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TRANSLATING HOMOGRAPH IN

CONTEXTUAL SUITABILITY

THESIS

Submitted by

SAIFULLAH ALI
The students of English Department
Faculty of Tarbiyah
Reg No : 239 911 070

FAKULTAS TARBIYAH
INSTITUT AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI (IAIN) AR RANIRY
DARUSSALAM~BANDA ACEH
2005
ABSTRACT

Translation and its problems is one point of


discussion in study of language (Linguistics),
which has been, produced many theories and
opinions on the issues. Problem of homograph is
one of the examples of the stated problems,
homograph that may be translated and may have
many interpretations in term of meaning in any
language, here the writer specialized on English-Bahasa Indonesia, brings about
confusion for the translator to determine the appropriate meaning for a same
spelling word.

This paper describes the ability of the students in translating homographs suitably
to the context used in the sentence; a study was conducted to find out their ability
and their problems in understanding and translating homographs into Bahasa
Indonesia. Texts contained homographs were given as one of the instruments
(tests) in collecting the data besides some others instruments; observation and
questionnaires.

Participants were 30 students of the English Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah


Islamic State Institute of Ar-raniry Banda Aceh who were in semester five. All of
them had taken Translation-1 subject when they were in fourth semester, so; at
least, they had ever worked with translation.

The data was analyzed in statistical analyzing. Determining Mean, Interval, Range
and Frequency to determine the percentage was the main work in analyzing the
data. Questionnaire showed that many students were still strange with the term of
homograph, but they are very enthusiast toward learning homograph. It also
informed that the students strongly agreed that the homograph become a sub topic
to be taught in the Translation class.
THESIS

Submitted to the Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Ar-raniry


Darussalam Banda Aceh as a Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for Sarjana Degree (S-1)
in Teaching Education.

By

SAIFULLAH ALI
The Student of English Department
Tarbiyah Faculty
Reg. No: 239 911 070

Approved by

Main Supervisor Co. Supervisor

Drs. Muhammad Ilyas Nashriyah, S.Ag, M


A.
Nip. 150 234 543 Nip. 150 294 043
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assalamu’alaikum wr wb.

Alhamdulillah, praise be to Allah the very almighty god and beneficent,

who was created all humankind to always obey to him. Great of Allah who has

shown us his powerful authority of this world on Sunday morning 26th December,

2004 where many people were called their souls in Earthquake and Tsunami

disaster. Endless thanks for god who has saved us to be still alive in this world and

to obey all of his orders and obligation and to leave all of his prohibitions. Then

shalawat and salam for our prophet Muhammad SAW.

I would like to send my best gratitude and praying to the late Mr.

Muhammad Ilyas and my deepest thanks to Mrs. Nashriyah that has provided

much time to supervise and assist me that I could finish this writing.

My appreciations also extended to all of the lecturers in Faculty of Tarbiyah and

all of my friends for their big contributions and supports.

Finally, my special gratitude regarded to my family, my beloved mother

and father, I could do nothing without them. My sisters and brothers for their

encouragement and motivations they gave for me. May Allah keep us together

under his endless bliss.

Saifullah Ali
CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................
CONTENTS ..............................................................................................
LIST OF TABLES ....................................................................................
LIST OF APPENDICES ...........................................................................
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ..............................................................


A. Background of The Study .............................................................
B. Terminology ..................................................................................
C. The Aims of Study ........................................................................
D. Postulates and Hypotheses ............................................................
E. Methodology .................................................................................
F. Population and Sample .................................................................

CHAPTER II: TRANSLATING HOMOGRAPH ON


CONTEXTUAL SUITABILITY................................................................
A. HOMOGRAPH..............................................................................
a. Definition of Homograph ........................................................
b. Types of Homograph ...............................................................
b.1. Stress Homograph ............................................................
b.1.1. Front-Stressed and End-Stressed Homograph ......
b.1.2. Double Stress ........................................................
b.1.3. –ATE Words ..........................................................
b.1.4. –MENTS Words .....................................................
b.2. Voicing Homograph .........................................................
b.3. Capitalization Homograph ...............................................
b.4. Abbreviations Homograph ...............................................

B. SEMANTICAL PREVIEW ..........................................................


a. Role of Semantic......................................................................
b. Contextual Orientation ............................................................
c. Cultural Orientation ................................................................
d. Context Analysis .....................................................................

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION ...................


A. Description of The Object Study ..................................................
Brief History of IAIN Ar-raniry ....................................................
Object of the Study .......................................................................
Test ................................................................................................
Measurement of the Study ............................................................
Test Result and Data Analysis........................................................
CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS........................
A. CONCLUSIONS ...........................................................................
B. SUGGESTIONS ...........................................................................

BIBLIOGRAPHY .....................................................................................
APPENDICES ..........................................................................................
AUTOBIOGRAPHY ................................................................................
CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study

Homographs are the words, which have one spelling and sometimes

pronunciation but different in meaning and using. In some books Homographs are

also known as Multiple-Meaning Words. Multiple-meaning words are words

which are spelled the same and sound the same but may function as different part

of speech depending upon the semantic-grammatical contexts in which they

occur.1 For example, the word bank in a financial context will facilitate words like

money, robbery, and teller. However, in another context, it may have something to

do with river, water, etc.

Another example, consider the word run, it may function as noun, verb,

and/or idiomatic, which cannot be translated in the same meaning. Below are

some direct illustrations:

• There is a run in my stocking (N)

• There is enough time to run (V)

• Let’s take a long run (N)

In the first sentence from the above illustration, the word run means hole

or hollow, when the word is translated into Bahasa Indonesia, run here means

lubang. Then in the second sentence the word run means leave, go away or walk

fastly, here the word must be translated as lari in Bahasa Indonesia. For the third
1
Wiig and Semel, Language Assessment and Intervention for the Learning Disabled,
(Columbus: Bell and Howell, 1980), p. 267.
sentence, the word run means journey or tour, which is in Bahasa Indonesia

perjalanan. And in the last sentence run infers the meaning of amount where in

Bahasa Indonesia it is translated as kawanan or banyaknya.

For each use of the word run in the illustration above, we can see that run

in each of sentence must have different meaning, the meaning of each sentence is

translated depending upon the context stated in the sentence. It means that context

determines the use of word and meaning of a word.

In English, Homographs take a big portion of occurrence in written genre,

which then becomes the problem – for the reader to comprehend and the translator

to translate – in understanding a text that contains Homographs. Here, we will

specify our discussion to the problem faced by the translators in their translation

process. We know that one of the ways in comprehending a foreign language is

translation. Brislin states that:

Translation is the general terms referring to the transfer of thoughts and


ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the
languages are in written or oral form, whether the languages have
established orthographies or do not have such standardizations or whether
one or both languages is based on signs, as with sign language of the deaf.2

From the above statement, we can see that translation is transferring ideas of a

language to another in order to be easy in understanding ideas of foreign

language.

Transferring ideas or translating text of language, which is known as

translation, will be very easy if a translator understands the context of language

2
Brislin, Richard W,ed, Translation: Aplication and Research, ( New York: Gardnen
Press, 1976) p.1.
that occurs in the text translated.“ Context influences our use and interpretation of

language, in relation to semantic, context leads us to use certain words”.3

The meaning of a word in a language (for example, English) is the

information of the head of speaker of that language allows him or her to identify

the set of individuals, which the word denotes.4

In this case, Homographs that have multiple-meanings raise an obvious

problem for a translator to determine an appropriate meaning suitably with the

context occurs in the text translated. Besides, in determining appropriate meaning

the problem also lies, commonly, in the difficulty of how to analyze the real

context of the language, and specifically, the difficulty of how to find the correct

message of the source language mostly stated in Homographs by the author. And,

surely, the writer thinks that the problem happens because of the weakness of the

translator in mastering Homographs.

Moreover, for word-for-word translation, the most obvious deficiency is

that the order of words in the resulting Target Language (the writer will use the

initial ‘TL’ for the term Target Language and ‘SL’ for term Source Language in

the next chapter or paragraph) is more often wrong than correct. As we have

known, it is sure that translation of English text into Bahasa Indonesia needs more

than semantical aspect, but there are still many other aspects that must be taken

into consideration. Some kinds of grammatical identification, structural analysis

such as the endings of nouns, adjectives and verbs, or basic syntactic sequences,
3
Lund, Nancy .J and Judith F Duchan, Assessing Children’s Languages in Naturalistic
Contexts, second edition, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1983) p. 241.
4
Paul Gee, James, An Introduction to Human Language, Fundamental Concepts in
Linguistics, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993) p. 35.
such as noun-adjective and subject-verb relations are all aspects of language –

English – which has closely relationship.

The difficulties are further complete in languages like English where many

words may function as nouns, verbs or adjectives without any formal distinctions;

e.g. control can be a verb or noun, green can be an adjective or a noun. The fact

that there can be stress differences, e.g. between the verb permit and the noun

permit, is not our concern although the discussion about it is also provided. This is

because we are talking about written genre, which does not recognize stress,

intonation, and rhythm.

Like what just has already been mentioned above as the aspect of language

required in understanding a language and particularly in translation, the

identification of grammatical category either by morphological clues or by

syntactic analysis is one way that may ease translator to detect the meaning of the

word, in case of Homograph, this will help one to determine appropriate meaning

and context. For instance; the endings ‘-ed’ and ‘-ing’ generally indicate

participial forms of English verbs (although they may be functioning as

adjectives). Similarly, if in a two-word sequence the first is definitely an adjective

the second is probably a noun. Therefore, homographs, which happen to belong to

different syntactic categories, may sometimes be distinguished in this way.

Cultural aspect is also one of requirements in order to produce the best

result of translation. The fact that there are many differences occurring in the

culture of one community with another is like what happens to the language itself,

it is an indisputable reality. “Language and culture are pragmatically and


sociolinguistically non-separable”5. That is why ones cannot judge the

interpretation of a language theoretically only based on semantic-grammatical

aspect without cultural orientation.

