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The Crriculum Otline of Pharmacology

Total period 188 Theory 128 Practice 60

Chapter Content Total period Theory Practice


1 Introduction 2 2
2 Pharmacodynamics 10 5 5
3 Pharmacokinetics 10 5 5
4 Agents of affecting 7 2 5
drug action
5 peripheral 3 3
pharmacology
6 Cholinomimetics 7 2 5
7 Cholinoceptor-blocking 3 3
agents (Ⅰ)
-- M receptor blockers
8 Cholinoceptor-blocking 1 1
agents (Ⅱ)
-- N receptor blockers
9 Organophosphate 3 3
cholinesterase inhibitor
and cholinesterase
reactivators
10 Adrenoceptor agonists 3 3
11 Adrenoceptor 3 3
antagonists
12 Local Anesthetics 8 3 5
13 General anesthetic 3 3
14 Sedative-hypnotics 2 2
15 Antiepileptic drugs and 2 2
antispasmodic drugs
16 Agents used in the 2 2
treatment of
parkinsonian disorders
17 Drugs used in the 8 3 5
treatment of psychiatric
disorders

18 Narcotic analgesics 8 3 5
19 Central stimulants 2 2
20 Antipyretic analgesic 3 3
and antiinflammatory
drugs

21 Drugs acting on ionic 3 3


channels of
cardiovascular system
22 Anti-arrhythmic Drugs 9 4 5
23 Drugs that Interfere 3 3
with the Renin-
Angiotensin system
24 Drugs used in the 4 4
treatment of heart failur
25 Drugs used for the 2 2
treatment of
myocardial ischemia

26 Drugs used in the 2 2

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treatment of
hyperlipoproteinemias
27 Anti-hypertensive 4 4
drugs

28 Diuretics 9 4 5

29 Drugs used in 9 4 5
thromboembolic
disorders and anaemias

30 Drugs Affecting the 3 3


Respiratory system
31 Gastrointestinal Drugs 3 3

32 Histimine and 2 2
Histamine Antagonists

33 Thyroid hormones and 3 3


Antithyroid drugs

34 Insulin and Oral 3 3


antidiabetic Agents
35 Adrenal corticosteroids 4 4

36 Posterior Pituitary 1 1
Hormones

37 Introduction 3 3
38 Synthetic 3 3
Antimicrobial Drugs
39 β-Lactam Antibiotics 3 3
40 Macrolides and 7 2 5
Clindamycin
41 Aminoglycosides 2 2
42 Tetracyclines and 7 2 5
Chloramphenicol

43 Anti-tuberculosis drugs 2 2
44 Anti-fungal Agents 2 2

45 Agents used for 2 2


treatment of malaria
46 Cancer Chemotherapy 3 3

Introduction to pharmacology
Pharmacology can be defined as the study of substances that interact with living systems through chemical
processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes.
Medical pharmacology is often defined as the science of substances used to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease.
Pharmacology is also one of the main curriculums of elementary medical science, and it is the transitive subject
used for the communication of elementary medical science and clinical medicine. Students should master the
interaction and action regulation between medicine and body. Meanwhile, they should also master the
pharmacological action, mechanism, clinical application and adverse action of the drugs used commonly for

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clinical application, which may provide elementary theory and knowledge for clinical diagnosis and preventing
disease. Furthermore, pharmacology is also a practical subject, students should master not only the basic
operational skills and theory by the experimental teaching, but also the designing thinking and procedure. Only so
can students establish a satisfactory foundation for engaging in science researching in future.

The Teaching of Theory


Part Ⅰ General Pharmacologic Principles
Chapter 1 Introduction 2
1. Understand the concepts such as pharmacology, drug and the contents of pharmacology study;
2. Familiar with pharmacological developing history.
Content
1. Pharmacological investigating contents and subject task;
2. The brief developing history of pharmacology;
3. The investigating methods of pharmacology;
4. Pharmacological status in the investigation and development of new drugs;
5. The learning methods of pharmacology.

