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DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

DETERMINERS (belirteler)
simden nce gelen ve onu niteleyen kelimelerdir. Sfatn bir alt dal olarak da incelenirler. Eer ismi niteleyen bir sfat veya sfat grubu varsa onun da nne geerler; yani isim ve sfat arasna girmezler.

a wall a big wall a very big wall Some of my friends, some of the friends (not some the friends veya some my friends)
Articles : a/an, the Possessives : my, your, his, her, its, your, our, their Demonstratives : this, that, these, those Quantifiers : Modifiers and others:

Ancak asla yan yana kullanlmazlar.Yani bir determiner bir dierini niteleyemez.

Bee ayrlrlar:

ARTICLES A/AN(Indefinite article) ( tekil ve saylabilen isimleri belirtir)

1. a ve an okunua gre belirlenir. Araya sfat girerse onun okunuu esas alnr. 2. just for singular and countable 3. nonspecific (zel olmayan-herhangi bir) 4. at the first mentioning (ilk bahsedi) 5. one example of a class (tm snf temsilen) a baby, a university, a European an apple, an hour, an MP, an old man a milk (Yanl) eer a bottle of milk kastetilmediyse I need a book. They live in a flat. The flat is very expensive. The sun was hot, so he bought an ice cream. Fakat There are books on the table. (plural) There is tea in the bag. (uncountable) A dog needs exercise. (=Dogs needs exercise) Bill is a doctor. (profession) I am a student. A dog is an animal. I am an idealist. Are you a good driver? That was a bomb. Jill is a really nice person. What a hot day! (Ne scak bir gn) It was such a long gueue! (O kadar uzun bir kuyruktu ki!) What silly boys! (Ne kadar aptal ocuklar!) They cost 25 a kilo (kilosu 25 pound) He drives at 60 kilometres an hour. We eat three times a day. A few, a little, a lot of, a great deal of, a great many of, a couple of I saw a couple of my friends, in the city centre yesterday. One of them was married whereas the other two ones were not. A hundred, a thousand, a million, a third (1/3)1 ( one is also possible but a is more common) He cought a cold. I have a headhache. A Mr. Smith moved to this flat last month.3

6. to say what ST/ SB is (bir eyin/birisinin ne olduunu beyan iin)

7. Exclamation (nlem) Eer isim tekil ve saylabilen ise. In certain phrases of speed, ratio, frequency etc. (sklk ve miktar belirtilerinde) 8. Her a/an teklik ifade etmez. Baz kombinasyonlarla okluk ifade ederler. Yandaki hibir yap teklik belirtmez. 9. Baz rakamlardan nce one (=bir) anlamnda. 10. Baz hastalklarda2 11. Bilinmeyen, tannmayan isimlerden nce
1 2

a fifth=1/5, a tenth=1/10, ancak a quarter=1/4 , a half=1/2 ve ayn zamanda two thirds=2/3, five tenths=5/10 Baz hastalklar a(n) almaz; cancer, polio gibi. 3 Mr Smith adl biri geen ay bu daireye tand. 43

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)


DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

A/AN ve ONE 1) One million = a million, a third=one third 2) We dont need a box, we need a container.4 (a herhangi bir anlamnda) We dont need one box, we need two boxes.5 (one bir adet anlamnda) 3) One bir zaman diliminden nce kullanlrsa, bilinmeyen bir vakti kasteder. One day he came early, another day he came late.6 One winter the snow fell early.7 [A winter the snow fell early (Yanl)] One day, youll be sorry since youve treated him so badly.8 4) One tek bana zamir olarak kullanlabilir ve oulu vardr, a/an isimsiz asla kullanlamaz. I need a rental car please? Which do you want, this one or those ones? THE (Definite article) tekil, oul ve saylamayanlar belirtmek iin kullanlr.
specific (belirli isimlerden nce) For a second time mentioning Ann is in the garden. Ann is in a garden. The beds which are in this hotel are comfortable. fakat A bed which is offered by a hotel cannot be comfortable. His car hit a tree. You can still see the mark on the tree. the moon, the earth, the sky, the stars but The sun is a star. The sky, the sea, the ground, the country fakat9 There are millions of stars in space. I tried to park my car but the space was too small. The possibility of visitors from outer space. She is the only one who can speak French round here. At the end of this month I may be a professor. The Nile is the longest river in the world. fakat10 Youre my best friend. [Youre my the best friend. (Yanl)] The first week was the easier. Your pullover is the same color as mine. These two photographers are the same. The small enterpriser is having a difficult time. The whale is in a danger of being extinct The disabled were angry with the new law.

