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ABSTRACT

Stress is a term that refers to the sum of the physical, mental, and emotional strains or tensions on a person. Feelings of stress in humans result from interactions between p e r s o n s a n d t h e i r e n v i r o n me n t t h a t a r e p e r c e i v e d a s s t r a i n i n g o r e x c e e d i ng t h e i r a d a p t i v e c a p a c i t i e s a n d t h r e a t e n i n g t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . Th e e l e me n t o f p e r c e p t i o n indicates that human stress responses reflect differences in personality as well asdifferences in physical strength or health. This Stress meter allows to assess ones emotional pain. If the stress is very high, itgives visual indication through LED display along with a warning yellow light. Stress meter is based on the principle that the resistance of the skin varies inaccordance with your emotional states. Resistance varies inversely proportional to thes t r e s s . I f t h e s t r e s s l e v e l i s h i g h t h e s k i n o f f e r s l e s s r e s i s t a n c e , a n d i f r e l a x e d , resistance is high.In an article Stress and Mind Control, 21/03/2008,Roberto Bonomistated thatWhen we speak of the fabulous relaxation capacity that mind control gives us, thefirst thing that comes to our mind, is that we will be able to take off, the excesses of nervous tension, the stress; and this is a great benefit. Because suppose that you couldmeasure stress in inches, and that you have stress zero when the meter is located inzero. Based on this our project is aimed to give a visual indication of ones stress through a light-emitting diode display along with a warning light.

LIST OF TABLES

1. Table : LED Color Vs. Potential difference... 2. Table : LED Vs. Threshold voltage...

LIST OF FIGURES

1)Fig 2.1: Block diagram of stress meter. .. 6 2)Fig 3.1: Dot/Bar display driver.. ..... 8 3)Fig 3.2: The piezo element . .9 4)Fig 3.3: Piezo electric diaphragm.. ..10 5)Fig 3.4: Touch pad.. .10 6)Fig 3.5: Light emitting diode ...11 7)Fig 3.6: Inside a light emitting diode. ..12 8)Fig 3.7: Regulated power supply... ..14 9)Fig 3.8: Voltage regulator 14 10)Fig 3.9: Circuit diagram of Stress meter. .15 11)Fig 4.1: Basic block diagram showing the operation of the circuit .17 12)Fig 4.2: Role played by touch pads. 18 13)Fig 4.3: Bridge Rectifier Circuit.. 20 14)Fig 4.4: The Power supply generation..213

Chapter1

Introdution
1.1 Stress Meter Stress is very common condition of every human being . stress is nothing more than socially acceptable from of mental illness .This stress meter allow to access the emotional pain . If stress is high, it gives visual indication on LED display along with a warning light. Stress meter is based on principle that the resistance of the skin varies in accordance with your emotional states. If stress level is high the skin offers low resistance, and if relaxed resistance is high . The low resistance is of skin during high stress due to increase in blood supply of skin. This increases the permeability of skin and hence the conductivity for electric current. This property of skin is use here to measure stress. Using suitable circuitry we can convert the amount of stress a human being feels to a varying along voltage. The LM3915 is monolithic integrated circuit that sense along voltage level and drives five LEDs, LCDs or vacuumed fluorescent displays, providing a logarithmic 3dB/step analog display. The touch pad of stress meter sense the voltage variation across the touch pad and convey the same to the circuit. The circuit is very sensitive and detect even a minute voltage variation across the touch pad

1.2 EVOLUTION
In an article Stress and Mind Control, 21/03/2008, Roberto Bonomi stated thatWhen we speak of the fabulous relaxation capacity that mind control gives us, thefirst thing that comes to our mind, is that we will be able to take off, the excesses of nervous tension, the stress; and this is a great benefit. Because suppose that you couldmeasure stress in inches, and that you have stress zero when the meter is located inzero. Based on this, our project is aimed to give a visual indication of ones stressthrough a light-emitting diode display along with a warning yellow light.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT


The purpose of stress meter is to assess the emotional pain of human being. Thes t r e s s c a n c a u s e h a i r t o f a l l , a c n e t o b r e a k o u t a n d ma n y o t h e r p r o b l e ms . T h e s e manifestations of stress can cause even more anxiety. Stress causes cortical levels toi n c r e a s e w i t h i n t h e b o d y , w h i c h i n c r e a s e s o i l p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h c a u s e s a c n e breakouts. So this stress meter is to solve all the problems caused due to stress by checkingthe stress of an individual and taking care before any serious problem occurs.

