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Themes: LEDs structure and principles Group number 30: FireGoats. September 27, 2011 Members: Trn Vn Sng. Hong Minh Tn. Phm Hng Cng

Report: LEDs structure and principles

Contents
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................................. 3 I. GENERAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT LED ..................................................................................................... 4 CLASSIFICATION: ................................................................................................................................................... 4

a. b.
II. 1.

Low/Medium power LEDs. ................................................................................................................. 4 Power LEDs:......................................................................................................................................... 5

STRUCTURE OF LED ............................................................................................................................... 5 STRUCTURE OF LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES (LEDS) .............................................................................................. 5

i. ii. iii. iv.


III. 1.

Classification ........................................................................................................................................ 5 Foundation .......................................................................................................................................... 6 Composition ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Material................................................................................................................................................ 8

OPERATION PRINCIPLES OF LED ........................................................................................................... 9 COMMON PRINCIPLES................................................................................................................................... 9

2. IV.

Electromagnetic spectrum: ............................................................................................................... 11


ENERGY BAND GAP: .................................................................................................................................... 12

THE DIVERSITY OF LEDS COLOURS. ................................................................................................... 14 RED-GREEN-BLUE LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (RGB LED)........................................................................................... 14

V.

CONCLUSION....................................................................................................................................... 15

APPENDIX ...................................................................................................................................................... 17 REFERENCE ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

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Chapter: Introduction

Report: LEDs structure and principles

Introduction
From the ancient past, the Lord said "light go out." And the light appears, because all things cannot live with the night. This is a fact or just a myth entirely upon the individual's faith. But theres a certainty that to own the kind of light as we have today, it took many thousands of years to understand the laws of nature for the invention and creation. Humans will not exist and did not evolve if there is no light. Human discovered the fire, created the fire and using fire as a light source in the distant prehistoric times. Prior to electrification, over thousands of years and until the 70s of last century people are still using the oil lamp, or to the lamp a little closure glow-fired steam oil to drive away the night. Late 19th century, Thomas Edison created a revolution in the "light" through the invention and fluorescent lamp completion by dint of the light of a resistor heated when an electrical current across. Quantum mechanics appeared 100 years ago has changed the understanding of the physics of the microscopic world. In the field of luminescence, this subject tell us that the quantum leap in energy, the movement of electrons and the existence of photons (light particles). As a result, one can produce light without burning or heating a material object to. mercury vapor to all brightly prosperous place at night, second time thanks to screen using cathode pole The fluorescence in the of capital neon city colored

are revolutionizing the light a quantum mechanics. Television was developed based on the

principles of fluorescence. Luminescence does not stop there. Thin liquid crystal display (liquid crystal) used for computer and television screens are replacing the traditional cathode pole used to be big, heavy and high energy consumption. Human are still not satisfied. The curious addition of human need is a cause motivates people to seek luminescent materials more efficiently. Then this liquid crystal display will be replaced with consumption. In this article we take a look how the second light revolutionary with the lamps used in semiconductor have been implemented. Chapter: Introduction the screen taking advantage of luminescent organic materials, very thin and less energy

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Report: LEDs structure and principles

I.

General knowledge about LED


LED, full word is light-emitting diode, in 1962, was invented on electroluminescence (the principle of electrical luminescence - EL optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon). Known as diode because the light emitting parts are composed by electronrich semiconductor connected to the other hole-rich one, the hole can be viewed as positively charged particles.

LEDs exploit the characteristics of a particular material (semiconductor) that, if conveniently treated, can transmit light when its passed through by an electrical current (electronic light). For their structure they belong to the SSL family (Solid State Lighting), that means they work with no need for cruets containing gas mixtures, which are required by most traditional light sources (filament bulbs, fluorescent and discharge lamps, etc.).

Nowadays, LEDs are semiconductor light source used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting with the variability across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, and very high brightness.

Classification:
a. Low/Medium power LEDs. The current used isnt higher than 150mA, Group number 30: FireGoats

Chapter: General knowledge about LED

Report: LEDs structure and principles mostly used to obtain light signals or decoration. b. Power LEDs: They are used to illuminate surfaces and whole environments. i. Single chip Power LEDs ii. Multi chip Power LEDs

II.

Structure of LED
i. Classification Surface emitting LED structure: This form of LED structure emits light perpendicular to the plane of the PN junction.

1. Structure of light-emitting diodes (LEDs)

Surface emitting LED structure Edge emitting LED structure: This form of LED structure emits light in a plane parallel to the junction of the PN junction. In this configuration the light can be For medium-distance, medium-data-rate systems, ELEDs are preferred. Chapter: Structure of LED confined to a narrow angle

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Report: LEDs structure and principles

ii.