For a unique object (Bir tane ise the alr)

Before only, end, beginning etc. before SUPERLATIVE Before ordinal numbers (first, second, third etc.) Before same Before a singular noun to show a class of ST. Before an adjective to mean a class of people.11 the noun of the noun zel isimden nce, (bahsettiimiz-szkonusu vs. manasnda) the comperativethe comperative
4 5

The university of the city= the city university fakat The university of London =London University This is the Mr. Smith, whom we talked about yesterday. 12 The more you read, the more you learn.13

Kutuya deil bir konteynra ihtiyacmz var. Bir kutuya deil iki kutuya ihtiyacmz var. 6 Bir gn erken geldi, dier bir gn ge 7 Kn birinde kar erken yad 8 Gnn birinde ona yle kt davrandn iin piman olacaksn 9 uzay anlamndaki space article almaz. 10 Belirlilik/sahiplik/gsterme (The/my/this) birbirleri yerine kullanlrlar, yan yana kullanlmazlar. 11 Yklem oul olur. 12 te bu dn bahsettiimiz Mr. Smith 45

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

the comperativeof two NO ARTICLE zel isimler: Henry Smith Lakap+isim: President Clinton, Captain James ehirler, eyaletler, lkeler, ktalar:14 Ankara, Utah, Mexico, South America, North America kta South Africa, West German lke

She is the funnier of these two girls. The ARTICLE Aile ismi: The Smiths Lakap (birisini kastederken, yalnz): the President, the Captain topluluk ve birlik anlam tayan veya oul isimli lkeler: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union the Netherlands, The Philippines The___ of ___ eklindeki yer-lke isimleri: the Republic of China the District of Columbia Dalar: Sradalar: Mount Everest the Himalayas Adalar: Takm adalar: Coney Island the British Isles, the Canary Islands Gller: Takm gller: Lake Superior, Lake Van The Great Lakes Kumsallar: nehirler, denizler, okyanuslar, kanallar, ller: Palm Beach the Nile, the Black Sea, the Atlantic Ocean the Suez Canal, the Sahara Desert Tek corafik noktalar: the Vatican, the South Pole Sokak, cadde ve yollar: Mehur-tannm binalar Madison Avenue, Wall Street, Second Street the World Trade Center, the Eiffel Tower Okul konular, ilmi branlar Cinema, theatre ve bank kelimeleriyle History, mathematics I often go to the cinema but I have not been to the theatre for years. Parklar ve meydanlar Hayvanat baheleri: Central Park, Broadway, Times Square the San Diego Zoo Ynler:15 lke, ehir, eyalet vs. blge ve blmleri: North, South, East, West the Southwest, the West Side, the Middle East southern Turkey the North Pole, the South of Turkey Baz vakitler Baz vakitler n the evening, in the morning, in the afternoon At noon, at night zel isimle balayan yer adlar: Tamlama halindeki yer adlar: London university, Kennedy Airport the University of London Dergiler: Gazeteler: Time, Newsweek, Life the New York Times, the Wall street Journal Tatil isimleri: stisna: Thanksgiving Day, Memorial Day The Fourth of July Gnler ve aylar: Mevsimler (optional) September, Monday (the) Summer Play+oyun/spor Play+muzik enstrman Play football, play soccer Play the drums, play the piano Lisan:16 Ulus, milliyet: English, French The English, The French (ngilizler, Franszlar) Televizyon17 Radyo Watch television listen to the radio AYRICA: Mzik gruplar-korolar, otel, tren-uak-gemi, sanat eseri, galeri-mze, sinema-tiyatro-sirk isimleri THE ile kullanlrlar. The Beatles, the Beach choir, the Hilton, the Titanic, the Concorde, the Mona Lisa, The National Gallery,
13 14

Ne ok kadar okursan o kadar ok renirsin. fakat (the) Sudan, (the) Yemen 15 fakat lke ve kta isimleri hari (South Africa, North America, West German) 16 fakat The ____ language; the English language, The French language 17 Cihaz anlamnda kullanldnda radio ve television normal olarak a veyathe alabilir. Example: Do we have a radio in this house? Yes there is one on the television. 46

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

The British Museum, The Royal Shakespeare (Theatre), The ABC Cinema, The Piccadilly Circus


A Japanese=Bir Japon

The Japanese= Japonlar. (oul yklem alr.)


