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1 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT REGULATIONS, SCHEME AND SYLLABUS FOR M.Sc. PHYSICS (EFFECTIVE FROM 2008 ADMISSIONS) 1.

Eligibility of admission : Candidates who have secured 50% marks in Physics (Main) in the B.Sc. Degree

Examination of this University or an equivalent examination of any other University with Mathematics as a compulsory subsidiary paper, are eligible to apply for admission. 2. Duration of the course shall be 2 years, split into 4 semesters, each semester having a minimum of 80 working days, with a minimum of 5 hours of instruction per day, i.e. a total of 400 contact hours per semester. The semester examinations shall be held over 10 working days after completing 80 days of instruction. 3. There shall be a minimum of 60 hours of instruction per theory paper and 60 hours of laboratory work for each practical paper in each semester, i.e. a minimum of 4 contact hours per paper per week. 4. Scheme of Examinations : There shall be one external examination of 3 hours duration for each theory paper at the end of each semester, to be conducted after the completion of 80 working days. Each written examination will carry a maximum of 80 marks. The question paper shall consist of three sections: Section A consisting of short paragraph answers, 10 to be answered out of 15, each carrying 3 marks; in general three questions from each module or unit, two of which are to be attempted; Section B consisting of longer answer type questions, carrying 10 marks each, to be answered in two or three pages, three to be answered out of five ; Section C consisting of problems, 2 to be answered out of 4 (one from each module), each carrying 10 marks. The problems shall not be mere reproduction of worked examples from textbooks, nor shall they be mere substitution of values in formulae. 5. Practicals PHY 105 and PHY 205 should involve error analysis. 6. The external Practical examinations shall be of 6 hours duration. Two teachers from another College/University Department shall conduct the examination. The laboratory observation records shall be verified by the examiners to ensure that the required minimum number of experiments have been carried out. 7. Viva Voce shall be conducted during each semester-end examination by two external examiners, covering the theory papers as well as the Practicals of that semester. The Viva Voce examiners shall verify whether the student has done the required number of experiments during that semester by calling for the laboratory notes. Evaluation in the Viva Voce shall include valuation of the laboratory records also. Half a mark each may be deducted from the marks for the viva voce for each experiment (out of the minimum number required) not carried out by the candidate. 8. During the IIIrd semester, a student may choose either PHY 306 (Advanced Electronics I) or PHY 307 (Fortran Programming) for the Practical VI. 9. During the IVth Semester, a student can choose one of the following for Practical VIII : a) PHY 406 (Advanced Electronics II) b) PHY 407 (C Programming) c) PHY 408 (Python Programming) d) PHY 409 (A project). However, if PHY 307 was chosen as Practical VI during the IIIrd semester, then the student is allowed to choose only one of the PHY 407, 408, or 409 as Practical VIII during the IVth semester. A master list of Projects will be prepared by the Board of Studies and the Centre shall choose the projects for the students of that Centre from this list only. The same centre may offer Practicals 406 or 407 or 408 or 409 (Project) to their students, but one student shall take only one of the these. Care should be exercised to ensure that the same projects are not repeated in successive years, in order to prevent the practice of the students simply copying the previous years project. The centres should get the list of projects that they are planning to opt for their students approved by the Board of Studies well in advance (i.e, during the Third Semester itself). 10. Those students who opt for projects shall carry out the work either utilizing the facilities at the Centre or elsewhere. In case they carry out the projects outside their centre, this shall in no way affect their minimum attendance for the theory papers and Practical PHY 405. Also, they should obtain an attendance certificate from the outside institution where the work is carried out and also a certificate in the Project Report that the work had been carried out at that institution. 11. Such students shall prepare a detailed report on their work. This shall be attested by the teacher-in-charge concerned at the centre (and the relevant authority at the external institution, if the work had been carried out at some other centre).

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12. Evaluation of the project report as well as a viva voce shall be conducted by the team of two external examiners at the time of the Practical examination at the end of the IVth Semester. The Project shall also carry an internal evaluation to the extent of 15 marks, to be based on regularity / attendance, motivation and an internal presentation. 13. There shall be internal assessment for all theory papers to the extent of 20 % marks per paper per semester. These marks shall be awarded based on the following scheme : Test papers (Best two out of three) : 6 marks Viva voce/Seminar : 5 marks Assignments : 5 marks Attendance : 4 marks Total : 20 marks per paper per semester The answer papers, after evaluation, shall be made available to the students for their perusal and then kept in the Department for later inspection, if the need arises. 14. Observations as recorded during experiments in the laboratory shall be evaluated on the spot (The practice of presenting a fair copy of the same is to be dispensed with). The laboratory observation record is to be presented before the external examiners at the time of the Viva voce examination in each semester for their verification. Evaluation for practicals shall also consist of internal and external components. The split-up of the marks is as follows : I and II Semesters (For Practical I, II, III & IV): Internals : Total 15 marks in each semester for each practical paper : Observation record and calculations : 5 marks Error analysis : 3 marks Viva Voce : 3 marks Regularity and attendance : 4 marks External : Total 120 marks (At the end of IInd semester for I & II combined ). IIIrd Semester : (PHY 305 and PHY 306) Internals : Total 15 marks for each paper IVth Semester : Internals for practicals : Total 15 marks for any one of 405, 406, 407 & 408. External : 120 marks for 305 & 405 combined; 60 each for 306 & any one of 406 , 407 and 408 and 409 The marks distribution for the project PHY 409 in the fourth semester shall be as follows : Internal : 15 marks External : 60 marks distributed as follows : Project Report : 30 marks Presentation and external viva : 15 marks each Total for project : 75 marks The internal assessment marks shall be forwarded to the Controller of Examinations before the start of the endsemester examinations. 15. There shall be provision for grievance redressal at three/four levels 1) at the level of the teacher concerned. 2) at the level of Departmental Committee (consisting of the Head of the Department, Departmental Coordinator of Examinations and the teacher concerned) 3) at the level of the College Committee consisting of the Principal, the Head of the Department and the member of the College Council nominated by the Principal each year and also student member of each class. (The third level Committee is not applicable to the University Departments) and 4) at the University level, a Committee consisting of the Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Chairman P.G.Board of Studies/Subject expert, nominated by the Vice-Chancellor, Controller of Examinations and the Convener of the Standing Committee of the University Syndicate. 16. The internal assessment marks shall be published in the Departments. The students should lodge their complaints in writing to the grievance redressal committee within one week and the decision taken within the next two weeks of the publication of the marks. Appeals, if any, on such decision shall be filed in the College level Committee (University level Committee for the students of the University Departments) within a period of one week and decision taken within two weeks ( within one month for the University level Committee). Appeals to the University Level Committee along with fees prescribed from time to time shall be preferred within one week of the decision of the College level Committee and the decision taken within one month from the last date of filing complaints announced in advance by the University.

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17. The University shall do normalization of internal assessment, when there is inflation of marks in internal evaluation. If the difference in the percentage of the external marks and the percentage of the internal marks of any student is more than 20%, the internal marks shall be brought down to limit the difference to 20%. Normalization once effected shall be irrevocable, except in the case of a student who appeals to the grievance redressal committee. 18.The minimum marks required for a pass is 40% for the external examination for each paper including Practical and Viva Voce. There shall be no separate minimum for the internal marks. The grading of the students will be as follows: Total marks Grade 50% to 59% II class 60% to 79% I class 80% and above I class with Distinction 19. Candidates who fail in a paper/papers can reappear for the subsequent regular examination of the subsequent batch.

4 SCHEME OF PAPERS
I SEMESTER Paper No. PHY 101 PHY 102 PHY 103 PHY 104 PHY 105 PHY 106 PHY 107 II SEMESTER Paper No. PHY 201 PHY 202

Title of Paper Mathematical Physics I Electrodynamics and Plasma Physics Classical Mechanics Electronics Practical I Practical II Viva Voce Total Title of Paper Mathematical Physics II Numerical Techniques and Computer Programming Statistical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics I Practical III

Max. Marks (External) 80 80 80 80 --50

Max. Marks (Internal) 20 20 20 20 15 15 ---

Total 100 100 100 100 15 15 50 480 Total 100 100

Max. Marks (External) 80 80

Max. Marks (Internal) 20 20

PHY 203 PHY 204 PHY 205 PHY 206 PHY 207 III SEMESTER

80 80

20 20 15 15 --

100 100 135 135 50 720

120 (105 & 205 combined) Practical IV 120 (106 & 206 combined) Viva Voce 50 Total

Max. Marks (External) PHY 301 Nuclear Physics 80 PHY 302 Solid State Physics 80 PHY 303 Quantum 80 Mechanics II PHY 304 Elementary 80 Particles and Astrophysics PHY 305 Practical V --PHY 306 / PHY Practical VI-A or --307 VI-B PHY 308 Viva Voce 50 Total

Paper No.

Title of Paper

Max. Marks (Internal) 20 20 20 20 15 15 --

Total 100 100 100 100 15 15 50 480

IV SEMESTER Paper No. PHY 401 PHY 402 PHY 403 PHY 404 PHY 405 PHY 406/ PHY 407 / PHY 408 / Title of Paper Max. Marks (External) Spectroscopy 80 Elective I 80 Elective II 80 Elective III 80 Practical VII 120 (for 305 & 405 combined) Practical VIII 120 OR (306 & 406 combined; or 307 & one of 407,408) OR Project 60 (307) and 60 (409) Viva Voce 50 Total Max. Marks (Internal) 20 20 20 20 15 15 Total 100 100 100 100 135

PHY 409 PHY 410

15 (For 409) --

135 50 720

Note: Computer Programming can be carried out in Windows or using LINUX (OS) List of Electives : Note : One to be chosen from each cluster - Any centre may offer more than one Elective from a cluster simultaneously, but a student should select only one from each cluster. Cluster I Cluster II PHY402A Advanced Electronics PHY402B Advanced Nuclear Physics PHY402C Plasma Physics PHY402D Advanced Astrophysics PHY402E Physics of Semiconductors PHY402F Fluid Dynamics PHY402G Modern Optics Cluster III PHY404A Quantum Field Theory PHY404B Experimental Techniques PHY404C Condensed Matter Physics PHY404D Chaos and Nonlinear dynamics PHY404E Lasers and fibre Optics PHY404F Advanced Statistical Mechanics Appropriate new electives may be added to the above clusters by the Board of Studies from time to time in order to incorporate new and growing fields of Physics. PHY403A Electronic Instrumentation PHY403B Communication Electronics PHY403C Material Science PHY403D Computer Software and Applications PHY403E Digital Signal Processing PHY403F Radiation Physics

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DETAILED SYLLABUS SEMESTER I PHY101 : MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS I 1. Vectors : Rotation of coordinates, Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, Gradient, Divergence and Curl in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, Rectangular, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates, Laplacian operator, Laplaces equation application to electrostatic field and wave equations, Vector integration (9 hours) Text : Arfken & Weber , Sections 1.2, 1.6 - 1.9, 1.10, 2.1 2.5 2. Matrices and Tensors : Basic properties of matrices (Review only), Orthogonal matrices, Hermitian and Unitary matrices, Similarity and unitary transformations, Diagonalization of matrices, Definition of Tensors, Contraction, Direct products,, quotient rule, Pseudo tensors, Dual tensors, Levi Cevita symbol, irreducible tensors (9 hours) Text : Arfken & Weber , Sections 3.2 - 3.5, 2.6 - 2.9 3. Second Order Differential Equations : Partial differential equations of Physics, Separation of variables, Singular points, Ordinary series solution, Frobenius method, A second solution, Self-adjoint differential equation, eigen functions and values, Boundary conditions, Hermitian operators and their properties, Schmidt orthogonalization, Completeness of functions (12 hours) Text : Arfken & Weber , Sections 8.1, 8.3 8.6, 9.1 9.4 4. Special functions : Gamma function, Beta function, Delta function, Dirac delta function, Bessel functions of the first and second kinds, Generating function, Recurrence relation, Orthogonality, Neumann function, Spherical Bessel function, Legendre polynomials, Generating function, Recurrence relation, Rodrigues formula, Orthogonality, Associated Legendre polynomials, Spherical harmonics, Hermite polynomials, Laguerre polynomials (20 hours) Text : Arfken & Weber , Sections 10.1, 10.4, 1.15, 11.1 11.3, 11.7, 12.1 12.4, 12.6, 13.1, 13.2 5. Fourier Series : General properties, Advantages, Uses of Fourier series, Properties of Fourier series, Fourier integral, Fourier transform, Properties, Inverse transform, Transform of the derivative, Convolution theorem, Laplace transform (10 hours) Text : Arfken & Weber , Sections 14.1 14.4, 15.2 15.5, 15.8 Textbook : 1. G.B.Arfken and H.J.Weber : Mathematical Methods for Physicists (5th Edition, 2001) (Academic Press) Reference books : 1. J.Mathews and R.Walker : Mathematical Methods for Physics (Benjamin) 2. L.I.Pipes and L.R.Harvill : Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists (3rd Edition)" (McGraw Hill) 3. Erwin Kreyzig : "Advanced Engineering Mathematics - 8th edition" (Wiley) 4. M. Greenberg : "Advanced Engineering Mathematics 2nd edition " (Pearson India 2002) 5. A.W. Joshi : Matrices and tensors PHY102 ELECTRODYNAMICS AND PLASMA PHYSICS 1. Time varying fields and Maxwells equations : Maxwells equations, Potential functions, Electromagnetic boundary conditions, Wave equations and their solutions, Time harmonic fields (8 hours) Text : Cheng, Sections 7.3 - 7.7 2. Plane electromagnetic waves : Plane waves in lossless media, Plane waves in lossy media, Group velocity, Flow of electromagnetic power and the Poynting vector, Normal incidence at a plane conducting boundary, Oblique incidence at a plane conducting boundary, Normal incidence at a plane dielectric boundary, Oblique incidence at a plane dielectric boundary (10 hours) Text : Cheng , Sections 8.2 - 8.10 3. Transmission lines, Wave guides and cavity resonators: Transverse electromagnetic waves along a parallel plane transmission line, General transmission line equations, Wave characteristics on finite transmission lines, General wave behaviour along uniform guiding structures, Parallel plate wave guides, Rectangular wave guides, Cavity resonators (12 hours) Text : Cheng, Sections 9.2 - 9.4 , 10.2 10.4, 10.7 4. Relativistic electrodynamics: Magnetism as a relativistic phenomenon, Transformation of the field, Electric field of a point charge moving uniformly, Electromagnetic field tensor, Electrodynamics in tensor notation, Potential formulation of relativistic electrodynamics (14 hours)

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Text : Griffiths, Sections 10.3.1 - 10.3.5 5. Plasma Physics : Plasma - Definition, concepts of plasma parameter, Debye shielding, Motion of charged particles in an electromagnetic field - Uniform electric and magnetic fields, Boltzmann and Vlasov equations, Plasma oscillations, Derivation of moment equation, Hydromagnetic waves, magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves (16 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 1.1 - 1.6, 2.2 - 2.2.2, 3.1 - 3.3.2, 4.3, 4.18, 4.19 Text Books : 1. David K. Cheng : Field and Wave Electromagnetics (Addisson Wesley) 2. David Griffiths : Introductory Electrodynamics (Prentice Hall of India, 1989) 3. F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Volume I and II, Plenum Press, recent edition Reference books : 1. K.L. Goswami, Introduction to Plasma Physics Central Book House, Calcutta 2. J.D.Jackson : Classical Electrodynamics (3rd Ed.) (Wiley,1999) PHY 103 : CLASSICAL MECHANICS 1. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Formulation : Constraints and Generalized coordinates, D' Alemberts principle and Lagranges equation, Velocity dependent potentials, Simple applications, Hamiltons Principle, Lagranges equation from Hamiltons principle, Scattering in a central force field, Transformation to lab coordinates, Legendre Transformation, Hamiltons canonical equations, Principle of least action, Canonical transformations, examples (14 hours) Text : Goldstein, Sections 1.3 1.6, 2.1 2.3, 3.10, 3.11, 8.1, 8.5, 8.6, 9.1, 9.2 2.The classical background of quantum mechanics : Equations of canonical transformations, Examples, Poisson brackets and other canonical invariants, Equation of motion in Poisson bracket form, Angular momentum Poisson brackets, Hamilton-Jacobi equation, Hamiltons principal and characteristic function, H-J equation for the linear harmonic oscillator, Separation of variables, Action-angle variables, H-J formulation of the Kepler problem, H-J equation and the Schroedinger equation (15 hours) Text : Goldstein, Sections 9.1, 9.2, 9.4 - 9.6, 10.1 10.5, 10.7, 10.8 3. The Kinematics and Dynamics of Rigid Bodies : Space-fixed and body-fixed systems of coordinates, Description of rigid body motion in terms of direction cosines and Euler angles, Infinitesimal rotation, Rate of change of a vector, Centrifugal and Coriolis forces, Moment of inertia tensor, Eulers equation of motion, Forcefree motion of a rigid body. (13 hours) Text : Goldstein, Sections 4.1, 4.4, 4.8 4.10 4. Small Oscillations : Formulation of the problem, Eigen value equation, Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues, Orthogonality, Principal axis transformation, Frequencies of free vibrations, Normal coordinates, Free vibrations of a linear tri atomic molecule (8 hours) Text : Goldstein, Sections 6.1 6.4 5. Nonlinear Equations and Chaos : Introduction, Singular points of trajectories, Nonlinear oscillations, Limit cycles, Chaos : Logistic map, Definitions, Fixed points, Period doubling, Universality. (12 hours) Text : Bhatia, Sections10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.51 Text Books : 1. Goldstein Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley) 2. V.B.Bhatia : Classical Mechanics (Narosa Publications, 1997) Books for reference : 1. Michael Tabor : Chaos and Integrability in Nonlinear Dynamics (Wiley, 1989) 2. N.C.Rana and P.S.Joag : Classical Mechanics (Tata McGraw Hill) 3. R.G.Takwale and P.S.Puranik : Introduction to Classical Mechanics (Tata McGraw Hill) 4. Atam P. Arya : "IntroductiontoClassicalMechanics,(2ndEdition)"(AddisonWesley1998) 5. Laxmana:NonlinearDynamics(SpringerVerlag,2001)