Chapter 2 Pharmacodynamics 5
1. Master the therapeutical effect and adverse reaction of drugs;
2. Master the relationship between drug dosage and effect;
3. Master the concepts: potency, ED50, LD50 and therapeutic index, agonist and antagonist;
4. Understand the effects and actions of drugs;
5. Understand the mechanisms of drugs action and structure-activity relationships;
6. Understand the interaction between drug and receptor;
7. Familiar with transmembrane signaling and infra-cell message.
Emphasis
The therapeutical effect and adverse reaction of drugs; the relationship between drug dosage and effect; the
mechanism of drug action.
Difficulty
The relationship between drug dosage and effect.
Content
1. Pharmacological action and effect;
2. Therapeutical effect and adverse reaction;
3. Concentration-effect relationship;
4. Structure-activity relationship;
5. The mechanism of action of drugs.

The Teaching of Practice


Practice 1 The dose-effect relationship of drugs—in toad 5

1. To know about the dose-effect relationship of drugs and the methods of determination;
2. To learn how to draw the dose-effect curve.
Content
1. Catching of toad and preparation of straight muscle of abdomen;
2. Record the contraction range of straight muscle of abdomen after using Ach in different concentration;
3. Draw the dose-effect curve according the data collected by BL-420E data acquisition and analysis system.

Chapter 3 Pharmacokinetics 5
1. Master the in vivo procedure of drugs -ADME system;
2. Master the concepts including first-pass elimination, hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system,
bioavailability, clearance, apparent volume of distribution, compartment model and half-life;
3. Master the precluding traits of the first-order kinetics and zero-order kinetics;
4. Understand the traits of active transport and passive transport;
5. Understand the concentration-time relationship and concentration-time curve;
6. Understand concentration-time curve of continuous administration and homeostasis blood-drug concentration.
Emphasis

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The main pharmacokinetic parametes; the precluding traits of the first-order kinetics and zero-order kinetics.
Difficulty
The traits of active transport and passive transport.
Content
1. the main pharmacokinetic parametes and significance ;
2. the precluding traits of the first-order kinetics and zero-order kinetics;
3. the traits of active transport and passive transport.

Practice 2 The t1/2 measuration of sulfadiazine 5


1. To know about the methods of the t1/2 measuration of drugs;
2. To grip the calculation methods and clinical significance of pharmacokinetics.
Content
1. Intravenous injection from auricular edge of rabbit;
2. The t1/2 measuration and calculation of sulfadiazine.

Chapter 4 Agents of Affecting Drug Action 2


1.Master the concepts including placebo, tolerance, resistance, habituation, addiction and dependence;
2.Master the concepts including threshold dose, minimal effective concentration, minimal toxic amount and
maximal effect;
3.Familiar with the factors affecting drugs effects.
Content
1.The factors affecting drugs effects of body.
2.The factors of drugs.

Practice 3 The LD50 measuration 5

To know about the methods of the LD50 measuration and calculation of drugs.
Content
1. To understand the principle of the method;
2. To calculate the LD50 of drug.

Part Ⅱ Drugs Affecting Peripheral Neurohumoral Transmission


Chapter 5 Introduction to Peripheral Pharmacology 3

1. Master the classification of nervous fibers; the transmitters and receptors of nervous system; the functions of
autonomic nervous system;
2. Understand the classification of nervous system drugs.
Emphasis
The transmitters, receptors and functions of autonomic nervous system; the basic actions of nervous system drugs.
Difficulty
The synthesis, release, transshipment and storage, conversion of the transmitters.
Content
1. The classification of nervous system according to anatomy and the transmitters;
2. The transmitters and receptors of nervous system;
3. The functions of autonomic nervous system;
4. The basic mechanisms and classification of autonomic nervous system drugs.

Chapter 6 Cholinomimetics 2
1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of pilocarpine;
2. Understand the classification of Cholinoceptor agonists; the pharmacological actions of Acetylcholine.
Emphasis
The actions of Ach; the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of pilocarpine.

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Difficulty
The actions of pilocarpine on eye.
Content
1. M ,N -R agonists: acetylcholine(Ach).
2. M-R agonists: pilocarpine; N-R agonists: nicotine.

Practice 4 The effect of drugs on intestine smooth muscle in vivo 5

To observe the effects of Ach and atropine on intestine smooth muscle in vivo.
Content
1. The preparation of intestine smooth muscle in vivo;
2. Analyze the different effects on intestine smooth muscle in vivo caused by the two drugs.