1. Before meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper) Im going to have lunch. Hari: eer zel bir nse veya n niteleniyorsa (bana sfat, sonuna relative clause vs.) Im preparing a special lunch for you. I was invited to a dinner given the manager to welcome. Men fear death. I hate cars. I like bicycles instead. He is at home. He went home. Fakat, isim nitelenmise durum deiir We arrived at the brides home. The orphanage was the only home we had ever known. He is on his way to work. He is on his way to the office. I went to work by taxi. fakat I went to work in a taxi. Now you are on air. (imdi yayndasnz) I went to bed early last night. (yatak uyumak iin kullanldnda) I couldnt reach the bed to take the knife on it. (yatak uyumak iin kullanlmadnda) -I went to hospital. Oh, whats the matter? Are you well? -I went to the hospital. For what reason?

2. Before abstract nouns 3. Before plural nouns; to refer to a class of this 4. Before home (home the almaz.)

5. Before work (office anlamndaysa) 6. By taxi, by car, by train, by air, on foot

7. On air 8. Bed, Church, Court, Hospital, Prison, School, College, University (Bu isimler varolu amalarna uygun bir aktiviteye maruz kalyorlarsa the almazlar. Dolaysyla articlel ve articlesz halinin anlamlar deiir.)

POSSESSIVES my, your, his, her, its, your, our, their, Mehmets, the Smiths DEMONSTRATIVES This, that (tekil ve saylamayanlar iin) these, those (oullar iin)

This apple, that tea These people. Those Japanese


DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

THE QUANTIFIERS (Miktar Belirticiler)

1) simden once gelirler. 2) Geldikleri ismin oul, tekil yada saylamayan olmasna gre yklem alrlar. 3) Baz niceleyiciler her zaman of ile kullanlrlar.18
a couple of books (bir ift/bir-ka kitap) a majority of (the/my/these) books (Bu kitaplarn bir ounluu) a number of books (bir sr kitap) a lot of / lots of books / milk (bir sr kitap/st) plenty of books / milk (bol miktarda kitap/st) A good deal of milk (ok miktarda st) A great deal of milk (ok miktarda st) A great amount of milk (ok miktarda st) plural plural / uncountable uncountable

4) Baz niceleyiciler oflu ve ofsuz kullanlma zelliine sahiptirler. Bunlar oflu iken zamirdirler.
All (of) my books / milk Both (of) my books Half (of) my books / milk / apple Several of these19 books Few of these books A few of these books Many of these books Most of these books Each of these books Neither of these two books Either of these two books Some of these books Any of these books None of my books/milk plural/uncountable A little of this milk Little of this milk Much of this milk All books plural/uncountable Both books plural Half an hour/my books/this milk plural/singular/uncountable Several books plural Few books plural A few books plural Many books plural Most books plural Each apple singular Neither apple singular Either apple singular Some books20 plural Any books21 plural No book / milk / apple plural/singular/uncountable A little milk uncountable Little milk uncountable Much milk uncountable

NOTE 1: Kendilerinden sonra gelen ofla birleirken Possessive/demonstritive adjective/definite articlelardan birisi kullanlmal. (of+my/this/the) Some of the people (not some of people or some the people) Most of these people (not most of people or most these people) None of my teachers (not none of teachers or none my people) NOTE 2: Bu quantifierlarda of ile sadece belirlenmi isimler nicelenir. Tm cins nicelenmek istendiinde oflu yap kullanlmaz. Some people (baz insanlar) some of my people (halkmn bir ksm) most people (ou insan) Most of these people (bu insanlarn ou) no teachers (hibir retmen) None of my teachers (retmenlerimin hibirisi) all milk (tm stler) all of the mik (stn tamam)

5) Baz niceleyiciler hibir zaman of almaz.

No milk/apple/books every Many an apple22
18 19

No milk can be found round here. (no one of yaplarak olur) Every teacher can solve such a problem. (every one of yaplarak olur) Many a man has died in the battle. (Epey bir adam savata ld)

rneklerde tekil iin apple, oul iin book ve saylamayan iin milk kullanlmtr. Possessive / pronoun / determiner dan birisi kullanlmaldr. (my/this/the) rneklerde sadece biri verildi. 20 Some tekil bir isimle bilinmeyen biri anlamnda kullanlr. Bkz. Some and any 21 Any tekil bir isimle herhangi bir anlamnda kullanlabilir. 22 Yap tekil ancak anlam ouldur. 48

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

6) Niceleyicilerin balarndaki a onlar tekil yapamaz. Niceledikleri ismin durumuna gre yklem tekil veya oul olur.
We have a lot of milk. A couple of people have asked you.

