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Development of a Linear Phase Band Stop Filter of Very High Frequency (VHF) for the Range of 30 300MHz

Shereen Lina Isaac and Jacinta A/P Saveridass

Department of Wireless Communication, Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka Karung Berkunci 1200, 75450 Ayer Keroh, Melaka
sherene_16@yahoo.com jess_9888@yahoo.com Abstract This paper gives a literature review on Linear Phase 5th order VHF Band Stop Filter . Bandstop filters reflect over a limited range of frequencies while allowing all others to pass through the network. Depending on the design of a filter response, range, filter order and response characteristic chosen, the application of Band Stop Filter is being used in variety of communication system applications. In this technical research, 5th order linear phase characteristic of 30MHz to 300MHz is used to form the bandstop filter circuit design. Keywords- Band Stop Filter; 30MHz- 300MHz; Linear Phase; VHF.

Band stop filters are very much used in telephone line noise reducers, DSL Internet technology, digital image processing and many power amplification based technologies. Band stop filters are also used to minimize the transmission of possible high-level signals such as the local oscillator of an up-converter where only the upper sideband is desired plus is also used as tuned reflective elements in oscillator circuits. The uses of these filters vary but they pop up in a wide variety of different forms and complexities. Some of the common type of application which uses VHF Bandstop filters are FM broadcasting, amateur radio, broadcast television, aviation, GPR and MRI. FILTER DESIGN A. Insertion-loss Design Method The insertion loss method begins with the design of a low-pass filter prototype that is normalized in terms of impedance and cutoff frequency. Normalized design of lowpass filter is then transformed to the filter with desired impedance level, frequency response and cutoff frequency. Insertion loss method uses a network synthesis technique to design filters with completely specified frequency response. The insertion loss method, however, allows a high degree of control over the passband and stopband amplitude and phase characteristics, with a systematic way to synthesize a desired response. The necessary design trade-offs can be evaluated to best meet the application requirements. B. Constant-k Filter Section The constant k-type filter section consists of the basic image filter section. Being the simplest circuit topology, the constant k-type has moderately fast transition from the pass band to the stop band and moderately good stop band rejection. The constant k-type filter section of a basic low

INTRODUCTION Microwave filter theory and practice began in the years preceding World War II, by pioneers such as Mason, Sykes, Darlington, Fano, Lawson, and Richards. . Today, most microwave filter design is done with sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) packages based on the insertion loss method. A microwave filter is a two-port network used to control the frequency response at a certain point in a microwave system by providing transmission at frequencies within the passband of the filter and attenuation in the stopband of the filter. A Band Stop Filter is a filter circuit under microwave filter that allows more frequencies to pass but block or attenuates certain range or band of frequencies. Band stop filters are also known as band-reject filter or notch filter. The Band Stop Filter is the opposite of Band Pass Filter. As the name implies, the range of frequencies that a band stop filter blocks is known as the stop band, indicated by a lower cut-off frequency, f1 and a higher cut-off frequency, f2.In band stop filters the lower cut-off frequency and higher cut-off frequency provide high and low ends of the range. Any frequency that falls outside these ranges will be attenuated. An ideal band stop filter occurs when there is no gain or any attenuation (the stop band is completely rejected by the filter). The band stop filter basically rejects all frequencies completely within a given band of frequencies. The frequency band or range is determined by the design of the circuitry which generally dictates the given cutoff frequencies.

pass filter is divided into two types of network that involve a T-section network and a section network.

Subsequently, series inductor of the low-pass prototype is converted to parallel LC circuit having element value as:


Figure 1: T-section

(4) Then, shunt capacitor is converted to series LC circuits element values given by:


(6) Figure 2: Pi-section C. Filter Transformations D. Filter Response Filter design was done by referring to the element values from the maximally-flat time delay low-pass filter prototypes table based on the number of orders, N. The filter order given for is N= 5Th order. The values referred as below: g1 = 0.9303 g2 = 0.4577 g3 = 0.3312 g4 = 0.2090 g5 = 0.0718 Figure 3: Band Stop Filter Filter transformation is done based on the basic low pass filter prototype of either LPF to BPF, LPF to HPF or LPF to BSF .Using the basic prototype of low pass filter, the circuit is then transformed into a bandstop filter . The lumped elements (capacitance and inductance) value of the bandstop filter is found by using the insertion loss method depending on the order of the filter and the response characteristic The low-pass filter prototypes were normalized design having a sources impedance of Rs = 1 and cutoff frequency of c = 1. The given frequency, 1 and 2 can determined the fractional bandwidth is: (1) The center frequency is: (2) = 596.075 So, 2.846

SIMULATION RESULT E. Circuit Design of Band Stop Filter

Figure 4: Design of Band Stop Filter using AWR Design Environment Software The impedance-scaled and frequency-transformed element values for the circuit above are:

bandstop filter of the circuit design. Insertion loss, ideally a perfect filter inserted into the RF circuit path would introduce no power loss in the passband. In other words, it would have zero insertion loss. In reality, there is certain amount of power loss associated with the filter. The insertion loss quantifies below the 0dB line the power amplitude response drops.INSERTION LOSS ,CENTER FREQ,

Figure 6: The Frequency Response Graph Generated using AWR Design Environment Software From the graph above, the calculated stop bandwidth is (296.06MHz 25.824MHz) = 270.24MHz, which is also equal to the assigned bandwidth with the range of 30300MHz. The stop band is the 3 dB attenuation bandwidth. The result above is obtained by converting low-pass filter into bandpass filter. Those are the real values of capacitor and inductor of the circuit design. F. Frequency Response of the Circuit Design CONCLUSION Bandstop filters are basically designed through two methods that are the image parameter method and insertion loss method. The image parameter method determines whether the filter circuit to be designed is a shunt or series. The insertion loss method allows minimum insertion loss with better phase response and sharper cutoff. In this technical paper, the bandstop filter designed in this research is of series type and using passive elements. The band stop filter is designed from a basic low pass filter using image parameter method consists of 5th order lumped elements and transformed into a bandstop filter using insertion loss method. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank Mr. Noor Azwan Shairi, the advisor for BENT 4373, for his support and guidance in accomplishing this technical paper. Appreciation also goes to all 3 BENW members for their thought and suggestions contributed throughout this research. Fi gure 5: The Frequency Response Graph Generated using AWR Design Environment Software Figure 5 is the graph of attenuation (dB) versus frequency (MHz). It is the amplitude response for the REFERENCES
M. Devendra, Radio- frequency and microwave communication circuits:analysis and design, New York : Wiley -IEEE , 2004, pp.334. David.M.Pozar, Microwave Engineering , New York: John Wiley, 2005, pp. 370-380. L.Reinhold, B.Gene, RF Circuit design: theory and applications, PrenticeHall, Second Edition pp.207, 2008.