..............................................................................................................................
Jami’ah Ar-Raniry is one of the state institutes of Islamic studies, which offer
many faculties that consist of many departments. English Department is one of the
departments at Tarbiyah faculty, which provides students with the extensive
practical and theoretical skills related to teaching English as Foreign Language.
Practically and theoretically, Translation is one of skills that developed in the
classroom in order that the students have ability in understanding foreign
language – English – textually. And surely, the writer believes that, as the
translator, the students will have many such obstacles stated above in their
classroom.
Based on the assumption above, through this research, the writer would

like to find out the best clarification about;

1. What is the students’ ability in understanding and translating Homographs,

especially when they translate a text containing Homographs?

2. What is their ability in analyzing the context of language where Homographs

exist?

3. What are their opinions generally about Translation and problem of

Homograph?

The results and data collected of this study were reported in the theses

entitled; TRANSLATING HOMOGRAPH IN CONTEXTUAL

SUITABILITY (A Case Study in English Department at Tarbiyah Faculty), The

State Institutes of Islamic Studies Ar Raniry, Darussalam Banda Aceh.

B. Terminology

5
Mustafa, AR, A Comparison of some Linguistic routines between English and Bahasa
Indonesia in terms of Language and culture perspectives, (Jurnal Ilmiah DIDAKTIKA, Fakultas
Tarbiyah IAIN Ar-raniry Darussalam Banda Aceh, September 1999). P. 62.
After we know the Background and the Aims of this study, we should

know some terms used in the title of this thesis in order to make it clear. Below

are the terms noted;

1. Ability

Ability means the power to do something mentally or physically. Mentally,

ability allows someone to think, to analyze, to know and to understand. And

physically, good ability makes someone able to do something well what he/she

wishes to do. “An ability is thought to be something that is general and enduring.

It is trait affected by both learning and heredity”6. However, term ability that the

writer means in this thesis is students’ ability in understanding and translating

homographs.

2. Translating

Translating is from ‘translate’ means to transfer or to replace textual

material in one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in

another language (target language). “Translating consist of reproducing in the

receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message,

first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”.7 Translating that the

writer concerns in this writing is to transfer both meaning and style of words of

homographs or text containing homographs.

3. Homographs

6
Singer. N Robert, Motor Learning And Human Performance: An Aplication To Motor
Skills And Movement Behaviors (New York: MACMILLAN PUBLISHING CO.,INC and London:
COLLIER MACMILLAN PUBLISHERS, 1980) p.31.
7
Nida and Taber, Zuchridin Suryawinata, Terjemahan: Pengantar Teori dan Praktek
(Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan
Tenaga Kependidikan, 1989).p.2
Homographs, from the Greek Homos which means Same and Graphein

which means to write,8mean the words that are spelled alike but differ in origin

and meaning and sometimes in pronunciation. Term homographs is part of

homonym which is concerned in writing, though there is still tiny problem in

distinguishing, especially in use, between homonym and homograph because

sometimes you will find both of terms are used in the same way, with no clear

differences. Simpson states that “Homographs are written identically but sound

differently”9, different from Homophones which tend to the sound; “Homophones,

sound identical but are written differently”10.

In the Heritage Illustrated Dictionary it is stated that; “Homograph is a word

that is spelled the same as another word but differs in meaning and origin and

may differ pronunciation and syllabication”11.

From some explanations above we can conclude that Homographs are

words that are spelled the same but different in origin, meaning and sometimes in

pronunciation. In other word, Homographs are words that have multiple-meanings

in view of written side.

C. The Aims of Study

The aims of writing this thesis are as follow:


8
Hayakawa S.I, Modern guide to Synonim and Related Words,(Tokyo: Toppan,1968) p.
546
9
Simpson, J.M.Y, A First Course in Linguistics, (Edinburg: Edinburg University
Press,1979) p.179.
10
Ibid.

11
…The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of English Language. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
n.d) p. 113.
1. To find out the ability of the third year students of English Department

at Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Ar-Raniry in comprehending Homographs

in relation to translation process.

2. To find out their ability in analyzing the context of language in a text

that contains Homographs.

3. To find out their opinions generally about Translation and problem of

Homograph.
D. Postulates and Hypotheses

1. Postulates

Postulate means an accepted principle and assertion to use the basic for

drawing inference.12 In this study, there are some postulates can be stated as

follow:

1. Homographs are units of words that take a big portion in English

written genre.

2. Homographs are the aspects, which must be mastered by any translator

(in process of translation) because of their ambiguity in meaning or

sense.

3. Translation is one of skills, in writing, which needs a really good

comprehending and understanding of the context occurs in the

language translated in order to keep natural equivalent of the source

language message.

2. Hypotheses

Below are the writer’s hypotheses:

1. Many students are weak in comprehending homographs and they are

still wrong in determining appropriate meaning of homographs for the

appropriate context in English text.

2. The students’ ability in analyzing context occurred in text consisting

homographs is unsatisfactory.

12
Carter V. Good, Dictionary of Education,(New York: Mc Graw Hill Book, 1959)
p. 406
3. Some problems may lies in students interest in learning related

meaning words, particularly homograph, and another problem may

also lies in curriculum and class room (there is no item which talking

about homograph in the syllabus of Translation subject and there is no

introduction about homograph done by the teacher t the students in the

class room).

E. Methodology

The Field Research is conducted to collect the data needed; they are

collected by using the following techniques:

a. Observation

The first step the writer done was observing the location of the study (in

the class room). This was done to recognize all aspects related to the object of this

study in Translation class. Here the writer tried to find out correct information

about students’ response toward teaching-learning process, interaction between

students and teacher in the classroom, and other things connected and supported

the study.

b. Test

In collecting the data about students’ ability in translating Homographs

and analyzing context in the text existing homograph, a writing test was given in

their Translation class. They were asked to take a test, the form which was

formulated in multiple choices (the text has been translated by the writer. They

were asked to choose the appropriate meaning of the certain words (homographs)

that were stated in the text), and an essay test. Here they were asked to translate a

short paragraph form English into Bahasa Indonesia.


c. Questioner

The purpose of this technique was to know students’ obstacles and their

difficulties in learning translation, especially in translating multiple-meaning

words. Therefore, the form of questioner used was Closed Questioner in which the

writer prepared the alternative answers that should be chosen by the respondents,

they chose the alternative answer, which is suitable for them.

The data were obtained in two categories: Data about students’ ability and
data about obstacles faced by students. In determining the frequency of students’
ability and the amount of the students facing obstacles, the writer analyzed the
data quantitatively.

F. Population and Sample


The study was conducted in Ar Raniry State Institutes of Islamic studies,

particularly in English Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah. The population was

all of the third year students in English Department, who were in semester

five. The sample of this study was 28.5% of 95 students. It was 30 of males

and females students who were taking Translation-II, this means by the writer

because most of them had taken Translation I at semester four.


CHAPTER II

TRANSLATING HOMOGRAPH ON CONTEXTUAL SUITABILITY

A. HOMOGRAPH

a. Definition of Homograph

Language is created to send the meaningfulness message from one person

to another. Language is unique to human beings13. In English, just like in other

languages, which are rich of linguistic problem, there are many standpoints at

where many linguists can have a view to produce definitions, explanations and

theories on language issues. Semantic is one of the standpoints in English that

discusses about the sense of the language, every word and sentence in a language,

particularly English, has meaning because language is meaningful message.

Semantically, English has several types of word, for instance; synonym, antonym,

polysemes, homonym, homophones, homograph, and etc., which are very unique

in each of usage and function. Each of type has its own meanings depending on

when and where it is used and functioned.

These types of word have become an interesting topic for many people to

discuss in books, magazine, journals, seminars etc. In this chance we will focus

our discussion on type of word that has multiple meanings; called Homograph.

Homograph is a branch of homonym, which is a very unique type of word in

meaning. Homograph has more than one meaning for the same single word, a

homograph may have different sense and of course different understanding for

131
Mustafa, AR, A comparison of some Linguistic routines between English and Bahasa
Indonesia in terms of Language and culture perspectives, (Jurnal Ilmiah DIDAKTIKA, Fakultas
Tarbiyah IAIN Ar-raniry Darussalam Banda Aceh, September 1999). P. 62

12
different time and place of usage. There is contrastly different between

homograph and homophone (another branch of homonym); homograph has the

sameness in spelling but different in pronunciation (lead, v. /LEED/, meaning “to

conduct,” and lead, n. /LED/, the name of the metal), while homophone in sound

of the word, it is pronounced alike but different but different in spelling and

meaning (to, two, and too). Simpson states that “Homographs are written

identically but sound differently”14, different from Homophones which tend to the

sound; “Homophones, sound identical but are written differently”15.

In order to be clearer about homograph, it is better for us to pay attention

to the definition had been drawn by some linguist about it. Below are some

definitions according to some linguists;

1. Webster's 1913 Dictionary:

\Hom"o*graph\, n. [Gr. "omo`grafos with the same letters; "omo`s the same +

gra`fein to write.] (Philol.). One of two or more words identical in orthography,

but having different derivations and meanings; as, fair, n., a market, and fair, a.,

beautiful.16

2. The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of English Language:

Homograph is a word that is spelled the same as another word but differs in

meaning and origin and may differ pronunciation and syllabication17.

142
Simpson, J.M.Y, A First Course in Linguistics, (Edinburg: Edinburg University
Press,1979) p.179.
15
Ibid
16
........Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, (G. & C. Merriam Co.,1980). (Online)
http://www.hyperdictionary.com/search.aspx?define=spelled. Accessed on January21st, 2004.

17
…The Heritage Illustrated Dictionary of English Language. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin
n.d) p. 113.
3. Webster’s World University Dictionary:

Homograph is a word identical in form with another, but different in origin and

meaning, such as; pen as a writing instrument, and pen as an enclosure18.

4. Dictionary of Education:

Homograph: a word that is the same in spelling as another word but differs in

origin, in meaning, and sometimes in sound, for example tear (differing in sound)

and bear (the same in sound)19

Definitions above show that Homograph is the word that has the same

spelling and form but very different in meaning. The differences of meaning in a

word of homograph caused an ambiguity in understanding the word lexically.