7) Baz niceleyiciler sadece tekil isimlerle kullanlrlar.

one apple neither apple either apple each apple 23 every apple many a(n) = a large number of

Many a good man has been destroyed by alcoholic drink.

8) Bazlar sadece oullarla kullanlrlar.

two, three, etc few / (quite) a few both a couple of a (large) number of several (a great/good) many

several books (birka kitap)

9) Bazlar sadece saylamayanlarla.

A little/little Much A good/great deal of [adeal of] A vast quantity of [aquantity of] A great/large amount of [aamount of] A little/little milk (biraz/az st) Much milk (ok st) A good/great deal of milk (ok bol miktarda st) A vast quantity of milk (ok bol miktarda st) A great/huge/large amount of milk (ok bol miktarda st)

10) Bazlar hem saylamayan hem de oullarla kullanlr.

None of Some Any A lot of / lots of Most All Plenty of None of the milk/books Some milk/books Any milk/books A lot of/lots of milk/books Most milk/books All milk/books Plenty of milk/books

11) Bazlar hem saylamayan hem oul hem de tekillerle kullanlr.

no half all (informal, gramerce yanl) No milk/books/apple Half of the milk/books/apple All of the milk/books24

11) Bazlar yanlarnda isim olmakszn tek balarna zamir olarak kullanlabilirler. Bkz madde 4. Bazlar daha ok nesne konumunda bulunur: a lot / lots, none
Some cars have four doors, but some have two. (some of them have two) A few of the shops were open but most were closed. (most of them were closed.) Half of this money is mine, and half is yours. (half of it is yours.)

12) kendisinden sonra of kullanmakszn the/this/my l cmlelerle birleebilir.

23 24

All (of) the money

Both (of) the teachers.

Half (of) these people.

Every bir eyin ne kadar sk gerekletiini belirtmek iin oulla kullanlr. Bkz. Each / every All my apple yaygn olarak kullanlr ancak gramerce yanl olarak deerlendirilir. Yerine the whole kullanlmaldr. 49

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

QUANTIFIERS IN DETAIL A few and few a little and little

1) (a) little saylamayan isimler (uncountable) 2) a little = biraz [olumlu]

(a) few oulk isimler (plural)

little = (ok) az [olumsuz]

There is a little time before the train leaves. Lets go and drink something.25 There is little time to finish this project. We can never finish it in time.26

3) a few = bir ka

few = (ok) az

I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.27 Im very bored here. I have few friends to talk and they are boring.28

NOTE 1: Olumsuz anlam ile kastedilen nitelenenden isimden az miktarda olduudur. Yoksa anlam pozitif olabilir. She is lucky. She has few problems. (ansl. ok az problemi var.) I have a few problems. Things are not going so well for me. (Biraz problemim var. ler benim iin ok iyi gitmiyor.)

4) zamir olarak da kullanlr (alone, without a noun)

Many are called, but few are chosen. Very little is known about him. Do you speak English? A little (biraz,konuabilirim) / Little (ok az, konuamam) Do you have some biscuits? A few (biraz, sana verebilirim). / Few. (ok az sana veremem)

5) of + my, this, the kuralna dikkat

A few of his visitors left early. (A few his visitors.) Few of Picassos pictures are good. (Few Picassos pictures) Can I take a little of this sugar? (a little this sugar) Little of the original building has survived. (Little the original building)

extra: little ayn zamanda kk anlamnda bir sfattr.

A little girl wants to see you. (Kk bir kz sizi grmek istiyor.)

extra: the few az miktarda insan, birka kii anlamna gelen bir zamirdir.
Real power belongs to the few. (Gerek g az miktarda insana aittir.) She was one of the chosen few. (O kz seilmi birka kiiden biriydi)

A couple of (=a few)

1) Bir ift anlam yannda bir ka kii anlamna da gelir. I need a couple of eggs (=two eggs) for this. Were going out to a restaurant with a couple of friends (=a few friends).

2) Belirli bir isimde niceleme yaptnda the/my/these kullanlr.

A couple of my friends; a married couple a partner couple NOTE : Couple ayn zamanda ift, hayat arkada gibi anlamlara gelir.