Chapter 2
Block diagram and project over view 2.1: The principle of stress meter
The stress meter is based on the principle that the variation in resistance of skin due to blood pressure of ones. Body can converted and transmitted into along voltage level give to visual indication of human stress using proper circuitry.

regulated power supply

transformer

touchpad

integrated circuit

buzzer

LED

2.3

BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION

The 230 volts ac power supply is given to the transformer.T h e t r a n s f o r me r s t e p s d o wn t h e i n p u t v o l t a g e l i n e a n d isolates the power supply from the power line. A full wave b r i d g e r e c t i f i e r c i r c u i t a l o n g wi t h a v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r i s used to give a regulated power supply to the circuit .Theinput touch pads are used to sense the resistance of our skinand this input is fed to the dot/bar display driver. The dot/bar display driver accepts the input through thetouch pads which sense the small change in resistance thed o t / b a r d r i v e r g i v e s t h e o u t p u t stress level indicationaccording the input. The output is i n d i c a t e d o n a l e d d i s p l a y .Th e t e n l e d s a c t l i k e t h e s t r e s s l e v e l i n d i c a t o r s form zero stress level to high stress level on a scale of ten.The high stress detected from the dot/ bar display driver isindicated through a warning yellow light.

2.4

APPLICATION:

Each LED in stress meter operates with a 3dB differencefrom the previous one, and a jumper is provided to allowd o t o r b a r mo d e . Th i s

p r o je c t i s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e expandable analyzer and one meter circuit is used for eachf r e q u e n c y b a n d . Th e r e a r e ma n y o t h e r u s e s f o r a s i mp l e LED meter. They are ideal as power meters on amplifiers, can be used with mixers (including the high quality mixer), preamps and any other application where it is important toknow the signal level.

The LM3915s 3dB step display is suited for signals with wide dynamic range, such as audio level ,power, light, intensity or vibration. Audio application include average or peak value level indicator, power meters and RF signals strength meters , replacing conventional meter with an LED bar graph result in a faster responding ,more rugged display with high visibility that retains ease of interpretation of analog display.

Chapter 3
COMPONENTS OVERVIEW 3.1 DOT/BAR DISPLAY DRIVER The LM3915 is monolithic integrated circuit that sense analog voltage and drive five LEDs. One pin changes the display from a bar graph to moving dot display.

LED current drive is regulated and programmable eliminating the need for current limiting resistor. The input buffer drive 10 individual comparators referenced to the precision divider. Accuracyis typically better than 1 dB.

3.2 THE PIEZO ELEMENT:


Piezoelectric diaphragm is a basic electronic s o u n d c o mp o n e n t . I t h a s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s i mp l e s t r u c t u r e , stable performance and high reliability. It is not only thecore element of piezoelectric buzzers and the alarms, butalso used as shock sensors in many sensitive equipments.

The Piezo Element

Basically, the sound source of a piezoelectric soundcomponent is a piezoelectric diaphragm. A piezoelectricdiaphragm consists of a piezoelectric ceramic plate whichh a s e l e c t r o d e s o n bo t h s i d e s a n d a me t a l p l a t e ( b r a s s o r s t a i n l e s s s t e e l , e t c . ) . A p i e z o e l e c t r i c c e r a m i c p l a t e i s a t t a c h e d t o a me t a l p l a t e wi t h a d h e s i v e s . A p p l yi n g D .C . voltage between electrodes of a piezoelectric diaphragmcauses mechanical distortion due to the piezoelectric effect.

