Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Physics POGIL: Kinetic Energy and Gravitational Potential Energy Energy can be thought of as the capacity of an object to enact

change. We have seen that energy can be transferred between different mechanisms and thus cause changes in a system. In this POGIL we will learn how to calculate the amount of energy stored in two mechanisms: kinetic energy (Ek) and gravitational potential energy (Eg). Kinetic Energy (Ek) The kinetic energy (Ek) of an object is a measure of an objects energy associated with its motion. The diagrams below show several objects of different masses moving at different velocities. The kinetic energy of each object is calculated. Note that we use Joules as the unit of energy, abbreviated with the letter J.

15 kg

10 m/s

kinetic energy = (mass) (velocity)2 1 1 = 2 = (15 kg)(10 m/s)2 2 2 Ek = 750 kg-m2/s2 = 750 Joules = 750 J kinetic energy = (mass) (velocity)2 1 1 = 2 = (15 kg)(20 m/s)2 2 2 Ek = 3000 kg-m2/s2 = 3000 Joules = 3000 J kinetic energy = (mass) (velocity)2 1 1 = 2 = (30 kg)(10 m/s)2 2 2 Ek = 1500 kg-m2/s2 = 1500 Joules = 1500 J

15 kg

20 m/s

10 m/s

30 kg

1. Calculate the kinetic energy, in Joules, of the following objects. (a) a 70 kg person running at 4 m/s

(b) a 0.001 kg ant moving at a speed of 0.02 m/s

(c) a 1000 kg car traveling at 30 m/s

(d) a 0.05 kg ball moving at 25 m/s

2. Can kinetic energy ever be negative? Why or why not?

3. Rank the following objects in order from lowest kinetic energy to highest kinetic energy. Indicate a tie with an equal sign.

Physics (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) an object of mass m traveling with a speed v an object of mass 2m traveling with a speed v an object of mass m traveling with a speed 2v an object of mass m traveling at speed 2v an object of mass 2m traveling at speed v

Gravitational Potential Energy (Eg) The gravitational potential energy of an object is the energy of an object associated with its position while under the influence of a gravitational force. The diagrams below show several objects of different masses at different heights above a reference level. The gravitational potential energy of each object relative to the reference level shown is calculated.

gravitational potential energy = mass acceleration due to gravity height = = (2 kg)(10 m/s 2 )(+5 m) Eg = 100 J gravitational potential energy = mass acceleration due to gravity height = = (1 kg)(10 m/s 2 )(0 m) Eg = 0 J gravitational potential energy = mass acceleration due to gravity height = = (10 kg)(10 m/s 2 )(-4 m) Eg = 400 J gravitational potential energy = mass acceleration due to gravity height = = (15 kg)(10 m/s 2 )(-7 m) Eg = 1050 J

2 kg

1 kg

5m reference level, h = 0 10 kg 4m

15 kg

3m

4. In the picture below, a 1000 kg car starts at point A and travels down a hill through points B, C, and D.

A B

5m 5m C 7m D

Physics (a) Using the vertical level of point D as the reference level, calculate: i. the car's gravitational potential energy at points A, B, C, and D Eg (point A) = Eg (point C) = Eg (point B) = Eg (point D) =

ii. the car's change in gravitational potential energy (Eg) in traveling from point A to B, A to C, and A to D. Eg (A to B) = Eg (A to D) = (b) Using the vertical level of point A as the reference level, calculate: i. the car's gravitational potential energy at points A, B, C, and D Eg (point A) = Eg (point C) = Eg (point B) = Eg (point D) = Eg (A to C) =

ii. the car's change in gravitational potential energy (Eg) in traveling from point A to B, A to C, and A to D. Eg (A to B) = Eg (A to D) = 5. Does the choice of reference level affect: (a) the amount of potential energy an object has? Explain. Eg (A to C) =

(b) the change in potential energy of an object when traveling between two heights? Explain.