25 26

Tren ayrlmadan nce biraz vaktimiz var. Hadi gidip bir eyler ielim. Projeyi bitirmek iin (ok) az vakit var. Asla vaktinde yetitiremeyiz. 27 Burada mutluyum. Birka arkadam var ve epey sk buluuyoruz. 28 Burada ok sklyorum. (ok) az arkadam var ve onlar da skclar. 50

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

Some and Any


some = in positive sentences, for plural and uncountable any = in negative sentences and questions, for plural and uncountable
We bought some flowers/sugar We didnt buy any flowers/sugar. Hes busy. Hes got some work to do. Hes lazy. He never does any work. Do we have any flowers/sugar?

NOTE: Sorularda ounlukla any kullanlr.

Have you got any luggage? No, I havent. Has anybody seen my bag? Yes, it is under the table.

Some : Fakat beklenen cevap yes ise veya eer soruda rica veya davet var ise some kullanlr. (request, encouraging or giving an invitation)
Would you like something to eat? (teklif, offer) Can I have some sugar, please? (rica, request) Could I have some books, please? Why don't you take some books home with you? Would you like some books?

NOTE 1: Some ve anynin body, -thing, one ve -where kombinasyonlar da any ve somen dahil olduu kurallara dahildirler.
Im hungry. I want something to eat. Im not hungry. I dont want anything to eat. Theres somebody at the door. There isnt anybody at the door. Has anyone seen my glasses anywhere?

NOTE 2: Manay olumsuzlatran baz preposition, zarf, fiil ve sfatlarda any kullanlr. Without:
We went out without any money.

barely, hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom

Hardly anybody passed the examination.(Hemen hikimse snav gemedi)

deny, fail, prohibit, refuse, etc

He refused to eat anything. (=He didnt accept to eat anything)

impossible, unlikely:
It is impossible to see any good view in this city.

If clause
If there are any letters for me, can you send them on this address? If anyone has any questions, Ill be pleased to answer them. Let me know if you need anything.

Manada koulluk varsa;

Im sorry for any trouble Ive caused. (=If I have caused any trouble I am sorry) (Neden olduum herhangi bir problem varsa zr dilerim) 51

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

2) any + singular (positive cmlelerde): hangisi olursa olsun anlamnda (herhangi bir)
You can catch any bus. They all go to the theatre. 29 Which sang shall I sing? Any song. I dont mind.30 Come and see me any time you want. Any of the students could have answered this question. Some kind person sent me those flowers. (Kibar adamn biri bana bu iekleri gndermi) Some woman just stole my purse. (Kadnn biri demin czdanm ald) Some people were playing ball. (Birtakm insanlar darda top oynuyorlard) Some people dont like tea. (Baz insanlar ay sevmezler) The talks went on at some length. (Grmeler epey srd.) [adv] You must run some to catch up. (Yetimek iin epey komalsn) [adv] Some ten people were hired. (Yaklak on insan tutuldu.) [adv] Someone has forgotten their umbrella. (Birileri emsiyesilerini unutmu) If anybody wants to leave early, they can. (Ayrlmak isteyenler varsa, ayrlabilirler) Some of my parents. Some of parents (Yanl) Some my parents (Yanl) Any of your food. Any of food (Yanl) Any your food (Yanl)

3) some + singular/plural person: kim olduu belli deil. (-nn biri, birtakm)

NOTE : Some ayrca aadaki anlamlarda da kullanlr.

4) somebody / anybody ve someone / anyone tekil yklem, oul zamir (they/them/their etc) alrlar.

NOTE: of + my/the/this kuralna dikkat

No and None (No vs Any)

1) no, nothing, nobody, none of kullanlan cmlede not- yer almaz. Any kullanlan cmlede ayn anlam karlamak iin not- eklenmelidir.
I did not say anything = I said nothing. We havent got any money = We have got no money. The station isnt anywhere near here. = It is nowhere near here.

2) none = no one demektir. Ancak no one sadece saylabilenlerle kullanlrken, none saylamayanlarla da kullanlr. No one of ise sadece oullarla kullanlr.
None of your friends None of this money How much money have you got? "I'd like some more cheese." No one of your fiends. (doru) no one of this money (yanl) None. (no one deil) "I'm sorry there's none left". (no one deil)

3) None oftan sonra oul bir isim geldiinde yklem tekil de oul da olabilir. Ancak saylamayan isim geldiinde sadece tekil isim kullanlr. [None of + my books are/is]
None of the shops were/was open. None of my children has/have blonde hair. None of your money is able to help me. (Her zaman tekil, zira money bir SAYILAMAYAN isimdir) Nobody phoned, did they? Is there nobody here who can answer my question? No one in the class has done their homework.

4) Nobody ve no one tekil yklem, ancak oul zamir (they/their/them etc) ister.

