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THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN

MINISTRY OF WATER AND IRRIGATION JORDAN VALLEY AUTHORITY


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Training Course in:

Hydraulic Simulation of Pressurized Pipe Networks by Using

EPANET Software
Prepared By:Eng. Emad M. Shudifat French Embassy - Regional Mission for Water & Agriculture;MREA Irrigation Optimization in Jordan Valley Project

IOJoV
March 2002 Amman Jordan =====================================================

Introduction: This training course is within the framework of the French-Jordanian technical cooperation. In 1998 the MREA team began the Irrigation Optimization in the Jordan Valley Project (IOJoV) in cooperation with the Jordan Valley Authority ( JVA ) , and one of the aims of this project was the improvement of the operation of the JVA networks. In order to achieve this aim, a hydraulic analysis and simulation modeling of the situation of the JVA networks in the valley should be carried out. For this reasons, MREA team suggested this training course in hydraulic simulation to the JVA to train a number of the engineers, who are responsible for the operation of its distribution networks, to be able to carry out the hydraulic analysis and simulation modeling of the situation of the JVA networks in the valley. What is The Hydraulic Simulation? Hydraulic simulation is the process of building a simple model, similar to the studied network and with the same characteristics, by using the powerful of computers software to allow the networks mangers to analyze and understand the hydraulic situation of the network and to apply their new decisions and ideas to improve the network operation on this simulation model and study its influences on the network and based on that they take the decisions in applying these ideas on the real network or rejecting them and suggesting new ideas. What is EPANET Software? EPANET software is one of the interesting hydraulic simulation softwaredeveloped by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency- that performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within pressurized pipe networks consist of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves and storage tanks or reservoirs. EPANET is running under windows and thus it provides an integrated environment for editing network input data, running hydraulic and water quality simulations, and viewing the results in a variety of formats. These include colorcoded network maps, data tables, time series graphs, and contour plots. What should you have before using EPANET? In this training course you will learn how to use EPANET for the hydraulic simulations purposes only but the water quality analysis will not be covered here. During the course you will learn EPANET through a simple example that can be generalized for all pressurized networks. However, hopefully you read the following important points before starting:

You have to have the basic computers skills such as: Dealing with windows environment and programs setup. Dealing with files: files opening, editing, printing, saving and closing. Flexibility in using the mouse and keyboard. You have to have the basic data for the input file of your network which are: Schematic diagram for the network. Elevation of water surface of the water source that supplies the network with water such as reservoir, tank or canal. Characteristics of the pumping station which is the Pump Curve that represents the Pressure - Flow relationship. Characteristics of the network main components: Pipes: upstream and downstream nodes, lengths, diameters and roughness. Nodes: Elevations and nominal outflows( demands). The Demand Patterns or the Rotation Schedule for each node in the network. You have to know that in the example presented here you will learn about 90% of what you can do with EPANET, the remained 10% you will learn it by your self with practice.

If You Are Ready Then Go Ahead

EPANET Example for The Networks Hydraulic Simulation


In this simple example, the procedures of using EPANET for analyzing any network will be covered step by step and then the same procedures can be applied on any other networks.

Step 1 :Run EPANET .exe program by clicking on its icon , EPANET is now activated with a new EPANET project, and We are now ready to begin constructing our network which consists of :-Water source or Reservoir (for example; King Abdullah Canal KAC). -Pumping Station. -13 Junctions (or nodes) -12 Pipes (or links)

Figure ( 1 )

>>>> Note:- most of JVA networks are similar to the network shown in this example. =============================================================