Chapter 7 Cholinoceptor-Blocking Agents (Ⅰ )-- M Receptor Blockers 3


1. Master the actions , mechanism of action, uses, side reactions and contraindictions of atropine;
2. Understand the characteristics of anisodamine and scopolamine; the clinical uses of homatropine, tropicamide
and probantheline.
Emphasis
The actions , uses, side reactions and contraindictions of atropine.
Difficulty
The mechanism of action of atropine; the effects on eye of atropine.
Content
1. The pharmacologic effects, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and antidote of atropine; anisodamine and
scopolamine.
2. The synthetical substitute for atropine: homatropine, tropicamide and probantheline.

Chapter 8 Cholinoceptor-Blocking Agents (Ⅱ )-- N Receptor Blockers 1


Familiar with the classification of N Receptor Blockers; the representative drugs and major uses.
Difficulty
The mechanism of action of succinylcholine and tubocurarine
Content
1. The characteristics of neuromuscular blocking agents;
2. The actions , mechanism of action, uses and side reactions of Skeletal muscle relaxants.

Chapter 9 organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and cholinesterase reactivators 3


1. Master the pharmacologic effects, mechanism of action, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and contraindications
of Neostigmine
2. Understand the the drugs included in anticholinesterase agents;
3 .Understand the actions , mechanism of action and uses of cholinesterase reactivators.
Difficulty
The pharmacologic effects, therapeutic uses and contraindications of Neostigmine.
Content
1. Cholinesterase;
2. The classification, actions and indications of anticholinesterase agents;
3. The cholinesterase reactivators.

Chapter 10 Adrenoceptor agonists 3

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1. Master the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine,
Dopamine and Isoprenaline;
2. Understand the characteristics of metaraminol, phenylephrine, ephedrine and dobutamine.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine,
Dopamine and Isoprenaline.
Difficulty
The effect on blood pressure of Epinephrine.
Content
1. The classification of Adrenoceptor agonists;
2. α-R agonists: the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and contraindications of
norepinephrine, metaraminol, phenylephrine;
3. α,β-R agonists: the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and contraindications of
epinephrine, Dopamine and ephedrine;
4. β-R agonists: the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of isoprenaline; the
characteristics of dobutamine.

Chapter 11 Adrenoceptor antagonists 3


1. Master the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of phentolamine and propranolol;
2. Understand the classification of β-R antagonist; the characteristic of these drugs.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of phentolamine and propranolol
Difficulty
The “reversion of adrenaline’s action” of α-R antagonist.
Content
1. The classification, pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of α-R antagonist;
2. The classification, pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and contraindications of β-R
antagonist; the characteristic of Timolol; Atenolol and Labetalol.

Part Ⅲ Anesthetic Agents


Chapter 12 Local Anesthetics 3
1. Name the local anaesthetic agent;
2. Give the mechanism of action, use and adverse reactions;
3. State the relative perineural concentration of local anaesthetic required to produce nerve block as compared to
the plasma concentration that results in toxicity.

Practice 5 Surface anesthesia effect of local anaesthetics 5

Emphasis
To master the character of surface anesthesia effect induced by procaine, tetracaine and lidocaine.
Content
1. To observe the effect on eyes of rabbits induced by the three drugs;
2. To know the difference among these three drugs.

Chapter 13 General Anesthetic 3


Content
1. State the stages of general anaesthesia;

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2. Classify the general anaesthetic agents ;
3. Describe the salient features of each anaesthetic agent;
4. Name the basal, spinal and neuroleptanalgesia commonly in use.

Part Ⅳ Agents Acting on the Central Nervous System


Chapter 14 Sedative-hypnotics 2
1. Master the pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of benzodiazepines;
2. Understand the classification of Sedative-hypnotics;
3. Understand the traits of barbiturates.
Emphasis

The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Benzodiazepines.
Content
1. The pharmacologic actions, mechamism, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of Benzodiazepines;
2. The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of Barbiturates;
3. The other sedative-hypnotics.

Chapter 15 Antiepileptic drugs and Antispasmodic drugs 2


1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of the following drugs: sodium phenytoin, barbiturates,
benzodiazepines, carbamazepine and magnesium sulfate;
2. Understand the adverse reactions of the anti-epileptic drugs and antispasmodic drugs commonly used;
3. Familiar with the traits of other anti-epileptic drugs: ethosuximide, sodium valproate.
Difficulty
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of anti-epileptic drugs and antispasmodic
drugs.
Content
1. Antiepileptic drugs;
2. Antispasmodic drugs.

