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ROLLED OUT CT CONNECTIONS OF TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY CAUSED 230/13.

8 kV SUBSTATION TRIPPING
Dev Paul Senior Member, IEEE Earth Tech, 2101 Webster Street, Suite 1000, Oakland, CA 94612 Phone: (510) 419 6448; Fax: (510) 419 5355; Dev_Paul@earthtech.com
Abstract This paper describes a 230/13.8 kV substation nuisance tripping experience caused by rolled out current transformer (CT) connections to the main transformer differential relay. Metering and relaying one-line diagram is included to describe the substation protection scheme and to identify what was overlooked during the design and factory review process. Three-line diagrams that illustrate the change of current in the CT leads to the differential relay caused by the change of CT installation position are included. The transformer differential relay settings and associated sensitivity to the effect of roll out CT wiring are discussed. Recommendations to correct such a design problem are provided.

Index Terms - Current transformer, differential relay, rolled out, substation I. INTRODUCTION This paper describes an actual scenario of a transformer differential relay tripping problem caused by its rolled out CT connections. It was after several weeks of substation energization when all plant auxiliary loads such as lighting and small 480V equipment were in operation, the substation main transformer tripped on a line to ground arcing fault on the 480V system. Transformer differential relay settings, which caused tripping of the transformer for this through fault, were suspected to be in error. It was thought that perhaps arcing ground fault on the 480V system contained a relatively higher magnitude of harmonics currents. Relay setting calculations, especially the harmonic restraint, percent slope, tap ratio adjustment, and percent mismatch were reviewed and found to be within acceptable ranges. After thorough checking of relay settings and visual inspection of the transformer and switchgear, the substation transformer was re-energized by the field crew while the technical investigation was still in progress. A week later substation tripping occurred again when a 13.8 kV feeder breaker supplying 5 miles of overhead line with a 5000 kVA, 13.8 kV-480Y/277V substation was closed. The author was puzzled with this tripping and suspected that either some CTs were faulty or the differential relay itself was damaged and was malfunctioning. Thoughts of overhead line charging inrush currents interacting with some transient high frequency currents causing CT unbalance also crossed in the mind of the trouble shooter. Relay setting calculations and the vendor drawing of the transformer indicating bushing CTs in proper order were sent to the manufacturer of the ac

switchgear for review and investigation of the relay malfunctioning trouble. This review process identified that the ac switchgear side CTs for the differential relay were in rolled out position. For clarity purposes, normally used physical orientation of the CT installation on two sides of the breaker contacts and corresponding one-line representation of the CT polarities and current directions are provided. The three-line diagrams to illustrate the transformer differential relay CT lead currents not only for the normal CT position but also for the roll out CT position are presented. These three-line diagrams represent how the CT wiring corrections were made in the field at the ac switchgear to correct the problem caused by the CT wiring connections to the transformer differential relay without de-energizing the transformer. Rolled out CT definition not covered in any of the industry standards is included. II. SUBSTATION RELAY PROTECTION SCHEME Ten miles of the 230 kV transmission line serve an industrial substation consisting of two 30/40/50 MVA, two winding, oil filled, 230/13.8 kV, 3-phase, 60Hz transformers. Substation transformers and associated 13.8 kV metal-clad switchgear metering and protective relaying scheme are shown in Fig.1. Only the transformer differential relay protection and its operation affected by the CT connections will be discussed in this paper. Two sets of multi-ratio CTs were included on the transformer primary bushings. One set of CTs with 400/5A tap setting was used for the transformer differential relay and the second set of 400/5A CT not shown in Fig. 1 was kept as a spare. There were three (3) sets of CTs on the 13.8 kV main breaker, one set of 3000/5A CTs on the load side of the breaker were used for the differential relay while the other two sets rated at 3000/5A and 2000/5A were designed for plant metering and power company metering purposes respectively as shown in Fig.1. To compensate for a 30 degree phase shift in the primary currents with respect to secondary currents of the deltawye power transformer, primary side CTs for the differential relay were connected in wye whereas the secondary side CTs were connected in delta. Although for the Basler Electric relay BE1-87T [5] installed in the switchgear, external 30-degree phase shift connections of the CTs, as shown, were not required since the relay has an internal wiring provision to compensate for this phase shift.