Step 2 :Before constructing the network map, we should set its dimension: a) Select View>> Dimensions to display the Map Dimensions dialog form b) Click on None option button, then click Auto-Size and OK ============================================================= Step 3 :To construct the shown network:1. Add the reservoir KAC by clicking the want to put the reservoir. 2. Add the junction nodes. Click the shown in the figure 1. 3. Add the pump P (which connects the reservoir KAC with junction A) by clicking the button on the Map Toolbar, and then click on the reservoir KAC and then click on junction A. when you move the mouse from KAC to A the mouses cursor will change to pen shape. 4. Add the pipes by clicking on the button on the Map Toolbar, and then click on the pipes start node and then click on the pipes end node. When you move the mouse from start node to end node the mouses cursor will change to pen shape. 5. Add the label { 1 } by clicking on the button on the Map Toolbar, and then click on the Network Map window at the location where you want to put the label, then type the text and press the Enter key . Repeat the same procedure to add the labels { } and { .} 6. When you are adding the network objects ( you have to know that the reservoirs, junctions, pipes and labels are called objects) may be you make mistakes and you want to delete or move an object then you have to select this object and then delete or move it. button on the Map Toolbar and then click on the Network Map window at the locations of the 13 junctions (or nodes) as button on the Map Toolbar, and then click the mouse on the Network Map window at the location where you

Selecting an Object -To select an object on the map: a) Make sure that the map is in Object Selection mode ( the mouse cursor has the shape of an arrow). To switch to this mode choose Edit >> Select Object or click button on the Map Toolbar. b) Click the mouse over the desired object on the map. -To select an object using the Data Browser: a) Select the type of object from the dropdown list of the Data Browser. b) Select the desired object from the list below the type heading. Deleting an object To delete an object: a) Select the object on the map or from the Data Browser. b) Delete the selected object by: Clicking the button on the Standard Toolbar Clicking the same button on the Data Browser Clicking the mouses right button and selecting Delete from the menu Or pressing the Delete key on the keyboard >>>> Note :- if you delete a node all pipes connected to this node also will be deleted. Moving an object To move a node or label to another location on the map: a) Select the node or label. b) With the left mouse button held down over the object, drag it to its new location. c) Release the left button. 7) Save your project .To save your project: a) Select File >> Save As. b) A standard Save Project As dialog box will appear from which you can select the folder and name that the project should be saved under, for this example save the project under the name JVA-TO1 example. Projects are always saved as *.NET files. c) Press Save button, the file will be saved and the Save Project As dialog box will disappear. >>>> Note:- always save your work every two or three minutes by clicking on the save button .

============================================================= Step 4 :Now, after you complete constructing your network by adding all objects required to setup the network, you are ready to set the properties of each object by using the Property Editor form. The Property Editor is used to edit the properties of network objects. To display the Property Editor: a) Select an object in the network (either on the Network Map or in the Data Browser) b) Double-clicked on the selected object (either on the Network Map or in the Data Browser). The Property Editor form will be displayed. Setting the properties of the Reservoir object To set the properties of the reservoir: a) Display the property form of the reservoir. b) Set the Reservoir ID to KAC for example. ID is the name you want to set for this object and you can select any other name you prefer. . It cannot be the same as the ID for any other reservoir. This is a required property. c) Set the Total Head to 100m for example. Total Head equals to the elevation of waters surface in the reservoir in meters and it is very important property. d) Close the property form. Setting the properties of the Pump object To set the properties of the pump: a) Display the property form of the pump. b) Set Pump ID to P for example. ID is the name you want to set for this object and you can select any other name you prefer. It cannot be the same as the ID for any other pump. This is a required property. c) Set Pump Curve to C1. Pump Curve represents the relationship between the head and flow rate, it is very important property and you can select any other name you prefer. d) Close the property form. a) b) c) d) To add the pump curve C1 to your network: Select Curve from the dropdown list of the Data Browser Click the Browser's Add button . The Curve Editor form will be displayed. Set Curve ID to C1. Curve ID should by the same as in the Pump Curve property. In the Flow- Head Table enter the flow values in liters per second lps and corresponding head values (pressures) in meters ( 1.0 bar = 10 meters). For this example enter the following values:

Flow (lps) 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Head (m) 50 48 45 40 33 27 20 10 0

e) Press OK button. The Curve Editor form will disappear. Setting the properties of the Junction object To set the properties of the junction (node): a) Display the property form of the junction. b) Set the Junction ID, Elevation, Base Demand and Demand Pattern values for each node-one by one-in the network to the values listed in the following table:
Junction ID A 1_1 1_2 1_3 1_4 1_5 1_6 2_1 2_2 2_3 2_4 2_5 2_6 Elevation(m) 100 111 112 113 114 115 116 109 108 107 106 105 104 Base Demand 0 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 Demand Pattern

Where: Junction ID: A name used to identify the junction. It cannot be the same as the ID for any other node. This is a required property. Elevation: The elevation of the junction - in meters - above some reference. This is a required property. Base Demand: The nominal flow of the junction in liters per second lps ,( in the case of the JVA networks the base demand is the flow of the FTA of the farm unit).

Demand Pattern: It is the name of the curve pattern that represents the change of the junction demand with time and thus this curve could be used to prepare a rotation schedule for the network. The preparation of the pattern curve( or the rotation schedule ) will be explained later. It can be the same pattern for more than one junction, if the Base Demand of the junction equals to zero then leaves the Demand Patterns box empty such as junction A in this example. c) Close the property form. Setting the properties of the Pipe object To set the properties of the pipe: a) Display the property form of the pipe. b) Set the Length, Diameter and Roughness values for each pipe-one by one-in the network to the values listed in the following table:
Start Node A 1_1 1_2 1_3 1_2 1_5 A 2_1 2_2 2_3 2_2 2_5 End Node 1_1 1_2 1_3 1_4 1_5 1_6 2_1 2_2 2_3 2_4 2_5 2_6 Length(m) 200 100 75 50 75 50 200 100 75 50 75 50 Diameter(mm) 400 350 200 150 200 150 400 350 200 150 200 150 Roughness 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135

Where: Start Node: The ID of the node where the pipe begins. This is a required property. End Node: The ID of the node where the pipe ends. This is a required property. Length: The actual length of the pipe in meters. This is a required property. Diameter: The pipe diameter mm. This is a required property. Roughness: The roughness coefficient of the pipe that depends on the pipe material. It has units of mm (for Hazen-Williams equation). This is a required property. c) Close the property form. Setting the properties of the Label object To set the properties of the pipe: a) Display the property form of the label.

b) Select the Font property, and click on the button, the Font dialog box will be displayed. c) Set the Font Type, Style and Size as you like. d) Close the property form. ============================================================= Step 5 :In this step we are going to set the Map Options and Analysis Options of our project. I. Map Options: are used to change the appearance of the Network Map for example; to display or hide the ID of the junctions, to change the size of the junctions and pipes and to display or hide the junctions and pipes values (such as junctions pressure, demand or elevation and pipes flow, length, diameter, roughness and headloss). To set the Map Options: a) Display the Map Option dialog box by: Select View >> Options or Right-click on any empty portion of the map and select Options from the popup menu that appears. b) A Map Options dialog will appear with a page for each of the following display categories: Nodes: controls size of nodes and making size to be proportional to value. Links: controls thickness of links and making thickness be proportional to value. Labels: turns display of map labels on/of. Notation: displays or hides node/link ID labels and parameter values. Symbols: turns display of tank, pump, valve symbols on/off. Arrows: selects visibility and style of flow direction arrows on links. Background: changes color of map's background. c) Only set the Options for Nodes, Links and Notation Options for Nodes: - Node Size: Selects node diameter. - Proportional to Value: Select if node size should increase as the viewed parameter increases in value (this option will be useful later when you view the results of the program such as junctions pressure). Options for Links: - Link Size: Sets thickness of links displayed on map. - Proportional to Value: Select if link thickness should increase as the viewed parameter increases in value (this option will be useful later when you view the results of the program such as links flow).