Lexical ambiguity occurs when a word posses more than one meaning. One

famous kind of lexical ambiguity is caused by homograph.20. Ambiguity refers to

a cognitive process -- when someone fails to understand the meaning of a word in

context, then the word is being used ambiguously.

Lexical ambiguity of homograph is most obviously appeared in written

genre, although it is not impossible for a speaker to find homograph in his or her

speaking. In spoken language, ambiguity of homograph will be easier to be solved

because spoken language is usually happened in a real time and place, means that

spoken language has more distinctive context. A certain clear - context that

18
Taylor, Ralph C, Webster’s World University Dictionary, Illustrated Encyclopedic
Edition ,(Washington DC: Publisher’s, 1965) p.435.
19
Carter V. Good, Dictionary of Education,(New York: Mc Graw Hill Book, 1959)
p. 286
20
Sinclair, Linguistic Problem – Lexical Ambiguity 1987, (Online) http://www.fi. muni. cz/
usr/wong/teaching/mt/notes/node5.html.iso-8859-1. Accessed on Saturday, February 7th 2004.
happens in a conversation between two or more people will ease the people to

determine the ambiguity caused by homograph in their speaking. For example;

word “Bank”, below is an illustration:

A: Hi guy…!!Where are you going?

B: Hi …! How are you? I wanna go to the Bank, and you?

A: Oh..Fine! yeah, please! I want back home

From the illustration above we can imagine two context illustrations that

may occur in their conversation: First; they meet in the down town while walking,

it takes place about one minute to the Central Bank in that town, and the

conversation is at 10.00 o’clock pm. By this illustration, we can see that the

ambiguity of the word “Bank” will never appear because Mr. A has got a clear

information that Mr. B wants to go to the Central Bank (more over if he points out

his destination).

In the second context illustration; we may imagine that there are two

people who meet on the way not so far from the river. Here the word “Bank” is

certainly refers to the “bank of the river” not “Bank”.

..............................................................................................................................
Another reason why spoken language has more easy identification of appropriate
meaning of homograph than in written is because of phonology. In speaking, the
speaker may use stress and intonation freely in each of word he/she pronounced.
Stress, rhythm and intonation usage in a conversation may clearly affect the
interpreting and understanding an utterance or even a word. Marianne Celce-
Muria, Donna M. Brinton, and Janet M. Goodwin state that:
"[Stress, rhythm, and adjustments in connected speech] allow the speaker
to turn the basic building blocks of the sound systems (i.e., the vowel and
consonant phonemes) into words, meaningful utterances, and extended
discourse. Command of these features is therefore as critical as command
of the segmental features … in achieving successful communication for
second language learners”.21

The writer thinks that every one must agree that stress, rhythm and

intonation have very big role in spoken language that ease every one in language

understanding process. In our case (Homograph), of course for spoken language,

stress, rhythm and intonation also provide a very easy way in determining the

appropriate meaning for the word homograph, so that there will never found

ambiguity in their speaking. One can easily understand what the speaker means

when he/she find the word stress or intonation in the utterance clearly. For

example, consider the word “Record”22.

(1) Music on disc or a written log of events


Record
(2) Best ever performance or result

A: How great performance they show..!!

B: Yeah..!! I think Joy Tobing and Delon will find a great record because

of their ability in singing.

From the utterance above, we can distinguish two way of pronouncing the

word “Record” with stress in the front-stressed syllable and in the end-stressed

syllable. Each of way has its own meaning differently. The first way, when some

one pronounces “Record” with the stress in the end of the syllable (end-stressed)

21
Marianne Celce-Muria, Donna M. Brinton, Janet M. Goodwin. Teaching
Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (Cambridge
University Press, 1996.) P. 172 (Online) http://www.betteraccent. com/papers/ quotes_on _
pronunciation.htm. Accessed on August2nd, 2004.
22
Higgins, J, ELT Journal 38,1, (Online) http://www.marlodge.supanet.com/wordlist/ho m
o g rph.html. Accessed on Sunday, February 8th, 2004.
/rikӘ’d23 It means that Joy and Delon, perhaps, one day will get a new record in

world idol because of their ability. And for second other way with front-stressed

/’rekəd/24 meaning that Joy and Delon (Surely, their songs) will be recorded in

cassettes and discs.

Some illustrations stated above give evidence that problem of ambiguity

which happens in spoken language is more easy to solve because situational

context in spoken is factual and definite and in aspect of phonology; stress,

rhythm and intonation, the main factor in understanding an utterance, only occur

in spoken genre.

Different from spoken, written genre (our focus in this theses) has more

complicated problem of ambiguity, especially that caused by homograph. In

written language, ambiguity is found literally that some reader cannot find

additional useful signals; instructions or directions that help him/her to understand

the language. Contextually, written language does not provide factual or real

context clearly, except for kind of descriptive writing, e.g. comics, some novels

and etc, it will be easier for the reader to understand the context because some

descriptive writings provide many illustrations, directions and language symbols.

For example; in the comic usually mentioned the place and time where and when

the conversation occurs. By this, the reader will be easy to identify the context in

the conversation. As the result, there will none ambiguity in understanding the

language and also the homograph. For another kind of writing, for instance;
23
Echols, M. John dan Hassan Shadily. Kamus Inggris-Indonesia An English-Indonesian
Dictionary. (Cornell University Press). (Ithaca and London, Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama
Jakarta. 1976)
24
Ibid
Narrative, Expositive, and so on, opportunity of ambiguity is more to occur, so

that, contextually, homograph is hard to be analyzed because the context is hard to

be identified. Such kind of writing is usually written in form of narration, its form

is more explanative with no additional instruction or illustration in the paragraph,

so that the readers find difficulty in analyzing the context in the writing.

Example:

Since man first became an intelligent being he has looked up into the
heaven from day to day, wondering and tying to predict what weather was
in store for him. He has experienced periods of rain, snow and hail, of
blistering heat and biting cold….

Weather and climate exercise a vital influence on all plant and animal life.
Anyone who gazes up into the heaven on a clear night cannot help but be
awed by a sense of vastness-vastness in distance, in size, and in
numbers…25

In the examples above, italic and bold words symbolize the ambiguity

words that are also called as homograph. Each of word in the paragraph may have

more than one meaning, let see one by one. Because we are discussing about the

translation of English into Bahasa Indonesia, here the writer also provides the

meaning of the word in Bahasa Indonesia, it taken from Oxford Advanced

Learner’s Dictionary26 for more meaning in English and from Kamus Inggris

Indonesia27 for the meaning in Bahasa Indonesia. For the meaning in Bahasa

25
Djoko Sumitro English for Science and technology. Fakultas Sastra UGM (Gadjah
Mada University Press. 1986) p. 124

26
Hornby, AS, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (Oxford
University Press, 1974)
27
Echols, M. John dan Hassan Shadily. Kamus Inggris-Indonesia An English-Indonesian
Dictionary. (Cornell University Press). (Ithaca and London, Penerbit PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama
Jakarta. 1976)
Indonesia, the writer will symbolize with (*) in the end of the word. Below are the

explanations:

The word “since” can have the meaning as “after a date or during a period of

time”/“sejak, semenjak, sejak itu*” when applies as the adverb (adv) in one

context and can have the meaning as “because”/“karena*” when the word

functions as connector in another context. “Being” means “existence, living

creature“/”badan, makhluk hidup*”(noun) in context of social science and it

may mean as “to be”/”adalah, menjadi, sedang, lagi*” when functions as the

auxiliary verb (aux) in context of linguistic.” Heaven”, in context of religion

and faith, it may mean “god providence, place of supreme happiness”/ “sorga,

kayangan*” (noun), the word can also mean “sky”/”langit, cakrawala*”

(noun) when it is used in context of the feature of the universe. In context of

economics, the word “store” means “shop, market”/”toko, warung, kedai*”

(noun,) and the word means “keep, save”/”simpan, menimbun*” (verb) in

another context. The word “exercise” means “employment of practice, drill”/

“gerak badan, latihan*” (verb) in context of sport and means “make use of,

employ”/”menggunakan, menjalankan*” (verb) in context of common use.

“Sense”, in context of linguistics, the word means “meaning”/”pengertian,

makna*”, (noun) and in context of emotion, it means “feeling”/”perasaan,

rasa*” (noun).

It is the fact that Bahasa Indonesia has more meanings for almost all of

English words, especially for homograph, the meaning can be varies in

comparison to English itself. This fact brings about more problems for the
translator (English-to-Bahasa Indonesia Translation) in determining the

appropriate meaning when he/she does translation. Then, the fact that

translation requires the “consistence of reproducing in the receptor language

the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of

meaning and secondly in terms of style”28, force the translator to be more

careful in transferring the message from SL into TL in order to keep natural

equivalent of the SL both in meaning and style. This requirement demands the

translator to have basic knowledge of Pragmatics semantics and

Sociolinguistics.

b. Types of Homograph

Homographs are classified into many kinds; Homograph which appeared

because of oral-produced in way of pronouncing the same word with different

stress applied, this kind of homograph is called Stress Homographs (Front-

stressed Homograph, Double-stressed Homograph, End-stressed Homograph).

Homographs, which arise caused by way of voicing the final consonant of the

word, called Voicing Homograph. The third kind is what that happens because of

inflectional variants; the words that are ended by -ATE and –MENT suffixes.

In other hand, role of capitalization usage in written and using of

abbreviations are also a source of happening lexical ambiguity, all the results are

shown in Capitalization Homograph and Abbreviation Homograph.