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The supplier of the main transformer and the supplier of the ac switchgear breaker were different. For each of these items, shop drawings were reviewed separately, and they appeared to be without error. However, if both equipment CTs for the differential relay were reviewed together using three-line diagrams, then the rolled out CT error for the differential relay application would have been identified. III. CURRENT TRANSFORMER POLARITY Current transformer polarity, which is used for correct metering and relaying wiring, is defined in ANSI Std. C57.13 [1]. The relay application for the transformer differential protection needs to assure that the CTs on two sides of the power transformer are installed in the right order to avoid nuisance relay operation. This CT installation rule may be overlooked, especially when the two sets of CTs are in different equipment provided by two suppliers, or it may be a CT installation mistake due to lack of understanding of the effect of rolled out CTs on the differential relay operation. To properly understand the problem of rolling out of the transformer differential relay CTs, it is important to review the CT polarity and associated current flow direction convention. The CT polarity is described as, the designation of the relative instantaneous directions of the currents entering the primary terminals and leaving the secondary terminals during most of each half cycle. Primary and secondary terminals are said to have the same polarity when, at a given instant during most of the half cycle, the current enters the identified, similarly marked primary lead and leaves the identified, similarly marked secondary terminal in the same direction as though the two terminals formed a continuous circuit. This polarity definition and the associated CT primary and secondary current directions are shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 2, the right side set of CTs for each direction of primary current will be considered as rolled out CTs with respect to the left side set of CTs. Although the concept of rolled out CTs is well known in the industry, however, author is not aware of if it is defined in any of the industry standards. For further clarification, a physical configuration of the CTs on two sides of the breaker contacts and associated CT current directions are shown in Fig. 3.

a) One-line representation of CTs on breaker contacts

b) Normal industry practice of CT configuration Fig. 3. CT primary and secondary current directions

IV. DIFFERENTIAL RELAY (87T) CT WIRING For correct wiring of a differential relay for the protection of a two-winding power transformer, CT polarities shown in Fig. 4 should be followed. Similar CT polarity and wiring information for a differential relay scheme for the protection of a three-winding power transformer is available in the technical literature on protective relays [3][4]. For the transformer differential relay (87T) [2] described in this paper, the secondary side CTs were installed incorrectly by mistake as shown in Fig. 5. This means that the CTs on the load side of the ac switchgear main breakers were installed upside down, which can be easily visualized by looking at Fig. 3 (b). This CT installation mistake was not evident and went undetected during the ac switchgear factory visit. This caused the differential relay to activate for a fault outside its zone of protection and for the normal power system operation when the loads on the transformer were increased resulting in current unbalance to the relay above its set sensitivity.

Fig. 2. CT polarity and current direction convention

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Many improvements of a modern transformer differential relay device 87T, such as CT connections, need not be in wye configuration on the delta side of the transformer windings and delta CT connections on wye side of the transformer windings [2]. There is, however, no provision inside the modern transformer differential relay to correct the problem caused by rolled out CT wiring connections. Only a careful review of the installed CTs, during a factory inspection visit and a review of the drawings indicating proper CT polarities and associated wiring to the differential relay can avoid the nuisance tripping of the power system. If the CTs were either installed incorrectly or they were existing in a retrofit condition and need to be used for the differential relay, then correct operation of the differential relay will require rolling of the CT wiring as explained by a three line diagram under Section V, Fig. 8.

V. THREE-LINE DIAGRAM AND RELAY CURRENTS For a fault outside the transformer protection zone enclosed by the primary and secondary side CTs of the differential relay, the secondary side currents shall be equal, both in magnitude and phase angle, as much as practical. This is achieved by performing relay-setting calculations based upon the maximum expected through fault current and using relay taps and CT ratios. As mentioned earlier, a 30-degree phase shift is compensated either by CT connections or using relay internal connections. Correct relay operation is possible if the CTs are installed correctly in accordance with Fig. 4. Power transformer primary and secondary phase currents and line currents are shown in Fig. 6. For simplicity, the CT secondary currents shown in figures 7, 8 and 9 are based upon unity CT ratios. The actual CT secondary currents on each side of the relay should be reduced by the respective CT ratios. Using the power system parameters shown in Fig. 1, and the relay instruction manual [5], the relay setting calculations were performed to arrive at the settings shown below. High side CT ratio, 400/5 r = 80 Low side CT ratio, 3000/5 R = 600 Power transformer turns ratio, 1/n Relay taps set at, High side: 2A, Low side: 7.7A Calculated CT mismatch: 0.026% Unrestraint Tap setting = 6XTap Slope setting: 20%

a) Standard representation b) Non-standard representation Fig. 4. Differential relay CT polarities for correct operation

