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# 1.

4 Circuit Theorems

1. vTH , RTH = ? 5 6
(C) 1 V, W (D) -1 V, W
6 5
3W 2W

## 4. A simple equivalent circuit of the 2 terminal

vTH, RTH network shown in fig. P1.4.4 is
6V 6W

R
Fig. P.1.4.1

i v
(A) 2 V, 4 W (B) 4 V, 4 W
(C) 4 V, 5 W (D) 2 V, 5 W
Fig. P.1.4.4

2. i N , R N = ?

2W 2W R
R

v
iN, RN
15 V 4W

(A) (B)

Fig. P.1.4.2
R
R i
10
(A) 3 A, W (B) 10 A, 4 W i
3

## (C) 1,5 A, 6 W (D) 1.5 A, 4 W (C) (D)

5. i N , R N = ?
3. vTH , RTH = ?
2W
2W

iN RN
vTH, RTH 6A 4W 3W
2A 3W 1W

Fig. P.1.4.5
Fig. P.1.4.3

6 5 (A) 4 A, 3 W (B) 2 A, 6 W
(A) -2 V, W (B) 2 V, W
5 6 (C) 2 A, 9 W (D) 4 A, 2 W

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34 Circuit Theorems Chap 1.4

## 6. vTH , RTH = ? The value of the parameter are

30 W 25 W
vTH RTH iN RN
(A) 4 V 2 W 2 A 2 W
20 W
vTH, RTH (B) 4 V 2 W 2 A 3 W
5V
30
5A (C) 8 V 1.2 W A 1.2 W
3
8
Fig. P.1.4.6 (D) 8 V 5 W A 5 W
5
(A) -100 V, 75 W (B) 155 V, 55 W
10. v1 = ?
(C) 155 V, 37 W (D) 145 V, 75 W
2W 1W 1W 3W

7. RTH = ?
+
8V 2W 6W v1 6W 18 V
6W

2A 6W
RTH Fig. P.1.4.10

5V (A) 6 V (B) 7 V
(C) 8 V (D) 10 V
Fig. P.1.4.7
11. i1 = ?
(A) 3 W (B) 12 W
(C) 6 W (D) ¥ 4 kW i1 4 kW
20 V
6 kW

## 8. The Thevenin impedance across the terminals ab of

the network shown in fig. P.1.4.8 is 12 V 4 kW 3 kW 24 V
a
3W
Fig. P.1.4.11

## 2A 6W 8W (A) 3 A (B) 0.75 mA

2V
(C) 2 mA (D) 1.75 mA
8W
b

## Fig. P.1.4.8 Statement for Q.12–13:

A circuit is given in fig. P.1.4.12–13. Find the
(A) 2 W (B) 6 W
Thevenin equivalent as given in question..
4
(C) 6.16 W (D) W
3 10 W x 16 W y

## 9. For In the the circuit shown in fig. P.1.4.9 a network

and its Thevenin and Norton equivalent are given 5V 40 W 8W 1A

2W 3W

x’ y’
RTH
Fig. P.1.4.12–13
4V 2A iN RN
vTH
12. As viewed from terminal x and x¢ is
(A) 8 V, 6 W (B) 5 V, 6 W
Fig. P.1.4.9 (C) 5 V, 32 W (D) 8 V, 32 W

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Chap 1.4 Circuit Theorems 35

## 13. As viewed from terminal y and y¢ is (C) 0 A, 20 W (D) 0 A, -20 W

(A) 8 V, 32 W (B) 4 V, 32 W
19. vTH , RTH = ?
(C) 5 V, 6 W (D) 7 V, 6 W
6W i1

## 14. A practical DC current source provide 20 kW to a

50 W load and 20 kW to a 200 W load. The maximum 3i1
iN, RN
4W
power, that can drawn from it, is
(A) 22.5 kW (B) 45 kW
(C) 30.3 kW (D) 40 kW Fig. P1.4.19

## Statement for Q.15–16: (A) 0 W (B) 1.2 W

(C) 2.4 W (D) 3.6 W
In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.15–16 when R = 0 W ,
the current iR equals 10 A. 20. vTH , RTH = ?
4W 2W 2W
4V