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PHY 104 ELECTRONICS 1. Field Effect Transistor : Biasing of FET, Small signal model, Analysis of Common Source and Common Drain amplifier, High frequency response, FET as VVR and its applications, Digital MOSFET circuits (8 hours) Text : Millman and Halkias : Integrated Electronics (Tata McGraw Hill 2002) Sections 10.4 - 10.11 Reference : Electronic devices and circuit theory, Robert L Boylstead & L. Nashelsky Pearson Education (fifth Edition) 2. Microwave and Photonic Devices : Tunnel diode, Transferred electron devices , negative differential resistance and devise operation, radiative transitions and optical absorption, Light emitting diodes (LED) - visible and IR, semiconductor lasers - materials, operation (population inversion, carrier and optical confinement, optical cavity and feedback, threshold current density), Photodetectors - photoconductor (Light dependent resistor- LDR) and photodiode, p-n junction solar cells - short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency (12 hours) Text : Semiconductor Devices- Physics and Technology - S.M.Sze , John Wiley and Sons (2002) Sections 8.2, 8.4, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 - 9.3.3, 9.4, 9.5 - 9.5.3 3. Operational Amplifier : Basic operational amplifier characteristics, OPAMP differential amplifier, Emitter coupled differential amplifier, OPAMP parameters (Open loop gain, CMRR, Input offset current and voltage,output offset voltage, slew rate) and their measurement, Frequency response, Principle of Bode plots, Phase and gain margins, Dominant pole, pole zero and lead compensation (10 hours) Text : Millman and Halkias : Integrated Electronics (Tata McGraw Hill 2002), Sections 15.1 15.4, 15.6, 15.8 15.13 4. OPAMP Application : OPAMP as inverter, scale changer, summer, V to I converter, Analog integration and differentiation, Electronic analog computation, Active low pass filter, High pass Butterworth filters, Band pass filter, Active resonant band pass filter, OPAMP based astable and monostable multivibrators, Schmidt trigger. (12 hours) Text : Millman and Halkias : Integrated Electronics (Tata McGraw Hill 2002), Sections 16.5 16.7, 16.15, 16.16 Reference : 1. Ramakant A. Gaekwad : OPAMPS and Linear Integrated Circuits 2. D. Roychoudhuri : Linear Integrated circuits New Age International Publishers (1997) 5. Digital Electronics : Minimization of functions using Karnaugh map, Representation using logic gates, JK and MSJK flip-flops, Synchronous and asynchronous counters, MOD 3,5,10,16 counters, Cascade counters, Static and dynamic random access memory, CMOS, Non-volatile NMOS, Magnetic memories, Charge coupled devices, Microprocessor architecture, Organization of a general microcomputer, CPU architecture of 8 bit processor such as INTEL 8085 (20 hours) Text books for module 5 : 1. Malvino and Leach : Digital Principles and Applications(3nd Ed.) (Tata McGraw Hill, 1978) Sections 6.5 - 6.9, 7.2 - 7.5, Chapter 8 complete, 12.1, 12.4, 12.5 2. R.P.Jain : Modern Digital Electronics (Tata McGraw Hill) sections 11.9, 11.91 - 11.93 (For charge coupled devices) 3. B.Ram : Fundamentals of Microprocessors and Microcomputers (Dhanapathi Rai & Sons) Sections 1.5 to 1.7, 3.1 - 3.1.6 General references : 1. M.S.Tyagi ; Introduction to Semiconductor Devices (Wiley) 2. Millman and Halkias : Integrated Electronics 3. Gupta and Kumar : Handbook of Electronics

9 PHY 105 (Practicals I - GENERAL PHYSICS I)


Note : 1. All the experiments should involve error analysis. Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if a total of 8 experiments are not done in each semester. 2. The PHOENIX Experimental Kit developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, may be used for the experiments wherever possible. (At least 8 experiments should be done) 1. Y and - Interference method (a) elliptical (b) hyperbolic fringes. To determine Y and of the material of the given specimen by observing the elliptical and hyperbolic fringes formed in an interference set up 2. Y and by Koenig's method 3. Viscosity of a liquid - Oscillating disc method. To determine the viscosity of the given liquid by measurements on the time period of oscillation of the disc in air and in the liquid 4. Variation of surface tension with temperature - Jaegar's method. To determine the surface tension of water at different temperatures by Jaeger's method of observing the air bubble diameter at the instant of bursting inside water 5. Mode constants of a vibrating strip. To determine the first and second mode constants of a steel vibrating strip; Y to be measured by the Cantilever method and frequency of vibration by the Melde's string method 6. Stefan's constant - To determine Stefan's constant 7. Constants of a thermo - couple and temperature of inversion. 8. Thermal conductivity of a liquid and air by Lee's Disc Method. 9. Study of magnetic hysteresis - B-H Curve. Sample in the form of a toroidal ring; by noting the throw in a B.G. when the magnetising current is changed from the maximum value to intermediate values. 10. Dielectric constant by Lecher Wire - To determine the wavelength of the waves from the given RF oscillator and the dielectric constant of the given oil by measurement of a suitable capacitance by using Lecher wire setup. 11. Maxwell's L/C bridge -To determine the resistance and inductance of the given unknown inductor by Maxwell's L/C bridge Reference books 1. B.L. Worsnop and H.T. Flint - Advanced Practical Physics for students - Methusen & Co (1950) 2. E.V. Smith - Manual of experiments in applied Physics - Butterworth (1970) 3. R.A. Dunlap - Experimental Physics - Modern methods - Oxford University Press (1988) 4. D. Malacara (ed) - Methods of experimental Physics - series of volumes - Academic Press Inc (1988) 5. S.P. Singh Advanced Practical Physics Vol I & II Pragati Prakasan, Meerut (2003) 13th Edition

10 PHY 106 (Practicals II - ELECTRONICS I)


Note : At least 8 experiments should be done. Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if a total of 8 experiments are not done in each semester) 1. MOSFET characteristics and applications: To study the characteristics of a MOSFET and to determine I/O impedances and frequency response. 2. UJT characteristics and relaxation oscillator (construct relaxation oscillator & sharp pulse generator ) 3. Characteristics of s Silicon controlled rectifier (Half wave and full wave) 4. Voltage regulation using transistors with feedback (regulation characteristics with load for different input voltages and variation of ripple % with load) 5. Single stage RC coupled Negative feed back amplifier (input, output resistance, frequency response with & without feedback) 6. Two stage RC coupled amplifier ( input and output resistance and frequency response including Bode plots) 7. RC coupled FET amplifier - common source (frequency response, input &output resistance) 8. Complementary symmetry Class B push-pull power amplifier (transformerless) (I/O impedances, efficiency and frequency response) 9. Differential amplifier using transistors (I/O impedances, frequency response, CMRR ) 10. Amplitude modulation and detection using transistors (modulation index & recovery of modulating signal) 11. Darlington pair amplifier (gain, frequency response, input &output resistances ) 12. Wien bridge oscillator using OP AMP (For different frequencies, distortion due to feedback resistor, compare with design values) 13. Sawtooth generator using transistors and Miller sweep circuit using OPAMPS (for different frequencies) Reference Books : 1. Paul B. Zhar and A.P. Malvino - Basic Electronics - A Text Book Manual - JMH publishing (1983) 2. A.P. Malvino - Basic Electronics - A textlab manual - Tata McGraw Hill (1992) 3. R. Bogart and J. Brown -Experiments for electronic devices and circuits - Merrill International series (1985) 4. Buchla - Digital Experiments - Merrill International series (1984) 5. S.P. Singh Pragati Advanced Practical Physics Vol I & II Pragati Prakasan Meerut (2003) 13th Edition

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SEMESTER II PHY 201 : MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS II 1. Functions of Complex Variables : Introduction, Analyticity, Cauchy-Reimann conditions, Cauchys integral theorem and integral formula, Laurent expansion, Singularities, Calculus of residues and applications (11 hours) Text : Arfken and Weber, Sections 6.1 6.5, 7.1 7.2 2. Group Theory : Groups, Multiplication Table, Conjugate elements and classes, Subgroups, Direct product groups, Isomorphism and homomorphism, Permutation groups, Distinct groups of given order. (12 hours) Text : Joshi, Sections 1.1 1.8 3. Group Representation Theory : Unitary representations, Schurs lemmas, orthogonality theorem and interpretations, Character of a representation, Character Tables and examples, Irreducible representations of Abelian and non-Abelian groups, Connection with quantum numbers, Symmetry group of the Schrodinger equation, Symmetry and degeneracy, Basis functions of irreducible representations, SU(2) group, SU(3) group, applications (Qualitative only) to Nuclear and Particle Physics (15 hours) Texts : Tinkham, Sections 3.1 3.5, 3.7, 3.8 Joshi , Sections 3.1 3.6, 3.8, 5.4, 4.5, 4.8 4. Calculus of Variations : One dependent and one independent variable, Applications of the Euler equation, Generalization to several independent variables, Several dependent and independent variables, Lagrange Multipliers, Variation subject to constraints, Rayleigh-Ritz variational technique. (9 hours) Text : Arfken and Weber, Sections 17.1 17.8 5. Integral equations and Green's function : Integral equations introduction, Integral transforms and generating functions, Neumann series, separable kernel, Green's function Non homogeneous equations, Green's function, Symmetry of Green's function, form of Green's function, Example Quantum mechanical scattering (13 hours) Text : Arfken and Weber, Sections 16.1 16.3, 8.7 Text Books : 1. G.B.Arfken and H.J. Weber : Mathematical Methods For Physicists (5th Edition, 2001) (Academic Press) 2. A.W.Joshi : Elements of Group Theory For Physicists (New Age International PublishersNew Delhi - 2002) 3. M.Tinkham : Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics (Tata-McGraw-Hill) Reference books : 1. Mathematical Physics by A. Ghatak 2. Group theory for Physicists by Wukitung (World Scientific) PHY 202: NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING 1. Roots of transcendental equations : Solution by iteration, Convergence criterion, Order of convergence, Newton-Raphson method, Bisection (half interval) method (6 hours) Text : Sastry, Sections 2.2, 2.3, 2.5 2. Interpolation and curve fitting : Linear interpolation, Interpolating polynomials, Lagrange interpolating polynomial, Difference calculus, Detection of errors, Newton forward and backward difference formulae, Least squares curve fitting( linear and nonlinear) (10 hours) Text : Sastry, Sections 3.9.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.6, 4.2 3. Numerical integration and Ordinary differential equations : Trapezoidal and Simpsons methods, Newton Cotes method, Gauss quadrature, Solution of ordinary differential equations - Eulers method, Milnes method, Runge-Kutta methods (12 hours) Text : Sastry, Sections 5.4.1 5.4.3, 5.4.7, 5.7, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6.2 4. Fortran Programming fundamentals : Fortran constants and variables, Type declarations, Arithmetic operators, Hierarchy, Arithmetic expressions, Logical operators and expressions, Arithmetical and assignment statements, Special functions, Input/output statements, Relational operators, Control statements(go to, arithmetic and logical if), Do loop, repeat while, Dimensioned variables, Formats, Subprograms, Functions and subroutines, Common declaration, File operations(creating, reading, writing ,updating and merging of sequential files) (14 hours) Text : Rajaraman (Fortran), Relevant sections 5. C Programming fundamentals : Constants and variables, Data types, Type declaration of variables, Symbolic constants, Arithmetic operators, Increment and decrement operators, Conditional operator, Bitwise operators, Hierarchy, Arithmetic expressions, Logical operators and expressions, Assignment operators, Arithmetical and assignment statements, Mathematical functions, Input/output statements, Formatted I/O,

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Relational operators, Decision making and branching, Go to, if, ifelse, switch statements, Looping, While, do and for, Arrays, Handling characters and strings, Functions and voids, Structures, Pointers(elementary ideas only), File operations(defining and opening, reading, writing, updating and closing of files (18 hours) Text : Balaguruswamy ( C ), Relevant sections Text Books : 1. S.S.Shastry : Introductory methods of numerical analysis (Prentice Hall of India,1983) 2. V.Rajaraman : Computer programming in Fortran 77 (Prentice Hall of India ,1999) 3. E.Balaguruswamy : Programming in ANSI C (Tata-McGraw Hill, 1992) Reference Books : 1. V.Rajaraman : Programming in C 2. J.H.Rice : Numerical methods-software and analysis (McGraw Hill, 1983) 3. J.B.Scarborough : Numerical mathematical analysis (Oxford and IBH, 6th edition) 4. Hildebrand : Numerical analysis PHY 203 : STATISTICAL MECHANICS 1. The Microcanonical Ensemble The macroscopic and the microscopic states Contact between statistics and Thermodynamics : Expressing T, P and in terms of The classical Ideal gas The entropy of mixing and the Gibbs paradox. Phase space of a classical system- Liouvilles theorem and its consequences- The microcanonical ensemble- Example : (1) Classical Ideal gas, (2) Linear harmonic oscillator- Quantum states and the phase space (12 Hours) Text : Patria, Sections 1.1 1.6, 2.1 2.6 2. The Canonical Ensemble and the Grand Canonical Ensemble - Equilibrium between a system and a heat reservoir- Physical significance of the various statistical quantities in the canonical ensemble- Alternative expressions for the partition function- Examples: (1) The classical systems: Ideal gas, (2) A system of harmonic oscillators, (3) The statistics of paramagnetism- Energy fluctuations in the canonical ensemble. Equipartition theorem- Virial theorem. Equilibrium between a system and a particle-energy reservoir- Physical significance of the various statistical quantities in the grand canonical ensemble- Examples : (1)Classical Ideal gas, (2) A system of harmonic oscillators- Density and energy fluctuations in the grand canonical ensemble. (12 Hours) Text : Patria, Sections 3.1, 3.3 - 3.9, 4.1, 4.3 - 4.5 3. Formulation of Quantum Statistics : Quantum-mechanical ensemble theory : The density matrix- Statistics of the various ensembles- Examples : (1) An electron in a magnetic field, (2) A free particle in a box, (3) A linear harmonic oscillator- Systems composed of indistinguishable particles- The density matrix and the partition function of a system of free particles. An ideal gas in a quantum-mechanical microcanonical ensemble- An ideal gas in other quantum-mechanical ensembles- Statistics of the occupation numbers- Gaseous systems composed of molecules with internal motion : monatomic, diatomic and polyatomic molecules (12 Hours) Text : Patria, Sections 5.1 - 5.5, 6.1 6.3, 6.5 4. Ideal Bose Systems : Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Bose gas- Thermodynamics of the blackbody radiation- The field of sound waves. (6 Hours) Text : Patria, Sections 7.1 - 7.3 5. Ideal Fermi Systems - Thermodynamic behaviour of an ideal Fermi gas- Magnetic behaviour of an ideal Fermi Gas : (1) Pauli paramagnetism, (2) Landau diamagnetism -Statistical equilibrium of white dwarf starsStatistical model of the atom (8 Hours) Text : Pathria, Sections 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.5 Text Book : Patria : Statistical Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann,1996)( 2nd Edition ) Reference books : 1. Kerson Huang : Statistical Mechanics (second edition) (Wiley, 1987) 2. B.K. Agarwal and Melvin Eisner :Statistical Physics 3. Guptha and Kumar : Statistical Physics