Design Considerations :
These devices contain no electronics, and require externalc i r c u i t r y t o p r o d u c e a n a u d i bl e t o n e . P r e s e n c e o f t h e f e e d b a c k t a b e n a b l e s t h e d e s i g n e r t o s i m p l i f y t h e d r i v e circuit. Voltage applied to the device produces mechanical

distortions which are usable, among other applications, inalarms and sensors.

Piezo electric buzzer

The Touch Pad:


The Touch Pad is two tinned pads on the PC board. Whentouched them with a finger, the resistance of the finger isreduced by a factor of about 100 400 by the gain of thee mi t t e r - f o l l o we r t r a n s i s t o r a n d t h i s p u t s a H I G H o n t h e input pin of the chip. The input impedance of th e chip isf a i r l y h i g h ( a b o u t 5 0 k ) b u t wh e n yo u a d d a p u l l - d o wn r e s i s t o r ( t o p r e v e n t s t r a y s i g n a l s b e i n g d e t e c t e d b y t h e chip), the impedance decreases. The answer is to add theemitter-follower transistor.

Touch pad

3.3 LIGHT EMITTING DIODES:


A light emitting diode (LED) is a PN j u n c t i o n semiconductor diode that emits photons when electricalc u r r e n t p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e j u n c t i o n i n t h e f o r w a r d direction, the electrical carriers give up energy proportionalto the forward voltage drop across the diode junction, this energy is emitted in the form of light.

Construction of LED

LEDs are used in numerical displays such as those one l e c t r o n i c d i g i t a l w a t c h e s a n d p o c k e t c a l c u l a t o r s . B y definition, it is a s o l i d - s t a t e d e v i c e t h a t c o n t r o l s c u r r e n t wi t h o u t h e a t e d f i l a me n t s a n d i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y r e l i a b l e . LEDs are highly monochromatic, emitting a pure color ina narrow frequency range. The color emitted from an LEDi s identified by peak wavelength and measured i n nanometers. LEDs are made from gallium-based crystalst h a t c o n t a i n o n e o r m o r e a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s phosphorous to produce a distinct color. LED light outputvaries with the type of chip, encapsulation, efficiency of i n d i v i d ua l wa f e r l o t s a n d o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . S e v e r a l L E D manufacturers use terms such as "super-bright," and "ultra- bright" to describe LED intensity.

Because LEDs are solid-state devices they are not subjectt o c a t a s t r o p h i c f a i l u r e w h e n o p e r a t e d w i t h i n d e s i g n parameters. LEDs are currentdriven devices, not voltagedriven. Although drive current and light output are directlyr e l a t e d , e x c e e d i n g t h e m a x i m u m c u r r e n t r a t i n g will produce excessive heat within the LED chip due t o excessive power dissipation. The color of an LED isdetermined by the semiconductor material, not by t h e c o l o r i n g o f t h e ' p a c k a g e ' ( t h e p l a s t i c b o d y) . LED s a r e available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, and bluea n d w h i t e c o l o r s . L E D s a r e s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t o release a large number of photons outward. Additionally,they are housed in a plastic bulb that concentrates the lightin a particular direction

Design Parameters:
Never an LED should be connected directly to a battery or power supply. It will be destroyed almost instantly becauset o o mu c h c u r r e n t wi l l p a s s t h r o u g h a n d b u r n i t o u t . A n LED must have a resistor connected in series to limit thecurrent through the LED; otherwise it will burn out almostinstantly and try to avoid connecting them in parallel.

LED color Infrared Red Orange Yellow Green Blue white

Potential difference 1.6v 1.8v to 2.1v 2.2v 2.4v 2.6v 3.0vto 3.5v 3.0v to 3.5v

LED color vs. potentialdifference Equation to determine the required resistance: R e s i s t a n c e = ( S o u r c e V o l t a g e L E D V o l t a g e D r o p ) / desired current To drive an LED from a system, the following values are used: Source voltage = 13.4 volts (approximately) Voltage drop = 3.6 volts (typical for a blue or white LED) Desired current = 30 milliamps (typical value)

So the resistor we need is: (13.4 3.6) / (30 / 1000) = 327 ohms (Approximately 330ohms).

