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ch11: normality, mentl health&mentl illness abnormality: pattern of thoughts, feelings and behavrs that r deviant, distressing&dysfuncal.

deviant: diff. from society, distressing: unpleasant2urself&2others, dysfuncal: interfere with prsns ability 2 cope in society. 2bdiagnosed w/ an abnormality, the individual must have symp2ms for over an extended period of time. approaches of defining normality and abnormality (six) 1.socio-cultural: normality in terms of what a particular society or culture views as acceptable, normal for 1 culture doesnt mean its normal 2 another, wearing a kilt, eatin raw fish, walking rnd naked 2.his2rical: behavr acceptable in the time period., behavrs evolve and change over time, smacking ur children, homosexuality 3.situational: behavr that is acceptable in a certain situation, wearin pjs 2 bed but not 2 schl 4. medical: abnormal behavr that can be diagnosed and treated, normality in terms of physical health and its underlying physiological causes. normal = healthy, abnormality = sick/ill 5. functional: individual can func. effectively in society, addictions, anxiety disorders, stress, mood disorders, finishing yr12 6. statistical approach: normal distribution behavr in a large group, uses mean, median and mode, height, weight, iq health and illnesses health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing&not merely the absence of illness of disease/illness according 2 who (world health organisation) physical wellbeing: weight, exercise, well-balanced diet mental wellbeing: the mind, how u express ur feelings, lifelong learning and rationale thinkin social wellbeing: relationships w/ frnds, peers and family, how u interact w/ ppl mental, physical and social wellbeings r all important. each1 can cause some1 2 get an illness. illness refers 2 a prsns subjective experience of feelin unwell. it can be sudden or chronic, its not physiological but psychological. disease is a identifiable physiological changes associated with an abnormal bodily condition. genetic abnormality that can be detected from a scan. diseases may accompany an illness diff between physical health and illness physical health: bodys ability 2 func efficiently and effectively. normal heart rate, body temp, eyesight. physical illness: subjective experience 2 physical health probs. probs that interferes with normal body funcs. diseases causes illnesses mentl health vs mentl illness mental/psycho health: is the capacity of an individual 2 interact w/ othrs and the enviro. in ways that promote subjective wellbeing, optimal development throughout the lifespan and effective use of the prsns cognitive, emotional and social abilities. the indivs thought processes. how 2 cope w/ stress, externally and internally. capacity 2 cope w/ others. social wellbeing mentl health prob: difficulties experienced is mild, feeling emotional (upset, distressed), short-lived, able 2 be treated, will get back on track mental/psycho illness: describes a psycho dysfunc hat usually involves impairment in the ability 2 cope with everyday life, distress&thoughts, feelings&/or behavr that r atypical of the prsn and may also be inappropriate within their culture. psycho dysfunc that has caused u an inability 2 cope w/ everyday life and inappropriate w/in their culture (cognitions, emotions, thought processes). emotional distress (crying a lot). long period of time (6 mths duration). no physical illness during that time. thoughts, feelings and behavr is difficult. maintaining good mental health:. abc (act, belong, commit), act: exercising, enjoying hobbies, treat urself well, belong: connect 2 the community, commit: look for challenges, get a goal, get involved the biopsychosocial framework. an approach 2 describing and explainin how bio, psycho and social fac2rs combine and interact 2 influence a prsons physical and mental health. bio factors: physio influences often not under our control, genes, neurochemistry, immune response psycho factors: how u cope w/ stress, prsnality, thought processes social factors: employment history, income level, upbringing, vulture, weight discussion, holistic view of health, social support, health education, family support systems of classification of mental conditions and disorders categorical approach: a yes/no approach, it focuses on decidin whether or not they have a mental disorder, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (dsm), international classification of diseases (icd), it organizes is diff. categories and subcategories ads: they know whats wrong with the patient, enables communication, able 2 find a treatment, it is an all or nothing approach disads: stigma ppl will treat the indivs diffly, this approach doesnt take linking into accnt, uses discrete data, who: world health organisation dimensional approach: provides a numerical value, there is no clear dividin line, no labeling, provides a lot of info, it takes more info in know them better, looks at levels how much, creates profiles, 1-10 ranking, grading the severity the dsm and icd dsm: dsm is used more than the icd, created for america and australia, published in 1952, now edition 4, 365 disorders grouped into 16 categories, doesnt talk about causes, uses diagnostic criteria inclusion, exclusion, polythetic, by apa: american psychiatric association ads:, user-friendly, enhances communication among mental health professionals by providing a common language lims:, low inter-rater reliability, they often reached diff concs axis i: clinical disorders. symptoms that cause distress or significantly impair social or occupational functioning (such as anxiety disorders, depression, etc. axis ii: prsnality disorders&mental retardation. chronic&enduring prob that generally persist throughout life&impair interprsonal or occupational functioning. axis iii: general medical conditions. physical disorders that may be relevant 2 understanding or treating a psycho disorder. axis iv: psychosocial and environmental prob. prob (such as interprsonal stressors and -ve life events) that may affect the diagnosis, treatment&prognosis of psycho disorders.. axis v: global assessment of functioning. the individuals overall level of functioning in social, occupational and leisure activities. axis v uses the dimensional approach (1 being severe, and 100 being no symptoms) icd: 21 chapters. used in europe. distinguished between behavral and mental disorders. allows for diagnosis, communication.