You are on page 1of 45

The Curriculum Outline

of
Histology and
Embryology
Editor: Fu Wenyu, Zhang Shengming, Guan Yingjun, Yue Bingde,

Lv E, Yu Li

2006.2

PREFACE

Histology and embryology are important branches of the biomedical science,


which study microstructures of the human body and their development. Medicine and
its branches are basically the global science to serve all people in the world. In order
to realize that “education in China should be geared to the needs of modernization,
and should face the world and the future”, teaching and leading using the original
textbooks in English is a better way, by which the ability of our students, the future
doctors to communicate with foreign scientists will be greatly promoted. As a first
step, therefore, we wrote this series of books, which include three parts.
Medical students are advised not only to master the basic theoretical knowledge
of human microstructures and their related functions, but also to have the skilful
technical capacity. Thus the first part of the series, Key Facts in Histology and
Embryology, gives an outline and concise description of histology and embryology, as
a bridge between the original English textbooks and the Chinese ones used right now.

2
The second part, A Practice Guide Book of Histology, is written for the use in the
laboratory classes to help to develop students manipulating skills, observing power,
and problem analyzing and solving ability. The third part, Review of Histology and
Embryology, is a collection of self-evaluation questions for students to use to check
the result of their study and find what they need to pay more attention to. Through
these efforts we hope to improve the quality of our education and increase the ability
of students to meet the challenge of revolution of science and technology.

Medicine as well as its branches is an ever-changing science. We look forward


to suggestions from teachers, students and other readers for changes and additions in
the future edition to keep up to date with advances in the related fields.

(Zhang Shengming)

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction to Histology …………………………………………….4

Chapter 2 Epithelial Tissue………………………………………………………5

Chapter 3 Connective Tissue Proper…………………………………………….6

Chapter 4 Cartilage and Bone ………………………………………..………….8

Chapter 5 Blood and Hematopoiesis …………………………………………… 9

Chapter 6 Muscle Tissue ……………………………………………………….10

Chapter 7 Nervous Tissue ………………………………………………………11

Chapter 8 NervousS System…………………………………………………….13

3
Chapter 9 Circulatory System………………………………………………...…14

Chapter 10 Immune System …………………………………………………….16

Chapter 11 Skin ………………………………………………………………...17

Chapter 12 Endocrine System ………………………………………………….18

Chapter 13 Digestive Tract ……………………………………………………..20

Chapter 14 Digestive Glands……………………………………………………21

Chapter 15 Respiratory System…………………………………………………23

Chapter 16 Urinary System …………………………………………………….24

Chapter 17 Male Reproductive System ………………………………………..25

Chapter 18 Female Reproductive System………………………………………26

Chapter 19 Eyes and Ears ………………………………………………………28

Chapter 20 General Embryology ……………………………………………….29

Chapter 21 Development of the Face, Neck and Limbs………………………...30

Chapter 22 Development of Digestive and Respiratory System………………..31

Chapter 23 Development of Urinary and Genital System……………………....32

Chapter 24 Development of the Cardiovascular System………………………..34

Chapter 25 Development of Nervous System…………………………………..35

Chapter 26 Development of the Eye and Ear…………………………………...35

Chapter 1 Introduction to Histology

4
The teaching of theory

(1) Master the use of the microscope.

(2) Know well the structure of the microscope.

(3) Know well the method to study histology.

(4) Understand the procedures of paraffin sectioning and H-E staining.

Emphasis: The general structure of the light microscope. The method to study
histology.
Difficulty: The method to study histology. The method of paraffin section stained
with hematoxylin and eosin (H-E).
Contents:

(1) The general structure of a light microscope(LM):consists of mechanical and


optical parts. The mechanical part: a base, a pillar, a stage(with the mechanical stage
and specimen retainer), and adjustment system(coarse and fine focus knobs,
condenser adjustment knobs, mechanical stage adjustment knobs). The optical part:
eyepieces or oculars, objectives, condenser and mirror. ①The eyepieces (10×) are
inserted into the upper end of the tube. ②The objectives (4×, 10×, 40×, l00×) are
attached to the lower end of the tube. ③The condenser is under the stage and has its
aperture number scale on its rim. ④The mirror and the illuminator are housed in the
base.

(2) H-E stained basic steps: fixation, embedding, sectioning, staining.

The method most commonly used is a paraffin section stained with hematoxylin and
eosin (H-E). H behaves as a basic stain and stains the nucleus purple-blue color; E is
an acid dye and stains the cytoplasm pink to red color. Tissue component that stain
readily with the basic dyes are called basophilic; those with an affinity for acid dyes
are termed acidophilic. Tissue components that do not readily stein with both basic
and acid dyes are called neutrophilic. Certain dyes stain tissue components a
different color from that of the dye solution. The color change in the dye is called

5
metachromasia. Some tissue structures can be visualized with silver impregnation in
Which silver ions are deposited on tissues and reduced to silver particles showing
brown to black color --argyrophilic.