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PHY204 : QUANTUM MECHANICS I 1. The Formulation of Quantum Mechanics : Vector spaces, The Hilbert space, Dimensions and basis, Operators and properties, Representation of vectors and operators, Commutator, Functions of operators, Eigen values and eigen vectors, Matrix representation of bras, kets and operators, Coordinate and momentum representations and their connection, The fundamental postulates Probability density, Superposition principle, Observables and operators, The uncertainty principle (13 hours) Texts: Thankappan, Sections 2.1 2.4, 3.1, 3.2 2. Quantum Dynamics : The equation of motion, Schrodinger, Heisenberg and the Interaction pictures of time development, The linear harmonic oscillator in the Schroedinger and Heisenberg pictures, Hydrogen atom (9 hours) Texts : Thankappan, Sections 4.1, 4.2 3. Theory of Angular Momentum : Angular momentum operators, Matrix representation of angular momentum operators, Pauli spin matrices, Orbital angular momentum, The hydrogen atom, Addition of angular momenta, Clebsh-Gordon coefficients, Simple examples (16 hours) Texts : Thankappan, Sections 5.1 5.5 A 4. Symmetry and Conservation Laws : Space-time symmetries, Space translation and conservation of linear momentum, Time translation and conservation of energy, Space rotation and conservation of angular momentum, Space inversion and time reversal, Identical particles, Construction of symmetric and anti symmetric wave functions, Slater determinant, Pauli exclusion principle, Bosons and Fermions, Spin wave functions for two electrons, The ground state of He atom, Scattering of identical particles (10 hours) Texts : Thankappan, Sections 6.1, 6.2, 9.1 9.3 5. Scattering : Scattering cross section and scattering amplitude, Low energy scattering by a central potential, The method of partial waves, Phase shifts, Optical theorem, Convergence of partial wave series, Scattering by a rigid sphere, Scattering by a square well potential, High energy scattering, Scattering integral equation and Born approximation (12 hours) Text : Thankappan, Sections 7.1 7.3 Textbooks : 1. V.K.Thankappan : Quantum Mechanics (Wiley Eastern) Reference books : 1. N. Zettili, Quantum Mechanics Concepts and applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2004) 2. L.I.Schiff : Quantum Mechanics (McGraw Hill) 3. P.M.Mathews and K.Venkatesan : A Textbook of Quantum Mechanics" (Tata McGraw Hill) 4. A.Messiah : Quantum Mechanics 5. J.J.Sakurai : Modern Quantum Mechanics (Addison Wesley) 6. Stephen Gasiorowics : Quantum Physics 7. A.Ghatak and S.Lokanathan : Quantum Mechanics (Macmillan) 8. V. Devanathan : "Quantum Mechanics " (Narosa, 2005)

14 PHY 205 ( Practicals III - GENERAL PHYSICS II)


Note : 1. All the experiments should involve error analysis. Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if a total of 8 experiments are not done in each semester. 2. The PHOENIX Experimental Kit developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, may be used for the experiments wherever possible. (At least 8 experiments should be done) 1. Determination of frequency of an oscillator - To construct an oscillator and determine frequency using frequency bridge. 2. Susceptibility measurement by Quincke's and Guoy's methods - Paramagnetic susceptibility of salt and specimen 3. Cauchy's constants. Liquid prism (different concentrations) 4. Michelson's interferometer - (a) and (b) d and thickness of mica sheet. 5. Fabry Perot Etalon - and thickness of air film. 6. Expansion of crystal - The coefficient of expansion of a crystal by studying the interference fringes formed by air wedge / by Newtons rings 7. Temperature of sodium flame. - To determine the temperature of the sodium flame by comparison with an incandescent lamp using a spectrometer 8. Single phase transformer - Measurement of L, R and Z of the primary and secondary and determination of efficiency. 9. Simple Microwave experiments - To determine standing wave ratios, guide and free space wavelengths, VSWR, dielectric constant and attenuation. 10. Diffraction at a straight edge. - To determine the wavelength of Sodium lines from the diffraction pattern from a straight edge 11. Elementary experiments using Laser : 1. Wavelength determination using grating 2. Intensity distribution 3. Diameter of a thin wire 4. Diffraction at a slit - determination of slit width 12. Andersons Bridge Determination of relative susceptibility Reference books 1. B.L. Worsnop and H.T. Flint - Advanced Practical Physics for students - Methusen & Co (1950) 2. E.V. Smith - Manual of experiments in applied Physics - Butterworth (1970) 3. R.A. Dunlap - Experimental Physics - Modern methods - Oxford University Press (1988) 4. D. Malacara (ed) - Methods of experimental Physics - series of volumes - Academic Press Inc (1988) 5. S.P. Singh Advanced Practical Physics Vol I & II Pragati Prakasan, Meerut (2003) 13th Edition PHY 206 (Practicals IV - Electronics II) Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if a total of 8 experiments are not done in each semester. 1. Use of IC 741 - Determination of input offset voltage, current, CMRR, slew rate, and use as Inverting and noninverting amplifier and difference amplifier, summing amplifier and comparator 2. IC 555 Timer - Astable and Monostable and Bistable multi vibrators, VCO missing pulse detector and Sawtooth generator.

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3. IF amplifier (Two stage) (Gain and frequency response, bandwidth) Binary adders - HA and FA using TTL XOR IC & Using NAND Gates (Verify truth tables) 4. Microprocessors experiments (simple experiments) Addition, subtraction, division and multiplication - 8 bit using 8085 5. Schmidt trigger using transistors and OPAMPS - Trace hysteresis curve , determine LTP and UTP 6. Crystal Oscillator ( For different frequencies & evaluation of frequency stability ) 7. Analog integration and differentiation using OPAMPS (study the integrator characteristics & differentiator) 8. Analog computation using OPAMPS (LM324) Differential equations / Simultaneous equations 9. Second order Low pass, High Pass and Band Pass filters using OPAMP.( study the frequency response ) 10. Negative resistance oscillator. (for different frequencies) 11. Bootstrap Amplifier (frequency response, input & output resistance ) 12. Organize M X N random access memory with basic memory unit (Verify the READ and WRITE operations) Reference Books : 1. Paul B. Zhar and A.P. Malvino - Basic Electronics - A Text Book Manual - JMH publishing (1983) 2. A.P. Malvino - Basic Electronics - A text lab manual - Tata McGraw Hill (1992) 3. R. Bogart and J. Brown -Experiments for electronic devices and circuits - Merrill International series (1985) 4. Buchla - Digital Experiments - Merrill International series (1984) 5. S.P. Singh Pragati Advanced Practical Physics Vol I & II Pragati Prakasan Meerut (2003) 13th Edition

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SEMESTER III PHY 301 : NUCLEAR PHYSICS 1. Nuclear Decay : Beta decay introduction, Energy release in beta decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, FermiKurie plot, Mass of the neutrino, Comparative half-life, Allowed and forbidden transitions, Selection rules, Parity violation in beta decay, Neutrino Physics. Gamma decay Energetics, Multipole moments, transitions and radiations Classical and Quantum mechanical aspects, Decay rate formula, Measurement of gamma energy, Lifetimes, Selection rules, Angular correlation and Internal conversion, (15 hours) Text : K.S.Krane : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Wiley), Sections 9, 9.1 9.6, 9.9, 10.1 10.6 2. Nuclear Forces : General characteristics of nuclear forces, The Deuteron binding energy, Spin, Parity, electromagnetic moments, Simple theory of the deuteron structure, Spin dependence, Tensor force, and twonucleon scattering experimental data, Scattering cross sections, Low energy n-p scattering, Partial waves, Phase shift, Singlet and triplet potentials, scattering length and its sign, Effective range theory, low energy p-p scattering, Exchange forces and Yukawa theory (Qualitative only). (12 hours) Text : 1. K.S.Krane : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Wiley), Sections 4.4, 4.1 4.3, 4.5 2. R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam : Nuclear Physics- Theory and Experiment, (Wiley Eastern) Sections 3.2, 3.4 3.9, 3.12 3. Nuclear Models : Shell model, Single particle potentials, Spin-orbit coupling, Single particle models, Spins and parities of ground states, Qaudrupole moments, Magnetic moments and Schmidt limits, Nordheims rules, Isospin symmetry, Single particle orbits in a distorted well, Collective motion, Even-even nuclei, Rotational and vibrational states. (10 hours) Text : 1. K.S.Krane : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Wiley), Sections 5.1, 5.2 2. R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam : Nuclear Physics- Theory and Experiment, (Wiley Eastern) Sections 7.1 7.6, 7.8, 8.1 8.3 4. Nuclear reactions, Fission and Fusion : Introduction, Conservation laws, Reaction kinematics, Q values, Cross sections, Experimental studies, Coulomb excitation, Compound nucleus reactions, Fission process, Characteristics, Energy released, Neutrons released in fission, Cross sections, Fission reactors operating with natural Uranium as fuel, Fusion and thermonuclear energy (13 hours) Text : K.S.Krane : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Wiley), Sections 11.1, 11.2, 11.4 11.6, 11.10, 13.1 13.3, 13.6, 14.1 14.3 5. Nuclear Radiation Detectors and Nuclear Electronics : Interactions of radiations with matter, Gas detectors Ionization chamber current and pulse mode (Qualitative only), gas multiplication, Proportional counter and G M counter Geiger discharge, Quenching, Scintillation detector basic principle, photomultiplier tube and coupling, Semiconductor detectors requirements, working, partially and totally depleted detectors, diffused junction detector, Ge(Li), Si(Li) and surface barrier detectors, Qualitative treatment of Preamplifiers, Amplifiers, Single channel analyzers and Multichannel analyzers. (10 hours) Text : K.S.Krane : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Wiley), Sections 7.1 7.4 Reference books for detectors : 1. S.S.Kapoor and V.S.Ramamurthy : Nuclear Radiation Detectors (Wiley Eastern, 1986) 2. W.R. Leo : Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Narosa) Other Reference Books : 1. S.B.Patel : An Introduction to Nuclear Physics (New Age International Publishers) 2. Samuel S.M.Wong : Introductory Nuclear Physics (Prentice Hall,India) 3. B.L.Cohen : Concepts of Nuclear Physics (Tata McGraw Hill) 4. I.Kaplan : Nuclear Physics (Addison Wesley, 1962) PHY 302 : SOLID STATE PHYSICS 1. Crystal Structure and binding: Symmetry elements of a crystal, Types of space lattices, Miller indices, Diamond structure, NaCl structure, BCC, FCC, HCP structures with examples, Description of X-Ray diffraction using reciprocal lattice, Brillouin zones, Van der Waals interaction, The Lennard-Jones potential, Cohesive energy of inert gas crystals, Madelung interaction, Cohesive energy of ionic crystals, Covalent bonding, Metallic bonding, Hydrogen-bonded crystals (12 hours)

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2. Lattice Vibrations: Vibrations of monatomic and diatomic lattices, Quantization of lattice vibrations, Inelastic scattering of neutrons, Einstein and Debye models of specific heat, Thermal conductivity, Effect of imperfection (8 hours) 3. Electron States and semiconductors: Free electron gas in three dimensions, Specific heat of metals, Sommerfeld theory of electrical conductivity, Wiedemann-Franz law, Hall effect, Nearly free electron model and formation of energy bands, Bloch functions, Formation of energy gap at Brillouin zone boundaries, Number of orbitals in a band, Equation of motion of electrons in energy bands, Properties of holes, Effective mass of carriers, Intrinsic carrier concentration, Hydrogenic model of donor and acceptor states, Interband optical absorption, Frenkel excitons and Wannier excitons. (15 hours) 4. Dielectric and magnetic properties: Macroscopic dielectric field in a dielectric, Depolarization field, Local electric field at an atom, Dielectric constant and polarizability, Order-disorder type ferroelectrics, Displacive type ferroelectrics, Landau theory of ferroelectric phase transitions , Exchange interaction and Curie-Weiss law, Spontaneous polarization, Ferromagnetic magnons (one dimension), Magnon specific heat, Ferrimagnetism in Fe2O3, Antiferromagnetism in MnO, Neel temperature and susceptibility (13 hours) 5.Superconductivity : Meissner effect, Type I and Type II superconductors, Heat capacity, Microwave absorption, Energy gap, Isotope effect, Free energy of superconductor in magnetic field and the stabilization energy, London equation and penetration of magnetic field, Cooper pairs and the B C S ground state (qualitative), Derivation of the London equation from the ground state wave function, Flux quantization, Critical fields and the vortex state, Single particle tunneling, DC and AC Josephson effects, High Tc superconductors (Qualitative description of the cuprates) (12 hours) Textbooks : 1.C.Kittel : Introduction to Solid State Physics (5th Ed.) (Wiley Eastern) 2.A.J.Dekker : Solid State Physics (Macmillan, 1958) 3.N.W.Ashcroft and Mermin, Solid State Physics, Brooks Cole (1976) 4. Elements of Solid State Physics, Srivastava J.P., Prentice Hall of India (2nd Edition) 5.Ziman J.H. : Principles of the Theory of Solids (Cambridge, 1964) PHY 303 : QUANTUM MECHANICS II 1. Approximation methods for time-independent problems The WKB approximation, connection formulae, barrier tunnelling, application to decay - Bound states, Penetration of a potential barrier, the variation method for bound states, the ground state for He-atom, Timeindependent perturbation theory, Non-degenerate and degenerate cases, Anharmonic oscillator stark and Zeeman effects in hydrogen. (16 hours) Texts : Thankappan, Sections8.1, 8.3 2. Variational method : The variational equation, ground state and excited states, application to ground state of the hydrogen and Helium atoms ( 6 hours) Texts: Thankappan, Sections 8.2 3. Time dependent perturbation theory : Transition probability, Harmonic perturbation, Interaction of an atom with the electromagnetic field, Induced emission and absorption, The dipole approximation, The Born approximation and scattering amplitude. (12 Hours) Texts : Thankappan, Sections 8.4 4. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics : The Dirac equation, Dirac matrices, Solution of the free-particle Dirac equation, The Dirac equation with potentials, Equation of continuity, Spin of the electron, Non-realistic limit, spinorbit coupling, Covariance of the Dirac equation, Bilinear covariants, Hole theory. The Weyl equation for the neutrino, Non-conservation of parity, The Klein Gordon equation, Charge and current densities, The Klein-Gordon equation with potentials, Wave equation for the photon, Charge conjugation for the Dirac, Weyl and Klein Gordon equation. (16 hours) Text : Relevent sections of Schiff and Bjorken and Drell (Relativistic Quantum Mechanics) 5. Quantization of fields : The principles of canonical quantization of fields, Lagrangian density and Hamiltonian density, Second quantization of the Schrodinger wave field for bosons and fermions. (10 hours) Text : Relevant sections of Schiff and Bjorken and Drell (Relativistic Quantum Fields) Textbooks : 1. V.K. Thankappan: "Quantum Mechanics" (Wiley Eastern) 2 J.D. Bjorken and D. Drell: Ralativistic Quantum Mechanics ( McGraw Hill (1998)

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3. J.D. Bjorken and D. Drell : Ralativistic Quantum Fields (McGraw Hill 1998) Reference books : 1. L.I. Schiff : Quantum Mechanics" (McGraw Hill) 2. J.J. Sakurai : "Advanced Quantum Mechanics " (Addison Wesley) 3. P.M.Mathews and K.Venkatesan : " A Text Book of Quantum Mechanics" (Tata McGraw Hill) 4. N. Zettili,: Quantum Mechanics Concepts and applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2004) 5. Stephen Gasiorowicz : "Quantum Physics" PHY 304 : ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS &ASTROPHYSICS

1.Classification of particles & Meson resonance. Four basic forces - gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and
strong - relative strengths , Classification of particles. Yukawa's proposal, The muon, The real pion, Isotopic spin, Extremely short lived particles, Resonances ( and mesonic resonances) - detecting methods and experiments (11 Hours) Text : Neeman & Kirsh, Ch. 6 ; Ch. 8 Sections 1 - 3, Coughlan & Dodd, Chapters 7, 9 2.Symmetry and Conservation laws: Conservation of angular momentum, electric charges, Baryon and lepton numbers, Conservation of strangeness, Conservation of isospin and its component , Conservation of parity, Charge conjugation, CP violation, time reversal and CPT theorem. (10 Hours) Text : Neeman & Kirsh, Ch. 7; Griffiths Chapter 4 sections 6 - 9 3.Symmetry and quarks: Internal symmetry, The Sakata model, SU (3), The eight fold way, Gellmann and Okubo mass formula, Quarks and quark model, Confined quarks, Experimental evidence, Coloured quarks ( 9 hours) Text : Neeman & Kirsh Ch. 9, Sec 1-7; Griffiths Ch. 1, Sec 7-11; Coughlan & Dodd Ch. 10. 4.Stellar magnitude sequence, Absolute magnitude and distance modulus, Colour index of a star, Luminosities of stars, Stellar parallax and units of stellar distance. Spectral classification of stars, Boltzmann's formula, Saha's equation of thermal ionization, Harward system of classification, Luminosity effect of stellar spectra, Importance of ionization theory, Spectroscopic parallax - Hertzsprung - Russel diagram. Binary and Multiple Stars: Visual, spectroscopic and eclipsing binary systems Multiple stars- origin of binary stars Stellar masses and MassLuminosity relation- Mass transfer in close binary systems (16 hours) Text : Basu Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.6 - 3.8, 4.1-4.8, 7.1-7.8 5.Structure and evolution of stars, Observational basis, Equation of state for stellar interior, Mechanical and thermal equilibrium in stars, Energy transport in stellar interior, Energy generation in stars (thermonuclear reactions), Stellar evolution, White dwarfs Neutron stars and black holes: Rotating Neutron star model of Pulsars Period distributionn and loss of rotational energy Gold's model of pulsars Distance and distribution of pulsars Binary pulsars Black holes (14 hours) Text : Basu Sections Ch. 14, 15 Text Books: 1. Yuval Neeman and Yoram Kirsh: - "The particle hunters" , 2nd Edition (Cambridge University Press,1996) 2. David Griffiths, "Introduction to elementary particles" John Wiley & Sons,(1987) 3. G.D.Couoghlan, J.E.Dodd. & Ben M. Gripaios, The ideas of particle physics an introduction for scientists, (2nd Edition 1991) or (3rd Edition 2006)(Cambridge University Press) 4. Baidyanath Basu M : An introduction to Astrophysics (Prentice Hall of India).