3.4 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY:

In a typical linear power supply, AC line voltage is firstdown-converted to a smaller peak voltage using atransformer which is then rectified using a full wave bridgerectifier circuit. A capacitor filter is then used to smoothenthe obtained sinusoidal signal. The residual periodicvariation or ripple in this filtered signal is eliminated usingan active regulator.

Regulated power supply To obtain a DC power supply with both positive andnegative output voltages, a center-tapped transformer isused, where a third wire is attached to the middle of thesecondary winding and it is taken as the common ground point. Then voltages from the opposite ends of the windingwill be positive or negative with respect to this pointCare should be taken while connecting 78XX and 79XXICs. Voltage Regulator: The 7805 takes in a voltage between 7 and 30 volts andregulates it down to exactly 5 volts. The first capacitor takes out any ripple coming from the transformer so thatthe 7805 is receiving a smooth input voltage, and thesecond capacitor acts as a load balancer to ensureconsistent output from the 7805.

Voltage regulator T h e 7 8 0 5 h a s t h r e e leads. If the 7805 is seenf r o m t h e f r o n t ( t h e s i d e wi t h p r i n t i n g o n i t ) , t h e three leads are, from leftto right, input voltage (7to 30 volts), ground, andoutput voltage (5 volts).

Circuit diagram of stress meter

CIRCUIT OPERATION
4.1 OPERATION OF THE CIRCUIT: This stress meter circuit uses just one IC and a very few number of external components. It displays the input levelin terms of 10 LEDs. The suggested input voltage can varyfrom 12V to 20V. T h e L M 3 9 1 5 I C c o n t a i n s a n a d ju s t a b l e voltagereference and an accurate tens t e p v o l t a g e d i v i d e r . Th e h i g h impedance input buffer accepts signals down toground and u p t o w i t h i n 1 . 5 V o f t h e p o s i t i v e s u p p l y . Further, it needs no protection against inputs of 35V. Theinput buffer drives 10 individual comparators referenced tothe precision divider. Accuracy is typically better than 1dB. A high input impedance buffer operates with signalsfrom ground to 12V, and is protected against reverse andover voltage signals. The signal is then applied to a seriesof 10 comparators; each of which is biased to a differentcomparison level by the resistor string. The LM3915 is extremely easy to apply. A 1.2V full -scale meter requires only one resistor in addition to the tenLEDs. One more resistor programs the fullscale anywheref r o m 1 .2 V t o 1 2 V i n d e p e n d e n t o f s u p pl y v o l t a g e . L E D brightness is easily controlled with a single pot. T h e f o l l o wi n g r e l a t i o n s c a n b e u s e d t o k n o w t h e approximate values of current and reference voltages. V ref = 1.25 (1+R2/R1) + R2* 80UA I (LED) = (12.5V/R1) + (Vref/2.2K)18

The outputs can drive LCDs, vacuum fluorescents andincandescent bulbs as well as LEDs of any color. Multipledevices can be cascaded for a dot or bar mode display witha r a n g e o f 6 0 o r 9 0 d B . L M 3 9 1 5 s c a n a l s o b e c a s c a d e d with LM3914s for a linear/log display or with LM3916sfor an extended-range VU meter.

4.2 CIRCUIT CONNECTIONS:

The pins 2, 4 and 8 of the LM3915 are grounded. 6 and 7 p i n s a r e s h o r t e d a n d a r e s i s t o r i s c o n n e c t e d a c r o s s t h e m which is grounded. Pin 1 and pins 10 to 18 are connectedto LEDs to be driven by the IC. Pin 9 and 11 are shortedto give a bar mode display.3 pin is given the input voltage.Pin 5 is used to connect the touch pads.19 4.3 ROLE PLAYED BY TOUCH PADS: The touch pad which is a piezoelectric substance senses theskin resistance when touched with a finger and acts like the 20 input to the circuit. The output stress level is indicated onthe LED display. The high stress level is indicated by awarning yellow light.The following figure gives a clear idea of the principle behind the stress meter and the role played by the touch pads

The output is indicated on a LED display .The ten LEDsact like the stress level indicators form zero stress level tohigh stress level on a scale of ten. The high stress detectedf r o m t h e d ot / b a r d i s p l a y d r i v e r i s i n d i c a t e d b y a ye l l o w light.