+
E 4W R 2W 4A
vTH RTH
0.1v1 5W v1
iR

Fig. P.1.4.15–16.
Fig. P.1.4.20
15. The value of R, for which it absorbs maximum
(A) 8 V, 5 W (B) 8 V, 10 W
power, is
(A) 4 W (B) 3 W (C) 4 V, 5 W (D) 4 V, 10 W

## (C) 2 W (D) None of the above

21. RTH = ?
2W 3W
16. The maximum power will be
+
(A) 50 W (B) 100 W
vx RTH
(C) 200 W (D) value of E is required 4V
4
vx

## r = 4 W connected to a variable resistance RL . The rate Fig. P.1.4.21

of heat dissipated in the resistor is maximum when
(A) 3 W (B) 1.2 W
the current drawn from the battery is i . The current
(C) 5 W (D) 10 W
drawn form the battery will be i 2 when RL is equal to
(A) 2 W (B) 4 W
22. In the circuit shown in fig. P.1.4.22 the effective
(C) 8 W (D) 12 W resistance faced by the voltage source is
4W
18. i N , R N = ?
10 W 5W
i
i1 i
vs 4
iN, RN
20i1 30 W

Fig. P.1.4.22
Fig. P.1.4.18
(A) 4 W (B) 3 W
(A) 2 A, 20 W (B) 2 A, -20 W (C) 2 W (D) 1 W

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36 Circuits Theorems Chap 1.4

terminal ab is

16 V 0.9 A 3W RL
0.75va

2W

Fig. P.1.4.26–27
8W
a

## 9V 4W va 26. The value of RL will be

+

b
(A) 2 W (B) 3 W
Fig. P.1.4.23 (C) 1 W (D) None of the above

(A) -3 W (B)
9
W 27. The maximum power is
8 (A) 0.75 W (B) 1.5 W
8
(C) - W (D) None of the above (C) 2.25 W (D) 1.125 W
3
28. RTH = ?
24. RTH = ?
-2ix
200 W

va RTH
va 100 W 50 W 100 W +
100 0.01vx
+
RTH
100 W 300 W vx

## (A) ¥ (B) 0 Fig. P.1.4.28

3 125
(C) W (D) W (A) 100 W (B) 136.4 W
125 3
(C) 200 W (D) 272.8 W
25. In the circuit of fig. P.1.4.25, the RL will absorb
29. Consider the circuits shown in fig. P.1.4.29
maximum power if RL is equal to
ia 2W
40 W 100 W

i 6W 6W
2W 2W
6V 200 W 3i RL
12 V

12 V 8V
Fig. P.1.4.25
6W

400 2
(A) W (B) kW ib 2W
3 9
800 4
(C) W (D) kW 6W 6W
3 9
2W 2W

## Statement for Q.26–27:

18 V 6W 3A 12 V
In the circuit shown in fig. P1.4.26–27 the
maximum power transfer condition is met for the load
RL . Fig. P.1.4.29a & b

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Chap 1.4 Circuit Theorems 37

The relation between ia and ib is 33. If vs1 = 6 V and vs 2 = - 6 V then the value of va is
(A) ib = ia + 6 (B) ib = ia + 2 (A) 4 V (B) -4 V
(C) ib = 15
. ia (D) ib = ia (C) 6 V (D) -6 V

## 30. Req = ? 34. A network N feeds a resistance R as shown in fig.

12 W 4W P1.4.34. Let the power consumed by R be P. If an
identical network is added as shown in figure, the
6W 2W power consumed by R will be
Req
18 W 6W
9W

N R N N
R

Fig. P.1.4.30

72 Fig. P.1.4.34
(A) 18 W (B) W
13
(A) equal to P (B) less than P
36
(C) W (D) 9 W
13 (C) between P and 4P (D) more than 4P

31. In the lattice network the value of RL for the 35. A certain network consists of a large number of

maximum power transfer to it is ideal linear resistors, one of which is R and two
constant ideal source. The power consumed by R is P1
7W
when only the first source is active, and P2 when only
the second source is active. If both sources are active
6
W

## RL simultaneously, then the power consumed by R is

W

(A) P1 ± P2 (B) P1 ± P2
5

9W (C) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2 (D) ( P1 ± P2 ) 2
Fig. P.1.4.31

