The
living costs associated with moving out of the family home to study at university, and
especially moving abroad, will form a large part of your total expenditure. Costs include
essentials such as accommodation, food, travel, technology and books. At US institutions,
these variables are often quoted as a single gure, so, it is very important that students
or parents establish exactly which costs are included. Dont forget that you will also need
to budget for extracurricular activities and travel, especially if you are studying overseas.
And, remember that exchange rates will uctuate and affect your budget both positively
and negatively.
So how can you nd out about these costs of living? Where is the most expensive place
to study? And where can you afford to study? There are numerous public sources and
publications providing you with tables of the costs of living throughout the world, which
tend to have slightly varied results, as differing criteria are used for each, but they generally
present a similar big picture. Websites such as www.citymayors.com provide comparative
data on living in cities worldwide, including the quality of life in most major cities in the
world and the costs associated with accommodation, transport and entertainment in
more than 70 destinations worldwide.
This kind of information can be a guide to the cost of study abroad, but actual costs will
depend on your lifestyle and ability to budget. And, you are not just comparing like for like,
as different cultures will encourage you to spend in different ways. Additionally, student
environments usually have lower cost accommodation, restaurants, sports facilities and
entertainment, than a city as a whole. Students are often eligible for concessions on
transport and other items. Reading online blogs and real-life accounts can give a more
real picture of the costs you may face. Some of the proles in this book of the top 100
universities and the country proles give information on the student cost of living at
different destinations. Local salary levels are likely to be commensurate with costs, so
some paid work could be a solution to supporting your time at university. Working part-
time is becoming commonplace for most students, though it is important to establish in
advance how much work is available, or permitted, according to local directives or visa
restrictions.
The UK is a good example for students wanting to seek additional information on
budgeting and the overall cost of living while they are at university. The UK government
has established the UNIAID student calculator at www.studentcalculator.org.uk/
international, which allows you to budget very accurately according to the amount of
money you have available and how long your program of study is.
Foreign currency inuences
Among other ways to compare living costs, taking into account currency uctuations,
is the annual Big Mac Index, published by The Economist. This, in effect, measures the
purchasing power parity (PPP) between currencies and the US$ and provides a basis
for showing how changing market exchange rates affect similar goods (eg Big Mac
hamburger!) in different countries. As a general rule, the cost of living is higher where
the US dollar is weak relative to the local currency and vice versa. In most of Asia living
costs are historically low in dollar terms, with currencies being relatively undervalued
against the dollar. Some of Central and Eastern Europe has also recorded lower living
costs in dollar terms. Latin America shows quite a substantial variation in its rating of
countries. The UK has had a higher cost of living in dollar terms, and the European area,
in particular Switzerland and Sweden. These values uctuate greatly and websites such
as www.oanda.com are sources of such information and other tools for understanding
foreign currency uctuations.
Fees, nance and scholarships
237
Broadly speaking, study in developed countries will be more costly than in developing
countries. However, the reputation of universities tends to far outweigh tuition and living
costs as a factor when people make their study choices. Few students choose to move
from developed countries to study in developing countries. By contrast, huge numbers
of students from developing countries choose to study abroad. In spite of the higher
study and living costs, they realise the importance of a high quality education and the
recognition qualications will carry for their future career.
Costs will vary according to your destination country, the type and length of your
program, what is included in the program cost, and costs that may include your passport,
visa, airfare, medical costs, transportation, meals, books, insurance and accommodation,
to name but a few. However, if you are planning to study abroad, do not let these facts
deter you. You would encounter many of these costs at home, and the extra ones will
generally be worth the outlay, especially with the level of nancial aid available for
international students, and the fact that you will, more than likely, be well remunerated
upon employment . The true cost of study will depend on many factors, and this value is
just part of the overall package of studying at university.
In the current economic climate, currency uctuations can have a signicant impact
on the cost of degree studies overseas. In recent years, the power of the UK currency
has declined considerably against the US$, making education in the UK comparatively
cost effective when compared with other mainstream study destinations. Conversely,
studying in Australia and New Zealand, despite the relatively low cost of living, has
become signicantly more expensive because of the strengths of the Australian and New
Zealand dollar against other major currencies. While the buying power of all currencies
can go both up and down, understanding how much foreign currency you can buy with
the money you have available to you will help you to identify the most cost effective study
destination for your available budget.
Financing your education
Most prospective students face the issue of university tuition fees and living expenses.
Whether you are studying at home or abroad, securing and planning the nancing of
your university education can be a time-consuming task. Different countries operate
completely different funding arrangements with a distinction often being made between
the levels of tuition fees paid by domestic and international students.