Chapter 16 Agents used in the treatment of Parkinsonian disorders 2


Drugs acting on Parkinson's disease.

Difficulty
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of drugs acting on Parkinson's disease.
Content
1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of the following drugs : levodopa, carbidopa and
trihexyphenidyl;
2. Understand the traits of other drugs acting on Parkinson's disease;
3. Familiar with the classification of the drugs acting on Parkinson's disease.

Chapter 17 Drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders 3


1. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of chlorpromazine;
2. Master the pharmacological actions and adverse reactions of Lithium Carbonate;
3. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of imipramine;
4. Familiar with the traits of other drugs acting on the psychiatric disorder.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of chlorpromazine, Lithium Carbonate and
imipramine.
Difficulty
The mechanism of these drugs.
Content
1. Antipsychotic drugs;
2. Drugs acting on mania;

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3. Antidepressant drugs.

Practice 6 The effect of chlorpromazine on electrical exasperate reaction in rats 5

Emphasis
1. To learn the experimental method of exasperated reaction;
2. To observe the antipsychotic effect of chlorpromazine.
Content
1. To cause the exasperated reaction by electrical stimulus;
2. Analyze the antipsychotic effect of chlorpromazine through the difference of exasperated reaction.

Chapter 18 Narcotic Analgesics 3


1. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of morphia;
2. Understand the traits of synthetic opium analgesics such as pethidine;
3. Understand the mechanisms of pharmacological action of analgesics.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications, adverse effects and contraindications of morphia; the traits of
pethidine; the mechanism of Opium receptor antagonist.
Difficulty
The classification of Opium receptor; the mechanism of morphia.
Content
1. Analgesics belonged to opium Alkaloids;
2. The synthetic analgesics belonged to opium Alkaloids;
3. The other analgesics;
4. Opium receptor antagonist.

Practice 7 The analgesia effect of drugs 5

Emphasis
1. To observe the effect of dolantin and rotundine;
2. To learn the method of bending test.
Content
1. The method of take mice and intraperitoneal injection;
2. Analysize the effect of dolantin and rotundine to mice.

Chapter 19 Central Stimulants 2


1. Understand the classification of Central Stimulants;
2. Master the pharmacological effects and clinical uses of Caffeine, Nikethamide and Lobeline.

Difficulty
The pharmacological effects and clinical uses of Caffeine, Nikethamide and Lobeline.
Content
1. The classification of Central Stimulants;
2. The pharmacological effects and clinical uses of Caffeine, Nikethamide and Lobeline.

Chapter 20 Antipyretic Analgesic and Antiinflammatory drugs 3


1. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of aspirin and acetaminophen;
2. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of other anti-inflammatory drugs;
3. Understand the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of ibuprofen;
4. Understand the identical traits of anti-inflammatory drugs;.
5. Familiar with the traits of selective COX-2 inhibitor.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of aspirin; the traits of acetaminophen.
Difficulty
The mechanism of aspirin.

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Content
1. Salicylates;
2. Anilines;
3. Indole derivatives and analog;
4. Propionic acid derivatives;
5. The selective cox-2 inhibitor;
6. The other anti-inflammatory drugs.

Patr Ⅴ Cardiovascular Drugs


Chapter 21 Drugs acting on ionic channels of cardiovascular system 3
1. Master the pharmacological actions, traits of action and clinical uses of calcium channel blockers;
2. Understand the concepts and classification of calcium channel blockers;
3. Familiar with the traits of drugs acting on k+ and Na+ channel.

Difficulty
The pharmacologic actions, therapeutic indications and adverse effects of calcium channel blockers.
Content
1. The ion channels of cardiovascular system;
2. The drugs acting on the ion channels of cardiovascular system.