LED 1 2 3 4 5 6

THRESHODE 60mv 80mv 110mv 160mv 220mv 320mv

4.5 POWER SUPPLY GENERATION:

The 230 volts ac power supply is fed to the transformer and the transformer in turn is connected to a bridgerectifier circuit.When four diodes are connected as shown in figure, thecircuit is called a BRIDGE RECTIFIER. The input to the22 circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite corners of thenetwork, and the output is taken from the remaining twocorners.On the positive half cycle of transformer secondarysupply voltage, diodes Da n d D conduct, supplying thisvoltage to the load. On the negative half cycle of supplyvoltage, diodes Dand Dconduct supplying this voltage tothe load.It can be seen from the waveforms thatthepeakinversev o l t a g e o f t h e d i o d e s i s o n l y V m. T h e a v e r a g e outputv o l t a g e i s t h e s a m e a s t h a t f o r t h e c e n t e r t a p p e d transformer full-wave rectifier.With a resistive load, the load current is identical inshape to the output voltage. Most loads are inductive andthe load current with these loads depends on the value of load resistance and load inductance so they do not conductany current. During the negative halfc y c l e , t h e t o p e n d o f t h e t r a n s f o r me r wi n d i n g i s n e g a t i v e . N o w , D1 a n d D4 a r e f o r w a r d b i a s e d , a n d D 2 a n d D 3 a r e r e v e r s e b i a s e d . Therefore, electrons move through D1, the resistor, and D4i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s h ow n b y t h e b l u e a r r o ws . As wi t h t he p o s i t i v e h a l f c yc l e , e l e c t r o n s mo v e t h r o u g h t h e r e s i s t o r from left to right. In this manner, the diodes keep switchingthe transformer connections to the resistor so that currenta l wa ys f l o ws i n o n l y o n e d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e resistor.T h e r e s i s t o r s c a n b e r e p l a c e d w i t h a n y o t h e r c i r c u i t , including more power supply circuitry (such as the filter),and still see the same behavior from the bridge rectifier. The output from the bridge rectifier is thus connected tovoltage regulator 7805 to generate 5 volts regulated power supply to the circuit. The capacitors are used as filters tosmoothen the sinusoidal signals

4.6 THE STRESS METER:

5.1 RESULTS:
The stress meter thus detects the resistance of skin which isa c c o r d i n g t o o n e s m e n t a l s t r e s s a n d g i v e s a v i s u a l i n d i c a t i o n o n a L ED d i s p l a y. Th e L ED s o n t h e s t r e s s meter can be observed as stress level indicators form zeroto ten stress levels on a scale of ten. The high stress of a person is indicated through a warning yellow light.

5.2 ANALYSIS:
Resistance varies inverse proportional to the stre ss. If thes t r e s s l e v e l i s h i g h t h e s k i n o f f e r s l e s s r e s i s t a n c e , a n d i f relaxed resistance is high. The low resistance of the skinduring high stress is due to an increase in the blood supplyto the skin. This increases the permeability of the skin andhence the conductivity for electric current.The LED 1 glows by default when the circuit is on.When a person touches the touch pad of the stress meter with his finger, it senses the skin resistance and hence thestress. On a scale of ten, stress levels from 0 to 10 can beo b s e r v e d , wh e r e t h e L E D 1 0 wh e n o n g i v e s a wa r n i n g yellow light high stress indication.

Conclusion

6.1 Summary In this project , is proposed a stress meter indicate the stress level of human being based on ones skin resistance on scale of ten.The ckt uses IC LM3915 which is dot display driver which can easily drive five LED with suggested input voltage The touch pad which is piezoelectric substance senses the skin resistance when the touch with a finger act like as input to the ckt . the output stress level is indicated on the led display. The high stress level indicated by a warning of yellow led. A regulated power supply is used in project give an input voltage of 5 voltage for the ckt to operate.