Options for Notation: - Display Node IDs: Displays node ID labels. - Display Node Values: Displays values of current node parameter being viewed (this option will be useful later when you view the results of the program such as junctions pressure). - Display Link IDs: Displays link ID labels. - Display Link Values: Displays values of current link parameter being viewed (this option will be useful later when you view the results of the program such as links flow).

II. Analysis Options: determine how the pipe network should be analyzed. Only two options we will be used for analyzing all networks (because the JVA is not interested in the water quality analysis) include Hydraulics Options and Times Options: Hydraulics Options To set the hydraulic options: a) Display the Hydraulics Options form by selecting the Options category from the Data Browser. From the list select Hydraulics and doubleclick. b) Set the Flow Units to LPS(liters per second)by selecting it from the list. c) Set the Headloss Formula to H-W (Hazen-Williams equation) by selecting it from the list. Time Options To set the time options: a) Display the Time Options form by selecting the Options category from the Data Browser. From the list select Time and double-click. b) Set the Total Duration to 6 for this example. Total Duration is the length of the simulation period, for example: Total Duration=6 means 7 hours or 7 days or any 7 intervals (EPANET deals with Total Duration as number of hours but this makes no difference depends on what you mean). However for the JVA the Total Duration usually means number of hours for one week which are 168 hours, thus the Total Duration=167 hours, this will calculate the networks values each hour during the week. >>>> Note:- Total Duration = Number of desired intervals - 1 =============================================================

Step 7 :When { Setting the properties of the Junction object } was described ,we introduced the Demand Pattern as the name of the curve pattern that represents the change of the junction demand with time and thus this curve could be used to prepare a rotation schedule for the network. It can be the same pattern for more than one junction, if the Base Demand of the junction equals to zero then leaves the Demand Patterns box empty such as junction A in this example. But how the Demand Pattern is prepared for each junction (or FTA) in the network? Demand Pattern Preparation: If you remember when we set the properties of the junctions object, we set the Demand Pattern property to junction 1_1 to P1, to junction 1_2 to P2, to junction 1_3 to P3 and so on , this means that junction 1_1 is opened and closed according to pattern P1, junction 1_2 is opened and closed according to pattern P2, junction 1_3 is opened and closed according to pattern P3 and so on,thus we have to define and prepare the Demand Patterns P1, P2, P3 and so on, The Demand Pattern is prepared by using the Pattern Editor form. The Pattern Editor is used to edit the Demand Pattern for a junction (or FTA ) in the network. To display the Pattern Editor: a) Select Patterns from the dropdown list of the Data Browser. b) Click the Browser's Add button . The Pattern Editor form will be displayed. >>>> Note:- we will prepare only one Demand Pattern - P1 in this example and then you repeat the same steps to prepare the others . c) Set the Pattern ID to P1 . d) In the Time Period-Multiplier table, you see two rows: - Time Period: It is the same as the Total Duration, if you remember when we set the Time Option; we set the Total Duration to 6. - Multiplier: It can be defined as ON-OFF Switch. The number of the Multipliers that you should enter equals to the Total Duration +1. Simply, to set a junction( or FTA ) to ON case at a certain hour or day or any interval then set the Multipliers value at that hour equals to 1. This means the junction is opened at this time and its outflow equals to the Base Demand of this junction, for the purpose of the JVA this means that the Farm Unit corresponding to this junction (or FTA) is irrigated at this time. And to set a junction (or FTA) to OFF case at a certain hour or day or any interval then set the Multipliers value at that hour equals to 0. Coming back to our example, based on what you learned from the above discussion, create the P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, P10, P11 and P12 patterns by using the Multipliers values listed in the following table:

Pattern P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1

Multiplier 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1

Remember:- It can be the same pattern for more than one junction, in this case you havent to repeat the same pattern just create one for all junctions that have the same pattern ,also remember if the Base Demand of the junction equals to zero then leave the Demand Patterns box empty such as junction A in this example. >>>> Note:- always save your work every two or three minutes by clicking on the save button . Step 8 :Now, your network should look like that shown in figure (1), isnt that? Ok? Then you are ready to run EPANET hydraulic analysis to perform the calculations of the network To run EPANET hydraulic analysis: 1) Select Project >> Run Analysis or Click on the receive the message:
Run Status

Standard Toolbar. Run Status

2) If there is no errors or problems in the constructing the network, you will

Run was successful

OK
3) Press OK. 4) If you receive an error message then fix the problem! And run EPANET hydraulic analysis again.

Congratulations!!!
=============================================================

Step 8 :This last step describes the different ways in which the results of an analysis as well as the basic network input data can be viewed. These include different map views, graphs, tables, and special reports. Viewing Results on the Map There are several ways in which values and results of a hydraulic simulation can be viewed directly on the Network Map by using both Map Options and View Browser. 1) Set the Map Options As it was mentioned before; when we were speaking about setting Map Options in step5; to set the Map Options: a) Display the Map Option dialog box by: Select View >> Options or Right-click on any empty portion of the map and select Options from the popup menu that appears. b) A Map Options dialog will appear. Select Node page. c) Select Proportional to Value check box if not selected. This will make the size of the node(or FTA) change according the value you will display from View Browser, for example FTAs elevation, pressure and nominal flow. d) Select Notation page. e) Select Display Node Values check box if not selected. This will make the value you will display from View Browser to be displayed on the Network Map beside each node. >>>> Note:- the same could be done for the links (pipes) if you want. 2) Now, to display the nodes value on the Network Map: a) Click on Map Browser. It consists of : Nodes and list of values that can be displayed on the Map. From the Nodes list select the parameter you want to display its values. For the purposes of JVA; the most important parameters to be displayed are the Pressure( in meters), Elevations, Base Demand(or FTAs nominal flow) and Demand(it is the flow of opened FTAs at the current time period). Links and list of values that can be displayed on the Map. From the Links list select the parameter you want to display its values. For the purposes of JVA; the most important parameters to be displayed are the Flow, headloss and Pipes Diameter, Length, Roughness . Time and list of time periods and the Animation Control Push Buttons, which allow you to display the selected parameters for the nodes and links at different time periods that you identified when you set the Total Duration in step5. Practice you self how to use these buttons, really it is very easy.

When a nodes or links parameter being viewed on the Network Map, you will see a Map Legend that appears at the left-upper corner of the Network Map. There are three types of map legends that can be displayed, Node Legend and Link Legend and Time Legend. Node Legend and Link Legend associate a color with a range of values for the current parameter being viewed on the map. The Time Legend displays the clock time of the simulation time period being viewed . To Display or Hide a Legend: To display or hide legend: - Right-click on an empty portion of the Network Map and click Node Legend, Link Legend or Time Legend from the popup menu. Any of these legends can also be hidden by double-clicking on them. To Edit a Legend: - Display Legend Editor by Right-click on the legend if it is visible. - Use the Legend Editor dialog form that appears to modify the legend's colors and intervals. To change a color, click on its color band in the Editor and then select a new color from the Color Dialog box that will appear. 3) You can print or save the current Network Map with displayed parameters to file as a Data (Text) or Picture (Bitmap) format as a follow: To print the contents of the current window being viewed: - Select File >> Print or click on the Standard Toolbar. To save the contents of the current window being viewed: a. Select Edit >> Copy To or click on the Standard Toolbar. b. Select file from the Copy dialog box that appears and click the OK button. c. If you selected to copy-to-file, enter the name of the file in the Save As dialog box that appears and select where you want to save this file d. Click OK. Viewing Results with Graphs and Tables: Analysis results, as well as some database values, can be viewed using several different types of graphs and tables. Graphs and Tables can be printed, copied to the Windows clipboard, or saved as a data file or picture files. To create a Graph: a. Select Report >> Graph or click on the Graph Standard Toolbar. b. Fill in the choices on the Graph Selection Dialog box that appears. c. Click OK to create the graph. To create a table: a. Select Report >> Table or click on the Table Standard Toolbar. b. Use the Table Options dialog box that appears to select:

The type of table The parameters to display in each column Any filters to apply to the data >>>> Note:- the same could be done for the Graghs and Tables to save or print them if you want. Viewing Results by creating Full Report: When EPANET analyzes the network, a report of computed results for all nodes, links and time periods can be saved to file. This report, which can be viewed or printed outside of EPANET using any Text Editor or Microsoft Word Processor, contains the following information. Project title and notes A table listing the end nodes, length, and diameter of each link A pair of tables for each time period listing computed values for each node (demand, head, pressure, and quality) and for each link (flow, velocity, headloss, and status). To create a Full Report: a. Select Full >> Report. b. Enter the name of the file in the Save As dialog box that appears and select where you want to save this file. c. Click OK. d. Now, you can open this file for editing or printing by using any Text Editor or Microsoft Word Processor.

Thats It

THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN MINISTRY OF WATER AND IRRIGATION


JORDAN VALLEY AUTHORITY

Using the :

<< As- Built Drawing >> Documents

Prepared By:-

Eng. Emad M. Shudifat French Embassy - Regional Mission for Water & Agriculture;MREA Irrigation Optimization in Jordan Valley Project

IOJoV

May 2002 Amman Jordan

Introduction:
There are several hydraulic structures known as Turnouts ( TO ) along the King Abdullah Canal that convert irrigation water from the canal to the distributing networks related to the Jordan valley Authority (JVA). For each turnout, there is an engineering detailed document includes: >>> Engineering and schematic drawings for the hydraulic design of the turnout, these drawings show the location, shape, dimensions and elevations of the turnout.

>>> Engineering and schematic drawings for the settling passage, rotating filter, ground reservoir and the pumps, these drawing show their locations, shapes, dimensions and elevations, and how they are connected together.
>>> Engineering and schematic drawings for the pipes that setup the distributing network, these drawing show the pipes plan views, profiles, lengths, diameters, pipe materials This engineering detailed document known by As Built Drawing , and it is the only available source for getting engineering data about each turnout and the related distributing network and it will be used to extract the necessary data to construct a representative models for the JVA distributing networks by using EPANET software for the hydraulic simulations purposes. Now, it will be explained how to extract the necessary data from the As Built Drawing Document to construct the models.

Available data from the As Built Drawing Document :

The data that could be extracted from this document to construct the model are :
1- Elevation of the water surface in the water source and the position of the source in relative to the network. 2- Elevation of the pumps ( i.e. pumps outlet, which is the point of connection with the distributing network ). However, the pressure flow relationship of the pump is obtained from the JVA directorate. 3- Properties of the pipes :- lengths , diameters and materials . 4- Properties of the Farm Turnout Assemblies ( FTAs ) :- elevations , nominal flows and locations . 5- Elevation of the upstream and downstream ends of each pipe in the network. It is very important to keep in mind that between the upstream and downstream ends of any pipe there is no change in the diameter , material or flow of the pipe, thus if one of these properties has changed this means an end of pipe and beginning of new pipe, and based on this the Farm Turnout Assembly ( FTA ) is one of these points that should be identified.