The investment you choose to make in your university education, however, is exactly
that: an investment. Although the cost of tuition fees and living expenses may seem high
at the time of study, sufcient evidence exists to demonstrate that obtaining a degree
has signicant economic benets over a working lifetime. Research by Universities UK
indicates that the difference in earning power between those obtaining an undergraduate
qualication and those leaving school with their high school qualications can be as much
as 25 per cent, or 160,000 upwards over a working lifetime. Increased nancial benets
accrue to those with masters and PhD degrees, depending on the area of specialisation
and employment.
The current global economic situation, however, has altered the funding landscape for
many students, particularly those seeking to study away from their home country. Loans,
scholarships, bursaries and grants are still available for prospective students to apply for
to offset some or all of their university costs, but the scope of some schemes has been
considerably reduced and it is likely that funding will be more difcult to obtain in the
future. Later in this chapter, some advice is given on what scholarship and funding options
are available in each world region.
www.topuniversities.com
238
Student loans
Loans are an increasingly common way of funding university-level education for many
students, particularly those remaining in their own countrys higher education system.
In the present economic climate, however, the ability of international students and their
parents to secure commercial funding for periods of study abroad is somewhat limited
and different from the position even a year ago. Major international banks such as HSBC
and Citibank have now cancelled established loan funding schemes and have effectively
withdrawn from the student nancing market. A limited number of loans are available
for students intending to pursue their education overseas, although the terms of such
loans tend to be very different from those for students wishing to study at home. Major
local, and some international, banks generally offer such loans, depending on where you
are resident, but they require signicant parental guarantees. Santander and Barclays
are among the few remaining international banks that provide education and career
development loans for students wishing to study in other countries, while banks as diverse
as The State Bank of India, The Bank of Baroda, The Bank of China, and Nordea provide
some loan facilities for local students to pursue their education abroad.
For those focused on studying in the US, the most comprehensive source of advice for
loans and other forms of nancial aid continues to be www.fedmoney.org. However, the
system of funding in the US has completely changed during 2010, with all federal student
loans having to be certied by the university a student attends. For the latest information,
please refer to www.direct.ed.gov.
Throughout Europe, some banks and government organisations continue to be involved in
providing student loans for domestic and, depending on their circumstances, international
students. However, with the current stringent regime of nancial certication, the
opportunities for receiving loan funding as an international student is now negligble.
The Student Loans Company in the UK administers loan schemes for tuition fees and
maintenance grants for all UK and European Union students attending UK undergraduate
programs to a maximum of 3,290 for tuition fees in 2010/11. At present, repayments
are only made on the full loan amount after graduation, once your income exceeds a
certain threshold, currently 15,000 per year. However, the recommendations of a recent
review of tuition fees in the UK are likely to result in a new scheme of tuition fees to be
implemented in 2012/13 and affecting all UK and EU students, with a nal decision on the
scheme expected during 2011.
Fees, nance and scholarships
239
Masters and PhD funding
Funding opportunities for graduate students tend to be more specic than for other levels
of university study and can be linked to particular universities, areas of study, or particular
countries. In this section we review some of the general forms of funding available to
masters and PhD students offered by organisations and foundations. Scholarships
and funding arrangements available for graduate students wishing to study in specic
countries are surveyed in the following section.
The Ford Foundation, through its International Fellowship Program, operates one of the
most innovative scholarship programs to support masters and PhD students, and focuses
on three broad areas: asset building and community development; knowledge, creativity
and freedom; peace and social justice. The program provides generous awards covering
tuition fees, living costs and, in some cases, the costs associated with language or
academic preparation. It operates in countries throughout the world, with a current focus
in Africa, Latin America, Central, East and South Asia and the Middle East. Applicants are
judged on their commitment to support and develop their own communities and their
proposed type and scope of graduate study. The scheme has now sent 4,300 Fellows
abroad since it was founded in 2001. The International Fellowship Program is administered
by local country partners, all of whom set their own application and selection deadlines:
www.fordifp.net.
The Aga Khan Foundation provides graduate awards for students from developing
countries who have no other means of funding their graduate studies. The Foundation
prioritises applications from prospective masters students, and also considers new PhD
students. Applications are accepted from students resident in countries where the Aga
Khan Foundation is active, including Bangladesh, Canada, India, Pakistan, Syria, France,
the UK and the US. Awards are made on the basis of a 50 per cent grant and 50 per cent
loan to cover tuition and living costs. Applications are made through regional ofces, with
an annual deadline of March 31: www.akdn.org/akf_scholarships.asp.