(overlap, diff disagnose, -ve effect on labelin)categorical approach ads: take into account a wider range of a prsons symptoms and characteristics. provides a richer and more detailed description of an individuals mental condition in a form of a profile. helps reduce the stigma lims: disagreement that this approach would suitably represent the wide range of mental disorders ch12: stress and health stress is a state of physio and psycho arousal produced by internal /external stressors that r perceived by the indiv as challenging or exceeding their ability or resources 2 cope. a stressor is any prsn, situation or event that produces stress. a stress response, or reaction, involves the physio (bodily) and psycho (mental) changes that ppl experience when they r confronted by a stressor. variety of stressors:1.physical(extreme temp, light, noise) 2.psycho (arguments w/ othrs, failn exams/tests)3. internal(physical pain)4. external(2 much homework) physio responses 2 stress mild stress: can be stimulating, motivating or challenging. acute stress: an event that suddenly produces high arousal. chronic stress: high arousal that persists over a long period of time. there r2models: 1. fight-flight response: (mild and acute). an involuntary reaction resulting in a state of physio readiness 2 deal with a sudden and immediate threat by either confronting it (fight) or runnin awy 2 safety (flight). the nervous system is involved depends on genetics whether the indiv will fight or flee physio changes: heart rate increases, breathing rate increases, dilation of pupils (bigger), respiration increases. physio effects: dizziness, aches, pains, rashes, fatigue, ulcers, weight loss 2. general adaptation syndrome (gas): (chronic) seyle. includes the fight-flight response in a period where stressors r no longer lasting. stress is non-specific (internal/external). individuals develop non-specific and specific responses 2 stressors (chronic stress) lims: related rats 2 humans. 3stages of physio stress: stage 1: alarm reaction: immediate reaction 2 the stressor. 1st identify the stressor. first shock below normal. the body reacts as if it is injured. countershock fight. sympathetic nervous system is activated (returns body back 2 normal) stage 2: resistance: . the bodys resistance 2 the particular stressor rises above normal, as it tries 2 adapt 2 and cope with the stressor.. the body shuts down all organs that arent needed down (eg. digestive system). the body will fight the stressor. ability 2 fight other stressors will drop. if successful, homeostasis will return stage 3: exhaustion: shock and countershock will reappear. vulnerable 2 psycho or physio illnesses. flu/cold exhaustion stage. death is evident here. evrythn not used is shut down. the effects of the stressor can no longer be dealt w/. ads: stress can cause infection cancer, health. it is widely supported 2day. identified some of the physio mechanisms associated with the stress response lims:. assumes 1 size fits all. doesnt take in2 consideration indiv diff. overlooks roles of bodily funcs. might be inaccurate. cant be generalized 2 humans eustress:. a +ve psycho response 2 a stressor, as indicated by the presence of +ve psycho states such as feeling enthusiastic, excited, active and alert. distress: a -ve psycho response 2 a stressor, as indicated by the presence of ve psycho states such as anger, anxiety, nervousness, irritability or tension. some stress can be good because it drives us 2 excel. psycho responses 2 stress 3 categories: behavral: apparent in how a prsn looks, talks, acts and so on. strained facial expressions, a shaky voice, hand tremors or muscle spasms and jumpiness r common behavral responses 2 stress. some ppl behave more aggressively when stressed, while others respond by withdrawing. attempts 2 avoid or flee from a stressor may also result in a range of different behavral responses, depending on the specific cause of the stress. emotional: influences the way a prsn feels. feeling anxious, tense, depressed, angry, irritable and short-tempered. cognitive: cognitive changes associated with a stress response influence a prsns mental abilities, such as their perceptions of their circumstances and environment, their ability 2 learn and how they think. often perceptions r distorted or exaggerated in some way. ppl often report that they have difficulties concentrating, maintaining focus, making decisions and thinking clearly,&r more forgetful. lazarus and folkmans transactional model of stress and coping. proposes that stress involves an encounter (transaction) between an individual and their external environ.,&that a stress response depends upon the individuals interpretation (appraisal) of the stressor&their ability 2 cope with it. primary appraisal: we evaluate of judge the significance of the situation. am i in trouble?. if we decide that it is stressful engage in additional appraisal secondary appraisal: evaluate the coping resources and resources. internal (for example, strength and