Homographs in the original sense are essentially accidents of English


orthography, many dating back to Dr Johnson's time, when English
28
Nida and Taber, Zuchridin Suryawinata. Terjemahan: Pengantar Teori dan Praktek
(Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan
Tenaga Kependidikan, 1989).p. 2
spelling was finally standardized. The orthography is unsystematic,
sometimes reflecting a word's origin and sometimes its pronunciation
(which may no longer be current). Homographs whose pronunciation
differs only in their stress pattern obviously arise from the lack of a
notation for stress in the orthography29.
Stress differentiation in the syllable of homograph has divided the word

into some specific types of homograph which, then, behave as its own part of

speech e.g., as a noun, the word `minute' /‘minit/ means a unit for measuring

time; as a verb, it means to make a written record of what is said or decided

during a meeting; as an adjective, /mai’nyuwt/ it means tiny30.

1. One minute has sixty seconds.

2. Part of the job of a secretary is to minute meetings.

3. There is only minute difference between these pictures.

b.1. Stress Homograph

b.1.1. Front-stressed and End-stressed Homograph.

It is a fact that different place of stress (Front, mid, or end stress) in the

syllable of the words produce different meaning of the words. Higgins explains

that:

In most cases any adjective senses ally themselves with the noun and
exhibit front stress, but in one case, content, the adjective sense is end-
stressed and relates more closely to the verb than to the noun. The
adjective compact seems to occur both front-stressed and end-stressed
with no change of meaning, although the noun is always front-stressed and
the verb always end-stressed. All the other adjectives in the full list,

29
Jurafsky and Martin, Disambiguating English Homographs- types of Homograph.
(Online) http://andosl.anu.edu.au/andosl/general_info/ANDOSLphonemic.html. Accessed on
Sunday, February 8th, 2004.

30
Sinclair, Linguistic Problem – Lexical Ambiguity 1987, (Online) http://www.fi. muni. cz/
usr/wong/teaching/mt/notes/node32.html.iso-8859-1. Accessed on Saturday, February 7th 2004.
absent, abstract, compound, converse, frequent, perfect, present,
quadruple and second, were front-stressed31.

In the table below are the lists:

Noun Adjective Verb


abstract Summary not concrete to steal
Compact container for make-up occupying a to compress

small space
Compoun (1) substance combining not linear in to make more
d
chemical elements progression complex

(2) enclosed group of

buildings
Converse Opposite to talk to someone
to talk to another
person
Content what is contained (to make) happy
frequent often occurring to visit regularly
Present gift, time now in this place to hand over

There are three cases needing further comment.

• The word entrance, while looking like a stress Homograph, should

perhaps be counted as a true homograph, since the noun sense derives

from the verb enter while the verb sense derives from the noun trance.

• The word deserts exists as two different nouns, one front-stressed meaning

'dry places', and the other end-stressed meaning 'what one deserves' and

occurring usually in the fixed phrase 'get one's just deserts'. This second

use has a homophone in the word desserts meaning 'sweet courses', which

gives rise to many spelling errors and headline puns.

31
Higgins, J (1984). ELT Journal 38, 1, (Online) http: //www. marlodge. Supanet. com/
Higgins.htm. Accessed on Sunday. February 8th, 2004.
• The word process exists as a noun with front-stress and as two different

verbs, one with front-stress with a meaning linked to the noun process and

one with end-stress with a meaning linked to the noun procession.

There were two interesting words, which reversed the trend of this set,

words where the front-stressed form was the (3rd person singular) verb and a form

with stress later in the word was the (plural) noun:

• Analyses 'ænəlaiziz ə'næləsiz


• Diagnoses 'daiəg'nowziz ,daiəg'nəsiz
b.1.2. Double stress

A number of double-stress words showed up. These are words whose

pronunciation varies with their position in the phrase, front-stressed before a noun

and end-stressed when final in the phrase, though without substantial change of

meaning. (Compare "an overnight bag" with "Are you staying overnight?")

Inland 'inlənd ,in'lænd


Outside 'awtsaid ,awt'said
Overall 'owvər'‫כ‬l ,owvə'r ‫כ‬l
Overhead 'owvərhed ,owvər'hed
Overnight 'owvərnait ,əwvə'nait
Overweight 'owvərweit ,owvər'weit

There are a number of other English words which behave in the same way,

such as afternoon, bamboo, downhill, downstairs, inside, overseas, princess,

routine, sardine, underground, upstairs, , together with many compound

adjectives (easy-going, home-made), all nationality adjectives ending in -ese.

Probably only the word overall (with its secondary meaning of an item of
clothing) should be counted as a homograph, since in the other cases the change

of pronunciation signals only a syntactic feature rather than a shift of meaning32

b.1.3. -ATE words

Another kind of word that is also included into homographs are the set of

words ending with –ATE. All of them use the same stress pattern whether

noun/adjective or verb except for alternate and consummate which, puts the

stress at the front for the verb and later for the noun/adjective. Below are the

words listed by Higgins:

Advocate 'ædvəkət 'ædvəkeit


Animate 'ænəmit 'ænəmeit
Appropriate ə'prəwprieit ə'prowprieeit
Approximate ə'praksəmit ə'praksəmeit
Associate ə'sowsyieit ə'səwsyieeit
Certificate Sə:'tifəkit sə:'tifəkeit
Confederate Kən'fedərət kən'fedəreit
Coordinate ,kow'ordənit ,kəow'ordəneit
Delegate 'deləgət 'deləgeit
Duplicate 'djupləkəit 'djuplikeit
Graduate 'græjuit 'græjueit
Predicate 'predəkit 'predəkeit
Separate 'seprət 'sepəreit
Underestimate '۸ ndə'restimət '۸ ndə'restimeit
b.1.4. -MENT words

These words – set of words ending with -MENT – are almost the same as

what just happened to the –ATE words, but they are smaller in group:

Compliment 'kampləmənt 'kampləment


Document 'dakyəmənt 'dakyəment
Implement 'impləmənt 'impləment
Supplement 's ۸ pləmənt 's ۸ pləment

32
Higgins, J (1984). ELT Journal 38, 1, (Online) http: //www. marlodge. Supanet. com/
Higgins.htm. Accessed on Sunday. February 8th, 2004.
b.2. Voicing Homographs.

Six words below are the words that the distinction of noun/verb or

adjective/verb is made by voicing a final consonant. They are as follow:

Abuse ə'bjus ə'bjuz


Baths Bæðz Bæðs
Close Kləws kləwz
Excuse Ek'skjus ek'skjuz
House Haws Hawz
Use Jus Juz

b.3. Capitalization Homographs.

Several other Homographs;, august/August, job/Job, polish/Polish and

reading/Reading are distinguished by capitalizations and would only be

Homographs in sentence-initial position or in all-upper-case writing.33

• august/August /‫'כ‬g ۸ st/ /' ‫כ‬gəst (solemn/eighth month)


• job/Job /jab/ /jowb/ (work/character in the Old
Testament)
• polish/Polish /'palisy/ /'powlisy/ (make shiny/from Poland)
• reading/Reading /'ridiŋ/ /'rediŋ/ (looking at words/town in
Berkshire or Massachusetts)

b.4. Abbreviations Homographs

Besides all kind of homographs we have discussed on, there is one another

kind of homograph which arises from abbreviating. Abbreviations that are usually

be found in writing cause ambiguity for the reader to choose the correct reference

of the short. Higgins gives the examples:

33
Higgins, J (1984). ELT Journal 38, 1, (Online) http: //www. marlodge. Supanet. com/
Higgins.htm. Accessed on Sunday. February 8th, 2004.
Reg is pronounced /reʤ/ when it is short for Reginald or registration, as
in "a T-reg car". It is pronounced /reg/ when it is short for regulation as in
"Queen's Regs" (the British Army's rule book). Luckily the second form is almost
always plural and the first almost always singular, so there is little chance of
confusion. There are at least three cases where a Homograph arises between a full
word and an abbreviation. One is the Homograph of path, which is pronounced
/pɑƟ/ by speakers in its ordinary meaning as a place to walk, and /pæƟ/ when it
is an abbreviation for pathology, as in "we are waiting for the path reports";
another is the abbreviation Staffs /stæfs/ for Staffordshire against the verb staffs
/stɑfs/, which would be homograph in upper-case writing; and a third is the word
coax pronounced /kəʊks/ meaning persuade versus the abbreviation for coaxial
cable coax pronounced /kəʊɑks/34

34
Higgins, J (1984). ELT Journal 38, 1, (Online) http: //www. marlodge. Supanet. com/
Higgins.htm. Accessed on Sunday. February 8th, 2004.
B. SEMANTICAL PREVIEW

a. Role of Semantics.

In scope of Linguistics, there are three mains level of discussion that will

always be discussed by linguists; they are Phonologic, Grammatik, and Semantic.

Phonologic and Grammatik are two terms of study that concern on the form of the

language and its contribution. Unlike both terms, Semantics discusses about the

meaning of the language (contents). Aspect of expression, such as forms and

sounds of word are the aspect what the five senses can detect, while contents are

the stimulus that cause the part of human body do responses.

From the time of Descartes up till at least the end of the nineteenth
century, there was a generally accepted psychological semantics,
according to which the meaning of a word is the idea (or ‘representation’)
that it creates in the minds of speakers and hearers, and the meaning of a
sentence is a combination of the ideas expressed by the words.35

In study of semantic, there are two kinds of meaning known as the root of

the meaning. Firstly, Lexical meaning, that is the sense, which contained by the

word itself. This kind of meaning is what usually we find in the dictionary with a

certain meaning for a certain word. Here means that the real meaning that showed

by the constituent itself. In this chance, the meaning describes the word itself. For

instance; the word Human, when ones pronounces the word, the listener must

have thought that it means ‘a kind of god creatures who has a thinking, sense, and

perfect form of body’.

35
Wilfrid Hodges, The unexpected usefulness of model theory in semantics, (Queen Mary,
University of London). P.3. (Online) http://www. ncte.org/ library/ files/ Publications/ Journals
/vm/0111-sept03/VM0111Semanticstheory.pdf. Accessed on Sunday. February 8th, 2004.
Secondly, Grammatical meaning, is the meaning which appears because of

the process of grammatic intervene. Different usage of grammatical rules in a

sentence will automatically produce different meaning, although still in a same

arrangement of the sentence. For example;

• The book is on the table.