The World Bank provides scholarships and fellowship programs for graduate and
postgraduate students from developing countries. With the aim to help people help
themselves, the World Bank offers the Robert S. MacNamara Fellowship Program and the
Joint Japan/World Bank Graduate Scholarship Program (JJ/WBGSP).
The JJ/WBGSP, was established in 1987 and is the agship World Bank scholarship
program. Entirely funded by the government of Japan, it aims to support graduate
students from World Bank member countries to be able to study at recognised institutions
outside their own home country throughout member countries of the organisation.
The JJ/WBGSP is strictly limited to graduate study in a eld relating to economics
and development including agriculture and related sciences, economics, education,
government, international development, public administration, public health, public
policy, urban planning, womens studies, environmental policy, environmental studies,
government and civil society.
The JJ/WBGSP is an annual award and can be renewed for a maximum scholarship
period of two years. The exact award amount varies by host institution, program and
country, although the average annual amount is US$35,000 to US$38,000, covering
tuition and related costs, round-trip air travel, a US$500 travel allowance, basic medical
and accident insurance and a monthly subsistence allowance. Applying students must
disclose any additional sources of funding they may receive for their studies. As part of
the employment restriction policy of the World Bank Group, candidates are unable
to work at the World Bank Group or IMF for three years after the completion of
their program. As part of the organisations mission to strengthen international ties,
the JJ/WBGSP has also established partnerships with 42 universities around the world:
www.worldbank.org/wbi/scholarships.
www.topuniversities.com
240
The Gates Cambridge Trust, established in 2000, offers approximately 100 graduate
scholarships a year for citizens of all countries, except the UK, applying for masters or
PhD studies at the University of Cambridge. A Gates Cambridge Scholarship covers the
relevant tuition fees, all living costs (currently estimated at 12,250 per year), travel to the
university, and a discretionary contribution towards the costs of supporting dependants
at Cambridge. The application process operates in parallel to the graduate application
process of the university itself: www.gatesscholar.org.
Scholarships
QS, the worlds leading network for top careers and education and organisers
of the QS World MBA Tour (www.topmba.com) and QS World Grad
School Tour (www.topgradschool.com), provide access to a scholarship
fund of US$1,200,000 to the attendees of its 2011 international fairs.
The scholarships, from some of the worlds leading business schools and
universities as well as the annual QS Community and Leadership Awards,
will benet committed postgraduate students and business leaders of the
future.
QS offers the Leadership Scholarship for MBA and Postgraduate Studies
and the QS Community Scholarships for MBA and Postgraduate Studies.
Scholarships offered by partner universities and business schools include:
IE Business School Scholarships for Women; Ashridge Business School
Scholarships; Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School Scholarships; QS
ESMT Diversity Scholarship; QS Melbourne Business School International
Scholarship; EMLYON Business School Entrepreneurial Scholarship;
QS Duisenberg School of Finance Scholarship for Women in Finance;
Consortium CIMET Scholarship; NYU Tisch School of the Arts Asia
Scholarship; KLU Logistic Leadership Scholarship, and many more
In recent years, dozens of ambitious and talented professionals and brilliant
students from Bulgaria, Chile, China, France, Germany, Korea, India, Italy,
Ukraine, USA and other countries have been awarded these scholarships.
For further information about QS MBA and Postgraduate scholarships,
email: Zoya Zaitseva, zoya@qs.com
Fees, nance and scholarships
241
Scholarships
International scholarship organisations
A number of international scholarship and funding organisations exist, although the current
nancial crisis has affected how some of these schemes operate. These organisations tend
to be run on a charitable basis, although their individual missions and funding are varied,
and they often focus their resources on specic countries, universities, or areas of study.
In the main, such organisations have very specic areas of interest and rarely fund all of
a students nancial requirements. They are, however, a good source of additional funds
if you have secured the majority of your funding through a university scholarship award.
Perhaps the most well known of these international organisations is the Rotary Foundation
which, since 1947, has supported nearly 38,000 students from 100 countries for part,
or all, of their university education abroad. The Rotary Foundation Ambassadorial
Scholarships is currently the worlds largest privately funded scholarship program and
offers one year awards valued at US$23,000 intended for study abroad experience, rather
than degree-awarding programs or unsupervised research. All awards require recipients
to participate in Rotary Foundation activities during and after their program of study, and
each countrys Rotary group operates a separate application process to any university
application that may be required: www.rotary.org.
University scholarships for international students
In recent years, more universities around the world have invested signicant resources in
scholarship funds for international students, including many of the institutions featured
in this book. The competition to attract the most talented students is erce, and the
need to offer scholarships that cover tuition fees, living expenses and other related costs
is growing. Individual universities set their own requirements, application methods,
deadlines and other criteria. The amount of money available varies from institution to
institution, and can include a full tuition fee and living expenses award, or may only be
a much smaller bursary to cover the cost of books and learning materials. Scholarships
can be awarded for one year, or the entire duration of your program, although longer
awards tend to depend on satisfactory academic progress in your degree. It is common
for universities to offer scholarships for all levels of study, although some of the best
institutions tend to offer more nancial aid for masters and PhD students.