5) None zamir olarak kullanlabilir. (Alone, without noun)

29 30

Herhangi bir otobs yakalayabilirsin. Hepsi tiyatroya gider Hangi arky syleyeyim? Hangisi olursa, fark etmez. 52

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

She searched the shelves for books on yoga, but could find none. (=NO ONE) She went to the shop to get some oranges but they had none. (=NO ONE) None of your friends no of your friends (Yanl)

6) "no of diye bir kullanm yoktur, yerine none of kullanlr.

Much and Many

1) Much, saylamayan (uncountable), many ise oul (plural) isimlerle kullanlr, okluk belirtirler. Normalde soru cmlelerinde ve olumsuz cmlelerde yer alrlar. Olumlularda yerlerine a lot of veya lots of kullanlr. Ancak resmi (formal) ifadelerde olumlu cmlelerde de kullanlmaktadrlar.
Many people eat too much meat. Much of the national park was destroyed in the fire. (Milli Parkn byk bir ksm yangnda mahvoldu) Many have argued that she is the finest poet of her generation. Much remains to be done before the drug can be used with humans. Many of the delegates voted the policy. (Many the delegates) I have known her for a great many years. (Onu epey ok bir zamandr tanyorum) A government which improves conditions for the many (koullar ounluk iin gelitiren bir hkmet)

2) Much of + tekil isim (singular noun) byk bir ksm (a large part of ) anlamna gelir.

3) Ardndan isim gelmeksizin de zamir olarak kullanlrlar (Alone, without noun)

4) of+the/my/this kuralna dikkat

extra 1: a great many = very many extra 2: the many = the majority (ounluk)

Such and So
so sfat ve zarflar, such ise isimleri nitelemek iin kullanlr. Ancak herhangi bir isim many/much/few/ little ile nitelenmise burada so kullanlr. [so + many/much/few/little + Noun]
I havent eaten so much food before. I dont want to take so many cars nowadays.

Such + a + singular noun (that) Such + plural/uncountable noun (that) Such + a + adj + singular noun (that) Such + adj + plural/uncountable noun (that) So + adj/adv (that) So + adj + a + singular noun (that) So + many/much/few/little +(adj)+ noun (that)


I havent seen such a bike before. (Daha nce bylesi bir bisiklet grmemitim) I havent seen such cars before. (Daha nce byle arabalar grmemitim) I have never met such a beautiful girl before. (Daha nce bu kadar gzel bir kzla karlamamtm) I have never worked so hard before. (Daha nce asla bu kadar sk almamtm) She is so beautiful. (O kadar gzelki-ok gzel) He was so good a man. (O kadar iyi bir adamd ki..)

so how as too


a noun

A Lot of / Lots of and Plenty of

1) Her de hem saylamayan hem de oullar ile kullanlr, a lot of / lots of okluk, plenty of bolluk (more than enough) belirtir. (a lot of, lots of ile kyaslandnda daha resmi=formaldr.)
A lot of luck A lot of friends lots of time lots of people plenty of money plenty of ideas

2) lots veya a lot eklinde zamir olarak (genellikle cmle sonunda) veya yklem sonrasnda zarf olarak kullanlrlar. (Alone, without a noun) plenty de zamir olarak kullanlr.
I have had plenty to eat. I dont want any more.31


Bol miktarda yemekliim var. Artk daha fazla istemiyorum. 53

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

Have you got any small nails? Yes. I have got a lot \ lots32 (pron) I care a lot about you. (Seni ok umursuyorum) (adv) [a lot=very much] Thanks a lot for your help. (Yardmlarn iin ok saol) (adv) [a lot=very much] Get out of my house, the lot of you! (Defolun evimden, hepiniz!) She has a got a PC, colour printer, scanner the lot. (Bir PCsi var, renkli yazc, tarayc; yani bir btn)

extra: the lot/the whole lot = tamam, bir btn olarak anlamnda bir isimdir.

All, Both and Half - All vs the Whole

1) all plural, uncountable

the whole singular

All cars have wheels.(tekerlek) All (of) the milk has finished by someone. The whole of the field was flooded.(not all of the fieldbut getting common.)

2) Both, all ve half belirlenmi bir ismi (the\my\this alm) nitelerken of ile veya ofsuz olabilirler.
All (of) my friends. Half (of) this money. Both (of) the sentences.
All Both half of Them It Us you

Ancak nitenen ey nesne konumunda bir zamirse (them, us etc) of kullanlmaldr.