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SEMESTER IV PHY 401 : SPECTROSCOPY 1. Microwave Spectroscopy : Introduction, Breakdown of Oppenheimer approximation, The Spectrum of a non rigid rotator, Example of HF, Spectrum of a symmetric top molecule, Example of CH 3Cl , Instrumentation for Microwave Spectroscopy- Information derived from rotational spectra (10 hours) Text : Relevant sections of Banwell and McCash and Barrow 2. Infrared Spectroscopy : Vibrational energy of a anharmonic oscillator diatomic molecule (Morse Curve), IR spectra - Spectral Transitions and Selection Rules, Example of HCl, The Vibration Rotation Spectra of diatomic molecule, Example of CO, Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, Effect of Break down of Born-Oppenheimer Approximation, Normal modes of vibration of H2O and CO2, Instrumentation for Infrared Spectroscopy, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (12 hours) Text : Relevant sections of Aruldas, Banwell 3. Raman Spectroscopy : Introduction, Rotational Raman Spectrum of Symmetric top molecules, Example of CHCl3, Vibrational Raman Spectrum of a Symmetric top molecule, Example of CHCl 3, Combined use of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy in structure determination, Examples of CO2 and NO3, Instrumentation for Raman Spectroscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy, Non linear Raman effects, Hyper Raman Effect, Stimulated Raman effect and inverse Raman effect (12 hours) Text : Relevant sections of Aruldas, Banwell & McCash and Straughan & Walker Book for reference : Raman spectroscopy by Long D.A., Mc Graw Hill (1977) 4. Electronic Spectroscopy of molecules : Vibrational coarse structure of electronic spectra, Vibrational analysis of band systems, Deslanders table, Progressions and sequences, Information derived from vibrational analysis, Franck-Condon Principle, Rotational fine structure and the R, P and Q branches, Fortrat Diagram, Dissociation Energy, Example of iodine molecule (11 hours) Text : Relevant sections of Aruldas, Banwell & McCash 5. Spin Resonance Spectroscopy : Interaction between nuclear spin and magnetic field, Level population, Larmour Precession, Resonance condition, Bloch equations, Relaxation times, Spin-Spin and spin-lattice relaxation, The Chemical shift, Instrumentation for NMR spectroscopy, CWNMR and FTNMR, Imaging, Electron Spin Spectroscopy of the unpaired electron, Total Hamiltonian, Fine structure, Electron-Nucleus coupling and hyperfine structure, ESR spectrometer, Mossbauer Spectroscopy : Resonance Fluorescence of - rays, Recoilless emission of - rays and Mossbauer Effect, Chemical shift, Effect of magnetic field, Example of Fe57, Experimental techniques (15 hours) Text : For ESR & NMR : Relevant sections of Aruldas, Banwell & McCash and Straughan & Walker; For Mossbauer Effect : Aruldas and G.K. Wertheim Text book : 1. Molecular structure and Spectroscopy G Aruldas Prentice Hall of India (2002) 2. C.N.Banwell and E.M. McCash, Fundamentals of Molecular Spectroscopy, Tata McGrow Hill (1994) 3. Mossbauer Effect : Principles and applications, Gunther K. Wertheim (Academic Press) 4. Straughan and Walker (Eds) Spectroscopy Vol. I and II, Chapman and Hall 5. G.M. Barrow Introduction to molecular Spectroscopy McGraw Hill Reference Book: Raman spectroscopy by Long D.A., Mc Graw Hill (1977)

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ELECTIVES NOTE : A centre shall offer more than one paper from each of the three clusters ELECTIVE I, II and III. However, each student shall choose ONE elective paper only from each of the three clusters. ELECTIVE I PHY 402 A ADVANCED ELECTRONICS 1. Microprocessor, Microcomputer and Assembly Language : What is a microprocessor?, Evolution of microprocessors - 4-8-16-32 bits, Organization of microcomputers, microprocessor programming, Organization of the 8085, instruction set, Assembler Programming, Language for writing algorithms, The Zilog Z80 (11 hours) Text book : Introduction to Microprocessors 3rd Ed., A.P. Mathur (Tata-McGraw Hill). Sections 1.3 1.7, 3.1 3.6,3 .8 2. Examples of Assembly Language Programming: Addition, Subtraction of two 8 bit & 16 bit numbers, One's compliment, Two's compliment, Shifting of 8 bit & 16 bit numbers, Square from Lookup table, Largest and Smallest in a data array, Series of numbers in ascending and descending order, Sum of a series of 8 bit & 16 bit numbers, 8 bit multiplication and division,Multi byte addition and subtraction, Square root of a number.(10 hours) Text book : Fundamentals of Microprocessors and Micro computers 3rd / Recent Edn., B. Ram, Dhanapati Rai & Sons, Sections 6.3 - 6.36 3. Microprocessor Timings, Interfacing Memory and I/O Devices : Timing and control unit, Timings of Intel 8085, Timing of Z80, Register Organization, Address space partitioning, Memory interfacing, Data transfer schemes, Programmed Data transfer, Direct Memory Access Data Transfer, Serial data transfer. (13 hours) Text: Introduction to Microprocessors 3rd Ed., A.P. Mathur (Tata-McGraw Hill). Chapters 5.2 - 5.5, 6.1 - 6.7 4. Peripheral Devices and Interfacing : Generation of control signals for memory and I/O devices, I/O PortsIntel 8212, 8155, Programmable peripheral interface-8255, Programmable DMA controller 8257, Programmable interrupt Controller 8259, Programmable communication interface-8251, Programmable interval timer/counter-8253. Special Purpose devices: The 8279 Programmable Keyboard/Display interface (14 hours) Text Book I: Fundamentals of Microprocessors and Micro computers 3rd / Recent Edn., B. Ram, Dhanapati Rai & Sons. Sections 7.6 - 7.11. Text Book II:.Microprocessors Architecture, Programming and Applications with 8085/80858A, R.S.Gaonkar(Wiley Eastern) Section 14.3 5.Applications of Microprocessors: Microprocessor based data acquisition system: Analog to Digital converter, Clock for A/D conversion, Sample and Hold circuit, Analog multiplexer, ADC 0800, Digital to Analog Converter, DAC 0800, Realization of A/D Converter using D/A Converter. Delay subroutine , 7 segment LED display, FND 500/503, 507/510, MAN 74 A , MAN 72, decoders/drivers-7448, Interfacing of 7 segment display, Display of decimal and alphanumeric characters, Measurement of frequency, Voltage, Current, Resistance, Temperature measurement and control, Generation of square wave or pulse using microprocessor. (14 hours) Text:Fundamentals of Microprocessors and Micro computers - 3rd / Recent Edn., B. Ram, Dhanapati Rai & Sons. Sections 8.1 8.13, 9.2 9.3, 9.5 9.6.1, 9.9 Reference Books: 1.Microprocessors and programmed logic, 2nd Edn., Kenneth L. Short ( Prentice Hall India). 2.Digital System from Gates to Microprocessors, 2nd Edn., S.K. Bose ( Wiley Eastern) 3. Microprocessors and Microcomputer system design, M. Rafiquazzaman (Universal Book Stall , New Delhi). 4.Microprocessor (8085) and its applications- II Edn.-A.Nagoor Kani (RBA Publications) PHY 402 B : ADVANCED NUCLEAR PHYSICS 1. Nuclear Shell Model: Shell structure and magic numbers, The nuclear one particle potential, spin-orbit term, realistic one body potentials, Nuclear volume parameter, single particle spectra of closed shell + 1 nuclei, Harmonic oscillator and infinite square well potentials in 3- dimensions, coupling of spin and orbital angular momentum, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment, Schmidt diagram; Single particle orbitals in deformed nuclei, perturbation treatment, asymptotic wave functions, single particle orbitals in an axially symmetric modified oscillator potential (15 Hours) Text : Shapes and Shells in Nuclear Structure, S.G. Nilsson and I. Ragnarsson, Sections Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8.1 8.6

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2. Nuclear collective models: Nuclear rotational motion- rotational energy spectrum and wave functions for eveneven and odd A nuclei - Nuclear moments- collective vibrational excitations, Rotational Bands - The particle rotor model, strong coupling- deformation alignment, Decoupled bands - rotational alignment; two particle excitations and back- bending; Fast nuclear rotation- the cranking model; Rotating harmonic oscillator (10 Hours) Text : 1. Nuclear Physics- Theory and Experiment, R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam (Wiley Eastern) Sections 8.1 8.5 2. Shapes and Shells in Nuclear Structure, S.G. Nilsson and I. Ragnarsson, Sections : 11, 11.1 11.3, 12, 12.1, 12.2 3. Nuclear Reactions: Reactions and Cross-sections, Resonances, Breit-Wigner formula for l = 0, Compound Nucleus formation, continuum theory, statistical theory, evaporation probability, Heavy ion reactions (10 Hours) Text : Nuclear Physics- Theory and Experiment, R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam (Wiley Eastern) Sections 6.1, 6.2, 6.4 6.8 2. Kenneth Krane Introductory Nuclear Physics, (Wiley), Section 11.13 4. Nuclear Fission: The semi-empirical mass formula , The stability peninsula, nuclear fission and the liquid drop model, some basic fission phenomena, fission barrier .Nuclear Fission- cross-section, spontaneous fission, Mass and energy distribution of fragments, Statistical model of Fission (12 Hours) Text : Nuclear Physics- Theory and Experiment, R.R. Roy and B.P. Nigam (Wiley Eastern) Sections Chapter 5 full 5. Reactor Physics: Ficks law and its validity, Diffusion equation, diffusion length, Energy loss in elastic collision, Lethargy, Fermi age equation- solutions and measurement of age, Fermi age theory of bare thermal reactors, criticality , one region finite thermal reactor, criticality condition for different geometries ( 12 Hours) Text Book : Introduction to Nuclear Reactor Theory, B.R. Lamarsh ( Addission- Wesley) Sections 5.1 -5.7, 5.11, 6.1, 6.4, 6.9 6.14, 9.1 9.8 Reference Books : 1.Introductory Nuclear Physics, Samuel M. Wong ( Prentice Hall India 1996) Chapter 7) 2. Nuclear Physics Experimental and theoretical H.S. Hans, New Age International (2001) 3. Theory of nuclear structure M.K Pal, (East West Press Pvt Ltd) PHY 402 C: PLASMA PHYSICS 1.Introduction to Plasma Physics : Existence of plasma,Definition of Plasma, Debye shielding 1D and 3D, Criteria for plasma,Applications of Plasma Physics (in brief), Single Particle motions -Uniform E & B fields, Non uniform B field, Non uniform E field, Time varying E field, Adiabatic invariants and applications (13 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 1.1 to 1.7.7, 2.1 to 2.8.3 2. Plasma as Fluids and waves in plasmas : Introduction The set of fluid equations, Maxwells equations, Fluid drifts perpendicular to B, Fluid drifts parallel to B, The plasma approximations, Waves in Plasma - Waves, Group velocity, Phase velocity, Plasma oscillations, Electron Plasma Waves, Sound waves, Ion waves, Validity of Plasma approximations, Comparison of ion and electron waves, Electrostatic electron oscillations parallel to B, Electrostatic ion waves perpendicular to B, The lower hybrid frequency, Electromagnetic waves with B 0 , Cutoffs and Resonances, Electromagnetic waves parallel to B0, Experimental consequences, Hydromagnetic waves, Magnetosonic waves, The CMA diagrams (12 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 3.1 to 3.6, 4.1 to 4.21 3. Equilibrium and stability : Hydro magnetic equilibrium, The concept of , Diffusion of magnetic field into plasma, Classification of instability, Two stream instability, the gravitational instability, Resistive drift waves, the Weibel instability (10 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 6.1 to 6.8 4. Kinetic Theory : The meaning of f(v), Equations of kinetic theory, Derivation of the fluid equations, Plasma oscillations and Landau damping, the meaning of Landau damping, Physical derivation of Landau damping, Ion Landau damping, Kinetic effects in a magnetic field (10 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 7.1 to 7.6.2 5. Introduction to Controlled Fusion : The problem of controlled fusion, Magnetic confinements such as Toruses, Mirrors, Pinches, Laser Fusion, Plasma heating, Fusion Technology (10 hours) Text : Chen, Sections 9.1 to 9.8 Text Book : .F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Volume I and II, Plenum Press, recent edition.

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Reference Books : 1. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Wiley Eastern, 1978. 2. D. R. Nicholson, Introduction to Plasma Theory. 3. N. A. Krall and A. W. Trivelpiece, Principles of Plasma Physics, McGraw-Hill, recent edition. PHY 402D - ADVANCED ASTROPHYSICS 1. Radiative Process: Theory of Black Body Radiation-Photoelectric Effect-Pressure of Radiation -Absorption and Emission spectra - Doppler Effect - Zeeman Effect- Bremsstrahlung - Synchrotron Radiation - Scattering of Radiation - Compton Effect - and Inverse Compton effect (8 Hours) Text : Baidyanath Basu, Ch 2 2. Variable stars: Classification of Variable stars Cepheid variables RV Tauri variables - Mira variables - Red Irregular and Semi-regular variables Beta Canis Majoris VariablesU Geminorum and Flare starsTheory of Variable stars. (8 hours) Text : Baidyanath Basu, Ch 8 3. Galaxies: The Milkyway galaxy - Kinematics of the Milkyway Morphology Galactic Centre Morphological classification of galaxies Effects of environment Galaxy luminosity function The local group Surface photometry of galaxies - ellipticals and disk galaxies Globular cluster systems Abnormal galaxiesActive galactic nuclei. (20 Hours) Text : Binney & Merrifield, Ch 4 4. General Relativity: General Considerations - Connection Between Gravity and Geometry - Metric Tensor and Gravity - Particle Trajectories in Gravitational field - Physics in curved space-time Curvature - Properties of Energy and momentum Tensor - Scwarzchild Metric - Gravitational Collapse and BlackHoles - Gravitational Waves (15 Hours) Text : Padmanabhan, Vol 2, Ch 11 5. Cosmology: Cosmological Principle - Cosmic Standard Coordinates - Equivalent Coordinates RobertsonWalker Metric - The Red Shift - Measures of Distance - RedShift Versus Distance Relation - Steady State Cosmology (10 Hours) Text : Narlikar, Sections 3.1-3.8 Books Suggested: 1.Gravitation & Cosmology-Steven Weinberg- John Wiley (1972) ISBN: 0-471-92567-5 2.Theoretical Astro Physics Vol 1 and 2- T. Padmanabhan- Cambridge University Press (2000) ISBN: 0-521-56240-6, 0-521-56241-4 3.Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei- Ajit K Kembhavi and Jayat V Narlikar-Cambridge University Press (1999) ISBN:0-521-47477-9 4.The Physical Universe, An Introduction to Astronomy-F. Shu-Oxford University Press- (1982) ISBN: 0-19-855706-X 5.A Different Approach to Cosmology - Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey, Jayant V Narlikar Cambridge University Press (2000) ISBN:0-521-66223-0 6.An Introduction to AstroPhysics - Baidyanath Basu- Prentice Hall India ( 1997) ISBN:81-203-1121-3 7.Discovering the Cosmos-R.C. Bless - University Science Books (1996) - ISBN:0-935702-67-9 8.Text Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics with Elements of Cosmology- V.B. Bhatia- Narosa publications (2001)ISBN:81-7319-339-8 9.Modern Astrophysics - B.W. Carroll & D.A. Ostille - Addison Wesley (1996) ISBN:0-201-54730-9 10.Galactic Astronomy J. Binney & M. Merrifield, Princeton University Press 11.Galactic Dynamics J. Binney & S. Tremaine, Princeton University Press 12.An Introduction to Cosmology, Third Edition- J. V. Narlikar, Cambridge University Press (2002) PHY402E PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS 1. Band structural aspects : Effects of temperature and electric field on band structure, Frank-Keldysh effect, Localized states of impurities : theoretical models and experimental probes (Capacitive and spectroscopic techniques), optical properties : allowed and forbidden, and phonon assisted transitions and their spectral shapes, Burstein Moss effect, excitons : free and bound excitons. ( 12 hours)