Details of scholarships offered by individual universities are only available from those
universities, which means gathering the relevant information, preparing application
materials and meeting all the deadlines is a major task in its own right. Many universities
link the application procedure for admission with their own scholarship schemes, making
the process more straightforward. Most importantly, university scholarship deadlines tend
to require as much, if not more, preparation and planning than the university application,
because the competition for funding tends to be stiff. Each university will be able to
advise very accurately on the optimum time to submit a scholarship application, but it is
likely that you will need to submit all scholarship application materials at least nine months
in advance of taking up a place of study.
Asia scholarships
With international students more frequently considering Asia as a destination for
university study, more scholarship opportunities are emerging from governments, and
universities intent on recruiting students to their programs. The opportunities for funding
are very dynamic and so you should always refer to university websites and ministries of
education for the latest news. Perhaps the most extensive of all scholarship schemes is
www.topuniversities.com
242
that offered by the Japanese government through the Ministry of Education, Culture,
Sports and Technology. The Monbukagakusho (MEXT) scholarships cover a range of
study types including undergraduate, masters and PhD study, and include the cost of
study, living and, in some cases, travel. Applications are administered through your local
Japanese embassy or diplomatic mission. Other awards for study in Japan include those
offered by the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) and a number of separate
education and business foundations: www.jasso.go.jp/study_j/scholarships_e.html.
The Ministry of Education in Singapore offers a small number of scholarships for university
study, most signicantly the ASEAN scheme at the National University of Singapore and
Nanyang Technological University. Universities automatically consider each successful
applicant to an undergraduate program for the ASEAN scheme, if they are from another
Asian country. Other awards are available for undergraduate and graduate programs of
study, the details of which can be obtained from the individual universities.
South Korea has invested signicant resources into its ofcial international scholarship
schemes, a number of which support the separate efforts of the larger local universities.
Awards are available mostly for masters and PhD study, but a small number of
undergraduate scholarships are also available, although often tied to studies in the
Korean language. The largest scheme is the Korean Government Scholarship Program
administered by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources, which offers awards for
masters and PhD students in addition to those seeking research and language training:
www.studyinkorea.go.kr.
The China Scholarship Council coordinates the majority of scholarships available for
international students wishing to study in China. Applications are available annually and
are coordinated by local Chinese embassies or other ofcial bodies between January and
April of the proposed year of study. The value of the scholarships varies, but generally
includes an exemption from tuition and other ofcial fees, a living allowance or one-off
payment, health insurance and the cost of one inter-city journey: http://en.csc.edu.cn.
Australia and New Zealand scholarships
An increasing number of awards offered by universities and government organisations
are available for international students in Australia and New Zealand. A new initiative
called Australian Scholarships administers government and AusAID scholarships under
three programs: the Australian Development Scholarships (for all levels of study), the
Australian Leadership Awards Scholarships (masters and PhD) and Australian Endeavour
Awards (masters and PhD). Funding generally covers tuition fees, living and other related
expenses for international students: www.australiaawards.gov.au.
The New Zealand government, through Education New Zealand, offers the New
Zealand International Doctoral Research Scholarships (NZIDRS), intended to support
outstanding international research students. The awards cover tuition fees, living, travel,
books and other research costs and applications must be received by July 15 every year:
www.newzealandeducated.com.
European Union (EU) scholarships
Scholarships and funding opportunities for international students tend to come from a
number of clearly dened sources such as the European Commission, national agencies
and individual universities. The European Commission offers scholarships and mobility
awards under a number of schemes, often directed at specic national groups of students.
Mobility awards are available to fund the movement of students at all levels within
Europe, and between countries as diverse as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Korea,
Fees, nance and scholarships
243
Japan and the US, while more mainstream scholarship schemes, such as Erasmus Mundus,
offer international (non European) masters students tuition fees, and living costs awards
of 24,000 per year, for a maximum of two years on approved partnership masters
programs: http://ec.europa.eu/education/study-in-europe/scholarships_grants_en.html.