Fig. 6. Power transformer three-line diagram

Fig. 5. Low side CTs rolled out to cause mal-operation of differential relay

Correct relay operation was possible if the CT's were installed in accordance with Fig. 4. To correspond with Fig. 4 (a), a three-line diagram and secondary CT currents are shown in Fig. 9. However, if the CT's happen to be in accordance with Fig. 5, as was the case in this case history, the corresponding three-line diagram and the related CT currents are shown in Fig. 7. For the same CTs configuration as shown in Fig. 5, by correcting the wiring at the switchgear, as shown in Fig. 8, a correct current flow to the relay terminals was achieved. The wiring correction was made
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without shutting down the substation. The CT terminals were shorted at the CTs to avoid contact with high voltage that is generally developed when the CT secondary is open. .

Fig. 8. Three-line diagram roll out CT, correct wiring

Fig. 7. Three - line diagram Rolled Out CT, wrong wiring

In the three-line diagrams, for simplicity, the phase angles of the primary and secondary CT currents are not shown. For balanced three-phase load or fault conditions, currents I1, I2, and I3 are equal in magnitude and are 120 degrees in phase shift apart. Similarly, the currents on primary side of the power transformer are equal in magnitude with 120-degree phase shift apart. The primary side currents lead the respective secondary side currents by a 30-degree angle and are reduced by a factor of N (n/3) where N is the ratio of the transformer primary and the secondary phase voltages. Thus, when the relay device 87T taps are set by calculations to offset the effect of CT ratios, the currents in and out of each phase of the relay are practically equal in magnitude and phase angle and, therefore, it does not develop any operating signal. It is noticed that in Fig. 7, the relay in and out currents for each phase are at different phase angles, which provided an operating signal to trip the substation two times, as discussed. Correcting the CT wiring per Fig. 8 solved the tripping problem.
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Fig. 9. Three-line diagram correct CT, correct wiring

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VI. CONCLUSION 1. 2. 3. To avoid the problem of rolling out of the CTs for the differential relays, correct CT installation shall be verified at the time of installation at the factory. If, for any reason, CT is in roll out position, then the associated relay wiring should also be in the rolled out configuration to assure proper relay operation. Wrong CT installation on two sides of a breakers contacts may occur if the factory installers and the inspectors dont have a complete understanding of the impact of rolled out CT connections on transformer differential protection relay operation. Designers and inspectors should be capable of understanding the CT polarities and associated current directions for the correct operation of a differential relay. It is also possible that future research and development may provide a differential relay where the internal relay wiring change could solve the problem of roll out CTs. Before development of this paper, the author conducted a survey by phone and concluded that only those protection engineers knew the roll out CT problem who were involved in such nuisance tripping problems. The purpose of this paper is to establish an awareness and guidance, in general, to avoid such problem or to fix it quickly and safely if it exists. VII. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The transformer differential relay tripping at the first 480V arcing fault should have been suspected for the roll out CT connections and checked. Reenergizing the power transformer without finalizing the technical reviews should not be allowed. If CTs are either installed incorrectly by mistake or exist in a retrofit project, then the differential relay problem should be corrected by rolling of the wiring at the switchgear terminals with the help of threeline diagrams. To make correction by rolling of CTs appears to be a major task and will require equipment shutdown. Shorting jumpers should be used at the CT terminals before making wiring corrections at the switchgear terminals to avoid the danger of coming in contact with high voltages at the open CT terminals. Industry standards should define the rolled out CT connections to avoid application confusion.

REFERENCES
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] IEEE Standard Requirements for Instrument Transformers, ANSI/IEEE Std. C57.13 - 1993 IEEE Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers and Contact Designations, IEEE Std. C37.2-1996 J.L Blackburn, Applied Protective Relaying, Westinghouse Electric Corporation Relay Instrument Division, Newark, NJ 07101, Copyright 1976. Chapters 2 and 8. IEEE Guide For Protective Relaying of Utility Consumer Interconnections, IEEE Std. C37.95 - 1989 Basler Electric, Instruction Manual for Transformer Differential Relay Model BE1 87T, Publication 9171300990, Rev. 1, 1995.

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Fig. 1. Metering and Protective Relaying Scheme

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