• The books are on the table.

Both of the sentences above have different meaning because of

grammatical rule influence. In the first sentence, the word ’book’ as the noun and

‘is’ as the verb indicates that the sentence is used in singular form. Different case

for the second sentence, which indicates that the sentence is in plural, it is because

of the ‘books’ (with –s) as the noun and ‘are’ as the verb (plural form).

b. Contextual Orientation.

Contextual orientation is an important aspect of the language in scope of

semantic. In relation to process of understanding the meaning, context is one main

requirement by which the meaning of a language can be comprehended well,

Jacob explains that:

We noticed that context is a dynamic, not a static concept; it is to be


understood as the surroundings, in the widest sense, that enable the
participants in the communication process to interact, and that make the
linguistic expressions of their interaction intelligible.36

Context is the unit which sets the meaning a border that interpreter may

not interprete the sentence or utterance as he/she wishes. Context gives the limit to

the listener or the reader in their interpretation of a language. In interpreting an

36
Mey L. Jacob, PRAGMATICS An Introduction. (Oxford UK&Cambridge USA:
Blackwell Publisher, 1993). p.38.
utterance or a sentence, reader or listener has to agree with the context which has

been set by the writer or speaker.

In linguistics, context is the parts of an utterance surrounding a unit and


which may affect both its meaning and its grammatical contribution. [...]
Context also refers to the wider situation, either of the speaker or of the
surroundings, that may play a part in determining the significance of a
saying. Sometimes the term co-text is used for the narrow, purely linguistic
context37

According to Syahwin, there are, at least, three factors which ones must

take into consideration in order to be able to understand the language38, are:

1. Ones must know the meaning of each word in the sentence or in the

utterance.

2. Ones must understand with the meaning appears caused by

grammatical rules in the sentence.

3. Ones must know the context of the language (where and when the

sentence or the utterance is used).

For example: “The teacher is in class”, contextually the sentence can be

interpreted in vary meanings depend on the context. In order to be able to

understand the sentence above ones must firstly know the meaning of all words in

the sentence. Secondly, ones has to understand the fact of the object talking about.

And finally ones must realize the context of the utterance or the sentence. Below

are some illustrations;

37
Varol Akman, Context as a Social Construct. (Department of Computer Engineering
and Information Science Bilkent University Bilkent, Ankara Turkey), (Online)
Http://www.CsBilkent.Edu.Tr/~Akman/Conf-Papers/Fss97/Node9.Html. Accessed 24th.2004.
38
Nikelas Syahwin, PENGANTAR LINGUISTIK UNTUK GURU BAHASA (Jakarta:
Depdikbud Dirjen Pendidikan Tinggi Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan Tenaga
Kepandidikan, 1988). p. 222.
a. The teacher was absent for a week and the students are happy

because there is no home work to do. Then, the sentence “The

teacher is in class” will mean that the teacher has come back to

school and will start the class normally like usual.

b. The teacher usually comes into the class late, so the students usually

spend their five minute first out side the class. In fact today, the

teacher in on time. The sentence “The teacher is in class” will mean

that the teacher will punish them who are still out sides of class.

c. The teacher is behind the cup board seeking for something, none of

students can see him, so that they are in noise, then one of them

realize that the teacher is in class. The sentence “The teacher is in

class” will mean that they have to be quite.

c. Cultural orientation

Culture is also a part a language because language is a part of culture,

language and culture are interrelated. Understanding the meaning of an utterance

of foreign language does not mean that we have understood the message in that

utterance. This orientation is usually appeared in daily conversation, in which the

cultural aspect is directly involved. For example; when an American tells to you

the sentence, “She is a chick”, then you may not interpret that the guy is telling

that the girl is a chicken (an animal). But you must, firstly, know that in their

culture word “chicks” is another word for whore or prostitution. Another example

in Bahasa Indonesia; “Nggak usah percaya deh!…, mereka semua tikus-tikus

kantor”. When you plan to translate this sentence, you may not instantly change
the meaning literally word for word; “Don’t believe it! They’re all the mice of the

office” because differences of the culture in Indonesia (-which call ‘corruptor’

with the expression “tikus-tikus kantor “-) and in other country will differentiate

the meaning of the sentence or utterance.

d. Context Analysis.

As we have agreed that translation is a part of language practice,

translators work on interpreting and transferring the ideas and messages from one

language (Source/SL) into another (Target/TL). A translator has a very big role in

conveying the messages of the author in SL into TL, so that the reader, who has

ability only to understand his/her mother tongue, may know, use or, even, adopt

all important messages proposed by the author. This big responsibility needs all

translators to realize that there are many aspects that they have to prepare in order

that the responsibility is fulfilled. Contextual and Cultural orientation are two

examples what the translator must firstly pay their attention when they start their

work on translation.

Perhaps, it is not clearly obvious that context analysis is needed in usual

language when the translator has an easy paragraph to translate. He/she may,

calmly, do his/her work well without any problem. But when he/she is faced to a

kind of verb (Homograph, Homonym, Polysemes, etc.), which is, lexically and

semantically, ambiguous in meaning, it will be a special problem for translator.

Countering this problem, it is needed for the translator to have basic skill in

analyzing the context.


According to Harris (1988), there are two principal dimensions of context,

which a translator must prepare as the basic knowledge of the context, are; (i)

World Knowledge and (ii) Knowledge of Language. In case of (ii), the many

facets of linguistic knowledge involving word repetitions, abnormal ordering, etc.

bring unusual complexities of meaning39.

Context includes all situations; time when the language is used, place

where the language is produced, people who uses the language, and reason why

the language is used. In short, probably, we can say that context is what refers to

four Ws; Who, When, Where, and Why. Let see a simple sentence as the

example:

-“ok! you may shoot now”!

The sentence above may has multi meanings depending on Who, When,

Where and Why the sentence is uttered. Sentence “you may shoot now” has

contrastly different meaning when it is uttered by a soccer athlete, when the ball is

near to enemy’s goal post in the field (means to kick the ball to the goal quickly),

compare to when it is uttered by an army commandant directed to his troops when

they are ready exactly in front of enemy’s house and they can see the enemy are

there (means to shoot the enemy).

39
Harris, Wendell V, Interpretive Acts: In Search of Meaning, (Oxford: Clarendon Press,
1988) (Online) Http://www.Cs.Bilkent.Edu.Tr/~Akman/Conf-Papers/Fss97/Node9.Html. Accessed
on February 24th. 2004.
CHAPTER III

RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION

A. Description of the Object Study

a. A Brief History of English Department Faculty of Tarbiyah IAIN Ar-raniry.

English Department is one of eight departments existing at Tarbiyah

Faculty of IAIN Ar-raniry. Ar-raniry was built in 1963, it is an institute that

concern on one basic knowledge; it is Islamic knowledge with many branches of

its knowledge. Each of branches of the knowledge are taught and studied in

special faculty. For example study of teaching, Ar-raniry provides Tarbiyah

faculty to concern on the study. Tarbiyah, which concern on Islamic teaching

develops the students to have ability and skill in teaching, lecturing, tutoring and

everything connected to teaching and learning process. It is provided in many

departments depending on the study the students wish.

Another seven departments are; Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry,

Biology, Islamic Studies, Arabic and Islamic Education. All of departments are

concerning on teaching education that prepare many students to be the best

teacher suitably to the departments they concern on.

Especially for Department of English, the students are not only prepared

for being the teacher but also they are hoped to be good writer, interpreter or

translator in relation to language of English and Indonesia. In case of preparing

the students to be a good teacher and to have another skill in English, English

Department has many programs provided for the students during their study

process; Teaching Methodology, Ilmu Pendidikan, Psychology Pendidikan,


Grammar, Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Translation, ‘four of English skills’;

Speaking, Writing, Listening and Reading, and there are more subjects are taught

in the classroom. Translation is taught in two levels; Translation I for the first

level (for the students in semester fourth) and for next level is Translation II (for

the students in semester fifth). Translation I&II is taught to fulfill students ’ ability

in understanding, interpreting, replacing and transferring English-Bahasa

Indonesia or Bahasa Indonesia-English.

As the result, English Department, Generally, IAIN Ar-Raniry has

produced many good teachers and writers that spreading out in many universities

and schools. They also wrote in many magazines, journals, and papers. It also has

produced many interpreters and translators who work for NGO’s and International

Organizations.

b. Object of study

Let’s back to our focus, like what has been stated in the chapter I that the

study was conducted at Faculty of Tarbiyah IAIN Ar-raniry Darussalam Banda

Aceh. The respondents were the students of English Department at fifth semester,

the writer included all of students who take Translation II subject as the

population, this meant because most of them had taken Translation I at semester

four. There were three classes opened for this subject, the writer took about ten of

students, that writer thought were representative, for each class.

..............................................................................................................................

Observation was firstly done by the writer to see the situation in the classroom

directly. In order to have best clear information, the writer had to have opportunity
to do short dialogue to the sample; it was to find out their opinion about teaching-

learning process.

c. Test

After the observation was finished, the writer gave test to the sample; test

was given all at once meeting. Each of the students was asked to answer the

questions that writer drawn and prepared before.

The test was drawn in two types: multiple choice and essay. In the first

type, the students were only asked to determine the correct meaning (translation)

of the word of English (Homograph), which had been translated into Bahasa

Indonesia. The answers were provided in the icon; a, b, c and d. The questions

were the sentence that contained word of homograph, the sentence was also

provided with the context (situation of the sentence, including time and place).