Foundation Size: In SMD devices (surface mount devices): Most of the size of a 5mm or 3mm indicator LED is the epoxy packagethe actual LED junction is quite small SMD LEDs are available in four sizes, which are designated 1206, 0805, 0603 and 0402. 0402 is the smallest, with overall package size of 1.0 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.45 mm (L x W x H). Then 0603 at 1.6 mm x 0.8 mm x 0.6 mm. 0805 are slightly larger, at 2.0 mm x 1.25 mm x 0.8 mm. 1206 are the big brothers of the family, at 3.2mm x 1.5 mm x 1.1 mm. Electrical These arent very different from the LEDs youre used to. Both of these are rated for a typical forward current of 35mA, with a typical forward voltage of 3.6V (4.0V max). Where they wider view angle at 140. The little guy is rated 200mcd and the 0805 is rated 120mcd. That may seem low if youre used to specs on 5mm LEDs, but remember that luminous intensity in millicandelas changes as the view angle, so these have a comparable overall flux Chapter: Structure of LED stand well apart from the crowd is opticallythese are much

iii.

Composition

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Report: LEDs structure and principles

Mold (top of LED) is filled with liquid plastic or epoxy, known A chip (semiconductor die): bonded into a recess in one half

as Epoxy lens/case. of the lead frame, is made of semiconducting material doped with impurities (to create a PN junction). The PN junction can be created by either impurity diffusion, ion implantation, or it can be incorporated during the epitaxial growth phase it. Anvil: name to its shape. Post. The recess in the anvil is shaped to throw the light radiation forward. Reflective cavity: fix lights direction. Flat spot. Substrates: common are GaAS, GaP, InP. LEDs are usually Chapter: Structure of LED Leadframe: This houses the die and acts as the connection to

built on an n-type substrate, with an electrode attached to the ptype layer deposited on its surface. P-type substrates, while less common, occur as well. Many commercial LEDs, especially GaN/InGaN, also use sapphire substrate Electrode: Anode: usually longer than cathode. Group number 30: FireGoats

Report: LEDs structure and principles Cathode: directly connected with die and the anvil, usually shorter than the former. iv. Material The wavelength of the light emitted, and thus its color depends on the Energy band gap of the materials forming the PN junction. In silicon or germanium diodes, the electrons and holes recombine by a non-radiative transition which produces no optical emission, because these are indirect band gap materials. The materials used for the LED have a direct band gap with energies corresponding to near-infrared, visible or near-ultraviolet light. Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials, producing the following colors:
Order
1 2 3

Material
Aluminum gallium arsenide Aluminum gallium phosphide Aluminum gallium indium phosphide

Sign
AlGaAs AlGaP AlGaInP

Output
red and infrared green high-brightness orange-red, orange, yellow, and green

4 5 6

Gallium arsenide phosphide Gallium phosphide Gallium nitride

GaAsP GaP GaN

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Indium gallium nitride Silicon carbide Silicon Sapphire Zinc selenide Diamond Aluminum nitride

InGaN SiC Si Al2O3 ZnSe C AlN

red, orange-red, orange, and yellow red, yellow and green green, pure green (or emerald green), and blue also white (if it has an AlGaN Quantum Barrier) near ultraviolet, bluish-green and blue as substrateblue as substrateblue (under development) as substrateblue blue ultraviolet aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) near to far ultraviolet (down to 210 nanometer (nm)

out.

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Chapter: Structure of LED

Most materials used for LED production have very high refractive indices. This means that much light will be reflected back into the material at the material/air surface interface. Thus, light extraction in LEDs is an important aspect of LED production, subject to much research and development. Materials with refractive index that could allow light to get

Report: LEDs structure and principles

III.

Operation principles of LED


LEDs give off lights on the principle of electrical luminescence known as electroluminescence - EL classified into optical phenomenon and electrical phenomenon.

1. Common principles.

Electroluminescence
Luminescence occurs when electrical current flows across a diode, an electron (negative charge) will be combined with a hole (+); the combination will make the electron jump from one energy level high to a lower energy. The process of jumping from high to low gives an excess energy. This energy, depending on the energy band gap of the semiconductor environment, will be spread out as infrared, visible light and ultraviolet light (also known as UV).