The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) Master the use of the microscope.

(2) Know well the structure of the microscope.

(3) Know well the method to study histology.

(4) Understand the procedures of paraffin sectioning and H & E staining.

2.Contents of practice

(1) Use your microscope correctly and carefully

(2) Observation of tissue sections

(Zhang Shengming)

Chapter 2 Epithelial Tissue

The teaching of theory

(1) Master and recognize the main types of covering epithelia.

(2) Master the electron micrographs of microvilli, cilia and cell junctions.

(3) Know well the glandular epithelium and glands.

Emphasis:

Characteristics of epithelium, types of epithelium, classification of covering


epithelium, specific structures in epithelium, glandular epithelium and glands
Difficulty:

Specialized structures of epithelial cell

6
Contents:

(1)Simple squamous epithelium: lining of heart and vessels(endothelium);lining of


serous cavities(mesothelium).
(2)Simple cuboidal epithelium: found in thyroid, renal tubules.

(3)Simple columnar epithelium: covering stomach, intestine, uterus, etc.

(4)Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium: lining of trachea, bronchi, layers of


cells with nuclei at different levels; not all cells reach the surface but all rest on the
basal membrane.

(5)Stratified squamous epithelium: two types: keratinized on the surface of the


body(epidermis); nonkeratinized on the mouth, esophagus, and vagina.
(6)Transitional epithelium: covering bladder, ureters.

(7)Glandular epithelium and glands: derive from covering ones; descend into
connective tissue; make up glands.
(8)Specific structures in epithelium: ①Free surface: Microvilli and cilia. ②Lateral
surface: Tight junction(zonula occludens), intermediate junction(zonula adherens),
desmosome(macula adherens), gap junction(communicating junction), junctional
complex. ③Basal surface: Basement membrane, plasma membrane infolding and
hemidesmosome.

The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) Master the characteristics and types of epithelium.

(2) Master the classification of covering epithelium.

(3) Know well specialized structures of epithelial cell.

(4) Understand the glandular epithelium and glands.

2.Contents of practice

7
(1)Slides

①Simple columnar epithelium No. 61

②Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium No. 71

③Stratified squamous epithelium No. 50

④Transitional epithelium No. 78

(2) Video: Showing various covering epithelia, the ultrastructure of microvilli, cilia
and cell junctions.
(3) Homework: Draw the LM structure of simple columnar epithelium.

(Zhang Shengming)

Chapter 3 Connective Tissue Proper

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the morphology of cells and fibers in loose connective tissue.

(2) Understand and be able to recognize dense connective tissue, adipose and reticular
tissues.
Emphasis: The morphology of cells and fibers in loose connective tissue, the
function of cells and fibers in loose connective tissue
Difficulty:The ground substance and the structure of molecular sieve

Contents:

(1)Loose connective tissue: Most common and widely distributed type. Major
component is ground substance with a few cells and fibers(areolar).Soft and flexible.
①Cells—7 types: Fibroblasts, Macrophages, Plasma cells, Mast cells, Fat cells,
Undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and Leukocytes. ②Fibers—3 types: Collagen

8
fibers, elastic fiber and reticular fiber. ③The ground substance: Major constituents are

proteoglycans and glycoproteins. Chondroitin, dermatan, keratin and heparin sulfate


are linear glycosaminoglycans linked to a core protein to form proteoglycans.
Proteoglycans link via link protein to hyaluronic acid, a very long molecule to form
proteoglycan aggregates. Glycoproteins include fibronectin, laminin.

The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) master the morphology of cells and fibers in loose connective tissue.

(2)Understand and be able to recognize dense connective tissue, adipose and reticular
tissues.
2.Contents of practice

(1) Slides

①Loose connective tissue No 6, Toluidine Blue stain

②Plasma cells

③Dense connective tissue

④Adipose tissue No 9, Sudan black stain

(2)Video: Showing mesenchyme and various connective tissues proper.

(3)Homework: Draw the LM structures of the cells and fibers in loose connective
tissue.
(Zhang Shengming)

Chapter 4 Cartilage and Bone

9
The teaching of theory

(1) Master main structures of cartilage and bone.

(2) Be able to recognize hyaline cartilage and bone tissue.

(3) Understand the process of cartilaginous osteogenesis.

Emphasis: The structure of cartilage and bone.

Difficulty:The process of cartilaginous osteogenesis.

Contents:

(1)Hyaline cartilage: Skeleton of early embryo; supporting structures of respiratory


passages(from nose to bronchi),ventral ends of ribs and articular ends of bones in a
joint.