For one word of homograph (e.g. Bank) was formulated in two different

sentences with different context. This aimed to find out students ’ ability in

determining the meaning of the word suitably to the context of the sentence where

the word exists. Below are the examples:

1. If you want to get there earlier, go straight, then you should choose
right way.
a. Kanan b. Permainan
c. Pilihan d. Benar

2. If you want to be saved in this world and here after, you should choose
the right way.

a. Kanan b. Permainan
c. Pilihan d. Benar
3. After taking some money, you may wait for me in the bank that will be
easy for me to find you.
a. Bank b. Tepi sungai
c. Pasar d. Persimpangan.
4. They wait for us in the river bank before they move to the jungle.
a. Bank b. Tepi sungai
c. Pasar d. Persimpangan.

d. Measurement of the study

To interpret the data obtained from the test, the writer firstly analyzed the

scores resulted from the test. In analyzing all of the score of the test given, there

were three formulas used by the writer, are:

1. To find the range of the scores, the formula is:

R = Hs – Ls

R: Range of the scores.

Hs: The highest scores

Ls: The lowest scores

2. To find the space of class interval, the formula is:

R
I=
K

K = 1+3,3 log n

K: The amount of the class interval.

3. To find the mean, the formula used is:

x =
∑ fi.xi
∑ fi
fi: Frequency
xi: the score

x : the total number of the scores


e. Test Result and Data Analysis.

Table I. Students ’ tests scores

No. Students ’ Number Choice test Essay test


1. 230111619 96 94
2. 230212815 84 78
3 230212819 82 75
4 230212828 78 69
5 230212832 70 58
6 230212836 64 44
7 230212848 94 88
8 230212849 84 76
9 230212851 80 73
10 230212853 78 68
11 230212864 70 57
12 230212865 62 40
13 230212866 92 88
14 230212868 82 75
15 230212872 80 72
16 230212875 72 68
17 230212886 70 56
18 230212894 58 38
19 230212896 92 86
20 230212908 82 75
21 230212914 80 72
22 230212930 72 67
23 230212945 68 48
24 230212946 56 35
25 230212947 90 78
26 230212952 82 75
27 230212958 80 70
28 230212961 72 67
29 230212962 64 46
30 230212966 56 33
In In order to be easier to interpret the value of the results, it is better to classify
the scores in some categories as follows:
86-100 = excellent (A)

72-85 = very good (B)

60-71 = good (C)

50-59 = enough (D)

0-49 = fail (E)

Each of categories of the score shows the level of students’ ability in

answering the test. For the score 86-100 (A) means that the students are excellent

in determining homograph meaning appropriately to the context illustrated. And

then the students who got the score 72-85 are categorized in very good, means

that they are also quite good in finishing homograph test. For those who got 60-71

are classified in good level, which means they are also good in translating

homograph. And finally for those who yielded the score between 0-59 (0-49 and

50-59) are categorized into enough and fail students ’, it means that they are still

weak in determining homograph meaning appropriately to the meaning required

by the context in the sentence translated.

For further interpretation of the data above, statistical calculation was

applied in order to be easier to find out the Mean of the score. The formula used

is:

X=
∑ fi.xi
∑ fi
In this case, xi represents “middle point” of class interval. The first step

what the writer did was to determine the range of the test result, this aimed to find

the difference between the highest scores and the lowest one.

In the space below, we will see the students’ score for the test given (choice

test):

96 84 82 78 70 64

94 84 80 78 70 62

92 82 80 72 70 58

92 82 80 72 68 56

90 82 80 72 64 56

a. The range of the score of the test.

R = Hs – Ls

= 96– 56

= 40

It shows that the range of the score is 40.

The next step what we have to do is determining the interval. This is

purposed to arrange the table with the intervals. The formula used is:

R
I=
K

K = 1 + 3.3 log n

= 1 + (3.3) log 30

= 1 + (3.3) (1.477)

= 5.87 = 6

40
I= = 6.67 = 7
6
Based on the result yielded above, it resulted 7 as class interval to arrange a

frequency distribution table.

Table. II. Distribution frequency of choice test.

Scores Fi xi fi . xi
1 2 3 4
50-56 2 53 106
57-63 2 60 120
64-70 6 67 182
71-77 3 74 222
78-84 12 81 972
85-91 1 88 88
92-98 4 95 380
Total 30 - 2070

The mean for the data drawn in the table above can be obtained by using

the formula as below:

∑ fi.xi
x =
∑ fi
2070
=
30

x = 69

Based on the calculation above, we can find the mean resulted for

homographs test is 69.

Finally, all of the above formula would be used in the same way for the

next calculation.
Below are the students’ raw for the test of the essay:

94 78 75 69 58 44

88 76 73 68 57 40

88 75 72 68 56 38

86 75 72 67 48 35

78 75 70 67 46 33

..............................................................................................................................
From the above raw score we found the highest and the lowest score for the essay
test, it allows the writer to determine the range and find out the class interval.
R = Hs – Ls

= 94 – 33

= 61

The range of the score is 61.

Before arranging the distribution frequency table, the interval must be

determined firstly, the formula used is:

R
I=
K

61
I=
6

= 10.1

The class interval of the test resulted is 10.1, so that it could be considered 10 as

the class interval.


Table. III. Distribution frequency of Essay test score.
Scores Fi Xi fi . xi
1 2 3 4
31-40 4 35.5 142
41-50 3 45.5 136.5
51-60 3 55.5 166.5
61-70 6 65.5 393
71-80 10 75.5 755
81-90 3 85.5 256.5
91-100 1 95.5 95.5
Total 30 - 1945

From the score listed above, the mean for linking sound test can be obtained

using the formula:

X=
∑ fi..xi
∑ fi
1945
=
30

X = 64.83

The mean obtained for the essay test is 64.83. This is lower than the mean

obtained for the choice test (69). Therefore, writer concluded that the students’

achievement is better in the first than in the second test.

To prove the statement above we can observe the test results, which were

presented in the students’ score list above. For essay tests there was only 1

student got score 96, 3 students got the score between 81-90, 10 students had

score between 71-80, 6 students got the scores between 61-70, then 3 students
got scores between 51-60, 3 students got scores between 41-50 and 4 students

got scores between 31-40.

While from the choice test, there were 2 students got the highest scores, it

was between 92-98, only 1 student got score between 85-91, 12 students obtained

scores between 78-84, 3 students got score between 71-77, 6 students had scores

between 70-64, 2 students yielded scores 57-63 and 2 students got scores between

50-56.

Having good score in the choice test does not mean that they are also got

good score in the other test. The students who are in very good (B) and good (C)

position in the first test do not get good marks in the second test. Most of them got

lower scores than the first test.

The test result indicates that the students were able (even though not so

good) to distinguish homograph meaning appropriately to the context given. ). It

was proved by the fact that they got good scores in this test. This fact could be

influenced by the format of the questions (in choice) drawn by the writer were

easy. It was purposed by the reason that the homograph was not taught as a sub

topic in their classroom (Translation class).

While for the essay test, they got lower scores than for the choices tests. It

means that the student still have problem in translating a text containing

homograph wholly. Therefore the writer had an assumption that translating

homograph in a whole text (essay) could be more difficult than what happened in

the choice.
B. Questionnaire Result and Discussion.

As stated above, questionnaire also distributed in order to collect further

information about students opinions, generally, about studying English and

specifically about translating homograph. The questionnaire consists of 6

questions talking about students’ attitudes generally in learning English, and

15 questions talking about their opinions on translation and problem of

homograph. The questionnaire used is based on the criteria below:

- The questionnaire accepted is that the questionnaire answered based on

the directions given.

- The questionnaire with any mistaken is not used as the source of the data,

because it can bring many misunderstandings in the future.

Based on the criteria above, there are only two questionnaires from 30

questionnaires, which could not be used because of unfulfilled as criteria. So,

the questionnaires that could be analyzed as the source of data were 28

questionnaires. The questionnaires were analyzed in tabulation, the percentage

f
was determined using the formula: P = , in which, P = Percentage, f =
N

Frequency and N= Number of sample. Below are the details:

Table 3.1. About students’ preference on writing skill among three other skills
(For four of skills in English (Speaking, Reading, Writing and Listening), do you
like writing?)

Frequenc
Answer option Percentage %
y
a. Strongly like 22 78.57%
b. Like 2 7.14%
c. Dislike 4 14.29%
d. Strongly dislike -
Totals 28 100%
The percentage above shows that there are only 2 students (7.14%),

who have more passive interest in studying Writing. There are 22 students

(78.57%) who like most in studying Writing and 4 students (14.29%) who

dislike studying Writing. This fact, surely, has a very crucial effect toward

their ability in writing and in translating, and more specifically in translating

homograph.

Table 3.2. About students’ agreement that translation is part of skill in writing
(Do you agree that Translation is one part of skills in writing?)

Frequenc
Answer option Percentage %
y
a. Strongly agree 21 75.00 %
b. Agree 6 21.43%
c. Disagree 1 3.57%
d. Strongly Disagree -
Totals 28 100%

This table shows a little different opinion had by the students in

determining exactly which part of skill the Translation is. 1 of them (3.57%)

disagree that Translation is part of writing. Then 6 students (21.43%) agreed,

and 21 students (75%) strongly agreed. Theoretically, translation is only used

in writing because there is, actually, another term for the same meaning

(transferring/replacing the idea of one language into another) called Interpret.

Referring to this idea, probably, it caused students to have the opinion that
translation is not absolutely included in writing. But (based on the table) there

were still many students think that translation is one part of skill in writing.

Table 3.3. About students’ interest in learning homograph (Are you interested
in learning translation?)

Frequenc
Answer option Percentage %
y
a. Strongly interested 20 71.43%
b. Interested 5 17.86%
c. Uninterested 3 10.71%
Strongly uninterested - -
Totals 28 100%

The data in the previous page shows that not all of the students, with their own

reasons, did like learning Translation. The table shows that there are 3 students

(10.71%) who uninterested in learning Translation, 5 students (17.86%) who

interested in learning Translation, and 20 students (71.43%) who really

interested in learning Translation.

The above paragraph provides the conclusion that there were more

than half respondents have willing to learn about homograph. This evidence

describes translation is one of a very important skill in language studies.

Table 3.4. About when is the first time the students learn about homograph
(When is the first time you learn about Translation?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. When I was in School 10 35.71%
b. In the College 18 64.29%
Totals 28 100%

Based on the table 3.4. It is shown that there is 10 students (35.71%)

learn about Translation when they were in school. While the students who

learn about Translation when they come to the college are 18 students

(64,29%). This result describes that more than half of the students learn

Translation when they come to the college.

