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Foreign Languages and Literature







1. 2. 3.

FARAYO, Francis CHARLES, Mwashi MOHAMED, Johari P.

T/UDOM/2010/02853 T/UDOM/2010/02849 T/UDOM/2010/02877






QUESTION: It is argued that language may perform more than one activity at par. Justify.

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition of Language 1.2 Function of Language 2. MAIN BODY 2.1 Different provinces that show how language perform more than one activity at par. 3. CONCLUSION 4. REFERENCES

According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary Language is the system of communication in speech and writing that is used by people or particular country or area Language may refer either to the specific human capacity for acquiring and using complex system of communication or to a specific instance of such a system of complex communication Wikipedia, The free encyclopaedia. Generally Language is the system of arbitrary vocal symbols used in human communication. Language may perform different functions in our daily life; Jacobson (2010) tries to point out six functions of language. The following are the six Jacobsons six functions of language; Referential Function; corresponds to the factor or context and describes situation, object or mental states. The descriptive statements of the referential function can consist of both definite descriptions and deitic words, for example The autumn leaves have all fallen The expressive (emotive or effective) function; relates to the addressor and is the best exemplified by interjections and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning of an utterance but do add information about the addressers (speaker) internal state, for example Wow, what a new! The conative functions; engages the addressee directly and is the best illustrated by vocatives and imperatives, for example Tom! Come inside and eat. The poetic function, focus on the message for its own sake is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans. The phatic function; is the language for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the contact factor. The phatic function can be observed in greetings and casual discussitions of the weather, particular with the strangers. The metalinguistic (reflexive) function; is the use of language to discuss or to describe itself. The Jacobson function of language downloaded from Wikipedia (22:05) 3 June 2011. Therefore by referring to Jacobsons function of language. Generally, we can say that there are six function of language that can be explained as follows: Referential function is the function where by a language is used to give information.

Expressive function, a language here is used to express some ones feelings. Conative function, a function that has to do with convising, persuading Phatic function, here a language is used in making contacts for example greetings, introduction and normal conversation. Poetic function, it deals with work of art; a language is used to give beauty. Metalinguistic function; is the function whereby a language is used to talk about language itself. It is true that a language may perform more than one activity at par; this can be explained as follows, Language has several of use like language of Journalism, advertisement, religion language, language of conversation, legal language, political and scientific language. Language may perform more than activity or function in these domains of use, such as language may give information at the same time express ones feelings, may convince or persuade someone at the same time show the poetic language and a language may also make contacts at the same time used to describe about itself. This can be described more in the following: In religion; the dominant function of language in this province is expressive function that it is used peoples acts about their spirits (beliefs) a religion language may also perform referential function as when a leader gives information to the followers about certain facts, a religious language may also convincing or persuading people to believe on what their told and at the same time may perform poetic function when using words of arts or when it is used to give beauty. For example in the following text; No one can serve two masters for either he will hate the one and love the other, Or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and mammon. Mathew 6:24 A language in the text used to give information that a person cannot serve a God and mammon (Satan) at the same time, also it performs poetic function since it uses imaginative language that a person has to think of serving God and Satan at the same time. So a language performs two functions referential and poetic functions. In advertisement, the dominant function of language in this domain is Conative function; that is to convince or persuade customer to buy a certain commodity or to use a certain service at the same time a language may perform referential function when giving information of a particular goods or services. Language may also perform poetic function when giving beauty of something using words of art. For example in the following advertisement. We are the wings that re-unite you with your loved ones, friends and family should not be using longer than they have to. That is why we offer online booking; let you check in 30 minutes

before departure for passengers with hand luggage only. Arrive on schedule and fly all over destinations. AIR UGANDA the wings of East Africa. THE CITIZEN (27 April 2011 wed pg 3) A language in this text used to convince passengers to use Air Uganda flight in their journeys; also language was used to inform people who want to use Air Uganda to be at the airport 30 minutes before departure for passengers with hand luggage only. Language had performed conative and referential function. In the province of Legal; a language may perform both referential and conative function at once because it is used to give information to the people and persuade them. For example in the sentence below. Every person is entitled to own property and has a right the protection of his property held in accordance with the law Act 24. Art 1. The constitution of the united Republic of Tanzania 1977 (2008) In the sentence above a language used to give information about the right of possessing properties and protection that granted by the government, also language used tries to persuade people on possessing properties since they will get protection from the government. A language has performed referential and conative function. Last but not the least in Conversation; the dominant function in this province is phatic function that its purpose is making contacts, greetings, introduction and normal conversation. Also in conversation a language may perform referential function when a person gives information to another person and expressive function when a person expresses his/her feelings to another person during conversation. For example in the following conversation between speaker A and B; A: How are you? B: I dont feel well. A: Ooh! Dont worry you will be fine. B: Thank you. A language used in the conversation above performs phatic function as speaker A greets speaker B, and expressive function as speaker B how she/he feels to speaker A. So a language has performed both phatic and expressive functions. Therefore a language may perform a certain function like referential, or expressive function but also during performing such functions language may perform other functions at once, for example language may perform a function of giving information at the same time convincing or persuading, also may express some ones feelings. So a language may perform more than one activity or function at on

Bible society of Tanzania (1997), Tanzania Holy Bible; Mathew 6:24 Hornby, A.S (2010), Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary; Language, Oxford University Press, UK. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/language. 3 June 2011. (21:35am) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakobsons_functions of language. 3 June 2011. (22:05am) THE CITIZEN (Wednesday, 27 April 2011) The United Republic of Tanzania (1977), The Constitution of United Republic of Tanzania; Right to own property act no: 24 articles. Government Printer, Dar es Salaam Tanzania.
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