Individual European country scholarships (non UK)
Each EU country has a national agency responsible for the international promotion of its
higher education system. Such organisations also tend to administer scholarship schemes
for international students at all levels, whether for full degree programs, shorter periods
of research, or study abroad. Amongst the most prominent of these organisations are
the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the Netherlands Organization for
International Cooperation in Higher Education (Nufc), Campus France, Swedish Institute
and Danish Agency for International Education in Denmark. Each has its own scholarship
schemes and details are available on their websites, many of which are listed at the end
of the chapter on Study Abroad. Germanys DAAD has a particularly helpful searchable
scholarship database for university and national awards, www.daad.de/deutschland/
foerderung/stipendiendatenbank/00462.en.html.
Many universities throughout Europe also have the resources to offer their own
scholarships to support the most able international students. These awards are promoted
and managed by the universities themselves and vary from country to country. Information
is most commonly available directly from the universities.
UK scholarships
As the second most popular international degree-level study destination in the world, the
UK has a number of scholarship programs. Most prominent is the Chevening scholarship
scheme, which provides 1,300 new graduate awards every year, with a further 200
fellowships available for international researchers. The scheme, funded by the UKs
Foreign and Commonwealth Ofce, universities, the private sector and other government
departments, supports mostly one-year masters degrees and selects only those students
with a proven academic record, leadership potential and a commitment to return home
to contribute to the socio-economic development of their own country: www.chevening.
fco.gov.uk. The UK Government is currently reviewing this scheme and will announce
new arrangements early in 2011. Other government schemes include the Commonwealth
Scholarship and Fellowship Plan (CSFP) and the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship
Scheme, both of which offer funding for students from Commonwealth countries.
Additionally, the Marshall scholarships support young American students of high ability
to study for a degree in the UK. At least 40 scholars are selected each year to study at
graduate, or occasionally at undergraduate level in any eld of study. Each scholarship is
held for two years, renewable for a third in certain circumstances and covers tuition and
living costs in addition to a books and travel allowance: www.marshallscholarship.org.
General details of all scholarships offered for study in the UK are available on the British
Council website: www.educationuk.org. Other awards and scholarships are available
via individual university and college websites. Prestigious schemes include those offered
by University College London (UCL), the University of Edinburgh and the Universities of
Oxford and Cambridge.
US and Canadian scholarships
Funding opportunities at universities in Canada and the US have traditionally tended to
be greater than in any other region of the world. Both public and private universities offer
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awards for local and international students at both undergraduate and graduate levels
and encourage applications from students irrespective of their nancial backgrounds.
Needs blind admission is one of the central facets of the admissions process throughout
North America and allows for students to apply for degree programs and be assessed
for nancial aid independently of their familys resources, or their own. The majority of
international students at US universities do, however, pay for their own tuition and living
costs, although a signicant minority receive some form of scholarship or nancial aid
from their university.
Government and other nationwide schemes are also available throughout North America.
In Canada, four major scholarships schemes are offered to international students,
under which a number of additional schemes are administered. The Canadian Bureau
of International Education (CBIE) is responsible for these awards and offers scholarships
for all levels of university study: www.scholarships.gc.ca/noncanadians-en.html and
www.cbie.ca/english/scholarship/non_canadians.htm.
Canada launched a new scheme in 2008, the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships (CGS).
The highly prestigious program, which has received an initial endowment of CA$25 million
for the duration of two years, aims to support Canadas science and technology policy
direction by awarding 500 international and Canadian doctoral students with scholarships
for up to three years. The Vanier scheme is valued at CA$50,000 per year, which is
composed of a trainee stipend of CA$45,000 and a research allowance of CA$5,000. The
total amount awarded is intended to cover all fees associated with the period of study. The
selection process is highly competitive and the Canadian institution of higher education,
at which a student is intending to pursue his/her doctoral studies, must nominate applying
candidates. There is no quota for the allocation of the award to Canadian and international
graduate students and allocation of the award is decided by merit rather than nationality.
The Canadian province of Ontario has also launched an ambitious new scholarhship
scheme for international students, the Ontario Trillium Scholarship, offering 75 awards
of CA$40,000 a year for up to four years each to complete PhD studies in one of the
provinces universities: www.studyinontario.com/en/scholarship.php.
The US Fulbright Commission offers approximately 8,000 new scholarships or study
awards for students or academic members of staff wishing to pursue a period of study in
the US or in another country. The main awards provide full scholarships for some 1,800
international students a year wishing to pursue their studies in the US. Program eligibility
and selection is the responsibility of each individual overseas ofce, administering the
process separately from your university application. Each overseas country ofce manages
different awards and so information must be sought at your local US embassy or Fulbright
ofce. In India, for example, the United States India Educational Foundation (USEFI)
manages seven different scholarship schemes under the Fulbright umbrella, all with
different requirements and eligibility criteria: www.iie.org/fulbright.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provides scholarships, covering tuition and living
costs, through the Gates Millennium Scholars scheme for US nationals or legal permanent
residents who are of African American, American Indian, Asian Pacic Islander American
or Hispanic American descent, attending university for the rst term each Fall. Other
scholarships are also available for very specic students, for example those undergraduate
students attending the University of Washington: www.gatesfoundation.org/topics/
Pages/scholarships.aspx.