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2. Statistical thermodynamics of carriers : Fermi level in intrinsic and doped materials, Non stoichiometric semiconductors, role of structural defects, Heavy doping and degeneracy, electrical conductivity, Hall effect two band model, mobility of carriers, Mechanisms of scattering, measurements of mobility, recombination process, Boltzmann equation for electron transport, equilibrium and non equilibrium processes, effective mass and its measurement, Thermoelectric power, magneto resistivity. ( 14 hours) 3. Metal-semiconductor contacts : Schottky barrier, P-N junctions, theory of carrier transport in p-n junctions, characteristics of practical junctions and deviations from ideality, capacitance effects, space charge and diffusion capacitance, impurity profiling through capacitance measurements, tunnel diode and applications ( 12 hours) 4. Photoconductivity : Role of traps and recombination, photo voltaic devices for solar cells and radiation detection, luminescence, light emitting diodes and laser action in p-n junction diodes (8 hours) 5. Surface states : Band bending and effect on bulk properties, Thin film structures, low dimensional semiconductors, Quantum wells, multiple quantum well structures, quantum dot structures, methods of preparation, special characteristics and devices based on quantum wells, Quantum Hall effect, high electron mobility transistor . (14 hours) References : 1.R.A Smith Semiconductors, Academic Publishers, Calcutta (1989) 2. A.B. Lev Semiconductors and electron devices, Prentice Hall (1987) 3. M. Shur Physics of Semiconductor devices, Prentice Hall (1990) 4. S.M. Sze Physics of Semiconductor devices, Wiley Eastern (1991) 5. W. Schockley Electrons and Holes in semiconductors, D. Van Nostrand (1950) 6. W.C. Dunlop An introduction to semiconductors, Wiley (1957) PHY402 F FLUID DYNAMICS Syllabus to be framed PHY 402 G MODERN OPTICS 1. Light Propagation and Vectorial Nature : Electromagnetic wave propagation, Harmonic waves, phase velocity, group velocity, Energy flow Poynting vector. Different polarizations Matrix representations Jones calculus. Ray vectors and ray matrices, Gaussian beams in homogeneous media, ABCD law. (11 hours) 2. Coherence : Principle of superposition Theory of partia coherence and visibility of fringes - coherence time and coherence length Physical origin of line width. Spatial coherence, Hanburry-Brown-Twiss experiment. Basic idea of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. (11 hours) 3. Interference with multiple beams : Interference with multiple beams Fabry-Perot interferometer Resolving power, applications. Theory of multilayer films. ( 8 hours) 4. Diffraction : Kirchoffs theorem, Fresnel-Kirchoff formula, Babinets principle, Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction, Fraunhoffer diffraction patterns of single slit, double slit and circular aperture, theory of diffraction grating. Fresnel diffraction pattern zone plate, Rectangular aperture, Fresnel integrals, Corn spiral. Applications of Fourier transforms to diffraction. Aperture function, Apodization, Spatial filtering, phase contrast and phase gratings, wave form reconstruction by diffraction holography. (14 hours) 5. Optics of Solids : Microscopic fields and Maxwells equations. Propagation of light in isotropic dielectric media. Dispersion-Sellmiers formula. Propagation of light in anisotropic media double refraction, phase velocity surface, polarizing prisms. Optical activity, Faraday rotation in solids, Kerr effect and Pockels effect (basic ideas only). Elements of nonlinear optics, Physical origin of nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation. Phase matching conditions. Applications of second harmonic generation. (16 hours) Text Books : 1. G.R. Fowles, Introduction to Modern Optics (Dover Publishers) ISBN: 0486659577 2. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (1985) References: 1. S.G. Lupson, H.L. Upaon and D.S. Tannhauser, Optical Physics (Cambridge University Press) 2.A.N. Matvev, Optics (MIR Publishers) 3.Hecht, Optics (Addison Wealey) 4.Ajov-Ghatak, Optics (Tata Mc Graw Hill)

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ELECTIVE II PHY 403 A : ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION 1.Electronic Instrumentation for measuring basic parameters: Electronic DC voltmeters, DC voltmeter circuit 1. with FET, amplified voltage and current meter, chopper stabilized amplifier, electronic AC voltmeters (average responding, peak responding and true rms responding types), electronic multimeters , differential voltmeters digital voltmeters (ramp and staircase type), RF millivoltmeter, Q meter (basic circuit and measurement methods, sources of error), bolometer and RF power measurement (12 hours) 2.Signal generators and Oscilloscopes: Standard signal generator, laboratory signal generator, AF sine wave and square wave generator, function generator and pulse generator, Block diagram of general purpose CRO, CRT circuits , vertical deflection system , delay line, multiple trace, horizontal deflection system, oscilloscope probes and transducers, oscilloscope technique, storage oscilloscopes, sampling oscilloscopes. (14 hours) 3.Fibre optic measurements and Transducers: Sources and detectors, fibre optic power measurement, stabilized light sources, optical time domain reflectometer, Classification of transducers strain gauges displacement transducers temperature measurements photosensitive devices - Radiation detectors solid state and scintillation detectors neutron detectors, ECG and EEG (brain imaging X ray, CT, MRI and nuclear imaging) (15 hours) 4.Computer controlled test systems: Testing an audio amplifier testing a radio receiver instruments used in computer controlled instrumentation IEEE 488 electrical interface digital control signal timing in a microprocessor based measurement. (9 hours) 5.Power control: SCR Control of current in rectifiers with an inductive load triggering control by phase shifting saturable reactor control combined d.c. and phase control on off pulse control of the SCR SCR supply for d.c. motor speed regulation by armature voltage and current control -armature current limiting control of low torque a.c. motors (10 hours) Books for study: 1.Modern Electronic instrumentation and measurement technique Albert D Helfrick and William D Cooper (Tata Mc Graw Hill) for modules 1, 3, 4 and second part of 2 2.Electronic Instrumentation Second edition H.S. Kalsi (Tata Mc Graw Hill) for modules 1 and first part of module 2 3.Principles of Medical electronics and bio medical instrumentation C Rajarao and S.K. Gupta (Universities Press) for Transducers 4.Bio Instrumentation John G Webster (Wiley student edition) for Transducers 5.Introduction to Experimental Nuclear Physics, Singru,R.M., (Wiley Eastern, 1972). for transducers 6.Engineering Electronics, 2nd Edition,Ryder, J.D., (McGraw Hill, 1967). for module 5 PHY 403 B : COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS 1.Amplitude and angle modulation: Amplitude modulation Amplitude modulation and demodulation circuits single side band generation and detection SSB balanced modulator Comparison of signal to noise ratios Frequency modulation - Phase modulation Angle modulation circuits Detection of FM signals FosterSeeley discriminator Ratio detector Noise in FM (10 hours) 2. Pulse modulation and digital communication: Elements of information theory Pulse transmission Pulse amplitude modulation Pulse time modulation Pulse code modulation Coding Codes Error detector and correction codes Digital carrier systems Teleprinter and telegraph circuits (10 hours) 3.Communication systems: Receivers Superheterodyne receiver AM receivers Automatic gain control Communications receivers FM receivers Single and independent side band receivers. Transmitters Telegraph transmitters AM transmitters FM transmitters Television transmitters HF radio systems VHF/UHF systems Microwave systems Satellite communications (12 hours) 4.Signals and Systems: classifications of signals, concept of frequency in continuous - time and discrete -time signals. Theory of A/D and D/A conversion, Sampling of Analog signals, sampling Theorem. Quantization of continuous amplitude signal, Coding of quantized samples, Discrete time linear time invariant systems Techniques of analysis of linear systems, Resolution of a discrete time signal into impulses- Response of LTI

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systems to arbitrary inputs :Convolution sum- properties of convolution and the interconnection of LTI systemsCasual LTI systems Stability of LTI systems. (12 hours) 5. Radiation and antennas: Potential functions and the EM field Radiation from an oscillating dipole Power radiated by a current element Radiation resistance of a short dipole Radiation from a quarter wave monopole Directivity Gain and effective aperture - Antenna arrays Two element, linear and binomial Frequency independent antennae Log periodic antennae Yagi antennae. Propagation of radio waves - Ground waves, Sky wave propagation, Space waves, Tropospheric scatter propagation, Extra terrestrial communication. Ionosphere Reflection and refraction of waves by the ionosphere Attenuation (14 hours) References: 1.Electronic Communications, Roddy and Coolen, J., (PHI, 1986). Chapters 7, 8, 9,10,11,12,18,19 2.Electronic Communication Systems, 4th Edition, Kennedy, G. and Davis, B. (McGraw Hill, 1992). Chapter 6,8. 3.Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems, Jordan E.C. and Balmain, K.G. (PHI, 1979). Chapters 10,11,15,17. 4.Digital Signal Processing by Proakis and Manolakis, Prentice Hall of India (1997) PHY 403 C : MATERIALS SCIENCE 1. Imperfections in Crystals : Thermodynamics of Schottky and Frenkel Defects, Equilibrium number of Point Defects as a function of temperature, Interstitial Diffusion, Self-diffusion, Determination of Diffusion constant, Edge and Screw Dislocations, Energy of Dislocation, Dislocation motion, Dislocation Multiplication: Frank-Read mechanism, Work Hardening of Metals. (10 Hours) 2. Alloys, films and surfaces : Binary phase diagrams from Free energy considerations, case of complete miscibility, Gibbs phase rule, The lever rule, Rules of solid solubility, Hume-Rothery Electron compounds, case of limited solid solubility, the Eutectic temperature. Study of surface topography by multiple beam interferometry, Determination of step height and film thicknesses(Fizeau fringes), Qualitative ideas of surface crystallography, scanning, tunneling and atomic force microscopy, Boltzmann transport equation for a thin film (for diffusive scattering), Electrical conductivity of thin films. (17 Hours) 3. Ceramic Materials : Silicate structure, Polymorphism, Solid solution, Non-ductile fracture, Plastic deformation of layered structures, Viscous deformation of glass, Electrical properties of ceramics (8 hours) 4. Polymers - Unsaturated hydrocarbons, Polymer size, Addition polymerization, Copolymerization, Condensation polymerization, Thermoplastic and thermosetting resins, Elastomers, Cross-linking, Branching. (10 Hours) 5. Liquid crystals, Quasi crystals and Nanomaterials: Structure and symmetries of liquids, Liquid crystals and amorphous solids, Aperiodic crystals and quasicrystals, Formation and characterization of Fullerenes and tubules, Carbon nanotube based electronic devices, Synthesis and properties of nanostructured materials, Experimental techniques for characterizing nanostructured materials, Quantum size effect and its applications. (15 Hours) References: 1.Solid State Physics, A.J. Dekker (MacMillan, 1958) 2.Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel(Wiley Eastern, 1977). 3.Elements of Materials Science, L.H. Van Vlack (Addison Wesley) 4.Physics of Thin Films, K.L.Chopra 5.Thin Films, O.S.Heavens 6.Multiple Beam Interferometry, Tolansky 7.Transmission Electron Microscopy, Thomas 8.The Physics of Quasicrystals, Ed. Steinhardt and Ostulond 9.Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology, Ed. Harisingh Nalwa PHY 403 D : COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS 1. Language Processors : Introduction-Language Processing activities - Fundamentals of Language Processing Fundamentals of Language Specification- Language Processor Development Tools (10 hours) Text : Dhamdhere, sections 1.1 - 1.5 2. Assemblers, Macros and Macro Processors : Elements of Assembly Language Programming- A Simple Assembly Scheme - Pass Structure of Assemblers - Design of a Single Pass Assembler for IBM PC, Macro Definition and Cal l- Macro Expansion. (10 hours)

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Text : Dhamdhere, sections 4.1 4.4, 5.1, 5.2 3. Compilers, Interpreters and Linkers : Aspects of Compilation- Memory Allocation - Compilation of Expressions- Compilation of Control Structures- Code Optimization - Interpreters, Relocation of Linking Concepts- Design of a Linker-Self- Relocating Programs - A linker for MS DOS- Linking of Over layersLoaders. (15 hours) Text : Dhamdhere, sections 6.1 6.6, 7.1 7.6 4. Operating systems : Batch processing systems - Multiprogramming systems - Time Sharing Systems - Real Time Systems - OS Structure. The Process Concept-Process Definition- Process Control - Interacting ProcessesImplementation of Interacting Processes- Scheduling Policies- Job Scheduling Process Scheduling (15 hours) Text : Dhamdhere, sections 9.1 - 9.5 , 10.1 10.5, 11.1 11.3 5. Software Tools and deadlocks : Software Tools for Program Development- Editors - Debug Monitors Programming Environments - User Interfaces, Deadlocks:, Definition - Modelling the Resource Status - Handling Deadlocks Dead lock detection and Resolution - Deadlock (14 hours) Text : Dhamdhere, sections 8.1 8.5, 12.1 - 12.5 TEXT BOOK 1. Systems Programming and Operating Systems., D.M.Dhamdhere (2nd revised edition), Tata McGraw Hill.Publishing Co. Ltd.,New Delhi, 2003. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. System programming, John. J.Donovan., Tata McGraw- Hill. 2. Operating System , Milan Milankovic., McGraw Hill International Edition. 3. Operating System , Colin Ritchie., (Second Edn) BPB-Publication. 4. An Introduction to Operating Systems, Deitel. H.M.,(2nd edition), Pearson education 2002. 5. Operating System Concepts, Silberschatz A and P Galvin., (5th edition), Addison- Wesley, (1999). PHY 403 E : DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 1.Signals and systems, Classification of signals, Concept of frequency in continuous time and discrete time signals. Theory of A/D and D/A conversion, Sampling of analog signals, sampling theorem. Quantization of continuous amplitude signals. Quantization of sinusoidal signal, Coding of quantized samples. (8 hours) Text Book : Digital Signal Processing by Proakis & Manolakis, Prentice Hall India 1997. Chapter 1 (complete) 2. Discrete- time signals & systems, Discrete- time linear time-invariant systems-Techniques of analysis of linear systems, Resolution of a discrete time signal into impulses- Response of LTI systems to arbitrary inputs : Convolution sum- Properties of convolution and the interconnection of LTI systems- Casual LTI systems Stability of LTI systems- Systems with finite duration and infinite duration impulse, response. Discrete- time systems described by difference equations- Recursive and non-recursive discrete, time systems LTI systems characterized by constant coefficient difference equations, Solution to linear constant coefficient difference equations, correlation of discrete-time signals. (10 hours) Text Book:Digital Signal Processing by Proakis & Manolakis, Prentice Hall India 1997, Chapter 2 (complete) 3.The Z-transform, The Direct Z-Transform, The Inverse Z-Transform.Properties of Z-transform, Rational Ztransforms, Poles and zeros, Inversion of Z-transforms. The inverse Z-Transform by contour integration, Power series expansion, Analysis of linear time-invariant systems in the Z-domain, transfer functions, stability in Z domain Digital filters introduction, ideal characteristics of standard filters, state space description, filter approximation by window functions, Design of linear phase FIR filters using windows (12 hours) Text Book (I):Digital Signal Processing by Proakis & Manolakis, Prentice Hall India 1997, Chapter 3.1 3.6 4. Frequency analysis of continuous-time signals. The Fourier Series for continuous Time Periodic signals, Power Density Spectrum of Periodic Signals, The Fourier Transform of Continuous -Time Aperiodic Signals, Energy Density Spectrum of Aperiodic Signals, Frequency analysis of discrete time signals, The Fourier Series for discrete time Periodic Signals, Power Density Spectrum of Periodic Signals, Fourier trnsform for discrete time aperiodic signal, Convergence of the Fourier Transform, Energy Density Spectrum of aperiodic signals, Relationship of the Fourier Transform to the Z Transform, The Cepstrum, The Fourier Transform of Signals with poles on the unit circle, The frequency Domain classification of signals, Concept of Bandwidth, Properties of the Fourier Transform for Discrete Time Signals (15 hours) Text Book:Digital Signal Processing by Proakis & Manolakis, Prentice Hall India 1997, Sections 4.1 - 4.5

