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GCSE MATHEMATICS Higher Tier, topic sheet.

TRANSFORMATION OF GRAPHS
1. Diagram 1 shows a sketch of y = x.

O Diagram 1

Diagrams 2, 3 and 4 show sketches of the graph of y = x after it has been moved parallel to the x-axis, or parallel to the y-axis, or parallel to both.
y y y

3 O Diagram 2 x O 2 Diagram 3 x

3 O 2 Diagram 4 x

Write down the equations of the graphs shown in (a) (b) (c) 2. Diagram 2, Diagram 3, Diagram 4.
y 6 4 2 A (1, 2)

The diagram shows a sketch of the function y = f (x). The curve cuts the x-axis at (0, 0) and (3, 0). A (1, 2) is a point on the curve.

0 2

The function is transformed.

4

On each grid below, sketch the transformed function. State the co-ordinates of A on each new curve.
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(a)

y = f (x) 2 A is at (.. , )

y 6 4 2

0 2 4 6

(b)

y = 2f (x) A is at (.. , )

y 6 4 2

0 2 4 6

(c)

y = f (2x) A is at (.. , )

y 6 4 2

0 2 4 6

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3.

The sketch below is of y = x2.

y

x O

On the axes provided, sketch the following graphs. y = x2 is shown dotted on each set of axes. In each case p is a positive integer greater than 1. (a) Sketch y = px2
y

x O

(b)

(i)

Sketch y = x2 + p
y

(ii) (c) (i)

O Write down the coordinates of the point where the graph crosses the y-axis.

Sketch y = (x + p)2
y

x O

(ii)

Write down the coordinates of the point where the graph touches the x-axis.

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4.

The diagram shows the graph of y = cos x for 0 y 3

2 1 0 90 1 2 3 180

360

270

360

On the axes below sketch the graphs of (a)

y 3 2 1 0 90 1 2 3 180 270 360

y = 2 cos x for 0

360
y 3 2 1 0

(b)

y = cos2x for 0

360

90 1 2 3

180

270

360

(c)

y = 2 + cos x for 0

360

y 3 2 1 0 90 1 2 3 180 270 360

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5.

The diagram shows a sketch of the graph of y = f(x) for 3 x

y
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5x

(a)

Draw each of the graphs with these equations. (i) y = f(x) + 2

y
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5x

(ii)

y = f(x 2)
y
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5x

(b)

The graph below is a transformation of the graph of y = f(x). Write down, in terms of f(x), the equation of the graph. y
5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5x

y 5 x 2.

6.

The diagram shows the graph of y = x2 for 2

5 x

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Each of the graphs below is a transformation of this graph. Write down the equation of each graph. (a) y 5 (b) y 5

5 x

5 x

5 c)

y 5

5 x

5
7. The graph of y = sin x for 0 x 360 is shown on the grid below.

The point P(90, 1) lies on the curve.

y 2 P

O 1

90

180

270

360

On both of the grids that follow, sketch the graph of the transformed function. In both cases write down the coordinates of the transformed point P.
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(a)

y = sin (x 45)
y 2

O 1

90

180

270

360

(b)

y = 2sinx
y 2

O 1

90

180

270

360

8.

On the grid below, sketch the graph of y = sin (x - 90)

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9.

y = x2

(3,0) O

Write down the equation of the transformed graph.

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Answers. 1. (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) (b) (c) (b) (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) y = x2 + 3. y = (x 2)2. y = (x 2)2 + 3. A = (1, 0). A = (1, 4). A = (0.5, 2). (ii) (ii) y=3 (0, p). ( p, 0). f(x).

2.

3.

5. 6.

y = (x + 3)2. y = x2 2. 2 y = ( 1 x) . 2 P = (135, 1). P = (90, 2).

7. 9.

y = (x + 3)2.

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