There are also a large number of corporate sponsored scholarship schemes for study in
the US. For example, the Adobe Multi-National Scholarship Program, funded by Adobe
Systems, provides scholarship awards to meritorious secondary school students attending
a post-secondary degree program in business, design studies, education, engineering,
graphic art, graphic design, mathematics or science and who need nancial assistance to
achieve their educational goals: www.iiesf.org/new/programs/corporate.htm.
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Seven
How to apply to university
So, youve made your mind up about the university youd like to study
at. Now its time to apply. This is a moment when you are coming into
competition with all other applicants and you need to be sure to do
yourself full justice. Yet, for many applicants, it may be the rst time
in your life when you have had to present yourself in this way. So, this
chapter helps you make an application to university, anywhere in the
world. It offers advice and gives you background on what admissions
staff expect. You will also nd specic guidance on making successful
undergraduate, graduate and research applications.
Applying to either your local or an international university for any degree-level study
should not be taken lightly. Our competitive world makes the process of university
application extremely signicant for those who wish to enter the best universities in
their own country or elsewhere. Whether you choose to apply to one of the worlds top
universities in Europe, or a smaller college in Japan, South Korea or Australia, you will
need to invest time and effort in the application. Advice is available from various sources
to make the process more manageable and to increase your chance of success. Seek
advice from teachers, lecturers, careers counsellors, parents and current students. They
are all potentially able to provide you with advice and provide a slightly different, but
valuable, experience of the process which will help you make the best of your application.
For all applicants, the process of applying to a university requires a serious investment of
time. In some cases, applying to university can take more than a year and the preparation
of all of your application materials can take a signicant amount of organisation. In most
cases, this process is made more difcult by the sheer variety of components that make
up either an undergraduate or graduate application which can include a completed
application form, examination results, letters of recommendation, transcripts, statements
of purpose or application essays, and standardised language or subject-based test results.
Basic application materials
The content of university application forms tend to be similar across all levels of study and
destination countries. You need to provide your name, age, address, details of schooling,
academic achievements, (including nal exams that have yet to provide results), and the
program of study that you are interested in. These sections require precision and honesty
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and are regarded by admissions staff as the most basic information that qualies your
application for further consideration. In addition to the completion of a basic application
form, all universities will require you to submit, either online or by post, a range of
supporting materials, including any relevant standardised test scores, copies of certicates,
transcripts, mark sheets and letters of recommendation. These will form much of the
necessary evidence for your application and are crucial if you are to be successful. Some
institutions will offer you the opportunity to submit forms online, in which case the need
to write legibly is no longer relevant. However, the care you take in completing the online
forms and sending the correct documents is just as important, whether your application
is submitted by post, fax or all online. Admissions ofcers are continually frustrated by
incorrectly spelt, poorly presented and late applications. Good and accurate presentation
have the important benet of your application being taken seriously.
Application essay or statement of purpose
All students intending to study at university will have heard countless stories about the
importance of the statement of purpose, or application essays.These are consistently
the most misunderstood part of the application process and, as such, cause the greatest
amount of concern. Irrespective of the country or university you wish to apply to, the
opportunity to write about something at relative length is often the only chance you
have to deviate from, what is essentially, a rather mundane and list-like process. In the
US, Canada and throughout Asia, this piece of writing serves two main purposes: to
demonstrate your command of the written word in English, and to give an insight into you
as a person. Deciding what to include in this kind of essay is very difcult and requires a
lengthy period of preparation before you submit your completed work. Some universities
expect you to demonstrate knowledge of their programs or reputation, while others
want you to exhibit strong extracurricular interests to complement your academic record.
Most universities publish an outline of what they expect so you can tailor your writing to
their specic requirements. If in any doubt, contact the admissions staff and ask exactly
what they expect. Talking with current students, or alumni, may also help you rene your
approach to writing such an essay.
Universities view the importance of the application essay in quite different ways. Some
of the most competitive universities in Australia, the UK and the US, use this extended
piece of writing as the dening element that separates applications from one another
and results in some being accepted while others are rejected. This certainly occurs in
cases where many applications are received from students with very similar academic
records, and when a university has few alternative measures to select. Smaller institutions
in Europe and the US, with limited student numbers and applications, also focus a great
deal of their admissions effort on the assessment of the extended piece(s) of writing.