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5.The Discrete Fourier transform, Relationship of the DFT to the other transforms. Properties of DFT, Multipalication of two DFTs and Circular convolution, Frequency analysis of signals using the DFT. Computation of the Discrete Fourier Transform Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, Decimation in Time FFT algorithm, Decimation in frequency FFT algorithm, FFT algorithm for N a composite number, General computational considerations in FFT algorithms. Chirp Z-Transform algorithm, Applications of FFT algorithms, Quantization effects in the computation of DFT. (14 hours) Text Book:Digital Signal Processing by Proakis & Manolakis, Prentice Hall India 1997, Sections 5.1.2, 5.1.4, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.4 Reference Books 1.Digital Signal Processing by Oppenheim & Schafer, Prentice Hall India 1995 2.Digital Signal Processing by paulo S.R. Piniz, Eduardo A.B. De Silva and Sergio Netto Cambridge University Press 3.Analog and digital signal processing by Ashok Ambradar 4.Theory and Applications of Digital Signal Processing , Rabiner & Gold, Prentice Hall India -1996. PHY 403F : RADIATION PHYSICS 1.Radiation source : Different types of sources, alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and heavy ion sources, radioactive sources naturally occurring production of artificial isotopes, acceleratorscyclotrons, nuclear reactors (10 hours) 2.Interaction of radiations with matter : Electrons classical theory of inelastic collisions with atomic electrons, energy loss per ion pair by primary and secondary ionization, specific energy loss, bremsstrahlung, range energy relation, energy and range straggling Heavy charged particles stopping power, energy loss, range and range energy relations, Bragg curve, specific ionization, Gamma rays Interaction mechanism Photoelectric absorption, Compton scattering, Pair production, gamma ray attenuation, attenuation coefficients, Elastic and inelastic scattering, Neutrons General properties, fast neutron interactions, slowing down and moderation (14 hours) 3. Radiation quantities, Units and Dosimeters : Particle flux and fluence, energy flux and fluence, cross sections, linear and mass absorption coefficients, stopping power, LET, exposure and its measurements, absorbed dose and its relation to exposure, Kerma, Biological effectiveness, Equivalent dose, Effective loss, Dosimeters, Primary and secondary dosimeters, Pocket dosimeter, Films and solid dosimeter (TLD and RPL), Clincal and calorimetric devices (13 hours) 4. Radiation transport and shielding : Basic concept, Transport equation, Ficks law and diffusion equation, Boundary conditions, Analytical solution, Slowing down theory, Resonance absorption, Criticality calculations, Fermi age theory, Four factor formula, Shielding factor for radiations, Choice of material, Primary and secondary radiations, Source geometry, Beta shielding, Gamma shielding, neutron shielding, Shielding requirements for medical, industrial and research facilities (13 hours) 5. Biological effects : Basic concepts of cell biology, Effects of ionizing radiations at molecular, sub molecular and cellular levels, secondary effects, free radicals, applications in cancer therapy, food preservation, radiation and sterilization, Effects on tissues and organs, genetic effects, Mutation and chromosomal aberrations (10 hours) Reference books : 1.Atomic Nucleus , R.D. Evans 2.Source book on Atomic Energy Samuel Glasstone 3.The Physics of Radiology, H.E. Jones and Cunningham, (Charles C Thomas 1989) 4.Fundamentals of radiology, W.J. Meredith and J.B. Massey (John Right and sons 1989) 5.Principles of radiation shielding, A.B. Chilton (Prentice Hall of India)

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ELECTIVE III PHY 404 A : QUANTUM FIELD THEORY 1.Classical Field Theory : Harmonic oscillator, The linear chain- classical treatment, the linear chain quantum treatment, classical field theory, Hamiltonian formalism, Functional derivatives , Canonical quantization of nonrelativistic fields, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for the Schroedinger field, Quantization of fermions and bosons, Normalization of Fock states (12 hours) Text Book : Field Quantization Greiner and Reinhardt (Spinger-Verlag -1996), Sections 1.3 1.5, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1 3.3, Exercise 3.1 2.Canonical quantization of Klein Gordon and photon fields : The neutral Klein Gordon field Commutation relation for creation and annihilation operators, Charged Klein Gordon field, Invariant commutation relations, Scalar Feyman propagator, Canonical quantization of photon field - Maxwells equations, Larangian density for the Maxwell field, Electromagnetic field in the Lorentz gauge, Canonical quantization of the Lorentz gauge GuptaBleuler method, Canonical quantization in the Coulomb gauge (14 hours) Text Book : Field Quantization Greiner and Reinhardt (Spinger-Verlag -1996), Sections 4.1, 4.2, 4.4, 4.5, 7.1 7.4, 7.7 3.Canonical quantization of spin fields : Lagrangian and Hamiltonian densities for the Dirac field, Canonical quantization of the Dirac field, Plane wave expansion of the field operator, Feyman propagator for the Dirac field (10 hours) Text Book : Field Quantization Greiner and Reinhardt (Spinger-Verlag -1996), Sections 5.1 5.4 4. Interacting quantum fields and Quantum Electrodynamics : The interaction picture, Time evolution operator, Scattering matrix, Wicks theorem, Feynman rules for QED, Moller scattering and Compton scattering (10 hours) Text Book : Field Quantization Greiner and Reinhardt (Spinger-Verlag -1996), Sections 8.2 8.6, Example 8.4 5. The path integral method : Path integrals in non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Feynman path integral, Multidimensional path integral, Time ordered product and n-point functions, Path integrals for scalar quantum fields, The Euclidian field theory, The Feynman propagator, Generating functional and Greens function, Generating functional for interacting fields (12 hours) Text Book : Field Quantization Greiner and Reinhardt (Spinger-Verlag -1996), Sections 11.2 11.5, 12.1 12.5 References : 1.Quantum Field theory, Lewis H. Ryder (Cambridge University Press -1995) 2.Field Theory A modern primer Pierre Ramond (Bengamin 1996) 3.Quantum Field theory, Itzyskon and Zuber (McGraw Hill 1989) 4.Quantum Field theory, Karson Huang (Wiley) PHY 404 B : EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES 1.Vacuum Techniques : Units and basic definitions, Roughing pumps - Oil sealed rotary vacuum pump and Sorption pump, High vacuum pumps Turbo molecular pump, Diffusion pump, Oil vapour booster pump, Ion pumps - Sputter ion pump and Getter ion pump, Cryo pump, Vacuum guages - Pirani gauge, Thermocouple gauge, penning guage (Cold cathode Ionization guage) and Hot filament ionization gauge, Vacuum accessories Diaphragm, Gate valve, Butterfly valve, Baffle and isolation valves, magnetic valves, adjustable valves, air inlet valves, Traps - Liquid nitrogen trap, Sorption traps, and gaskets and O rings, (14 hours) Text : Varier, Antony & Pradyumnan, Sections 1.4, 1.6 1.8, 1.9.2.3 1.9.2.5, 1.10.1, 1.10.6, 1.10.3 2.Thin film techniques : Introduction, Fabrication of thin films, Thermal evaporation in vacuum Resistive heating, Electron beam evaporation and laser evaporation techniques, Sputter deposition, Glow discharge, Thickness measurement by quartz crystal monitor, optical interference method, electrical conductivity measurement, Thermo electric power, Interference filters - Multi layer optical filters ( 10 hours) Text : Varier, Antony & Pradyumnan, Sections 2.1, 2.2.1.1, 2.2.1.4, 2.2.1.5, 2.2.2, 2.3.2, 2.3.3, 2.3.1, 2.7, 2.6.1 3.Cryogenic techniques : Introduction, Liquefaction of gases Internal and external work methods, Hampsen and Linde and Claude methods for air, Liquefaction of hydrogen and Kammerlingh Onne's method for helium, manipulation of liquefied gases and the maintenance of low temperature Henning and Hydrogen vapour cryostat, using liquids boiling under reduced pressure, production of low temperature below 1 deg K

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Adiabatic demagnetisation and magnetic refrigerator, Special properties of liquid helium, temperature below 10 -6 K - Nuclear demagnetisation, Measurement of low temperatures Primary thermometers - gas thermometers and corrections, secondary thermometers - resistance thermometers, thermocouple thermometers, vapour pressure thermometers, magnetic thermometers (15 hours) Text : Varier, Antony & Pradyumnan, Sections 3.1, 3.3.1 3.3.7, 3.4 - 3.7, 3.9 and 3.10 4.Accelerator techniques : High voltage DC accelerators, Cascade generator, Van de Graaff accelerator, Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator, Linear accelerator, Cyclotron, Synchrotron (Electron and proton), Ion sources Ionization processes, simple ion source, ion plasma source and RF ion source, Ion implantation techniques and profiles, Ion beam sputteringprinciples and applications (10 hours) Text : Varier, Antony & Pradyumnan, Sections 4.3, 4.4, 4.5.1, 4.5.4, 4.5.5, 4.6, 4.8.1 4.8.3, 4.9 5. Materials Analysis by nuclear techniques : Basic principles and requirements, mathematical basis and nuclear reaction kinematics, Rutherford backscattering introduction, kinematic factor, differential scattering cross section, experimental set up, energy loss and straggling and applications, Nuclear reaction analysis Principle, instrumentation, resonance nuclear reaction, specific nuclear reactions for light elements, applications, Neutron activation analysis principles and experimental arrangement, applications, Proton induced X-ray analysis principle and experimental set up, applications to water samples, human hair samples and forensic samples, limitations of PIXE (13 hours) Text : Varier, Antony & Pradyumnan, Sections 5.3, 5.4, 5.8, 5.9, 6.1 6.5, 7.2 - 7.6, 8.2 8.5, 9.2 9.5, 9.7 Text Book : Advanced Experimental Techniques in Modern Physics K. Muraleedhara Varier, Antony Joseph and P.P. Pradyumnan, Pragati Prakashan, Meerut (2006) Books for reference: 1. Scientific foundations of vacuum techniques S. Dushman and J.M. Laffer 2. Hand book of thin film technology Heissel and Glang 3. Thin film phenomena K.L. Chopra, Mc Graw Hill (1983) 4. Low temperature Physics - by L.C.Jackson - John Wiley & Sons Inc. 1962. 5. Low temperature techniques - by F.Din and A.H.Cocket, George Newnes Limited (London) 1960 6. Frank Pobel Matter and methods at low temperature Springer Verlag (1992) 7. R. Sreenivasan Approach to absolute zero - Resonance magazine Vol 1 no 12 , vol 2 nos 2, 6 and 10 8. R. Berry, P.M. Hall and M.T. Harris Thin film technology Van Nostrand (1968) 9. Dennis and Heppel Vacuum system design 10. A. Pipco, V. Pliskovsky, B. Korolev and V. Kuznetsov Fundamentals of Vacuum Techniques Mir Publishers 11. Nuclear Micro analysis V. Valkovic PHY 404 C : CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS 1.Density operator and its correlation functions, Relation to structure factor, pair correlation function, Relation of Correlation functions to symmetry of the condensed phase, symmetry of crystals, reciprocal lattice and Bragg scattering, Qualitative descriptions of structure of: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, hexatic and lyotropic liquid crystals; Incommensurate structure, Quasi crystals and random isotropic fractals. (12 hours) 2. Connection between correlation functions and partition function, magnetization correlation and generalized susceptibility of a ferromagnet, Discrete and continuous symmetries of the condensed phase, Z 2, ZN and On models (11 Hours) 3. Mean field theory and phase Transition : Bragg Williams Theory, Landau Theory, The Ising and n-vector models, The non local susceptibility and the correlation length, Examples of mean field transitions, The first order nematic to isotropic transition, Tricritical points and examples of Meta magnets, He3-He4 mixture, Density functional theory of liquid solid transition. (11 Hours) 4. Fluctuations of the order parameter and the breakdown of the order parameter, coarse graining of the order parameter field, Hamiltonian in terms of powers of the fluctuating field, one loop approximation, Critical exponents and scaling relations, the Kadanoff construction, one dimensional Ising model, Renormalization, Application to noble gas atoms adsorbed on graphite, Momentum shell renormalization and expansion (12 Hours) 5. Time dependent correlation functions, Response functions, Kramers- Kronig relation, sound waves in an elastic continuum, acoustic phonons in a lattice, Green function for the Diffusion equation, Einstein relation, Langevin theory for the correlation functions for diffusion, Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem, Fokker Planck equation,

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Examples of kinks and walls in an Ising lattice, Analytic solution for a kink, The Sine Gordon soliton, The Frenkel Kontorowa model for adatoms on a lattice. (14 Hours) Text Book: Principles of Condensed Matter Physics, P.M. Chaikin & T.C. Lubensky (Cambridge University Press). Reference books : 1. Intermediate Quantum Theory of Crystalline Solids, A.O.E. Animalu (Prentice-Hall of India, 1978). 2. Solid State Theory, W.A. Harrison, (Tata McGraw-Hill, 1970) 3. Principles of the Theory of Solids, J.M. Ziman ( C.U. P., 1972) 4. Solid State Physics, N.W. Ashcroft and N.D. Mermin ( Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, 1976) 5. Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel (Wiley Eastern, 1977) 6. Introduction to Solid State Theory, O. Madelung (Springer-Verlag, 1978). 7. Physics of Modern Materials Vol. II (IAEA, Vienna, 1980) 8. Statistical Mechanics, B.K. Agarwal and M. Eisner (Wiley Eastern, 1988) 9. Renormalization Group Theory of Critical Phenomena (IPA Monographs) S.V.G. Menon, (Wiley Eastern & New Age International Publishers, 1995). PHY 404 D : CHAOS AND NON LINEAR PHYSICS 1.The Dynamics of Differential Equations : Integration of linear second order equations by quadrature, The damped oscillator, Integration of nonlinear second order equation, Jacobi elliptic functions, Weierstrass elliptic functions, Periodic structure of elliptic functions, The pendulum equation, Phase portrait of the pendulum, Phase portraits for conservative systems, Linear stability analysis, Linear stability matrix, Classification of fixed points, Examples of fixed point analysis, Limit cycle, Time dependent integrals, Non autonomous systems, The driven oscillator, Remarks on integration of differential equations, Elliptic functions .(Chap 1, Tabor) (13 hours) 2. Hamiltonian Dynamics : Lagrangian formulation of mechanics, Lagrangian function and Hamilton's principle, Properties of the Lagrangian and generalized momentum, Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, Hamilton's equations, Canonical transformations, The preservation of phase volume, The optimal transformation, Generating function, Hamilton Jacobi equation for one degree of freedom, Action angle variable for one degree of freedom, Integrable Hamiltonians, Separable systems, Properties of integrable systems, Examples of integrable systems, Motion on the tori, Fundamental issues, KAM theorem (Chap 2 and sec 3.4, Tabor) (13 hours) 3.Chaos in Hamiltonian systems and area preserving mappings : Surface of section, Surface of section for two degrees of freedom Hamiltonians, The Henon Heiles Hamiltonian, The Toda lattice, Surface of section as a symplectic mapping, Twist maps, Mapping on the plane, Connection between area preserving maps and Hamiltonians, The standard maps, The tangent map, Classification of fixed points, Poincare Birkhoff fixed point theorem, Homoclinic and heteroclinic points, The intersection of H+ and H- whorls and tendrils, Criteria for local chaos, Lyapunov exponents, Power spectra, Criteria for onset of widespread chaos, Method of overlapping resonances, Greene's method, Statistical concepts in strongly chaotic systems, Ergodicity, Mixing, The Baker's transformation and Bernoulli systems, Heirarchies of randomness, Hamiltonian chaos in liquids, Fluid mechanical background, The model system, Experimental results (Sec 4.1 to 4.8, Tabor) (13 hours) 4.Dynamics of dissipative systems : Dissipative systems and turbulence, The Navier Stokes equations, The concept of turbulence-a Hamiltonian degression, Experimental observations on the onset of turbulence, Couette flow, Rayleigh-Benard convection, Landau-Hopf theory, Hopf bifurcation theory, Ruelle-Takens theory, Other scenarios, Fractals, Mathematical model of strange attractors, Lorentz systems, Variations on Lorentz model, The Henon map, Period doubling bifurcations - Period doubling mechanism - Bifurcation diagram - Behaviour beyond 1 - Other universality classes (Sec. 5.1 to 5.5, Tabor) (13 hours) 5. Solitons : Historical background, Russel's observations, The F U P experiment, Discovery of the solution, Basic properties of KdV equations, Effects of nonlinearity and dispersion, The traveling wave solution (Sec 7.1 and 7.2, Tabor) (8 hours) Text Book: Chaos and Integrability in Nonlinear Dynamics, M.Tabor (Wiley, New York) References:

31 1. Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics-An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers, R.Hilborn(Oxford University 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Press) Deterministic Chaos -An Introduction, H.G. Schuster (Wiley, New York) Chaos in Dynamical Systems, E. Ott (Cambridge University Press) Chaotic Dynamics-An Introduction, G.Baker and J. Gollub (Cambridge University Press) An Introduction to Chaotic Dynamical Systems, R.L.Devaney(Benjamin-Cummings, CA) Deterministic Chaos, N.Kumar Nonlinear dynamics, Laxmana (Springer Verlag, 2001)

