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Problem 1: Obtain Lagrange's equations of motion for a spherical pendulum (a mass point suspended by a rigid, weightless rod).

Solution: Concepts, principles, relations that apply to the problem: Lagrange's Equations: ; generalized coordinates Why do they apply? We are asked to obtain Lagrange's equation of motion. How do they apply?

The system has only two degrees of freedom. Choose the generalized coordinates to be and . The constraints are holonomic, the applied forces are conservative. , andq1 = , q2 = . L = T U. . U = mg r cos. . . In this problem is cyclic, is a constant of motion. Details of the calculations:

Equations of motion:

Note: Because is cyclic, we already have a first integral. We can insert d/dt = constant/sin2 into the expression for d2/dt2. Problem 2: A uniform ladder of mass M and length l slides without friction from wall or floor. (a) Set up the second order differential equation of motion, assuming the ladder remains in contact with the wall. (b) If the ladder is initially at rest at an angle a0 with the floor, at what angle, if any, will it break contact with the wall?

Solution: Concepts, principles, relations that apply to the problem: Lagrange's Equations: Why do they apply? All forces except the forces of constraint are derivable from a potential. How do they apply? (a) As long as the ladder remains in contact with the wall, we have the constraints x = (l/2)cos and y = (l/2)sin for the coordinates of the CM. The Lagrangian L is given by L = T - V.

T is the kinetic energy of the motion of the CM and the motion about the CM.

is the equation of motion as long as there is contact with the wall. Details of the calculations: (b) If the wall pushes on the ladder d2x/dt2 is greater than zero. The ladder breaks contact with the wall when d2x/dt2 = 0.

To find d2x/dt2 as a function of we need d/dt as a function of . From energy conservation we find d/dt. T() + V() = V(0). . Therefore . . d2x/dt2 is greater than zero as long as 3sin> 2sin0. d2x/dt2 is smaller than zero if 3sin< 2sin0. The board breaks contact with the wall when 3sin= 2sin0. Problem 3: A small object with mass m moves on a smooth, friction-free horizontal surface. It is attached to a peg at the origin by an ideal massless spring with spring constant k and equilibrium length r0. At time t = 0, the mass is set in motion in an arbitrary direction from point (r,). (a) Find the Lagrangian L for the system, then (b) calculate the generalized momenta pj .

(d) then work out the equations of motion dpj/dt and dqj/dt. (e) Are any of the variables cyclic, thereby giving especially simple equations of motion? If so, integrate the equation(s) and interpret your results physically. (f) Consider the special case that r = constant. Deduce the condition(s) that allow this case and discuss how this occurs physically. Solution: Concepts, principles, relations that apply to the problem: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics

(c) Construct the Hamiltonian function, H(pj, qj, t);

Why do they apply? We are asked to find the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the system. How do they apply? Assume the spring can rotate about the origin, but not bend. This is a two-dimensional problem. (a) L = T - U. T = m(vx2 + vy2) = m( r2 + ), U = k(r-r0)2. L = m( (b) L/ r2 + ) - k(r-r0)2. . = pr, L/ = p, pr = m , p = mr2 . (c) H = pr2/(2m) + p2/(2mr2) + k(r-r0)2, since (d) pr/t = -H/r = -k(r-r0) + p2/(mr3), p/t = -H/ = 0. r/t = H/pr = pr/m, /t = H/p = p/(mr2).

(e) The coordinate is cyclic. If the Lagrangian does not contain a given coordinate qj then the coordinate is said to be cyclic and the corresponding conjugate momentum pj is conserved. p = constant = M, = M/(mr2).

The Lagrangian and the coordinates do not contain time explicitly, therefore E = T + U is a constant of motion. (f) We want and to be zero. m = -k(r-r0) + M2/(mr3) = 0, k(r-r0) = M2/(mr3). = mv2/r. k(r-r0) = mr

Rotation with uniform angular velocity, spring is stretched providing the centripetal force. Details of the calculation: None Problem 4: Find the Lagrangian and the equations of motion of a board of mass M and length l, which sits inside a cylindrical pipe of radius R. There is no friction between the board and the sides of the pipe, and gravity is not to be neglected. Assume that the board does not change its z-coordinate, where z is along the horizontal axis of symmetry of the pipe. Determine the critical energy Ec above which the board starts to rotate in the pipe.

Solution: Concepts, principles, relations that apply to the problem: Lagrange's Equations: ; Centripetal force: Fc = mv2/r

Why do they apply? All forces except the forces of constraint are derivable from a potential. The Lagrangian formalism is well suited for such a system. For the board to rotate in the pipe without loosing contact with the wall, we need that the centripetal force at the highest point is greater in magnitude than the force of gravity. How do they apply? Set up a coordinate system as shown in the figure below.

For < 90o, the board does not break contact with the wall. Then T = (1/2)M(hd/dt)2 + (1/2)M(l2/12)(d/dt)2 = TCM + Trot, U = -Mghcos. Here h2 = R2 - l2/4. We have only one generalized coordinate, , and one generalized velocity, d/dt. Details of the calculation:

The equation of motion is

For > 90o, the board can break contact with the wall. For the board to rotate in the pipe we need Mh(d/dt)2 > Mg at = 180o, or (d/dt)2 > g/h at = 180o.

E = T + U. At = 180o we have E = (1/2)M(R2 - l2/6)(d/dt)2 + Mgh. For the board to rotate in the pipe we need E > Ec = (1/2)M(R2 - l2/6)(g/(R2 - l2/4)1/2) + Mg(R2 - l2/4)1/2. We can also use Lagrange multipliers to find the force of constraint in the radial direction. As long as this force points towards the center of the pipe for all , the board will rotate in the pipe. ; h is now a generalized coordinate. Constraint: h = 0. We have one equation of constraint, 1h = 0. [Lagrange multipliers: 1(a1hh + a1) = 0, a1h = 1, a1 = 0.]

1 is the force of constraint (alkl = a1h1) in the radial direction. At = 180o we have 1 = -Mh(d/dt)2 + Mg. We want1 to be negative for the board to rotate in the pipe. We therefore need Mh(d/dt)2 > Mg, or (d/dt)2 > g/h at = 180o.