Their emphasis is often on building a particular student community or atmosphere
on campus and, therefore, it is extremely important how different individuals might be
able to contribute. Your attitude and approach to writing one of these extended essays
is therefore very important and can make a signicant difference to the success of
your application.
Honesty is essential in all that you commit to paper. It is not uncommon for students
to inate their achievements or interests, only to have them questioned by a member
of admissions staff via email or telephone, bringing their entire application into doubt.
Your high school or college advisor may be an excellent resource to help you develop
a coherent essay. He or she may allow you to draft a number of versions so that the
nal result reects not only your character, but also your best effort. The shorter kind
of essays, or personal statements, will expect you to balance concrete examples of
your interest in the academic subject area you are applying for, with a demonstration
that you have qualities outside the classroom that the university would benet from.
As a general rule, irrespective of the kind of essay expected, you should be able to feel
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How to apply to university
condent that, once written, your friends would be able to both recognise you from
reading it, and be interested in learning a little more about you!
Recommendations and letters of support
Depending on the university and the system of education, recommendation letters or
letters of support are often requested to substantiate your academic record, what you
have written about yourself and to help the university judge your potential to benet
from the program of study. Two main questions arise: rstly, and in many ways most
importantly, who writes your reference? Secondly, what should the references say about
you as a person, as a student, or as someone with potential to successfully complete a
program of study?
Choosing a referee, someone who will write one of your letters of recommendation, is
an extremely important task and one that may have a signicant impact on the success
or failure of your application. Referees must know you as a person, and as a student, and
be able to write in support of your application in a very honest, open and direct manner.
Most universities expect to receive references from teachers, tutors or counsellors, though
in some situations, it will be relevant to ask your employer or someone that knows you in
another context, such as an extracurricular activity.
The main focus of admissions staff will be the content of a reference rather than who has
written it, so there are no particular advantages in asking well-known people to be your
referees. Above all, those who write your references should know you well and be able to
describe you in a way that reects the best of your abilities, the qualities that make you
unique and your potential to complete the program of study for which you are applying.
Comments on your academic and intellectual strengths are particularly important in
applications to the more competitive universities. The style in which a reference should
be written is very much dependent on the university and most institutions provide
guidelines and examples of how they expect references to be structured and what should
be included.
Many US universities will provide a pro-forma template that allows referees to indicate
your academic abilities in relation to those in your graduating class, for example. Others
will allow a more free owing approach, encouraging referees to express exactly what they
feel about you as an applicant, and as a potential member of the university community.
In either case, instructions are issued along with other application materials so that the
people you choose to be your referees are fully aware of exactly what is expected of
them. Your references will be important because they help give a sense of you as an
individual and can set you apart from other students with very similar entry qualications.
References that are written positively and informed with examples of your work, your
activities, or a avour of your character, are more likely to help your application than those
that are routine and simply list your attributes.
Interviews
As ever more students study abroad, many universities recognise that it can be unreasonable
to expect candidates to y overseas for an interview, in addition to the potentially high
tuition fees they will have to pay if accepted. Some institutions, however, continue to
interview applicants because they believe it is the fairest way of selecting students. These
institutions will expect you to be available for an interview. For international students, this
may mean ying to the university, or you can sometimes meet former students (alumni)
or visiting admissions staff in, or nearer, your country.
The purpose of the interview is to make a nal selection, based on the application materials
you have already submitted. Interviews can focus on a number of areas, including the
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subject that you have applied for, your extracurricular interests, or the reasons behind
wanting to come and study at that particular university. In an interview, an institution
tends to be looking for a number of qualities in your answers. Firstly, they will be looking
for a passion for, and knowledge of, your academic subject. Secondly, they will want to
see that you have the ability to think independently and critically, and grasp any complex
or new issues raised in the discussion. Thirdly, they will want to assess whether you are a
good t for their environment. Finally, they will want to assess your condence and your
all-round abilities. Preparing for an interview is not always easy and staff at the institution
can guide you as to what they expect. If you are given the opportunity of an interview, be
sure of the reasons for your application, your knowledge of the study subject, your own
unique qualities, and what you might be able to bring to the university. For competitive
universities, it is also advisable to be prepared to answer diverse questions, even on current
affairs or the latest headline news story because it is not unusual for your interviewer
to expect you to be well informed about a range of topics, which can include world
events. Make sure that you have fully studied all sources of information such as university
websites and talked to as many relevant people as you can, before your interview.