When the applied forward voltage on the diode of the LED drives the electrons and holes into the active region between the n-type and p-type material, forward bias occurs, the energy can be converted into infrared or visible photons. This implies that the electron-hole pair drops into a more stable bound state, releasing energy on the order of electron volts by Group number 30: FireGoats

Chapter: Operation principles of LED

Report: LEDs structure and principles emission of a photon. The red extreme of the visible spectrum, 700 nm, requires an energy release of 1.77eV to provide the quantum energy of the photon. At the other extreme, 400 nm in the violet, 3.1eV is required. Conventional LEDs are made from a variety of inorganic semiconductor materials, the following table shows the available colors with wavelength range, voltage drop and material: Order 1 Color Infrared Wavelength (nm) > 760 Voltage (V) V < 1.9 Semiconductor material Gallium arsenide Aluminium gallium arsenide Aluminium gallium arsenide Gallium arsenide phosphide Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Gallium(III) phosphide Gallium arsenide phosphide Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Gallium(III) phosphide Gallium arsenide phosphide Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Gallium(III) phosphide Indium gallium nitride / Gallium(III) nitride Gallium(III) phosphide Aluminium gallium indium phosphide Aluminium gallium phosphide Zinc selenide Indium gallium nitride Silicon carbide as substrate Silicon as substrate (under development) Indium gallium nitride Sign GaAs, AlGaAs AlGaAs, GaAsP, AlGaInP , GaP

Red

590 < < 610

1.63 < V < 2.03

Orange

590 < < 610

2.03 < V < 2.10

GaAsP, AlGaInP , GaP

Yellow

570 < < 590

2.10 < V < 2.18

GaAsP, AlGaInP , GaP

Green

Blue

450 < < 500

2.48 < V < 3.7

ZnSe, InGaN, SiC, Si

Violet

400 < <

2.76 < V <

InGaN

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Chapter: Operation principles of LED

500 < < 570

1.9 < V < 4.0

InGaN, GaN, GaP, AlGaInP , AlGaP

Report: LEDs structure and principles 450 multiple types 4.0 2.48 < V < 3.7

Purple

Ultraviolet

< 400

3.1 < V < 4.4

10

White

Broad V = 3.5 spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum:

Dual blue/red LEDs, blue with red phosphor, or white with purple plastic Diamond (235 nm) Boron nitride (215 nm) Aluminium nitride (210 nm) Aluminium gallium nitride Aluminium gallium indium nitride (down to 210 nm) Blue/UV diode with yellow phosphor

AlN, AlGaN, AlGaIn N

The appearance of the visible light will be the results of the overlap integral between the eye response curve and the spectral power of the device. Thus, the peak of the luminous curve will not in general be the same as the peak of the spectral power curve

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Chapter: Operation principles of LED

Report: LEDs structure and principles

2. Energy band gap: Energy band gap is an important characteristic of the solid. The band gap is not an abstract concept but a character can be measured. Solids are set by the superposition of atoms that make up. It is imitated that per cm3 solid formed by approximately 1022 atoms. During this process constitutes, according to quantum mechanics, the electronic energy levels will be formed and the electrons of the atom will occupy these energy levels. Since the atomic number is extremely large, so the energy levels and Group number 30: FireGoats

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Chapter: Operation principles of LED

Report: LEDs structure and principles also to gather a range of electronic energy (electronic energy band), similar to the pages gather into a book. The formation of solid power band may not be continuous, there will be a "gap" appears, like the ditch divided into two bands (region) energy. The space is called a band gap energy. Band gap values are in electron volt (eV - 1eV = 1.602 x 10-12 ERG). Band gap determines the electrical conductivity of solids. The electrical conductivity or not is due to the ability to "jump ditches" of the electrons. If the electron of the solids cannot jump from low energy to high-energy region, they are electrical insulators. i. For example, the band gap of the polymer (plastic) is 3-5eV, the diamond is 8eV; the "ditch" is too large to electrons can jump in normal conditions (22 C, 1atm). These are excellent insulators. ii. In contrast, the length of the metal band is zero. Electronic travel between the two energy freely, conduction occurs. In between these two extremes is a semiconductor. iii. Band gap of semiconductors is in the range from 1 to 1.5eV. As we will see, band gap energy is a very important property of matter not only for the electrical properties (insulator, conductor or semiconductor), but also in the design of a material in the applied optics, or optoelectronics that luminescence is a good example.

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Chapter: Operation principles of LED

Report: LEDs structure and principles

IV.

The diversity of LEDs colours.


LEDs are available in red, orange, amber, yellow, green, blue, and white. Blue and white LEDs are much more expensive than the other colours.

