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CHAPTER 20 NUCLEAR RADIATIONS Qs. What do you know about Wilson and Cloud Chamber?

? WILSON CLOUD CHAMBER Introduction Wilson Cloud Chamber is used to observe the path of ionizing particles. It helps to examine the mechanism of ionization of various ionizing radiations and the product of their interaction with material inside the chamber. Construction It consist of a closed cylindrical chamber with transparent glass top I and a movable piston on the bottom. On the sides near the top the cylindrical is provided with a glass window for light and for the ionizing particles or radiations. The piston can be moved up or down by a lever attached to it. Before making the enclosed space above the piston arright, enough quantity of a low boiling point liquid such as water or alcohol is introduced in the space to produce its saturated vapours. A small quantity of the liquid stay on the piston. Working The vapours of the liquid usually condense at its dew point but the condensation never takes place in the absence of some particles, dust particles or ions, which are essential to form the nuclei (centres) of condensation. In particle free space the saturated vapour may cool much below the dew point. Then they are called Super Saturated Vapours. Paths, additional information about the charged and uncharged nature, the magnitude of the charge, the charge to mass ration (e/m), etc of the incident particle or the particle found by their interaction with the atoms can be obtained. By this very method a number of particles have been discovered. Qs. Explain the construction and working of Gelger Counter. Definition Gelger counter is a portable device which is widely used for the detaction of ionizing particles or radiations. Construction It consists of a hollow metal cylinder, one end of which is closed by an insulating cap. At the centre of the cap is fixed a stiff straight wire along the axis of the cylinder. A thin mica or glass disc closes the other end which also serves as all entrance window for the ionizing particles or radiations. The sealed tube usually contains a special mixture (air, argon, alcohol etc) at a low pressure of 50 to 100 millimetres of mercury. A potential difference of the order of one thousand volts is applied between the metal cylinder and difference is only slightly less than than, necessary to start a discharge between the wire and a cylinder.

Working When an ionizing particle enter the tube under this condition if a charged particle pass through the chamber it produces ionization along its track. The condensation of vapours takes place on ion in the form of tiny droplets of fog, which can be photographed. 1. -Particle An -particle is highly ionizing the ions produced are so numerous that its trade is a thick and continuous line. 2. -Particle -Particle is much less ionizing its track is therfore, a thin and broken line. 3. Rays Rays are photons emitted in a widening cone of some angle. They produce ionization by photoelectric effect distributed on a wide space. Some of the photoelectrons ejected by them give tiny line tracks in directions like the - Particles and scattered dots are produced. The rays not produce well-defined line track.