Deadlines and timing your application
Deadlines are really important and it is essential that you know when they are and that
you stick to them. All institutions publish application deadlines at least one year in advance
and make very clear to applicants the consequences of missing them. Many institutions
will not review your application at all if it is received after the published date. This is a
terrible situation, if all of the other elements of your application are very strong, and
would normally qualify you for a place. Timing can have a signicant impact on whether
your application is successful or not. In many of the very popular programs, the earlier
you submit a completed application the better your chances of gaining a place, if you
have met the minimum entry requirements. Similarly, at the most popular universities,
programs ll up quickly and so applications received early can increase the chances of
a positive decision. This process varies from country to country, but, as a general rule,
submitting your application early will be benecial to you.
English language requirements
Most non-native English language speaking international students will need to submit
the results of a test of their English language abilities. At present, three tests of English
language are most commonly accepted by universities and colleges, the TOEFL

, IELTS


and the Pearson Test of English Academic (PTE Academic). The TOEFL

and PTE Academic


examinations are available for students to take online, while IELTS

can be sat at one of


the many dedicated test centres worldwide. All three tests require specic preparation and
a fee is charged for registering and sitting the examinations. If the university requires you
to submit an English language prociency examination result as part of your application, it
is vital that you apply to sit whichever English language test you have chosen well ahead of
time. You will not be the only student requiring such an examination and test centres, in
particular, can be oversubscribed during the period in which most international students
are preparing and submitting their applications.
The TOEFL

can be taken online (iBT), or more traditionally as the paper-based Test (PBT) at
one of many test centres worldwide. The two tests differ slightly, but provide universities
with an accurate view of prospective students English reading, listening, speaking and
writing abilities. Taken over three hours, test scores can be sent directly to universities and
added to other application materials. More information, and how to practice online, is
available at www.ets.org/toe.
The IELTS

test consists of four separate modules: listening, reading, writing and


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How to apply to university
speaking, the rst three of which must be taken on the same day. The total test time is
two hours and 45 minutes, and candidates have a choice between general training and
academic purposes in the reading and writing modules. All IELTS

tests have to be taken


at a recognised testing centre. Over one million people take the IELTS

test each year and


it is recognised by close to 6,000 institutions worldwide, including over 2,000 universities
and colleges in the US alone. IELTS is jointly managed by the British Council, IDP, IELTS
Australia and the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations at more than 500 locations
in 120 countries. More information is available at www.ielts.org.
The PTE Academic, launched in October 2009, is offered through a number of testing
centres around the world and online, and tests the English-language prociency of non-
native speakers through sections that cover listening, reading, speaking and writing.
With more than 2,000 programs already accepting the PTE Academic, it offers a viable
alternative to the two more established English language tests. Further information is
available at www.pearsonpte.com.
Undergraduate applications
Applications for undergraduate degrees, known as bachelors degrees, vary from country
to country and, on occasions, from university to university. At this level, applications
tend to be conned to a number of similar elements, including the completion of a
basic form, a statement of purpose or series of general essays, two academic letters of
recommendation and a conrmation of examination results, depending on your system
of education. In recent years there has been a centralisation of undergraduate application
systems around the world, allowing students to apply through a single administrative
body that liaises directly with chosen universities. For example, the UKs Universities
and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) system is based on a single application form,
allowing a student to apply for up to ve courses at different universities. In Australia,
the Universities Admissions Centre covering New South Wales and the Australia Capital
Territory allows students to apply to a maximum of six courses at the same, or to different
universities. More recently, 414 US universities have agreed to accept bachelors degree
applications through the Common Application System, allowing students to apply to any
of the member institutions using a single application form. In each of these examples,
applications are made online and must adhere to very strict deadlines.
Essays
It is common practice for universities to provide topics or questions as a basis for the
undergraduate application essay(s). This enables admissions staff to learn about your
personal qualities and the way in which you think and behave. The University of Chicago
is famous for setting its potential undergraduate applicants provocative essay questions
to separate the good candidates from the very best and serves as a very good example
of what prospective candidates can expect. In 2010/11, Chicago expects students to
answer the following question: Salt, governments, beliefs, and celebrity couples are
a few examples of things that can be dissolved. Youve just been granted the power to
dissolve anything: physical, metaphorical, abstract, concrete you name it. What do you
dissolve, and what solvent do you use? Frequently, international students will not be
asked for an interview and therefore this essay can serve the purpose of an interview
on paper. Many universities that favour this approach will ask you to write several
essays. This may make the effort needed to make your application much greater
than you had anticipated, and so you should make sure you have enough time for it.
In some parts of the world, the approach is different. The UK, Australia, the Netherlands
and other countries in Europe operate a more limited essay type format for their
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applicants, focusing on why you would like to study either a particular academic subject
or at a specic university.
In the UK, for example, the essay is ac