The colour of an LED is determined by the semiconductor material, not by the colouring of the package (the plastic body). LEDs of all colours are available in uncoloured packages which may be diffused (milky) or clear (often described as water clear). The coloured packages are also available as diffused (the standard type) or transparent Human eye can see light with wavelengths from 380nm (violet light) to 720nm (red light). Waves carry energy and energy is inversely proportional to wavelength. Thus, the energy of visible light is 1.7eV (720 nm) to 3.3eV (380 nm). Electromagnetic waves have wavelengths less than 380 nm is ultraviolet light and is larger than 720 nm infrared (heat). What an interesting random values of energy band gap of semiconductors and some insulators, such as conjugated polymer bearing connections, fit in the area of infrared energy, light visible and ultraviolet light, which relates with luminescence. When an electron co-ordinates with a hole (+) from high energy level to drop lower level, then this distance of these two levels is the energy band gap of the physical environment where collaboration happens. Put it more simply, if we want the red luminescence we will design materials whose band gap is in approximately the range 1.7eV. Diamonds band gap value is greater than 5eV, so being fluorescent environment diamonds will emit UV radiation. Other compound semiconductors of the gallium (Ga) as GaAs, GaAsP, AlGaP, GAP, InGaN have values in range from 1eV to 3.5eV can emit all colors of visible light. Chapter: The diversity of LEDs colours.

Red-Green-Blue Light-Emitting Diode (RGB LED)


Embed with intelligent IC, LED can be adjusted the intensity of three basic colours, red green and blue, to emit diversified colours. For instance, we can build some circuit like these:

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Report: LEDs structure and principles

V.

Conclusion.
Its undeniable that the birth of LEDs in 1927 had been the risk of the extinction of heating lamps while people increasingly concerned about the economic value, particularly over the environmental benefits that this discovery brings. They not only save energy, environmentally friendly, but life for centuries, even decades... With an incredible speed of technological development as now, then soon, the

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Chapter: Conclusion.

Report: LEDs structure and principles device produced by this technology will flood the market, with super power-saving lamps, the ultra-thin ultra-stroke screen also features environmentally friendly. It was a great benefit of not only physics in particular, but also the science in general.

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Chapter: Conclusion.

Report: LEDs structure and principles

Appendix
Reference
1. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory 7th Edition Floyd. 2. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51 (1987) 913. 3. J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley,A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. MacKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn an A. B. Holmes, Nature 347 (1990) 539. 4. M. Berggren, O. Ingans, G. Gustafsson, J. Rasmusson, M. R. Andersson, T. Hjertberg and O. Wennerstrom, Nature 372 (1994) 444. 5. "Polymers light up" in Chemistry & Industry, 26 March 2007. 6. http://web.dongtak.net/spip.php?article1553 7. http://led.linear1.org/ 8. http://vietsciences.free.fr/inventions/denphatquang.htm 9. http://vi.wikibooks.org/wiki/%C4%90ai_%E1%BB%90t_Ph%C3%A1t_S%C3%A1ng 10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3PDLsJQcGI&feature=player_embedded#! 11. http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/components/led.htm 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode#Colors_and_materials 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroluminescence 14. http://www.google.com.vn/imgres?q=diode&hl=vi&client=firefoxa&hs=9eD&sa=X&rls=org.mozilla:enUS:official&biw=1368&bih=648&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsr&tbnid=98baqLVb071Ki M:&imgrefurl=http://congnghe12.wikispaces.com/%25C4%2590i%25E1%25BB%25 91t%2Bb%25C3%25A1n%2Bd%25E1%25BA%25ABn&docid=vHRmQPvGD_0vDM &w=325&h=295&ei=LF1_TqWDK6jiAeW8rG2Dg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=377&page=1&tbnh=128&tbnw=141&star t=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0&tx=60&ty=38 15. http://www.google.com.vn/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=5&ved=0CE8QFjAE&url=ht tp%3A%2F%2Fmaterial.eng.usm.my%2Fstafhome%2Fzainovia%2FEBB424e%2FLED 1.ppt&rct=j&q=LED%20%27s%20principle&ei=4ml_TtavIuiViQes8bjjDg&usg=AFQj CNEwGVsfDqyk15_tYW7JDOetIk9olw&sig2=3c5SBr1MH1TMVrNHRdYMiQ&cad=rj a 17. http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Light-Emitting-Diode-LED.html 18. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode 19. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/LED 20. http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/data/semicond/leds-light-emittingdiodes/structure-fabrication.php 21. http://www.tpub.com/neets/tm/110-4.htm Group number 30: FireGoats Chapter: Appendix 16. http://cantalupiusa.com/led-lighting-principles

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Report: LEDs structure and principles 22. http://led.linear1.org/surface-mount-leds/ 23. http://leds-led-drivers.com/Engineering-Services/what-are-led-lamps.cfm

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Chapter: Appendix