## (A) 6.67 W (B) 9 W 36. A battery has a short-circuit current of 30 A and an

open circuit voltage of 24 V. If the battery is connected
(C) 6.52 W (D) 8 W
to an electric bulb of resistance 2 W, the power
dissipated by the bulb is
Statement for Q.32–33:
(A) 80 W (B) 1800 W
A circuit is shown in fig. P.1.4.32–33.
(C) 112.5 W (D) 228 W
12 W

## 1W 3W 3W 1W 37. The following results were obtained from

+ measurements taken between the two terminal of a
resistive network
vs1 1W va vs2

Terminal voltage 12 V 0V

## Fig. P.1.4.32–33 Terminal current 0A 1.5 A

32. If vs1 = vs 2 = 6 V then the value of va is The Thevenin resistance of the network is
(A) 3 V (B) 4 V (A) 16 W (B) 8 W
(C) 6 V (D) 5 V (C) 0 (D) ¥

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38 Circuit Theorems Chap 1.4

## 38. A DC voltmeter with a sensitivity of 20 kW/V is

used to find the Thevenin equivalent of a linear
Solutions
network. Reading on two scales are as follows
( 6)( 6)
1. (B) vTH = = 4 V, RTH = ( 3||6) + 2 = 4 W
(a) 0 - 10 V scale : 4 V 3+ 6

## (b) 0 -15 V scale : 5 V

2. (A)
The Thevenin voltage and the Thevenin
resistance of the network is 2W v1 2W

16 1 32 200 isc
(A) V, MW (B) V, kW
3 15 3 3
15 V 4W
2 200
(C) 18 V, MW (D) 36 V, kW
15 3

Fig. S.1.4.2
39. Consider the network shown in fig. P.1.4.39.

15
10 2
+ R N = 2 ||4 + 2 = W, v1 = =6W
Linear RL vab 3 1 1 1
Network + +
– 2 2 4
v
isc = i N = 1 = 3 A
Fig. P.1.4.39 2

(2)( 3)(1) 5
The power absorbed by load resistance RL is 3. (C) vTH = = 1 V, RTH = 1||5 = W
3+ 3 6
shown in table :

## 4. (B) After killing all source equivalent resistance is R

RL 10 kW 30 kW
Open circuit voltage = v1
P 3.6 MW 4.8 MW
6´ 4
5. (D) isc = = 4 A = i N , R N = 6 ||3 = 2 W
4+2
The value of RL , that would absorb maximum
2W
power, is
(A) 60 kW (B) 100 W isc

## 40. Measurement made on terminal ab of a circuit of

fig.P.1.4.40 yield the current-voltage characteristics Fig. S1.4.5

## shown in fig. P.1.4.40. The Thevenin resistance is

i(mA) 6. (B) RTH = 30 + 25 = 55 W, vTH = 5 + 5 ´ 30 = 155 V
a
+
30
20 Resistive
vab
7. (C) After killing the source, RTH = 6 W
Network
10 –
b 6W
v
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
Fig. P.1.4.40 6W
RTH
(A) 300 W (B) -300 W
(C) 100 W (D) -100 W
Fig. S.1.4.7
***********

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Chap 1.4 Circuit Theorems 39

8. (B) After killing all source, RTH = 3||6 + 8 ||8 = 6 W If we Thevenized the left side of xx¢ and source
a transformed right side of yy¢
3W
4 8
+
vxx ¢ = vTH = 8 24 = 5 V, RTH = 8 ||(16 + 8) = 6 W
1 1
6W 8W +
8 24
8W
b
4 8
+
Fig. S1.4.8 24 8 = 7 V, R = ( 8 + 16)||8 = 6 W
13. (D) v yy¢ = vTH = TH
1 1
+
9. (D) voc = 2 ´ 2 + 4 = 8 V = vTH 24 8
vTH 8
RTH = 2 + 3 = 5 W = R N , iN = = A 14. (A)
RTH 5