Chapter 22 Anti-arrhythmic Drugs 4


1. Master the classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs;
2. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of quinidine;
3. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of the drugs: lidocaine, phenytoin
sodium, propranolol, amiodarone and verapamil;
4. Understand the electrophysiological background of anti-arrhythmic drugs;
5. Familiar with the therapeutic principle of swift arrhythmia and the reasonable uses of drugs.
6. Familiar with the new progress of anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Emphasis
The classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs; the actions and indications of these drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of these drugs.
Content
1. The electrophysiology background of arrhythmias;
2. The classification of anti-arrhythmic drugs;
3. The anti-arrhythmic drugs used commonly for clinical uses;
4. The therapeutic principle of swift arrhythmia and the reasonable uses of drugs.

Practice 8 The antagonism of lidocaline to arrhythmia evoked by electrical stimulus 5

Emphasis
1. To observe the antiarrhythmia effects of lidocaine to the experimental arrhythmia of toad induced by electrical
stimulus;
2. To study how to induce arrhythmia with electrical stimulus;
3. To master the tracing method of contractile process of toad's heart in vivo.
Content
1. The method of take toads and preparations of toad's heart in vivo and intravenous injection;
2. Analyze the effect of lidocaine to the heart in vivo;
3. How to use BL-420E data acquisition and analysis system;
4. The tracing method of contractile process of toad's heart in vivo.

Chapter 23 Drugs that Interfere with the Renin-Angiotensin system 3


1. Master the classification of drugs that interfere with the Renin-Angiotensin system;
2. Master the pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, clinical uses and adverse effects of Captopril and
Losartan;
3. Familiar with other drugs of ACEI and angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers.

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Emphasis
The pharmacological effects, clinical uses of ACEI and Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers; the traits of these drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of these drugs.
Content
1. The Renin-Angiotensin system;
2. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI);
3. Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers.

Chapter 24 Drugs used in the treatment of heart failure 4


1. Master the classification of drugs drugs used in the treatment of heart failure;
2. Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of digoxin;
3. Master the pharmacological actions, mechanism, clinical uses and adverse reactions of ACE inhibitor;
4. Master the mechanism of actions of βadrenoceptor blocker effecting on the treatment of CHF;
5. Familiar with the pathophysiology of CHF and the link of actions of drugs;
6. Familiar with the uses of diuresis drugs used in the treatment of CHF;
7. Familiar with the main traits of positive intropic drugs belonging to non- cardenolide;
8. Familiar with the new progress of drugs treating heart failure
Emphasis
The classification of drugs drugs used in the treatment of heart failure; the pharmacological actions, clinical uses
and adverse reactions of digoxin; the traits of other drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of digoxin.
Content
1. Cardiac glycosides;
2. Diuresis drugs and angiectasia drugs;
3. ACEI and antagonist relevant to receptor;
4.βreceptor blocking drugs;
5. The other drugs used for CHF.

Chapter 25 Drugs used for the treatment of myocardial ischemia 2


1. Master the classification of drugs drugs used for the treatment of myocardial ischemia;
2. Master the mechanisms of pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of the following drugs:
nitroglycerin, βadrenoceptor blocker and calcium channel blockers used for the treatment of myocardial ischemia;
3. Familiar with the equilibrium relationship between the attack of angina pectoris and the supplying and
consuming oxygen of myocardium.
Emphasis
The actions and clinical uses of nitroglycerin; the traits of βadrenoceptor blocker and calcium channel blockers.
Difficulty
The mechanism of theses drugs.
Content
1. The pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of nitroglycerin;
2. βadrenoceptor blocker;
3. calcium channel blockers.

Chapter 26 Drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias 2


1.Master the pharmacological actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor;
2.Familiar with the pharmacological actions, clinical uses of other drugs used in the treatment of
hyperlipoproteinemias

Difficulty
The actions and clinical uses of drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.
Content
1.The drugs used for adjusting blood fat;
2.The other drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias.

Chapter 27 Anti-hypertensive drugs 4


1.Master the mechanism of action and clinical uses of loop diuretics;

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2.Master the anti-hypertensive actions, mechanism, and adverse reactions ofβ-adrenergic antagonists;
3.Master the anti-hypertensive actions of the drugs: calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme
inhibitors, sympathetic inhibitors, AngII receptor antagonists, such as losartan and hemangiectasia drugs;
4.Understand the classification of anti-hypertensive drugs;
5.Understand the anti-hypertensive drugs in combination.
Emphasis
The classification of anti-hypertensive drugs; the traits of these drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of theses drugs.
Content
1.The classification of anti-hypertensive drugs;
2.The anti-hypertensive drugs used commomly;
3.The other anti-hypertensive drugs;
4.The reasonable uses of anti-hypertensive drugs.