Extracting data from the As Built Drawing Document :

For a better training on the AS Built Drawing documents, it is recommended to have a copy of these documents. Here, you will be given some general instructions for extracting the data from this document :1) Draw an approximate diagram for the whole network. One of the documents sheets has a layout of the network and farm units, find this sheet and it will help you to draw this network diagram. 1 2) One of the sheets includes a drawing of the pumping station, from this sheet determine :
>> Elevation of water surface in the underground reservoir at the pumps ( from where the pumps take water ). You will find two elevations maximum and minimum elevations, it is always recommended to consider the minimum elevation, and in fact there is no large difference between the two elevations. >> Elevation of the pumps outlet, which is the beginning of the network. 3) All the sheets that you will use afterward include on the pipes of the network and their properties and all these sheets have the same aspect and thus if you become able to deal with one sheet then you able to deal with the others. Each sheet includes complete pipeline or part of pipeline. 4) Let us speak now about the components of this sheet : On the upper-right corner, there is a Notes and Legend that declare the symbols of the drawings. On the lower-right corner, there is a table that has information about the designing company of the AS-Built Drawing, the name of the project and the title of the current sheet which describes what is drawn in the sheet, and this title consists two numbers separated by slash ( / ) where the number on the left refers to the pipes number and the number on the right refers to the pumping stations number ( the distance from the beginning of the KAC from the north ), for example: 108 / 41 means that the current sheet has a details about pipeline number 108 in pumping station number 41 ( TO 41 ). On the upper-left corner, there is a drawing of the plan view of the pipe that declare the plan shape of the pipe and the positions of the FTAs on this pipe also there are small boxes at certain points along the pipe, these small boxes consist an information about the points stations on the pipe. From this drawing, we can imagine the shape of the pipe to be able to draw it.

In the middle of the sheet from left, there is a drawing of the profile of the pipe under the ground surface and there is no useful data from this drawing. Exactly below the profile view of the pipe, there is a table includes all necessary data to make the simulation model. This table setups from ten rows and only four of these rows are interested for us that are :Project level at bottom of trench ( m ) ; the second row in the table. Station ( km ) ; the fourth row in the table. Pipe material / diameter ; the fifth row in the table. Pipe fitting On Plan ; the seventh row in the table.

5) This table is used to extract the necessary data as follow :a. As it was mentioned before, each pipe has upstream and downstream ends and between the upstream and downstream ends of any pipe there is no change in the diameter , material or flow of the pipe, thus if one of these properties has changed this means an end of pipe and beginning of new pipe, and the FTA is one of these important points, the points where such changes occur are called Nodes or Junctions. To determine these nodes - and it is a very important step we use the data in the seventh row Pipe fitting On Plan , this row consists a symbols that represent the type of fittings in the pipe for example ; valves, reducers, end caps, tees and FTAs. The fittings that represent nodes and we will take care about are :
2

FTAs and it has this symbol Reducers and it has this symbol Tees and it has this symbol
D2 D1 D1

or
D2

. .

If you find in this row one of these symbol this means the end of a previous pipe and the beginning of new one. However, it is very important to naming these nodes and it is recommended to use this way :

>> Giving the FTA a number includes two parts separated by slash ( / ), where the left part refers to the pipes number and the second part refers to the farm units number. >> Giving all other nodes a letters A, B, C, D b. After determining the nodes, we determine the elevation of the node and this by using the data in the second row in the table Project level at bottom of trench (m) where you read the elevation directly above the current node. c. After determining the elevations of the nodes, we determine the length of pipe and this by using the data in the fourth row in the table Station ( km ) , where you read the station directly above the current node and then the difference between to respective nodes is the length of the pipe between these two nodes. The station of the node includes two numbers separated by plus sign ( + ) where the number on the left represents the distance in kilometers and the other represents the distance in meters.

d. After determining the length of the pipe, we determine the diameter and material of the pipe and this by using the data in the fifth row in the table Pipe material / diameter , where you read the diameter and material of the pipe between the upstream and downstream nodes. The number you read includes two parts separated by ( ) where the left part refers to the pipes material and the second on to the pipes diameter in millimeters ( mm ). 6) Finally; sometimes you maybe need to return to the Plan view of the pipe which could help you to imagine the pipe specially the positions of the FTAs in the network.

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