Table 3.5. About Types of translation usually used by the students (What type
of Translation do you usually use?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Full translation 6 21.43%
b. Word by word translation 8 28.57%
c. Free Translation. 14 50%
Totals 28 100%

The table above shows that there were 6 students (21.43%) like Full

Translation, 8 students (28.57%) like Word by word Translation and 14

students (50%) like Free Translation. Here, the percentage describes that half

of the students prefer to do Free Translation when they do translation. The

writer agrees that Free Translation provides more simply way to transfer the

idea of a language into another. It is because Free Translation is translating

process that is not depending on each word produced in one language, but it

only depends on the main purpose (point) of the text.

Table 3.6. About kind of problem faced by the students in translation (What
kind of problem do you usually face when working in translation?)
Answer option Frequenc Percentage %
y
a. Pronoun reference 2 7.14%
b. Meaning ambiguity 13 46.43%
c. Strange word meaning. 12 42.86%
d. Active-passive meaning 1 3.57%
Totals 28 100%

Table above shows that there are 2 students (7.14%) who usually faced

the problem in Pronoun reference when they did translation, 13 students

(46.43%) got the problem in Meaning ambiguity, 12 students (42.86%) had

the Strange words meaning as their handicap in translation and 1 students

(3.57%) who faced the problem in Active-passive meaning when translating.

Based on the results shown in the table, it can be assumed that many students

still have problem with Meaning ambiguity in doing translation. Most of

ambiguity of meaning in a text is caused by homographs.

Table 3.7. About students’ trick in solving problem of meaning ambiguity


(Especially for the problem of meaning ambiguity, what trick do you usually
adopt to solve it?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Analyzing the context 16 57.14%
b. Identifying structural clues. 4 14.29%
c. Others 8 28.57%
Totals 28 100%

The tables 3.7 above shows that 16 students (57.14%) preferred to analyze

the context of the text when they have the problem of meaning ambiguity, then 4
students (14.29%) tend to identify Structural clues to solve the problem of

ambiguity, and 8 students (28.57%) have another way to solve this problem. In the

questionnaire, the writer provided a space for the respondents to have their own

idea to solve the problem of ambiguity. From 8 students who had another idea,

almost all of them chose (with different expression of language but they have the

same point) “to determine the main idea”, except there are two students who

preferred to guess the meaning of an ambiguity word.

Table 3. 8. About their experience on homograph (In case of Homograph, have


you ever heard the term before?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Yes, I have 9 32.14%
b. No, I have not 19 87.86%
Totals 28 100%

Table in page 48 shows us that the number of students who did not ever

hear about the term Homograph is 19 students (87.86%) and the students who

ever did that is 9 students (32.14%). The data above indicate that there are many

students who do not know about the term homograph yet, although in fact, they

have often found the term in their work papers of translation.

Table 3.9. About students’ knowledge of homograph (How far do you know about
homograph?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. I know about it exactly - 0.00%
b. I know, but I do not surely understand 25 89.29%
c. No, but I think I’ve ever found this kind of
word. 2 7.14%
d. I do not know at all 1 3.57%
Totals 28 100%

Table 3.9 was telling us about number of the students and their knowledge

about homograph, it was no student (0%) who knew about homograph exactly

(knowing everything about the term), 25 students (89.29%) who knew about

homograph but they did not perfectly understand the term, then there are 2

students (7.14%) who did not know about homograph, but they thought that they

had ever found such homograph word. And there was also 1 student who has no

idea about homograph at all.

Table 3.10. About students’ obstacles in understanding homograph (What is the


obstacles do you find in understanding homograph?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. It is never introduced in the classroom 11 39.29%
b. It is hard to find the book talking about
homograph 7 25.00%
c. I have never learn about it 10 35.71%
Totals 28 100%

The data in the table 3.10 shows frequency of the students who faced the

obstacles in learning homograph. Table shows there was 11 students (39.29%)

stated that their obstacle is because homograph is never introduced in the

classroom, 7 students (25.00%) told that their obstacle is hard to find the book that

has explanation about homograph. And 10 students (35.71%) admitted that there

is because they never learn about homograph.


Table 3.11. About the method used by students in learning homograph (What
method did you ever try to learn homograph?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Memorizing the meaning of the word 12 42.86%
b. Learning by recognizing phonetic symbol 10 35.72%
c. Learning about word’s stress 6 21.42%
Totals 28 100%
Table 3.11 in previous page shows the number of students who learn

homograph by various methods used. There were 12 students (42.86%) that used

memorizing the meaning of the word as their method to master homograph. 10

Students (35.72%) who preferred to learn by recognizing the phonetics symbols of

the homograph word as the methods to ease them mastering homograph. And

there were 6 respondents (21.43%) who like to learn about the word’s stress to

recognize the meaning of homograph.

Table 3. 12. About students’ opinion about the importance of learning homograph
(What is your opinion about homograph in terms of its importance to be learned?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. It is very important to learn more about homograph

b. It has no crucial advantages to learn 25 89.29%


homograph or not
c. It is not important to learn about homograph 2 7.14%
1 3.57
Totals 28 100%

Table 3.12 above shows that 25 students (89.29%) agreed that it is

important to learn about homograph. 2 students (7.14%) had opinion that it is no

crucial advantages to learn homograph or not, and 1 student (3.57%) claimed that
it is not important to learn about homograph. This explanation allows us to see

that there are more than half the students who stated that homograph is needed to

learn. It indicates that students’ knowledge in homograph is still weak, and

fortunately they have good interest to learn more about it.

Table 3.13. About the advantages got by students from learning homograph (In
prediction, what advantages would you get from learning homograph?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. I think it will allow everybody to have an
accurate translation. 10 35.71%
b. Translating text containing homograph will
be easier 11 39.29%

c. It will prevent inappropriate transferring


7 25.00%
(translating) of the messages.
Totals 28 100%

..............................................................................................................................
Table above describes the frequency of students who gave the opinions about the
advantages of learning homograph. From the table we can see that there was 10
respondents (35.71%) agreed that learning homograph could allow translators to
have accurate translation. 11 respondents (39.29%) had a thinking that learning
homograph will make translator easier to translate text containing homograph.
And 7 respondents (25.00%) agreed that learning homograph would prevent
inappropriate transferring of the idea.
Table 3. 14 About students’ opinion and their agreement that homograph would be
introduced in the classroom. (Do you agree that homograph must be introduced in
the classroom (Translation Class)? Why?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Yes, because it is important 26 92.85%
b. No, because it takes time and disturb other
materials. 2 7.15%
Totals 28 100%
..............................................................................................................................
Table 3.14 in page 52 show the number of the students who agreed that
homograph is introduced in the classroom. By the reason because homograph is
important to know, there are 26 students who wanted introduction of homograph
to be presented in the classroom and 2 students who disagreed that homograph is
introduced in the classroom because they think that it will take time and corrupt
another materials schedules. The writer thinks it must be happened because
homograph has almost never introduced by the teacher, but in fact they often
found the word of homograph.
Table 3.15. About students’ agreement if homograph is included into the syllabus
(If ‘Yes’, do you agree that homograph will be a sub topic in the syllabus (of
Translation class) Why?)

Answer option Frequenc Percentage %


y
a. Yes, because it will be more formal to study 19 67.86%
b. No, because it takes time and disturb other
materials. 9 32.14%
Totals 28 100%

..............................................................................................................................The
table in page 53 describes that 19 students (67.86%) agreed that homograph to be
included into the syllabus (Translation subject), and 9 students (32.14%) who
disagreed if homograph to be included into the syllabus.
..............................................................................................................................
Based on the above paragraph, it may be concluded that many students did agree
that homograph would be a small topic in the syllabus by the reason in order that
learning homograph will be more formal (because has been included in the
syllabus) to study.
CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. CONCLUSIONS

After we have long discussions about the theory and the research in

previous chapter, now the turn to have some conclusions. Finding out whether the

students have the ability to translate homograph appropriately with the context

where the homograph is attached is the main goal of this study, besides there are

two other aims; about their ability in recognizing the context of text containing

homograph and about their opinions toward teaching and learning process,

especially learning translation in Translation class.

The assumptions that the students still weak in mastering homograph

because they do not know, even they never heard, will never allow them to have a

very good and perfect result of translation. Having no topic items of homograph in

syllabus for translation subject is also one obstacle for the students that they have

no knowledge in homograph.

Test results show us that many students had good ability in determining

the meaning of homograph in the choice test. It proves through their correctness in

choosing the meaning of homograph appropriately with the context illustrated in

the questions. Although some of the students got not so high scores but mostly all

of them got high scores for choice test. For essay test, the students seemed faced

more difficult problems. It was shown by their results. Almost all of them yielded

low scores. It was under 50% of students who were in high level of scores.
This result is, actually, amazing because questionnaire reported that almost

all students realized that they did not know what homographs is, and even more

than half of them had never heard the term. Homograph was still strange topic to

discuss for the students, even though some of them had ever heard but they did

not know exactly what it is. However, many students gave good appreciations

toward learning homograph and they supported the idea that homograph would be

included into the syllabus because it would be more formal to be learned. Mostly

the students were interested in learning homograph because it is important and it

will allow translator to have good and accurate results of translation.

B. SUGGESTIONS.

In order to obtain our goal in teaching learning process and to produce our

excellent quality of our ability and development, there are some suggestions that

we may take into consideration to our bright future. It is hoped that learning

translation is not only to learn how to substitute or how to replace the meaning of

a word in source language with the meaning in the target language but also to

learn how to produce the closest natural equivalent of the source-language

message, both in terms of meaning and in terms of style.