determination). external (for example, money and support from family or friends). in a reappraisal, we determine the extent 2 which additional resources r needed 2 cope with the situation. this involves a dual process: (1) reappraising the situation while taking account of the coping resources that r available, and (2) reappraising the coping resources while taking account of the reappraised threat. coping is the process of constantly changing cognitive and behavral efforts 2 manage specific internal&/or external stressors that r appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the prsn. ads: focus on involuntary physio responses 2 stressors and mostly overlook cognitive processes and individual diffs in the stress response, the role involves prsnal appraisals of a situation or an event that may be a stressor, thereby emphasising each individuals role in interpreting what that situation means 2 them from their perspective rather than some1 elses. enhanced understanding of the importance of stress-management strategies&programs. lim: difficult 2 test through experimental research. primary&secondary appraisals can interact with 1 another&r often undertaken simultaneously. individuals may not always be conscious of, or able 2 label cognitively, all the fac2rs that r causing them 2 experience a stress response. social, cultural and environmental factors that influence the stress response social: relationships, discriminated against, isolated, bullying, lack of support. any change in ur lifetime will require adjustment. convenience sampling cant generalize. score of 200 psycho and physical stress ads:value in providing estimates in amount of stress lims:individual diffs, not all events r universally stressful cultural: immigrants, refugees, asylum seekers acculturation: adapting the values and language of a new culture going out, how they dress environmental: crowding, loud noises, constant noises, 2 hot/cold, babies crying. crowding refers 2 the subjective experience of feeling cramped; of having less space than preferred. stranger 1.5m, friends 50cm, partner/family touching. calhouns research: large enclosure. every 55 days populations would double aggressive, mother ate babies, stopped breeding no clear link 2 artificial settings, depends on the situation/individuals, mentally prepared for crowding allostasis and homeostasis allostasis refers 2 the bodys ability 2 maintain a stable physio environment by adjusting and changing 2 meet internal and external demands. allostasis helps the body achieve stability by changing. may cause wear and tear in the brain. allows ur body 2 vary its physio limits 2 meet everyday activities. takes into account effects through change. it is controlled by the brain. allostatic load is the wear and tear on the brain and body due 2 cumulative exposure 2 increased secretion and presence of stress hormones over a long period of time. chronic stress creates disorders (the reason). understands that u r an individual . takes into account ur lifestyle (eg. eating habits). perception of stress is determined by ur past experiences, ur genetic inheritance, ur current circumstances. homeostasis controls the body. if it is not maintained, u will die! nervous system and endocrine system maintains homeostasis lims: doesnt take into account ur thinking, cognition. doesnt take into account that ur body fluctuates higher than normal when stressed diffs between allostasis and homeostasis: allostasis helps the body achieve stability by changing. homeostasis helps the body achieve stability by staying the same strategies for coping with stress: biofeedback is info received by an individual about the state of 1 or more of their physio responses (funcs or processes) meditation and relaxation: meditation is used 2 bring about a relaxed state. an intentional attempt. relaxation can be used 2 bring about a state of reduced psycho or physio tension (walking, reading, watching tv). based on psycho methods. u will live longer. reduce cardiovascular diseases. physical exercise: planned 2 improve/maintain ur conditions aerobics (running, swimming, netball) anaerobic (weight training) ads: increase self-esteem, increase friendship groups, improve mental health. exercise gets rid of stress hormones. beta-endorphins relieve pain and increase well-being social support: help or assistance from other ppl when needed. the ppl who provide social support can vary and include any1 with whom we may have a relatively stable or ongoing inteprsnal relationship, although this does not necessarily mean a close interprsnal relationship or an intimate relationship. according 2 american psychologists jerry suls and kenneth wallston (2003), social support can take four main forms:1.appraisal support: peers 2. tangible assistance: material support 3. info support: speaking 4.emotional support: stress ch13: anxiety disorder: phobia anxiety is a state of physio arousal associated with feelings of apprehension, worry or uneasiness that something is wrong or that something unpleasant is about 2 happen. the term anxiety disorder is used 2 describe a grp of disorders that r characterised by chronic feelings of anxiety, distress, nervousness and apprehension er fear about the future, with a -ve effect. every1 will experience anxiety at some stage in his or her lives. severe anxiety will lead 2 dizziness, nausea etc.. it not managed, it can disrupt the individuals life. they dont lose touch with reality. their behavr is socially acceptable, it is hard 2 diagnose phobias an excessive or unreasonable fear directed towards a particular object, situation or event that causes significant distress or interferes with everyday functioning. intense or irrational fear once they think about it, the fear