(2)Bone: Specialized connective tissues with calcified matrix, thus firmer than
cartilage, and provides support, movement, protection and a storage site for calcium.
The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) Master main structures of cartilage and bone.

(2)Be able to recognize hyaline cartilage and bone tissue.

(3) Understand the process of cartilaginous osteogenesis.

2.Contents of practice

(1) Slides

①Hyaline cartilage No. 71

②Elastic cartilage

③Ground section of compact bone(Dahlia violet)

10
④Cartilaginous ossification(finger of a human fetus)

(2)Video: Showing various cartilages and bone.

(3) Homework: Draw the LM structures of the hyaline cartilage and bone.

(Zhang Shengming)

Chapter 5 Blood and Hematopoiesis

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the composition of blood.

(2) Master the classification, structure and function of peripheral blood cells.

(3) Master the basic conception of hematopoietic stem cell.

(4) Understand the structure and function of bone marrow.

(5) Understand the development process and morphologic changes of hematopoietic


cells in hematopoiesis.
(6) Understand the composition of lymph.

Emphasis:

The classification, structure and function of peripheral blood cells, the basic
conception of hematopoietic stem cell.
Difficulty: The development process and morphologic changes of hematopoietic cells
in hematopoiesis.
Contents:

(1) Blood :

The composition of blood: consisting of formed elements and the blood plasma.

11
Erythrocyte: the structure, metabolizable features and functions of red blood cells.
The amount and life-span of red blood cells in the normal peripheral blood. The
structural features of reticulocytes.

Leukocyte: the structural features and classification of leukocyte. The light


microscopic and ultrastructural features, function of neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil,
lymphocyte and monocyte. The amount and percent of white blood cells in the normal
peripheral blood.
Blood platelet: The light microscopic and ultrastructural features, function of blood
platelet.
(2) Lymph: the composition of lymph

(3) The structure and function of bone marrow

(4) The basic features of hematopoietic stem cell

(5) The development process and morphologic changes of hematopoietic cells in


hematopoiesis
(6) The changes of both red and yellow bone marrows under a certain condition.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the composition of blood.

(2) Master the classification, structure and function of peripheral blood cells.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slide

Peripheral blood smear

No.18

(2)Video: The structures of erythrocytes, leukocytes, blood platelets and reticulocytes.

12
(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of erythrocytes, leukocytes and
blood platelets.
(Lv E)

Chapter 6 Muscle Tissue

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the light microscopic structure and function of skeletal muscle, cardiac
muscle and smooth muscle
(2) Master the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

(3) Understand the molecular structure and contraction mechanism of skeletal muscle

(4) Understand the ultrastructure of smooth muscle

Emphasis:

The light microscopic structure and functional characteristic of skeletal muscle,


cardiac muscle and smooth muscle. The ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and cardiac
muscle

Difficulty: The molecular structure and contraction mechanism of skeletal muscle.

Contents:

(1) The characteristic of muscular tissue

(2) Skeletal muscle: the light microscopic structure of skeletal muscle; sarcomere,
myofibril, dark and light bands(or A band and I band), the ultrastructure of
skeletal muscle, myofilament, transverse(T) tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum(SR,L
tubule), triad, the molecular structure and contraction mechanism of skeletal
muscle. The composition of skeletal mucsle: epimusium, permusium,
endomysium.

13
(3) Cardiac muscle: compare the light microscopic structure and the ultrastructure
between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. the ultrastructure of intercalated
discs.

(4) Smooth muscle: the light microscopic structure and the ultrastructure of smooth
muscle, the junctions of the adjacent cells.
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

(1) Master the light microscopic structure and function of skeletal muscle, cardiac
muscle and smooth muscle.
(2) Master the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

① Skeletal muscle No.22

② Cardiac muscle No.39

③ Smooth muscle(separated slide) No.21

④ Smooth muscle No.78

(2) Video: The structure of skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of 3 types of muscular tissue.

(Lv E)

Chapter 7 Nervous Tissue

The teaching of theory

(1) Master general structure of nervous tissue, the structural and functional features of
neuron and neuroglial cell

14
(2) Master the light microscopic and ultrastructural features, function and
classification of synapse
(3) Master the classification and structure of nerve fibers

Emphasis:

(1) General structure of nervous tissue, the structural and functional features of
neuron and neuroglial cell.
(2) The light microscopic and ultrastructural features, function and classification of
synapse.
(3) The classification and structure of nerve fibers.

Difficulty: The structure and function of nerve fibers

Contents:

(1) General structure of nervous tissue.