## 10. (A) By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin

i r RL
equivalent
1W 1W 1W 2W

Fig. S1.4.14
+
4V 6W v1 12 V
2 2
– æ ir ö æ ir ö
ç ÷ 50 = 20 k, ç ÷ 200 = 20 k
è r + 50 ø è r + 200 ø
( r + 200) 2 = 4( r + 50) 2 Þ r = 100 W
Fig. S1.4.10
( 30) 2 ´ 100
i = 30 A, Pmax = = 22.5 kW
4 12 4
+
v1 = 1 + 1 1 +2 =6 V
1 1
+ +
1 15. (C) Thevenized the circuit across R, RTH = 2 W
1+1 6 1+2 4W 2W 2W

## 11. (B) By changing the LHS and RHS in Thevenin

equivalent 4W 2W

20 V
2 kW i1 4 kW 2 kW

Fig. S1.4.15

2
6V 8V æ 10 ö
16. (A) isc = 10 A, RTH = 2 W, Pmax = ç ÷ ´ 2 = 50 W
è 2 ø

24
Fig. S1.4.11 17. (D) RL = r = 4 W, i = =3 A
4+4
20 - 6 - 8 24
=
3
Þ R¢L = 12 W
i1 = = 0.75 mA
2k + 4k + 2k RL¢ + 4 2

## 12. (B) 18. (C) i N = 0,

8W x 16 W y 8W
1- i1 10 W 5W

i1
+
4V 8V
20i1 30 W 1A vtest

x’ y’

## Fig. S1.4.12 Fig. S1.4.18

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40 Circuit Theorems Chap 1.4

20 i1 = 30 i1 - 10(1 - i1 ) Þ i1 = 0.5 A 3i vs
22. (B) vs = 4 ´ Þ = 3W
vtest = 5 ´ 1 + 30 ´ 0.5 = 20 V 4 i
v
R N = test = 20 W voc voc - 9
1 23. (C) voc = vab = -va , + + 0.75 va = 0
4 8
2 voc + voc - 9 + 6( -voc ) = 0 , voc = - 3 V
19. (B) Circuit does not contains any independent
If terminal ab is short circuited, va = 0
source, vTH = 0
9 v -3 -8
6W i1
isc = A and RTH = oc = = W
8 isc 9 8 3

+
4W vtest
24. (D) Using source transform
3i1 1A
– i1 100 W 200 W

+
Fig. S1.4.19 va
va 50 W 1A vtest

Applying 1 A at terminal, i1 = -1 A +
vtest vtest - 3( -1)
+ = 1 Þ vtest = 12
. V Fig. S1.4.24
4 6
v
RTH = test = 12. W va = 100 i1 + 200 i1 + 50( i1 + 1)
1
va = 100 i1 - va Þ va = 50 i1
1
20. (B) 50 i1 = 300 i1 + 50 i1 + 50 Þ i1 = - A
6
4V
æ 1 ö 125
vtest = 50ç 1 - ÷ = W
isc
è 6ø 3

## 0.1v1 5W 25. (C)

2i 40 W 100 W

i +
Fig. S1.4.20
6V 200 W 3i voc

v1 = 4 + 5 ´ 0.1v1 Þ v1 = 8 V

v1 = voc = vTH
For isc , v1 = 0 Fig. S1.4.25a

4 v
isc = A, RTH = oc = 10 W 1
5 isc 6 = 200 i - 40 ´ 2 i Þ i= A
20
voc = 100 ´ 3i + 200 ´ i = 25 V
vx
21. (D) vx = 2 +4 Þ vx = 8 V = voc
4 40 W v1 100 W

2W 3W i
isc
isc
6V 200 W 3i1
vx
4V
4

Fig. S1.4.25b
Fig. S1.4.21
6
40 15 15 3
If terminal is short circuited, vx = 0 v1 = = V, i = = A
4 v 8
1
+
1
+
1 4 4 ´ 200 160
isc = = 0.8 A, RTH = oc = = 10 W 40 200 100
2+3 isc 0.8

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Chap 1.4 Circuit Theorems 41

## 16 3´ 3 3 v 25 800 30. (D) Changing the D to Y

isc = + = A, RTH = oc = = W
4 ´ 100 160 32 isc 3 32 3
2
W
12 W 2W 3
26. (B) ix + 0.9 = 10 ix Þ ix = 0.1 A
10ix 1W
2W
Req
+ 18 W 6W