The writer suggested that homograph should be taught (or at least be

introduced) in the classroom, so that the students may have valuable knowledge in

field of translation.
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List of Tables

Table page
Table I. Students ’ tests scores .......................................................... 37
Table. II. Distribution frequency of choice test. ............................... 40
Table. III. Distribution frequency of Essay test score. ...................... 42
Table 3.1. About students’ preference on writing skill among three
other skills (For four of skills in English ......................... 44
Table 3.2. About students’ agreement that translation is part of skill
in writing .......................................................................... 45
Table 3.3. About students’ interest in learning homograph ............... 46
Table 3.4. About when is the first time the students learn
about homograph ............................................................. 46
Table 3.5. About Types of translation usually used by the students. . 47
Table 3.6. About kind of problem faced by the students
in translation ..................................................................... 47
Table 3.7. About students’ trick in solving problem
of meaning ambiguity....................................................... 48
Table 3. 8. About their experience on homograph ............................ 49
Table 3. 9. About students’ knowledge of homograph ...................... 49
Table 3.10. About students’ obstacles in understanding
Homograph ................................................................... 50
Table 3.11. About the method used by students in learning
Homograph ................................................................... 50
Table 3. 12. About students’ opinion about the importance
of learning homograph .................................................. 51
Table 3.13. About the advantages got by students from
learning homograph ...................................................... 52
Table 3. 14 About students’ opinion on their agreement that
homograph would be introduced in the classroom ........ 52
Table 3.15. About students’ agreement if homograph
is included into the syllabus ............................................ 53
Questionnaires

Yth. Para mahasiswa Bahasa Inggris.


Kuisioner ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tanggapan Anda tentang belajar Bahasa
Inggris, khususnya dalam belajar mata kuliah Translation serta untuk mengetahui
opini Anda tentang permasalahan homograph yang sering kita dapati dalam
melakukan translasi. Bantuan dan pendapat Anda dalam bentuk jawaban akan
sangat bermanfaat untuk kevalidan hasil studi ini.

Petunjuk Umum
Kuisioner ini terdiri dari tiga bagian; Bagian A tentang latar belakang Anda,
bagian B tentang sikap Anda terhadap Bahasa Inggris secara umum, dan bagian C
tentang mata kuliah Translation (berkaitan dengan permasalahan dalam
translation, khususnya permasalahan homograph).

A. Latar Belakang Anda:


1. Umur :
2. Jenis Kelamin :
3. Latar Belakang Pendidikan
MAN/SMU/lain-lain (sebutkan) :
Lokasi Sekolah :
Pernah mengambil Kursus Bhs. Inggris : (ya/tidak) Sejak……. sampai……
….
Semester :

B. Sikap Anda Terhadap Bahasa Inggris Secara Umum


Silang nomor yang tersedia sesuai dengan tingkat persetujuan Anda

1= sangat setuju , 2=setuju , 3= tidak setuju , 4= sangat tidak setuju


Saya suka belajar Bahasa Inggris 1–2–3–4
Bahasa Inggris Membosankan 1–2–3–4
Bahasa Inggris Menyenangkan 1–2–3–4
Bahasa Inggris adalah Mata kuliah yang mudah 1–2–3–4
Saya belajar Bahasa Inggris untuk memudahkan dalam
memahami tulisan-tulisan yang ditulis dalam Bahasa Inggris 1–2–3–4
Saya belajar Bahasa Inggris untuk memudahkan melamar 1–2–3–4
kerja

C. Your Opinion toward Translation Subject and problem of Homographs.

1. For four of skills in English (Speaking, Reading, Writing and Listening),


do you like writing?
a. Strongly like b. Like
c. Dislike d. Strongly dislike.
3. If you like, do you agree that Translation is one part of skills in writing?
a. Strongly agree b. Agree
c. Disagree d. Strongly disagree

4. Are you interested in learning translation?


a. Strongly interested b. Interested
c. Uninterested d. Strongly uninterested.

5. When is the first time you learn about Translation?


a. When I was in School. b. Now, in the college.

6. What type of Translation do you usually use?


a. Full translation. b. Word by word translation
c. Free Translation. d. Literal translation.

7. What kind of problem do you usually face when working in translation,


especially in meaning ambiguity?
a. Pronoun reference b. Homograph
c. Strange words meaning. d. Active-passive meaning

8. What trick do you usually adopt to solve meaning ambiguity problem?


a. Analyzing the context
b. Identifying structural clues
c. *………….

9. In case of homograph, have you ever heard the term before?


a. Yes, I have
b. No, I have not.

10. How far do you know about homograph?


a. I know about it exactly
b. I know, but I do not surely understand
c. No, but I think I’ve ever found this kind of word
d. I do not know at all

11. What is the obstacles do you find in understanding homograph?


a. It is almost never introduced in the classroom
b. It is hard to find the book talking about homograph
c. I have never learn about it

12. What method did you ever try to learn homograph?


a. Memorizing the meaning of the word
b. Learning by recognizing phonetic symbol
c. Learning about word’s stress.
13. In prediction, what advantages would you get from learning homograph?
a. I think it will allow everybody to have an accurate translation.
b. Translating text containing homograph will be easier
c. It will prevent inappropriate transferring (translating) of the
messages.

14. What is your opinion about homograph in terms of its importance to be


learned?
a. It is very important to learn more about homograph
b. It has no crucial urgency to learn homograph or not.
c. It is not important to learn about homograph

15. Do you agree that homograph must be introduced in the classroom


(Translation Class)? Why?
a. Yes, because it is very important.
b. No, it takes time

16. If ‘Yes’, do you agree that homograph will be a sub topic in the syllabus
(of Translation class)? Why?

a. Yes, because it will be a formal material to be studied


b. No, because it can be taught simultaneously with another materials
AUTOBIOGRAPHY

1. Name : Saifullah Ali Elmagzawy


2. Place and Date of Birth : Peurupok, North Aceh, 2nd July, 1980
3. Sex : Male
4. Religion : Islam
5. Nationality/Ethnicity : Indonesian/Acehnese
6. Marital Status : Single
7. Occupation : Students
8. Address : Mess III IAIN Ar-raniry Lr.4 Dusun Timur
Kopelma Darusslam, Banda Aceh. NAD
9. Parents
a. Father
Name : (the late) Mohammad Ali

b. Mother
Name : Rahmani Faridan
Occupation : Teacher
Address : Jl.Medan-Banda Aceh Ds.Peurupok.
Kec. Syamtalira Aron, Lhoksukon A.Utara

10. Education Background


College : Faculty of Islamic Teaching Studies (1999-now)
Department of English
State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry,
Darussalam Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia.
School : Islamic Senior High School (1995-1998)
Department of Language Studies.
MUQ ( Madrasah Ulumul Quran) Banda Aceh,
NAD Indonesia
Islamic Junior High School (1992-1995)
Darul Huda Boarding School, Langsa, East Aceh,
NAD Indonesia
Elementary School (1987-1992)
SDN Tanah Pasir, Lhoksukon, North Aceh, NAD
Indonesia

Yours Truly,

(Saifullah Ali)
Curriculum Vitae

Saifullah Ali El Magzawy

Address Jln. Residen Danu Broto No.15a


Geuceu Kayee Jato. Banda Aceh
NAD Indonesia

Mobile : +6285260016327
E mail : saiful_education@yahoo.com
Date of Birth July 2nd, 1980 Peurupok, North Aceh
Sex Male
Nationality Indonesian

Education Background
College Faculty of Islamic Teaching Studies (2004)
Department of English
State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry, Darussalam
Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia.

School Islamic Senior High School (1998)


Department of Language Studies.
MUQ ( Madrasah Ulumul Quran) Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia

Islamic Junior High School (1995)


Darul Huda Boarding School, Langsa, East Aceh, NAD
Indonesia
Elementary School (1992)
SDN Tanah Pasir, Lhoksukon, North Aceh, NAD Indonesia

Work Experience
2005-2006 Education Program Officer
Nov – now Save the Children Aceh AERA Program, Lhokseumawe Office,
NAD Indonesia

2005 Education Field Officer


March – Oct Save the Children Aceh AERA Program, Lhokseumawe Office,
NAD Indonesia

2005 Translator
Jan – Feb Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) Indonesia.
2004 Teacher
Jan – Dec Islamic Senior High School (MA) Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia.
2003 English Instructor
Feb – Nov YEC (Youth Education Centre) Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia
2003-2004 Computer Operator
Jan’03 – Dec’04 ERC Computer, Darussalam Banda Aceh.

Volunteer Experience

o Volunteer on Community Service Programme Coordinated by


P2M (Community Service Unit), State Institute of Islamic
Studies of Ar-raniry (Sabang Island, March-May 2003).
o Volunteer on SAHARA (Students Solidarity for Community)
Coordinated by BEM Unsyiah and BEMA IAIN Ar-raniry, Banda
Aceh, NAD Indonesia (2003)
o Chief committee on giving helps for the Orphans at Panti
Asuhan Alwashiliyah Alue Naga, Banda Aceh, NAD Indonesia
(2003)

Standing Committee Membership

• Department
o Member of English Department Students Association, State
Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2000-04)
o Committee of EDSA Anniversary, Department of English,
State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2002).
o Committee of English Olympiad, Department of English,
State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2003).
• Faculty
o Member of Student Senate, Tarbiyah Faculty, State Institute
of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2002-04)
o Committee of BKO I&II (A Month Activities of Sport), Faculty
of Tarbiyah, State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry
(2002, 2003)
• University
o Member of Sanggar Seni (Student Activities Unit of Arts),
State Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2000, 2004)
o Member of BEMA (Student Executive Council), State Institute
of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2002-03)
o Committee of Acehnese Arts and Culture Contest, State
Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2002)
o Committee of Panel Discussion on “Mempersiapkan Generasi
Muda da’wah yang Beriman dan Berkwalitas”, State Institute
of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2002)
o Committee of Acehnese Tradional Culture Exhibition, State
Institute of Islamic Studies of Ar-raniry (2003)

Language skills

Acehnese (Mother Tongue)


Indonesian (Mother Tongue)
english (Second Language: fluent written+spoken)

Knowledge of software
Microsoft Office

Hobbies
Guitar, Soccer, Game.