All of us like you.(doru) All us like you. (yanl) Half of them appreciate the thing you have done. (not Half them appreciate)

3) Kendisinden sonra relative clause geliyorsa; all=everything veya all=the only thing anlamna gelir.
I dont agree all that she said.(everything) (Syledii hereyle hemfikir deilim.) All she wants to do is help. (Yapmak istedii tek ey yardm idi.)

4) 33whole+plural name cmleye bir ksm tamamyla anlam katar.

All of the towns had their electricity cut off. (Blgedeki tm kasabalarn elektrii kesildi) After the storm, whole towns were left without electricity. (Frtnadan sonra, baz kasabalar tamamyla elektriksiz kald)

5) Aadaki alternatif both ve all kullanm ekillerine dikkat a) All ve both mid positionda bulunuyorsa, zneyi niteliyordur.
We are all going to Athens during the vacation. (All of us are) Do you all want this cake? (Do all of you) They have both finished their dinner. (Both of them have finished) Are you both going to the conference? (Are both of you)

b) All ve both of almakszn the/my/this grubuyla kulanlabilirler ama bu gruptan nce gelmelidirler.
All their hard work had been of no use. (not Their all hard work) All these inventions are my products. (not These all inventions) Both your sisters love you. (not Your both sisters) Both these two brothers are married. (not These both two brothers)

c) All ve both zamirden sonra gelerek onu niteleyebilirler.

People will want to see them all. (see all of them) I went on holiday with them both. (with both of them.)

Both / Neither / Either

1) Her zaman iki ey iin kullanlrlar:

32 33

Both restaurants are very good. Neither restaurant is expensive. We can go to either restaurant.

Hi kk iviniz var m? Evet. ok var. The whole deil, whole + plural name 54

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

2) (neither\either) +of+ (the\my\this) + plural Noun (her zaman iki tane kastedilir) 34
Neither of the restaurants we went to was\were expensive. These are two types of qualification. Either of them is acceptable.

3) Zamir olarak kullanlrlar. (Alone without a noun)

Which do you want? Both \ neither \ either www.elt-time.com


Byle cmlelerde neither tekil de oul da yklem alabilir. 55

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

4) either, neither, both 2 ey, buna karlk ayn anlamda any, none, all 2den fazla ey
There are two good hotels in the town. You can stay at either of them. (notany of them) There are many good hotels in the town. You can stay at any of them. (noteither of them) We tried two hotels. Neither of them had any rooms. Both of them were full. (notnone of them) (notall of them) We tried a lot of hotels. None of them had any rooms. All of them were full. (notneither of them) (notboth of them)

5) Paralel yaplar: Bu tr yaplarda ilk ne tr bir yap gelmise, daha sonra da ayn tr gelmelidir. (both+noun+and+noun veya both+adjand+adj gibi) Bothand hemhem de Neithernor37 nene de Either or Yaya da Both Ann and Tom were late.35 I was both tired and hungry when I arrived.36 Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.38 Neither my sister nor my brothers like chocolate.39 Neither my brothers nor my sister likes chocolate.40 She said she would contact me but she neither writed to me nor phoned.41 Im not sure where hes from. Hes either Spanish or French.42 Either you apologize or Ill never speak to you again.43

Each / Every
1) each/every her ikisi de singular noun ve singular verb
Each/every time I see you, you look different. (Seni her grdmde farkl gzkyorsun) There is a phone in every/each room of the house. (Evin her/her bir odasnda bir telefon var)

2) each of +my\the\this+noun ancak every of diye birey yok. Bunun yerine every one kullanlr.
Each of the books has a different color. (Herbir kitabn ayr bir rengi var) Every one of the books has a different color.

Each of them \ you \ us etc. Every one of them \ you \ us etc.

3) Each her zaman niteledii isimden nce gelmez. zneyi nitelerken yklem ncesinde veya cmle sonunda gelebilir. Ancak bu kez niteledii isim ouldur. Every bu ekilde kullanlamaz.
Each student was given a book. The students were each given a book. The students were given a book each. Each orange costs 25 pense. These oranges each cost 25 pense. These oranges costs 25 pense each.