PHY 404 E : LASERS AND FIBRE OPTICS 1. Elements of Laser theory and Optical Resonators : Einstein coefficients , Evaluation of transition rates, Line broadening mechanisms, Laser rate equation for three-level system, Laser power, Cavity modes, Q of a cavity, Q switching, Mode locking, Confocal Resonator, Planar resonator, Analysis of optical resonators using geometrical optics (11 hours) Text Book:K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak - Lasers - Theory and applications MacMillan, Sections 3.31, 3.32, 3.3, 3.41, 4.2, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6-6.8, 6.11 2. Types of Lasers and Applications : Ruby laser, Helium-neon laser, Four-level solid state lasers, CO2 laser, Dye lasers, Semiconductor Lasers, Spatial frequency filtering and holography, Laser-induced fusion, Harmonic generation, Stimulated Raman scattering, self-focussing, Applications in material processing (13 hours) Text Book:K. Thyagarajan and A.K. Ghatak - Lasers - Theory and applications MacMillan, Sections 9.4-9.8, 10.2, 10.3, 11.1 - 11.4, 13.2 - 13.4, 14.2, 14.2.1 14.2.4 3. Optical fibres and Classification : General, What are optical fibres, Importance, Propagation of light waves in optic fibres, Basic structure, Acceptance angle, Numerical aperture, Modes of propagation, Cut off parameters, single mode propagation of optical fibres, stepped index monomode fibres, disadvantages, graded index monomode fibres, mechanism of refractive index variation, fibre strength (13 hours) Text Book:Subir Kumar Sarkar Optical fibres and fibre Optic Communication systems S. Chand & Co (2003), Sections : 1.1 - 1.3, 2.2 - 2.10, 3.1 - 3.5, 3.8, 3.9 4. Optical fibre as a cylindrical waveguide and Fibre losses : Optical fibre vs. cylindrical wave guide, Wave equation in stepped index fibres, flow of power in SI fibres, Model analysis of graded index fibres, Attenuation in optical fibres, Absorption losses, Leaky modes, Radiation induced losses, inherent defect losses, inverse square law losses, core and cladding losses (13 hours) Text Book:Subir Kumar Sarkar Optical fibres and fibre Optic Communication systems S. Chand & Co (2003), Sections : 6.1, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 7.1, 7.4, 7.5, 7.7 - 7.9, 7.12 5. Measurements on fibres : Measurement of numerical aperture and its related terms, measurement of fibre attenuation insertion loss method and by Optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR), measurement of refractive index by reflection method and transmitted near field technique (10 hours) Text Book : Subir Kumar Sarkar Optical fibres and fibre Optic Communication systems S. Chand & Co (2003), Sections: 20, 20.2, 20.4, 20.4(1), 20.3, 20.8(1), 20.8(2) Reference Books: 1.A. Ghatak and K. Thyagarajan, Optical Electronics- Foundation Books (Cambridge University) 1996 2.N. Sharma - Fibre Optics in telecommunications - Tata McGraw Hill - 1987 3.F.G. Smith and J.H. Thomson, Optics - ELBS 4.M.J.N.Sibley - Optical Communications (IInd edition) - MacMillan 1995 PHY 404 F : ADVANCED STATISTICAL MECHANICS 1.Thermodynamics of crystal lattice, the field of sound waves, phonons and second sound, The Debye model, Debye temperature, specific heat of solid in the Debye model (10 hours) 2.Non ideal systems, intermolecular interactions, Lennard Jones potential, Corrections to the ideal gas law, Van der Waals equation, Short distance and long distance interaction, The plasma gas and ionic solutions, The DebyeHuckel radius (12 hours) 3.Phase transition, critical point, First order phase transition, Phase diagrams, The theory of Lang and Lee, A dynamical model for phase transitions, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, Second order phase transition, Landau theory, Critical point exponents, Chemical equilibrium and chemical reactions (12 hours)

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4.Ising model as a macroscopic model of phase transition, Why the Ising model is very important? Relationship betweeen lattice models, models of ferroelectrics and Ising model, The classical formulation of the problem, Exact solutions, Drawbacks of the mean field approximation, The static fluctuation approximation as new method for solving the Ising problem (14 hours) 5.Fluctuations, fluctuations of macroscopic variables, Theory of random processes, Response and fluctuation, Correlation functions, Spectral analysis of fluctuations: the Weiner-Khintchine theorem, The Nyquist theorem, Applications of the Nyquist theorem (12 hours) Text Book : Patria : Statistical Mechanics (Butterworth-Heinemann,1996) Reference Books: 1. Kerson Huang : Statistical Mechanics (second edition) (Wiley,1987) 2. B.K. Agarwal and Melvin Eisner :Statistical Physics 3. Guptha and Kumar : Statistical Physics 4. J.E. Meyer and M.G. Meyer, Statistical Mechanics, John Wiley

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PRCTICAL PHY 305 and PHY 405 PRACTICALS V AND VII - MODERN PHYSICS I and II Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. 1. At least 10 experiments to be done from Part A and 2 each from each of the elective papers selected for papers PHY 402, PHY 403 and PHY 404. If no practical have been given for a particular optional paper, two more experiments from Part A should be done. Those offering Advanced Electronics as Practical paper under PHY 306 and PHY406 shall not chose any experiments from Part B for PHY 305 and PHY405; they should choose two more experiments from Part A itself instead.) 2. It may be noted that some experiments are given both in Part A and B of course such experiments can be done only once : either as included in A or in B. At least 16 experiments should be done, 8 in each of the two semesters. Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if a total of 8 experiments are not done in each semester. 3. The PHOENIX Experimental Kit developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, may be used for the experiments wherever possible. PART A 1. G.M. Counter plateau and statistics of counting - To obtain the plateau, operating voltage and to verify the distribution law satisfied by the radioactive decay 2. Absorption coefficient for gamma rays -To determine the absorption coefficient of the given material for Cs137 gamma rays using a G.M.Counter 3. Absorption coefficient for beta rays -To determine the absorption coefficient of the given material for beta rays from a Ra-D-E source using a G.M.Counter 4. Feather analysis End point energy - To determine the end point energy of the beta particles from a given source using Feather analysis 5. Scintillation counter - To calibrate the given gamma ray (scintillation) spectrometer using standard gamma sources and to determine the energy of an unknown gamma ray source 6. Compton scattering - To verify the theoretical expression for the energy of the Compton scattered gamma rays at a given angle using a Scintillation gamma spectrometer / determine the rest mass energy of the electron 7. Absorption spectrum of KMnO4 and I2 - To determine the wavelengths of the absorption bands for KMnO4 solution and to determine the dissociation energy of Iodine molecule by measurements on its absorption spectrum ( either by taking photograph or otherwise) 8. Hall effect in semiconductors - To determine the carrier concentration in the given specimen of semiconducting material by means of the Hall effect. 9. Zener voltage characteristics at low and ambient temperatures - To study the variation of the Zener voltage of the give Zener diode with temperature 10. Ultrasonic interferometer velocity of sound in liquids - To determine the velocity of ultra sonic waves in the given liquid 11. Determination of band gap energy in Si and Ge 12. Conductivity, Reflectivity, sheet resistance and refractive index of thin films 13. Millikans oil drop method - To measure the charge on the electron. by means of the Millikans oil drop apparatus 14. Thomsons e/m measurement - To determine the charge to mass ratio of the electron by Thomsons method using a CRT 15. Thermionic work function - To determine the thermionic work function of the material of the cathode of the given vacuum diode/triode from the characteristics at different filament currents 16. Optical fibre characteristics - To determine the numerical aperture, attenuation and band width of the given optical fibre specimen 17. Frank-Hertz experiment - To measure the critical ionization potentials of Mercury by drawing current vs. applied voltage in a discharge tube 18. Fabry Perot etalon - Determination of wavelength and thickness of air film

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19. Band gap enery of Ge by four probe method - To study bulk resistance and determine the band gap energy of Ge 20. Study of LED characteristics - Determination of wavelength of emission, I-V characteristics and variation with tempearture, variation of output power vs. applied voltage 21. Photoelectric effect - Determination of Plancks constant (White light and filters or LEDs of different colours may be used) 22. Porosity of refractory materials - To determine the porosity of the given sample of brick by measurements of the weights of the dried and soaked samples in air and inside water 23. Spectroscopic analysis by carbon arc - To photograph the emission spectrum of the given substance in carbon arc and to identify the lines 24. Arc spectrum - Photograph the arc spectrum of iron, copper and identify the spectral lines 25. ESR spectrometer Determination of g factor 26. Vibrational bands of AlO 27. Rydberg constant determination 28. IR spectrum identification 29. Microwave experiments - Determination of wavelength, VSWR, attenuation, dielectric constant 30. Ionic conductivity KCl / NaCl 31. Zeeman effect 32. Raman spectrum 33. NMR spectrum PART B I ADVANCED ELECTRONICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Simple temperature control circuit Binary rate multiplier Optical feedback amplifier Frequency modulation and pulse modulation Decimal to BCD encoder using diode matrix Binary multiplier

II.MATERIAL SCIENCE / CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Curie_Weiss law (To determine the Curie temperature) Solid liquid phase transitions measurement of resistivity of metals Growth of a single crystal from solution and determination of structural, electrical and optical properties Study of colour centres Thermoluminiscence glow curves Ionic conductivity in KCl/NaCl crystals Thermoluminiscence spectra of alkali halides Thermo emf of bulk samples (Al/Cu) Electron spin resonance Strain guage Y of a metal beam Variation of dielectric constant with temperature of a ferro electric material ( Barium titanate) Ferrite specimen variation of magnetic properties with composition III. COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Amplitude modulation and demodulation Frequency modulation and demodulation Pulse amplitude modulation and demodulation Pulse code modulation and demodulation Pulse position modulation and demodulation Study of crystal detector L-C transmission line characteristic Tuned RF amplifier Seely discriminators AM transmitter

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11. Radiation from dipole antenna 12. Optical fibre characteristics (Numerical aperture, attenuation and bandwidth) 13. Optical feed back circuit (Feedback factor, gain and frequency response) IV ADVANCED NUCLEAR PHYSICS and RADIATION PHYSICS 1. Half life of Indium thermal neutron absorption - To determine the half life of In-116 by irradiation of In foil and beta counting using a GM counter 2. Alpha spectrometer - To calibrate the given alpha spectrometer and determine the resolution 3. Photoelectric effect in lead - To get the spectrum of X rays emitted form lead target by photo electric effect using Cs-137 gammas 4. Inner bremsstrahlung - To study the intensity spectrum of inner bremsstrahlung from given gamma source 5. Coincidence circuits - To construct and study the performance of series and parallel coincidence circuits using transistors and to determine the resolving time 6. Single channel analyzer - Study of characteristics of a SCA using precision pulser 7. Ionization chamber - Study of variation of pulse height with applied voltage and to obtaing the pulse height spectrum of X-rays 8. Proportional counter - Study of variation of pulse height with applied voltage and to obtaining the pulse height spectrum of X-rays 9. Track detector track diameter distribution - To measure the diameters of the alpha tracks in CR-39 track detector 10. Beta ray spectrometer - To plot the momentum distribution of beta particles from given beta sources 11. Range of alpha particles in air and mylar - To determine the range of alpha particles from Am-241 source in air and in mylar using either a surface barrier detector or a GM counter V EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Rydberg constant hydrogen spectrum ESR Lande g factor IR spectrum of few samples Vacuum pump pumping speed Vacuum pump Effect of connecting pipes Absorption bands of Iodine Vibrational bands of AlO Pirani gauge characteristics Thin films electrical properties (sheet resistance) Thin films optical properties (Reflectivity, transmission, attenuation, refractive index)

VI ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Strain gauge Simple servomechanism Temperature control Coincidence circuits Multiplexer IEEE 488 Electrical interface Single channel analyzer Differential voltmeter Frequency synthesizer Signal generator Silicon controlled rectifier characteristics Silicon controlled rectifier power control

VII DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING 1. 2. 3. Write a MATLAB program to plot the solution of selected difference equations like u(n) = x(n-2) + x(n-1) + x(n) and u(n-1/2) y(n-1) = x(n) Compute and plot the correlation coefficients of discrete time signals using MATLAB Compute the convolution of two discrete time signals and plot using MATLAB.

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4. 5. Find the frequency of the given tuning fork by the FFT spectral analysis method and check the frequency resolution using different windowing methods Design an FIR filter by using Filter Design toolbox in MATLAB. Analyse the stability using pole-zero analysis.

VIII LASER AND FIBRE OPTICS 1. 2. Optical fibre characteristics (Numerical aperture, attenuation and bandwidth) Optical feed back circuit (Feedback factor, gain and frequency response

Reference Books for PHY 305 & PHY 405 : 1. 2. 3. 4. B.L. Worsnop and H.T. Flint Advanced Practical Physics for students Methusen & Co (1950) E.V. Smith Manual of experiments in applied Physics Butterworth (1970) R.A. Dunlap Experimental Physics Modern methods Oxford University Press (1988) D. Malacara (ed) Methods of experimental Physics series of volumes Academic Press Inc (1988)

PRACTICALS VI AND VIII IIIrd SEMESTER Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. ONE OF THE FOLLOWING TWO ( PHY 306 - ADVANCED ELECTRONICS I FORTRAN PROGRAMMING ) PHY 306 - ADVANCED ELECTRONICS I (A minimum of Eight experiments to be carried out) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Voltage regulation using OPAMPS(find voltage regulation characteristics & load regulation) Precision rectifiers Half wave and full wave for signals of milli volt range using OPAMPS Astable and monostable multivibrators using OPAMPS(compare the frequency of astable with theoritical value.verify the monostable operation and determine the pulse width ) UJT controlled SCR relay(Find the value of UJT using CRO. Compare the calculated delay with the experimental value for different R C values) Logarithmic amplifier using OPAMPS(compare the output with theoretical value) IC power amplifier power gain and frequency response Binary counter using digital IC (show that the IC behaves as a true binary Active narrow band & band reject filters using OPAMP(represent graphically the filter characteristics from experimental data and compare it with theoretical value) Decade counters using digital IC( study the counting characteristics & represent the output wave form graphically) A/D converter using D/A converter (use 8 bit D/A converter and convert the given anlog signal to digital signal ) Synchronous Up/Down counter and divide by N counter using digital IC Realization of gates using Universal gates using IC7400 & IC 7402 Multivibrators using NAND gates Astable and monostable (construct astable multivibrator for different frequencies & measure frequency. Construct monostable for different R C values &measure pulse width) OR PHY 307 -

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COMPUTER PROGRAMMING Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. PHY 307 FORTRAN LANGUAGE (All experiments in part A to be done only for familiarization. At least 8 programs to be) Note : Wherever possible, arrays must be used. Subroutines/ Function subprograms also must be used wherever required / possible. Programs should be general, with a possibility to carry out the calculations for more than one data set. No graphical outputs required. PART A : (To be done for familiarization only) 1.Solution of quadratic equation For obtaining the real/imaginary roots of a quadratic equation for various sets of values of the coefficients 2. Finding largest and smallest of a given set of numbers Arranging numbers in ascending and descending order 3. Determining mean and standard deviation 4. Ranking of students in examination PART B : (At least 8 to be done) 1. 2. 3. 4. Difference tables Interpolation : To interpolate the value of a function using Lagrange interpolating polynomial Least square fitting :To obtain the slope and intercept by linear LSF Evaluation of polynomials Bessel and Legendre functions : Using the series expansion and recurrence relations 5. First derivative of a tabulated function by difference tables 6. Numerical integration : By using Trapezoidal method and Simpsons method 7. Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations Newton Raphson method, minimum of a function 8. Matrix addition, multiplication, trace, transpose and inverse, eigen value problem 9. Taylor series evaluation : To obtain the values of sin(x), cos(x), log(x) and exp(x) by Taylor series expansion 10. Solution of first order differential equation _ Runge Kutta method 11. Monte Carlo method : Determination of the value of by using random numbers 12. Ordinary boundary value problem 13. Operations with a data file : To open, read, write and close data files IVth SEMESTER (Either PHY 406 - Advanced Electronics II OR PHY 407 - C Programming OR PHY 408 - Python Programming OR PHY 409 PROJECT) Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. PHY 406 - ADVANCED ELECTRONICS II (A minimum of Eight experiments to be carried out) 1. Organization of M X N Random access memory with basic memory units 2. Shift register using IC 7495 3. Multiplexer using IC 74151

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4. Decoder IC 74155 5. Programming using 8085 - Basic single byte arithmetic ( addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) using 8085 Kit 6. Generation of square waves using 8085 Kit 7. Program to arrange a series of numbers in ascending and descending order 8. Multi byte addition and subtraction 9. Measurement of frequency using microprocessor 10. Measurement of voltage and current using microprocessor 11. Code conversion using digital ICs (Binary to BCD, BCD to binary, BCD to 10s complement) 12. Monostable using ICs 74121 / 74122 Re triggerable & Non re triggerable 13. Design, construction and testing of microprocessor based frequency monitoring unit. 14. Design, construction and testing of microprocessor based temparature monitoring unit. 15. Design, construction and testing of microprocessor based over voltage , under voltage and current protection unit. Reference Books for : 1. Paul B. Zhar and A.P. Malvino Basic Electronics A Text Book Manual JMH publishing (1983) 2. A.P. Malvino Basic Electronics A textlab manual Tata McGraw Hill (1992) 3. R. Bogart and J. Brown Experiments for electronic devices and circuits - Merrill International series (1985) 4. Buchla Digital Experiments - Merrill International series (1984) 5. Jagdish Varma Nuclear Physics Experiments New Age International (2001) PHY 407 - C LANGUAGE BASIC SIMULATIONS IN PHYSICS Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. (At least 8 programs to be done) Note : All simulation programs should give graphical outputs. The calculated numerical results also should be output in the graphics screen. The TURBO C package (Windows) or Linux can be used for generating and compiling the source code and to generate the executable code. The built in graphics can be used. Wherever possible, the random number generator can be used. For numerical integrations and solution of differential equations, Simpsons method, Runge Kutta method and Milnes method can be used. Generation of the graphics plots should not be done purely by using the final analytical expressions alone, but should also involve the actual numerical procedure wherever possible. 1. Study of motion of a particle in a central force field by computer experiment To plot the trajectory of a particle moving in a Coulomb field (Rutherford scattering) and to determine the deflection angle as a function of the impact parameter 2. Study of scattering of a heavy ion by a realistic nucleus by computer experiment To plot the trajectory of a heavy ion in the combined Coulomb and nuclear potential of a realistic nucleus and determine the angle of scattering for different impact parameters 3. Verification of Keplers laws by computer experiment To plot the orbits of planets around the sun and to verify Keplers laws (logT vs log a plots and constancy of aerial velocity) mass of planets, semi major axis and eccentricity of orbit to be provided. 4. Generate phase space plots To plot the momentum vs x plots for the following systems : i) a conservative case ( simple pendulum) ii) a dissipative case ( damped pendulum) iii) a non linear case ( coupled pendulums) 5. Simulation of the wave function for a particle in a box To plot the wave function and probability density of a particle in a box; Schroedinger equation to be solved energy of the levels to be assumed 6. Scattering of a wave packet To plot the time development of a wave packet in scattering from a given potential (potential hill and well) by solving Schroedinger equation 7. Simulation of a two slit photon interference experiment : To plot the light intensity as a function of distance along the screen kept at a distance from the two slit arrangement