Applications
Stress meter is widely applicable in the various meters and indicators. It is used as : A simple led meter Single led level indicators In peak detectors Light , power , audio meter

6.3 BENEFITS: The circuit is absolutely free from ambient light. It is economical and a low budget project. Not a complex circuit.

The components are easily available in the market and replaceable. Noise pulse do not have any effect on thecircuit.

L E D s c a n w i t h s t a n d t h e v o l t a g e e v e n i f n o resist ors are connected across. Can be used easily to regularly check ones stresslevel.

APPENDIX

PIN DIAGRAM OF LM3915:

Dropout Voltage : T h e v o l t a g e m e a s u r e d a t t h e c u r r e n t source outputs required to make the output current fall by10%. Input Bias Current : C u r r e n t f l o w i n g o u t o f t h e s i g n a l input when the input buffer is in the linear region. LED Current Regulation: The change in output currentover the specified range of LED supply voltage (VLED) asme a s u r e d a t t h e c u r r e n t s o u r c e o u t p u t s . As t h e f o r wa r d v o l t a g e o f a n L E D d o e s n o t c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y wi t h as m a l l c h a n g e i n f o r w a r d c u r r e n t , t h i s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o c h a n g i n g t h e v o l t a g e a t t h e L E D a n o d e s b y t h e s a m e amount. Line Regulation: The average change in reference outputvoltage (VREF) over the specified range of supply voltage(V+). Load Regulation : The change in reference output voltageover the specified range of load current (IL (REF)). Offset Voltage : The differential input voltage which must b e a p p l i e d t o e a c h c o mp a r a t o r t o b i a s t h e o u t p u t i n t h e l i n e a r r e g i o n . M o s t s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r wh e n t h e v o l t a g e across the internal voltage divider is small. Specified andt e s t e d wi t h p i n 6 v o l t a g e ( VR HI ) e q u a l t o p i n 4 v o l ta g e (VRLO).

Relative Accuracy: T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n y t w o adjacent threshold points. Specified and tested with 10Va c r o s s t h e i n te r n a l v o l t a g e d i v i d e r s o t h a t r e s i st o r r a t i o m a t c h i n g e r r o r p r e d o m i n a t e s o v e r c o m p a r a t o r o f f s e t voltage.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Journals: 1 .R o b e r t o B o n omi , S t r e s s a n d M i n d C o n t r o l , d a t e d 21/03/2008 Reference Books: 1. Joseph Edminster and Mahmood Nahvi, Electriccircuits, Schaums Outline, 2003 2. Stanley G Burns and Paul R Bond, Principles o f El e c t r o n i c C i r c u i t s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Th o ms o n p u b l is h i n g , 1997 3 . R i c h a r d C J a e g a r a n d T r a v i s N B l a l o c k , M i c r o electronic circu it design, Third Edition Errata,200834

A report on

STRESS METER

Submitted to Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Polytechnic , talsande In partital fulfillment of the Requirment of

Industrial Measurement

Submitted by
Swapnil Patil Prashant Gade Prakash Chougale Uday Patil

Under the guidance of lecturer Miss Savita Shetty

Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Dr. D. Y. Patil Polytechnic , talsande

Dr. D. Y. Patil Polytechnic Talsande , Kolhapur Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering Acadmic Year 2011-2012

CERTIFICATE
Tis is certify that , all student mention below have successfully done a project report on the given topic to our satisfaction during the acadmic year fulfillment of 3
rd

2011-12 . The report made was in partial semester diploma course in Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

Student participants :1) Swapnil Patil 2) Prashant Gade 3) Prakash Chogale 4) Uday Patil

Date :-

Guid

H.O.D

Principal

( Miss- Savita Shetty)

(Mr. U. K. Patil)

(Mr. M.N.Narake)

PROJECT

REPORT

ON

STRESS METER

SUBMITTED BY:SWAPNIL PATIL PRASHANT GADE PRAKASH CHOUGALE UDAY PATIL

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