4) Every bir eyin ne kadar sk gerekletiini ifade etmek iin oul ifadelerle kullanlr:
The buses go every ten minutes. (Otobsler her on dakikada bir kalkarlar) We had to stop every ten miles. (Her on milde bir mola vermek zorunda kaldk.) One in every three marriages ends in divorce. (Her evlilikten biri boanmayla sonulanyor)

Extra: every other: birinci, nc, beinci vs ama ikinci, drdnc, altnc vs deil.
35 36

Hem Ann hem de Tom ge kalmt. Vardmda hem yorgun hem de atm. 37 Yklemin tekil mi oul mu olaca ykleme en yakn ismin oul mu yoksa tekil mi olduuna baldr. 38 Ne Liz ne de Robin partiye geldi. 39 Ne kz kardeim ne de erkek kardelerim ukulata severler. 40 Ne erkek kardelerim ne de kz kardeim ukulata sever. 41 Benimle balantya geeceini sylemiti ama ne mektup yazd ne de telefon etti. 42 Nereli olduundan emin deilim. Ya spanyol ya Fransz. 43 Ya zr dile, yaa da seninle bir daha hi konumam. 56

DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

Every other day: gn ar (iki gnde bir)

every other week: bir hafta deil bir hafta (iki haftada bir)

A Number of vs. The Number of

the number of = says anlamna gelirken, a number of oullardan nce kullanlr, okluk belirtir.
A number of people have just gone to Paris from Adana by air. (Bir sr insan hava yoluyla Adanadan Parise demin geldi.) The number of the people who went to Paris from Adana are not known yet. (Adanadan Parise giden insanlarn says henz bilinmiyor.)

1) Saylamayan ve oul isimlerden nce gelir ve yeterince anlam katar.
Have you made enough copies? (Yeterince kopya rettin mi?) Is there enough room for me? (Benim iin yeterince bo yer var m?)

2) Eer bir sfat veya zarf niteliyorsa bunlardan sonra gelir. Bu zarf olan enoughtr.
This house isnt big enough for us. (big sfat) You are not working hard enough to finish this project in time. (hard zarf)

3) Zamir olarak yalnz bana kullanlabilir. (alone, without a noun)

Sixs bottles should be enough. If enough of you are interested, well organize a trip to the theatre.

3) have had enough of ST bkknlk belirtir.

I have heard enough of that music. (Bu mzii yeterince dinledim)

Graded Quantifiers
Bazlar derecelendirilirler. Many Much Few Little more more fewer less most most fewest least (oul) (saylamayan) (oul) (saylamayan)

1) What ve which tekil, oul veya saylamayan isimlerden nce gelirler. WHAT: ne, hangi; WHICH: hangi
What kind of music do you like? (Ne/Hangi tr mzik seversin?) What job does he do? (Ne i yapyor?) Which way is the wind blowing from? (Rzgar hangi ynden esiyor?) what + a + adj + N (singular) what + adj + N (plural-uncountable) what + a + adj + N + sentence what + adj + N (Pl/UC) + sentence

2) What sfat+isimden nce nlem olarak kanaat belirtmek iin kullanlr.

What a beautiful house! (Ne gzel bir ev!) What awful weather! (Ne korkun bir hava!) Kendisinden sonra cmle gelir What a spoiled girl she was! (Ne kadar mark bir kzd!) What interesting books you have! (Ne kadar ilgin kitaplarn var!)

3) Which of ile de kullanlr. sim oul olmal ve the/my/these almal. Yklem tekilin veya oulun kastedilmesine bal olarak ekillenir. (which of the/my/these Pl Noun is/are)
Which of the applicants has got the job? (i bavuranlardan hangisi ald?) Which of the patients have recovered? (Hastalardan hangileri iyileti?)


DETERMINERS (Articles, Quantifiers and others)

Determinerlerin konumu ile ilgili olarak u iki eyi bilmek lazmdr: 1. sim nitelendiinde hep ilk srada, yani isme en uzak noktada olurlar. my friend [det + Noun] my smart friend [det+adj+Noun] my extremely smart friend [det+adv+adj+Noun] 2. ki determiner yan yana kullanlmaz. Ancak predeterminerler determinerlar niteleyebilirler: all both half times double twice treble quadruple quite rather such what Have you drunk all (of) the milk? I had to use all my powers of persuasion to get her to agree. Remember all that trouble we had with the police last year? Both my parents are teachers. Roughly half (of) the class are Spanish and the others are a mixture of nationalities. My foot swelled up to three times the normal size when it was stung by a wasp. Electrical goods are almost double the price they were a few years ago. He's twice her size (= much bigger than she is). He earns almost treble the amount that I do. We have had quadruple the number of applicants we expected. There was quite a lot of traffic today but yesterday was even busier. I've got rather a lot of work to do at the moment. It seems like such a long way to drive for just one day. I'd put on such a lot of weight that I couldn't get into my trousers. "She can't come." "What a shame/pity." What a lovely view!