Part Ⅵ Drugs used in Splanchnic and Bloody System


Chapter 28 Diuretics 4

1. Master the physiological basis of diuretics; the mechanism of actions, indications and adverse reactions of
Furosemide, Thiazide, Spironolactone and Triamterene;
2. Understand the classification of diuretics and list the commomnly used osmotic diuretic and indications for its
use.
Emphasis
The physiological basis of diuretics; the mechanism of actions, indications and adverse reactions of Furosemide,
Thiazide, Spironolactone and Triamterene.
Difficulty
The mechanism of action in Diuretics.
Content
1. Renal tubule transport mechanisms;
2. The classification of diuretics and the drugs in every group;
3. Tthe mechanism of actions, indications and adverse reactions of high, moderate and lou efficacy diuretics.

Practice 9 The diuresis effect of furosemide in rabbits 5

Emphasis
To observe the influence of furosemide on urine quantity in rabbits.
Content
1. Fixation of rabbit and preparation of ureter;
2. Analyze the change of urine quantity after giving furosemide by iv in rabbit.

Chapter 29 Drugs used in thromboembolic disorders and anaemias 4


1. Master the pharmacologic effects, mechanism of actions, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and antidote for
overdose of the agents used as anticoagulants;
2. Master the pharmacologic effects and therapeutic uses of drugs used in bleeding disorders;
3. Understand the pharmacologic effects and therapeutic uses of drugs used in anaemias.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic effects, therapeutic uses, adverse effects and antidote for overdose of heparin; the
pharmacologic effects, therapeutic uses and drugs interactions of Coumarin derivatives; the pharmacologic effects
and therapeutic uses of Anti-platelet drugs and Fibrinolytic drugs; the actions and indications of Vitamin K and
Tranexamic acid; the actions and indications of Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic acid.
Difficulty

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The mechanism of action in haparin; the influence of Vitamin B12 and Folic acid on body metabolism.
Content
1. Anticoagulants: the pharmacologic effects, clinical uses and adverse effects of Heparin, the characteristics of
the actions and indications in Coumarin derivatives;
2. Anti-platelet Drugs: Aspirin;
3. Fibrinolytic drugs: Streptokinase;
4. Drugs used in bleeding disorders: the pharmacologic effects, clinical uses and adverse effects of Vitamin K;
5. Drugs Used in Anemia: Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic acid;
6. Hematopoietic Growth Factors.

Practice 10 The antagonism of protamine to heparin 5

Emphasis
To observe the antagonism of protamine sulfate to heparin.
Content
1. Determine the cruor time in the method of capillary;
2. Analyze the reason about the experiment result.

Chapter 30 Drugs Affecting the Respiratory system 3


1. Master the classification of drugs used to treat asthma;
2. Master the effects, mechanisms, therapeutic uses and adverse reactions of theophylline;
3. familiar with the mechanisms and therapeutic uses of Glucocorticoids, Sodium cromoglycate and β2
-adrenergic receptor agonists;
4. Understand the mechanisms and therapeutic uses of antitussives.
Difficulty
The mechanisms and therapeutic uses of drugs used to treat asthma.
Content
1. The classification of drugs used to treat asthma;
2. The mechanisms and therapeutic uses of the above drugs;
3. The mechanisms and therapeutic uses of antitussives.

Chapter 31 Gastrointestinal Drugs 3


1. Master the classification of drugs used in peptic ulcer;
2. Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of antimicrobial agents, H2-receptor
antagonists, antimuscarinic agents, inhibitors of the proton pump, antacids, prostaglandins, mucosal protective
agents;
3. Understand the classification of antidiarrheals and laxatives.
Difficulty
The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of drugs used in peptic ulcer
Content
1.The symptoms and complications, pathogenesis of peptic ulcer;
2.The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of drugs used in peptic ulcer;
3. Antidiarrheals and laxatives

Chapter 32 Histimine and Histamine Antagonists 2


1. Familiar with the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Histimine;
2. Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of H1 receptor antagonists.