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8. Computation of transmission coefficient for a barrier of different shapes : To plot the transmission coefficients as functions of incident energy for a square barrier, an inverted Gaussian and an inverted parabolic barrier by solution of Schroedinger equation 9. Simulation of Lennard Jones potential, binding parameters, elastic constants : To plot the attractive and repulsive parts of the potential for various values of parameters 10. Computer simulations of small oscillations in simple molecules : Triatomic molecule for various bond constants 11. Computer simulations of 1D-2D lattice vibrations : To plot the dispersion relations ( vs k) 12. Computer simulation of random walk in one and higher dimensions To plot the trajectory of a particle undergoing random motion in one and two dimensions under the influence of a force and to calculate the mean square distance. 14. Study of distribution on N particles in M energy levels for particles obeying the three statistics at different temperatures 15. Computation of virial coefficients for a given potential : Calculation of a1 and a2; potential plots ( numerical integration) Reference Books : 1. Mastering Turbo C, Stan Kelley Bootle, BPB Publications, New Delhi 2. Computational Physics an introduction, R.C.Varma, P.K.Ahluwalia and K.C.Sharma, New Age International Publishers 3. Computer Programming in FORTRAN 77 By V. Rajaraman, - Prentice Hall of India 4. Programming in C V. Rajaraman 5. Gottfried Programming in C (Schaums series) 6. E.W. Schmid, G. Spitz and W. Losch -Theoretical Physics On the PC Springer Verlag (1988) 7. J.H. Rice Numerical methods- software and analysis Mc Graw Hill (1983) 8. H. Gould, J. Tobochnik An introduction to computer simulation methods Applications to physical systems Parts 1 & 2 : Addison Wesley (1988) 9. P.K.McKeown and D.J. Newman Computational techniques in Physics Adam Hilger (1987) 10. Consortium for Upper level Physics Software(CUPS) by B. Hawkins, R.S.Johns John Wiley and sons 1995 PHY 407 PYTHON LANGUAGE

Note : Internal evaluation to be done in the respective semesters and marks to be intimated to the controller at the end of each semester itself. Practical observation book to be submitted to the examiners at the time of viva voce in each semester. One mark is to be deducted from internal marks for each experiment not done by the student if the required total no of experiments are not done in each semester. At least 8 programs to be carried out (In cases where for a given program more than two cases are specified, only two need be done. 1.Trajectory evolution : a) Projectile motion with air resistance, b) Trajectory of planets around a star 2.Phase space portraits : a) Harmonic oscillator b) Damped oscillator c) Forced damped oscillator 3.Classical scattering problem 4.Electric and magnetic fields a) E field from a 2D metal prism b) magnetic field from a current loop c) magnetic field from a straight wire d) 2D vector field plotter 5.Monte Carlo simulations a) Uniform random generator b) Gaussian random generator c) Exponential random generator d) Calculation of the value of e) Numerical integration of 1D 6.Random walk problem : a) Brownian motion b) Diffusion c) Percolation d) Diffusion limited aggregation in various lattice geometries 7.Fourier transform method a) Discrete F.T. b) Fast F.T. c) Power spectrum of a driven pendulum d) F.F.T. in 2D 8.Stationary and time dependent Schroedinger equation : 1 D and 3 D 9.Applications in Statistical Mechanics a) pair correlation function b) Auto correlation function c) Ising model simulation d) Molecular dynamics simulation

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In addition, any of the simulation programs given under C language also can be carried out using Python. Reference Books : 1. Python Essential reference by D.M. Beazley Pearson Education (3rd Edition - 2006) 2. Core Python Programming W.J. Chun, Pearson Education (Second Edition 2007) PHY 408 PROJECT An exhaustive list of projects will be prepared and made ready by end of 2008. A sample list is given below: 1.Design, fabrication and experimental study of practical devices using fundamental principles 2.To construct a position sensitive Single Wire Proportional Counter, to calibrate it and use it for relevant experimental measurements 3.Study of statistics of radioactive counting using GM counter and Scintillation detector Dependence on count rate, distribution of pulse heights etc. 4.Projects using Phoenix Kit developed at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 5.Study of gamma attenuation for different sources in different solutions and dependence on concentration 6.Study of environmental radio activity by SSNTDs 7.Study of effect of grain size on measured gamma ray attenuation coefficients in particulate matter 8.Study of effective atomic number in composite absorbers for gamma ray interactions 9.Construction, calibration of a visible spectrophotometer and use it to study absorption spectrum of solutions dependence on concentration 10.Construct a polarimeter and study the polarization characteristics of liquids dependence on concentration 11.Construction of an optical fibre communication system and study of its properties and performance 12.Fabrication of thin films and study of their electrical, magnetic and optical properties 13.Study of environmental radioactivity 14.Theoretical studies of chaotic systems 15.Theoretical study of ion channeling 16.Theoretical study of channel coupling effects in heavy ion fusion 17.Studies on fibre optic cables 18.Study of ferro & ferri electrical materials as memories 19.Study of photo acoustic materials 20.Study of magnetostriction and practical applications 21.Experimental study of streamlined and turbulent flow of liquids 22.Fabrication and study of properties of crystals 23.Raman effect study 24.Materials analysis by spectral studies 25.Optical feedback circuits and comparison with similar electronic feedback circuits 26.Construction and study of a Single Channel Analyzer 27.Construction and study of a strain gauge 28.Construction and study of a optical modulator demodulator system

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SECTION B (3 X 10 = 30 marks) Answer any THREE question in about 2 pages

42

43 MODEL QUESTION PAPER PHY 102 ELECTRODYNAMICS AND PLASMA PHYSICS SECTION A
Time: 3 hours Maximum: 80marks Give short paragraph answers. 10 to be answered out of 15, each carrying 3 marks. Answer two questions from every module. I 1. 2. 3. II 1. 2. 3. III 1. 2. 3. IV Write Maxwells equations in integral form. What is the advantage of using phasors? Explain retarded scalar potential. What is group velocity? What do you mean by dispersion? Explain intrinsic impedance of free space. What is the consequence of intrinsic impedance becoming a real number? Describe Doppler effect. Mention one of its practical applications. Explain characteristic impedance of a line. What is the dominant mode of a wave guide? Write a note on cavity resonators?

3. V 1. 2. 3.

1. Describe current density 4-vector. 2. Write down the components of 4-vector potential.
Explain electromagnetic field tensor. Explain Debye shielding. What are the conditions that an ionized gas must satisfy to be called as plasma? What are magnetosonic waves?

(10 x 3= 30 ) Section B Answer any THREE questions in about 2 pages VI Write source free Maxwells equations. Obtain source free wave equations for E and H. VII Discuss the normal incidence of electromagnetic waves at a plane dielectric boundary. VIII Discuss TM waves in rectangular waveguides. What is cut-off wavelength? IX Discuss the motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. What change in the trajectory is expected if a uniform electric field is also introduced? (3 x 10= 30 ) Section C Answer any two questions. X Show that if (E,H) are solutions of source free Maxwells equations in a simple medium charectarised by and then so also are (E',H') , where E'= H and H'= - E/. In this equation = (/) is the intrinsic impedance of the medium. XI Find the Poynting vector on the surface of a long straight conducting wire of radius b and conductivity that carries a direct current I. Verify Poyntings theorem also. XII A hollow rectangular wave guide has a= 6 cm and b= 4 cm. Determine the cut off wavelength and guide wavelength for the dominant mode. XIII. Obtain continuity equation in relativistic tensor notations.

(2 x 10= 20 )

44 PHY-103 Classical Mechanics


Section A (10 3 = 30 marks) Give short paragraph answers, 10 to be answered out of 15, each carrying 3 marks. Answer two questions from each module. SYMBOLS: D(x) means derivative of x w.r.t time. Boldfaced symbols represent vectors. 1.(a) State and explain DAlemberts principle. (b) Show that areal velocity is a constant in central force motion. Will it remain a constant if there is a net external torque? (c) Show that the Hamiltonian is a constant of motion if the Lagrangian does not depend on time explicitly.

2.(a) Find the Poisson bracket [Lx, Ly].


(b) An infinitesimal rotation is represented by a matrix of the form I+. Show that is antisymmetric (c) Explain the terms action variable and angle variable. Show that angle variables are linear functions of time. 3.(a) If T is the kinetic energy, G the external torque about the instantaneous axis of rotation and w is the angular velocity, prove that D(T) = G.w. (b) Show that the angular acceleration is the same in fixed and rotating coordinate systems. (c) Explain with necessary diagrams, the sequence of transformations that define the Euler angles. 4.(a) Explain the meaning of normal coordinates and normal modes of vibration. (b) Explain the meaning of orthogonality. Show that eigenvectors corresponding to two distinct eigenfrequencies are orthogonal. (c) Solve for the time period of a simple pendulum oscillating at small angles using Newtonian and Lagrangian formulations. 5.(a) Explain the term strange attractor. (b) What is period doubling? (c) What do you understand by Fiegenbaum constants? Section B (3 10 = 30 marks) Answer any THREE questions in about 2 pages

6. Derive Hamiltons equations of motion. Obtain the Hamiltonian of a simple pendulum with a moving support. 7. Define Poisson brackets of two variables. Discuss its important properties and show that it is invariant under a
canonical transformation. rigid body.

8. Use Eulers equations of motion to obtain a complete solution of the problem of free rotation of a symmetrical 9. Two identical pendulums are coupled by a spring of force constant k. Show that the frequencies of oscillation
Section C (2 10 = 20 marks) Answer any TWO questions.

of the system are 1 = (g/l) and 2 =(g/l + 2k/m) where l is the length of the pendulum and m is the mass suspended.

10. A particle of mass m is projected with an initial velocity u at an angle to the horizontal. Obtain the
Lagrangian and hence, describe its motion.

11. For what values of m and n do the transformation equations Q = qm cos(np) and P = qm sin(np)
form a canonical transformation. Obtain the generating function.

12. Using action angle method, obtain the frequency of a simple harmonic oscillator. 13. Find the moments and products of inertia of a parallelopiped of density and mass M with sides a, b, c about
one of its corners. Hence deduce the inertia tensor for a cube with side a.

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MODEL QUESTION PAPER


(Revised syllabus 2008admn.) PHY 104: ELECTRONICS

Time: Three hrs.

Max: 80 marks

Section A (10 x 3 = 30 marks) Give short paragraph answers, ten to be answered out of fifteen, each carrying three marks. Answer two questions from each module. I. 1. 2. 3. II 1. 2. 3. III 1. 2. 3. IV 1. 2. 3. V 1. 2. 3. Draw a mod 5 synchronous counter circuit and represent its truth table. Explain the working of a typical DRAM cell. What are CCDs. Give a brief account of any one application. Draw the basic OPAMP integrator circuit and show that the circuit is able to perform analog integration. Compare the low pass, high pass and band pass filter characteristics. Draw an OPAMP monostable multivibrator circuit and give the expression for the pulse width. Explain CMRR of an OPAMP. Bring out its significance in circuit applications. Explain the term Slew rate. How it is experimentally measured. Write a short note on Pole-Zero compensation. What is transferred electron effect? How does this effect lead to negative differential resistivity? Explain clearly the light emission mechanism in LEDs. Mention one material each, suitable in the visible and I.R regions. Discuss the light dependence of resistance in LDRs. Construct a circuit showing the application of LDR. Explain the self bias technique employed for a JFET. How are the operating points fixed? Draw the circuit employing a typical JFET as a VVR and explain its working. Explain the design and working of a MOSFET NOR circuit.

Section B (3 x 10 = 30 marks) Answer any THREE questions in about two pages. VI Discuss the tunnel diode operation on the basis of energy band diagrams for different biasing conditions. Explain the nature of the I V characteristics. Give a brief account of any one application. VII Discuss the design, working and circuit analysis of an emitter coupled differential amplifier. VIII Discuss the design and working of an OPAMP astable multivibrator. Obtain an expression for the period of the output waveform. IX Explain how a four variable SOP function can be minimized using Karnaugh map technique. Section C (2 x 10 = 20 marks) Answer any TWO questions. X. Determine the voltage gain, input and output impedances of the given circuit. Yos =50 S, gmo = 5 mS and IDS = IDSS/2.

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Vdd +16 V

R1 100 M Vi Ci

Rd 2.2 K

Co Vo

Q1

R2 10 M

Rs 0.82 K Cs

XI.

Calculate the photon current and carrier transit time for a photoconductor from the following data. Quantum efficiency = 75%, number of photons reaching per second = 1010, mobility = 3000 cm2/V-s, effective electric field = 5 KV/cm, L = 10 m, carrier life time 0.7 ns. Calculate the magnitude of db gain at various arbitrary signal frequencies for OPAMP 741C assuming that it has a single break frequency at 5Hz and open loop gain = 200000. Represent the salient characteristics of the response graphically. If the input Vi in the given circuit is a sinusoidal wave of amplitude 6V and frequency 1 KHz, represent the output wave form obtained across RL showing the correct phase relation with the input. The output voltage swing for the OPAMP is 12.5V.
R3 5.6K

XII.

XIII.

+ R1 15K

+ -

Vi R2 10K

RL 10K

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MODEL QUESTION PAPER M.Sc (PHYSICS) Degree Examination January 2008 PHY 301 NUCLEAR PHYSICS Section A (10 X 3 = 30 marks) Give short paragraph answers, 10 to be answered out of 15, each carrying 2 marks. Answer any two questions from each module I 1. Explain the role of the neutrino in parity violation in beta decay. 2.What is meant by multipole radiation? What is its angular momentum? 3.Compare the electron emitted in beta decay to an internal conversion electron. II 1. In what aspects does the nuclear force differ from the electromagnetic forces? 2. What are triplet and singlet potentials? 3. Enumerate the two special features of p-p scattering as compared to n-p scattering. III 1.Show that the spin orbit coupling is proportional to (2l+1) 2.What are Schmidt limits? 3.Explain the necessity for introducing collection motion in nuclei. IV 1. What is Coulomb excitation and how is it useful? 2. Explain compound nucleus reactions. 3. Explain the reason why high temperatures are necessary to induce fusion reactions between light nuclei. V 1. A GM counter cannot be used for energy determination of the incident radiations. Explain 2. What is the role of an Anti coincidence unit in a Single Channel Analyzer? 3. What is a pre amplifier and what are its main functions? Section B (3 X 10 = 30 marks) Answer any THREE questions in about 2 pages. VI Outline the essentials of Fermis theory of beta decay. VII What are the main results of the quantum mechanical treatment of the deuteron ground state? How far do they explain the features of the nuclear force? VIII What are magic numbers. Explain how the shell model, including the spin orbit interaction is able to account for this. IX Give the principle of operation of a scintillation detector. Explain the structure and function of a Photomultiplier tube. Section C (2 X 10 = 20 marks) Answer any TWO questions X. Giving reasons, obtain the ground state spins and parities of the following nuclei : 7Li, 17O, 23Na, 27Al and 58Ni XI. The cross section for scattering of 3 MeV neutrons from hydrogen target is observed to be 23 barns. Calculate the s wave phase shift. Show why only s wave scattering is to be considered in this problem. XII. A given nucleus decays first by beta decay from its 2+ ground state to the 2- excited state of the daughter nucleus which subsequently emits a gamma ray to reach the 0+ ground state.. Using the appropriate selection rules, identify the type of beta transition (Fermi or G-T) and obtain the type (E or M) and multipolarities of the gamma transitions. Which mode of the gamma decay will be predominant? XIII. A proportional counter operating at 400 Volts uses Argon as the fill gas (W = 28 eV). The counter capacitance is 34 pF. A 1 MeV proton yields a pulse height of 2.5 Volts. Calculate the number of primary ion pairs produced and the internal gain of the counter if the amplifier gain is 100.