will come. most ppl r aware of their fears dsm: agoraphobia (fear of crowds), social phobia (social environments), specific phobia according 2 the dsm, any specific phobia falls into 1 of five categories:1. animal 2.situational 3.blood 4.natural environments 5.other (dying). agoraphobia and social phobias r complex. anticipatory anxiety is the gradual rise in anxiety level as a prsn thinks about, or anticipates, being exposed 2 a phobic stimulus in the future. it must be present for at least six mnths bio contributing factors 2 anxiety genetics involvd in inheriting an anxiety disorder. distress response. neurotransmitter called gaba (gamma-amino-butyric acid). fight-flight response. breathing rate increases, sweating, dizziness. it becomes an issue when the stress response is triggered in the absence of any real threat role of the stress response: exposure of anticipation of the situation or object role of gaba: lack of gaba makes me anxious gaba inhibits. gaba stops thought from flowing in. it blocks the transmission of the messages. without gaba, messages spread thrghout ur brain and will lead 2 a seizure. gaba is involved in anxiety not performing the role of stopping or slowing the increased firing of neurons. lacking gaba will lead 2 over stimulation. benzodiazepines is as drug 2 calm down (agonist) glutamate 2nd most common nrotransmitr in the brain. plays a role in learning and mmry. together, gaba and glutamate regulates ur thoughts study on apes: apes were presented with benzodiazepines antagonists. they became more anxious because antagonists inhibits the activity of neurotransmitters how 2 reduce gaba levels: genetics. socialcultural factors: stress. environmental toxins. too much caffeine. not eating properly reduce in gaba, increase in glutamate. how 2 increase gaba levels: teas (green), beans, dairy good, seafood, whole grains, gaba supplements increase in gaba, decrease in glutamate psycho contributing factors 2 anxiety a number of different models, or theories, have been proposed 2 describe and explain how a specific phobia can develop due 2 psycho factors. 1.psychodynamic model: stems back 2 childhood. unconscious parts of ur brain (ice bergs). skeletons in the closet. proposes that the unconscious mmry is the source of anxiety through different psychosexual stages: oral (0-2), anal (2-3), phallic (4-5 years) never being truly resolved , latency (6 puberty), genital (puberty early adulthood) 2.behavral model: role of learning 3.cognitive role: role of thinking. unpleasant psycho feelings as a result of fear. oedipal complex. phallic stage passionate love. 2 resolve, use repression. little hans behavral model phobias r learned through experience and may b acquired, maintained or modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punishment. cc/respondent learning. maintained though oc eg. little albertncognitive model focuses on how the individual processes info about the phobic stimulus and related events. several different types of cognitive bias have been identified as being associated with the development and/or persistence of specific phobias: 1.attentional bias selective attention seek out for it (phobic stimulus) 2.mmry bias reconstructive 2 be worst. remembers only the -ve events 3.interpretive bias interpret things differently. presence of threat 4.catastrophic thinking end of the world. underestimates their ability 2 cope, i dont have the resources. socio-cultural contributing factors 2 anxiety: rachman 1.specific environmental factors (direct/indirect) -ve event. learnt through cc and maintained through oc. -ve reinforcement strengthens the phobia. triggers extreme fear responses. the more severe, the more likely the phobia will dvlp. similar 2 1-trial learning (taste aversion). not a complete explanation because some dont develop a phobia. direct: u experience it. indirect: u observe it. the effects depends on ur prior experiences 2. parental modeling (social and psycho) if parents r scared, the child would be scared also neville king 30 children, mean age 5. scared of dogs. more than half didnt like dogs. observational learning = indirect experience. +ve adult = +ve child 3. transmission of threat info secondary source of potential threat. develop a phobia after being constantly warned. fears develop largely due 2 -ve info. king and ollendick questionnaire -ve exposed 2 beast dog. -ve high level of fear. +ve no fear, ambiguous (unclear) psycho management of specific phobias some phobias can cause a major disruption 2 their everyday lives. can cause issues socially, at work and at home cognitive behavral therapy (cbt): a comb. of cognitive and behavral therapies 2 help ppl overcome mental health prob and disorders. cognitive: talks about thoughts and feelings. behavral: not talking. key assumption: change thoughts behavrs and feelings change also. doesnt thinking some1 is wrong, only stuck. helps them 2 overcome their obstacles focuses on the present. never going 2 address the cause. focus: changing and challenging though processes cognition: understands and identify their fears. look at evidence and supports 2 try and tackle thoughts. rational thinking wont be anxious behavral: aims 2 change behavr realises that the stimulus is not harmful 1.make a prediction 2.review evidence for/against 3.experiment (very important that client knows what ure doing) 4.rslts 5.conc.(client realizes that their fears r irrational) systematic desensitisation: (behavral) never looks at causes. gradually. anxiety relaxation 1.teach how 2 relax (breathing, muscles) 2.hierarchy 3.pair with relaxation technique. items r ranked from 30 100, max 15 items flooding: (not a relaxation technique) heart rate will go very high. they will experience a panic attack.