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Difficulty
The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of H1 receptor antagonists.
Content
1. The pharmacological effects and mechanisms of Histimine;
2. H1 receptor antagonists;
3. H2 receptor antagonists.

Part Ⅶ Hormones, Antagonists, and Other Agents Affecting Endocrine Function


Chapter 33 Thyroid hormones and Antithyroid drugs 3
1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of thyroid hormones;
2. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of thioamides;
3. Master the features of Iodine, Iodides, radioactive iodine, β-acceptor antagonistic drugs;
4. Understand the classification and representative drugs of antithyroid drugs thioamides, the traits of
physiological disposition of each drug.
Emphasis
The pharmacological actions and clinical uses of thyroid hormones; the traits of Iodine, Iodides, radioactive
iodine, β-acceptor antagonistic drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Thioamides.
Content
1. Thyroid hormones;
2. Antithyroid drugs.

Chapter 34 Insulin and Oral antidiabetic Agents 3


1. Master the pharmacological actions, mechanism of actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of insulin;
2. Master the pharmacological actions, mechanism of actions, clinical usea of Oral antidiabetic Agents;
3. Understand the classification of Oral antidiabetic Agents, representative drugs and the traits of each drug.
Emphasis
The pharmacological actions and clinical uses of oral antidiabetic drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Insulin and Oral antidiabetic Agents.
Content
1. The pharmacological actions, mechanism of actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of insulin;
2. Oral hypoglycemic Agents: sulfonylureas, biguanides, α-glycosidase inhibitor;
3. Other new oral antidiabetic drugs.

Chapter 35 Adrenal corticosteroids 4


1. Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of glucocorticoids;
2. Understand the clinical uses of corticotropin and corticosteroids inhitors and mineralocorticoid.
Emphasis
The pharmacologic actions, clinical uses, adverse effects and contraindications of glucocorticoids.
Difficulty
The mechanism of glucocorticoids.
Content
1. The Classification, chemcial structure, structure-function relationship of Corticosteroids;
2.The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of glucocorticoids;

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3. Corticotropin and corticosteroids inhibitors;
4. Mineralocorticoid.

Chapter 36 Posterior Pituitary Hormones 1


Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of Ocytocin and Vasopressin.
Content
The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and adverse reactions of Ocytocin and Vasopressin

Part Ⅷ Chemotherapeutic Agents


Chapter 37 Introduction 3
1. Understand the relationships among drug, body and pathogen;
2. Understand the concepts including chemotherapy, antibacterial drugs, antibiotics, bacteriostatic drugs and
bactericidal drugs;
3. Understand the mechanisms of anti-microbial actions and of developing resistance.
Emphasis
The related terms; the mechanism of anti-microbial drugs; the tolerance of microorganism.
Difficulty

The mechanism of tolerance.


Content
1. The brief developing history of anti-microbial drugs;
2. The related terms;
3. The mechanism of anti-microbial drugs;
4.The tolerance of microorganism.

Chapter 38 Synthetic Antimicrobial Drugs 3


1. Master the actions, mechanism, uses of Quinolones, the traits of the drugs in common use;
2. Master the actions, mechanism, adverse reactions of Sulfonamides;
3. Understand the uses of Nitrofurans and Metronidazole.
Emphasis
The actions, mechanism, uses of Quinolones, the traits of the drugs in common use; the actions, mechanism,
adverse reactions of Sulfonamides.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Quinolones and Sulfonamides.
Content
1. Quinolones;
2. Sulfonamides;
3. Nitrofurans and Metronidazole.

Chapter 39 β-Lactam Antibiotics 3


1. Master the anti-microbial spectrum, mechanism of actions, in vivo procedure and clinical uses of
benzylpenicillin;
2. Master the traits of semi-synthetic penicillin; the antibacterial actions and clinical uses of Ampicillin and
Amoxicillin;
3. Master the product traits, representative drugs and clinical uses of every generational cephalothin;
4. Understand the traits of otherβ-Lactam ; the advantages and disadvantages of every drug;
5. Familiar with the outline of β-Lactam antibiotics.
Emphasis
The actions, mechanism, uses and adverse reactions of Penicillin; the traits and uses of semi-synthetic penicillin
and cephalothin.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Penicillin.
Content
1. Penicillin V;
2. Cephalothins.