9W
16 V 0.9 A 3W voc

– Fig. S1.4.30

Fig. S1.4.26
æ æ 2 öö
Req = 18 ||çç 14 + 10 ||ç 6 + ÷ ÷÷ = 18 ||(14 + 4) = 9 W
è è 3 øø
voc = 3 ´ 10 ix = 30 ix Þ voc = 3 V
3
isc = 10 ix = 1 A, RTH = = 3W 31. (C) RTH = 7 ||5 + 6 ||9 = 6.52 W
1
7W
2
3
27. (A) vTH = voc = 3 V, RL = 3 W, Pmax = = 0.75 W

6
4´ 3

W
RTH

W
28. (A) ix = 1 A , vx = vtest

5
-2ix
9W
Fig. S1.4.31

## 100 W For maximum power transfer RL = RTH = 6.52 W

0.01vx +
100 W 300 W 1A vtest
32. (D) The given circuit has mirror symmetry. It is

ix modified and redrawn as shown in fig. S.1.4.32a.
800 W 6W 6W

Fig. S1.4.28
1W 1W

3W 3W +
vtest = 100 (1 - 2 ix ) + 300 (1 - 2 ix - 0.01vx ) + 800
Þ vtest = 1200 - 800 ix - 3vtest 6V 2W 2W va 6V
4 vtest = 1200 - 800 = 400 Þ vtest = 100 V
v –
RTH = test = 100 W
1
Fig. S.1.4.32a

29. (C) In circuit (b) transforming the 3 A source in to Now in this circuit all straight-through connection
18 V source all source are 1.5 times of that in circuit have been cut as shown in fig. S1.4.32b
(a). Hence ib = 15
. ia . 6W

ib 2W 1W

3W +
6W 6W
2W 2W 2W va 6V

18 V –
18 V 12 V
Fig. S.1.4.32b
6W
6 ´ (2 + 3)
Fig. S1.4.29 va = =5 V
2 + 3+1

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42 Circuit Theorems Chap 1.4

33. (B) Since both source have opposite polarity, hence For 0 -50 V scale Rm = 50 ´ 20 k = 1 MW
short circuit the all straight-through connection as 4
For 4 V reading i = ´ 50 = 20 mA
shown in fig. S.1.4.33 10
6W
vTH = 20mRTH + 20m ´ 200 k = 4 + 20mRTH ...(i)
5
1W
For 5 V reading i = ´ 50m = 5 mA
50
3W + vTH = 5m ´ RTH + 5m ´ 1M = 5 + 5mRTH ...(ii)

2W
Solving (i) and (ii)
va 6V
16 200
vTH = V, RTH = kW
– 3 3
Fig. S1.4.33
39. (D) v10 k = 10 k ´ 3.6m = 6
6 ´ ( 6 ||3) v30 k = 30 k ´ 4.8m = 12 V
va = - = -4 V
2+1
10
6 = vTH Þ 10 vTH = 6 RTH + 60
10 + RTH
34. (C) Let Thevenin equivalent of both network
30 vTH
RTH RTH RTH 12 = Þ 5 vTH = 2 RTH + 60
30 + RTH
RTH = 30 kW
vTH R vTH R vTH
40. (D) At v = 0 , isc = 30 mA

## Fig. S1.4.34 At i = 0, voc = - 3 V

v -3
2 RTH = oc = = - 100 W
æ VTH ö isc 30m
P = çç ÷÷ R
è RTH + R ø
2
æ ö
ç ÷ æ ö
2 ************
VTH VTH
P¢ = ç ÷ R = 4ç
ç2R + R ÷÷ R
ç R ÷ è ø
ç R + TH ÷ TH
è 2 ø
Thus P < P ¢ < 4 P

P1 P2
35. (C) i1 = and i2 =
R R
P1 P2
using superposition i = i1 + i2 = ±
R R
i 2 R = ( P1 ± P2 ) 2

voc
36. (C) r = = 1. 2 W
isc
24 2
P= ´ 2 = 112.5 W
(1. 2 + 2) 2

voc 12
37. (B) RTH = = =8W
isc 15
.

1 1
38. (A) Let = = 50 mA
sensitivity 20 k
For 0 -10 V scale Rm = 10 ´ 20 k = 200 kW

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