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Chapter 40 Macrolides and Clindamycin 2
1. Master the antibacterial actions and uses of Macrolides;
2. Master the traits of actions of erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin;
3. Master the antibacterial actions and clinical uses of the vancomycin and lincomycin.
Emphasis
The actions, mechanism, uses of Macrolides; the traits of vancomycin and lincomycin.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Macrolides.
Content
1. Macrolides;
2. Clindamycin.

Practice 11 The toxic reaction of Streptomycin and the rescue of CaCl2 5

Emphasis
To observe the toxic reaction of guinea pig induced by streptomycin, and the rescue of CaCl2.
Content
1. To observe the reaction of guinea pig after giving streptomycin by ip;
2. Analyze that why CaCl2 can release the toxic reaction caused by streptomycin.

Chapter 41 Aminoglycosides 2
1. Master the actions, mechanism, clinical uses and adverse reactions of aminoglycosides;
2. Master the clinical uses of aminoglycosides in common ues such as gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin.
Emphasis
The actions, mechanism and adverse reactions of Aminoglycosides; the traits of gentamicin, tobramycin and
amikacin.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Aminoglycosides.
Content
1.The common traits, antibacterial spectrum, mechanism and adverse reactions of Aminoglycosides;
2.The traits and uses of each drugs.

Chapter 42 Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol 2


1. Master the antibiotic actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of Tetracyclines;
2. Understand the antibiotic actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of chloramphenicol.
Emphasis
The actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of Tetracyclines.
Difficulty
The mechanism of Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol.
Content
1. Tetracyclines;
2. Chloramphenicol.

Practice 12 The comparison between pancuronium bromide and suxainethonium chloride 5

Emphasis
1. To learn the methods of nutation in rabbit;
2. To acquaint the difference between depolarizing muscular relaxants and nondepolarizing muscular relaxants.
Content
1. To observe the nutation behave induced by drugs;
2. To know the difference between the two drugs.

Chapter 43 Anti-tuberculosis drugs 2


1. Master the traits, clinical uses and adverse reactions of the first-selected anti-tuberculosis drugs such as
isoniazid, rifampicin and ethamnbutol;
2. Understand the main traits of the second-selected anti-tuberculosis drugs;

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3. Understand the reasonable uses of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Emphasis
The actions, clinical uses and adverse reactions of the first-selected anti-tuberculosis drugs .
Difficulty
The mechanism of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Content
1. Antituberculous drugs;
2. The reasonable uses of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Chapter 44 Anti-fungal Agents 2


1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of diflucan and ribavirin;
2. Understanding the traits of actions of the anti-fungal drugs in common use.
Emphasis
The actions, clinical uses of the anti-fungal drugs in common use .
Difficulty
The mechanism of anti-fungal drugs.
Content

Antifungus.

Chapter 45 Agents used for treatment of malaria 2


1. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of anti-malarial drugs including chloroquine, Artemisinin,
primaquine, and pyrimethamine;
2. Familiar with the main traits of the anti-parasite drugs in common use.
Emphasis
The actions, clinical uses of the anti-parasite drugs in common use.
Difficulty
The mechanism of antimalarial drugs.
Content
1. Antimalarial drugs.
2. Anti-amebiasis drugs and anti-trichomoniasis drugs.
3. Anti-schistosomiasis drugs and anti-filariasis drugs.

Chapter 46 Cancer Chemotherapy 3


1. Master the classification of the anti-neoplastic drugs;
2. Master in each classification;
3. Master the clinical uses of anti-neoplastic drugs in common use such as cyclophosphamide and fluorouracil;
4. Familiar with the toxic reactions of anti-neoplastic drugs and drugs in combination.
Emphasis
The main traits of the representative anti-neoplastic drugs.
Difficulty
The mechanism of anti-neoplastic drugs.
Content
1. The pharmacological actions of antineoplastic drugs;
2. The antineoplastic drugs in common use;
3. The uses in combination and toxic reactions of antineoplastic drugs.

Reference books
1. Clinical Pharmacology. Edited by R. Gird Wood.
2. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Edited by Goodman and Gilman’s.
3. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. Edited by Bertram G. Katzung.

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