(2) Neuron: cell body, the light microscopic structure and the ultrastructure of
dendrites and axons, the classification of neurons according to the number of
processes and the neurotransmitters released, the structural base of axonal
transport. the junctions of the adjacent neurons: the light microscopic and
ultrastructural features of synapse,

(3) The classification of neuroglial cells: Four types of neuroglial cells in the CNS:
the structural and functional features of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia
and ependymal cells. Two types of neuroglial cells in the PNS: the structural and
functional features of Schwann cells and capsular cells.
(4) Nerve fibers: the light microscopic structure of myelinated nerve fiber, Schwann
cell plasmalemma, the formation and ultrastructure of myelin sheath. The light
microscopic and ultrastructural features of unmyelinated nerve fibers.

(5) The degeneration and regeneration of nerve fiber.

15
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

(1) Master general structure of nervous tissue, the structural and functional features of
neuron and neuroglial cell.
(2) Master the light microscopic structure and ultrastructural features, function and

classification of synapse.
(3) Master the classification and structure of nerve fibers.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

① Neuron No.30

② Myelinated nerve fiber No.24

(2) Video: the structures of neuron and nerve fiber.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structure of neurons.

(Lv E)

Chapter 8 Nervous System

The teaching of theory

(1) Understand the basic structure of central nervous system

(2) Understand the histological organization of the cerebral cortex ,cerebellar cortex
and spinal cord
(3) Understand the basic structure of peripheral nervous system.

(4) Understand the histological composition and function of the blood-brain barrier,
the nutrition supplied features of nervous system.
Contents

16
(1) CNS: the basic structure of CNS, the histological organization of the cerebral
cortex, cerebellar cortex and spinal cord.
(2) PNS: the basic structure of PNS, histological features of ganglia and nerve, the
classification of nerve endings, the histological features and function of tactile
corpuscle, lamellar corpuscle,muscle spindle, free nerve ending, motor end plates.

(3) Histological organization of choroid, the composition of cerebrospinal fluid.

(4) The nutrition supplied features of nervous system. the histoligical composition
and function of the blood-brain barrier.
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

(1) Understand the basic structure of central nervous system

(2) Understand the organizational structure of the cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex
and spinal cord
2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

① Motor endplate No.26

② Cerebellum No.31

③ Cerebrum No.33

④ Cerebrospinal ganglion No.28

(2) Video: the light microscopic and ultrastructure of motor endplate.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structure of cerebellum, and the

ultrastructure of synapse
(Lv E)

Chapter 9 Circulatory System

17
The teaching of theory

(1) Understand the general structure of the wall of blood vessels

(2) Master the light microscopic structure of capillaries, the classification,


ultrastructure and function of capillaries
(3) Master the structural features and function of arteries

(4) Understand the structural features of veins

(5) Understand the structural features and function of each components of


microcirculation
(6) Master the structure of the wall of the heart

(7) Understand the general structure of the wall of lymphatic vessels

Contents:

(1) General structure of the wall of the heart and blood vessels.

(2) Capillary: Classification, distribution and general structure of capillaries. The


ultrastructural features and functions of continuous capillary, fenestrated capillary and
sinusoid.

(3) Artery: the structural features and functions of large artery, medium-sized artery
and small artery.
(4) Vein: the structural features of small vein, medium-sized vein and large vein.

(5) Microcirculation: the structural features and function of each components of


microcirculation.
(6) Heart: composition, structure and function of the wall of the heart. Composition
and distribution of the conducting system of the heart. The light microscopic and
ultrastructural features of pacemaker cell, transitional cell and Purkinje fiber.

(7) Lymphatic vessels: the structural features and function of lymphatic capillary. The
structural features of lymphatic vessel and lymphatic duct.

18
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

(1) Understand the general structure of the wall of blood vessels.

(2) Master the microscopic structure of capillaries; the classification, ultrastructure


and function of capillaries.
(3) Master the structural features and function of arteries.

(4) Understand the structural features of veins.

(5)Understand the structural features and function of each components of


microcirculation
(6) Master the structure of the wall of the heart

(7) Understand the general structure of the wall of lymphatic vessels

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

① Heart No.39

② Medium-sized artery and vein No.35

③ Large artery No.37

(2) Video: the ultrastructure of capillaries.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structure of the wall of the medium-sized
artery and the heart.
(Lv E)

Chapter 10 Immune System

The teaching of theory

(1) Understand constitutes of immune system and concept of immune.

19
(2) Master the classification of lymphocyte and functions of all kind of lymphocytes.

(2) Master constitutes and distributions of mononuclear phagocyte system.

(3) Master the structures and functions of central and peripheral lymphoid tissue.

(4) Master the general structure and functions of lymph node and spleen.

(5) Understand the structure and functions of thymus.

Emphasis: the structures and functions of lymph node and spleen. mononuclear
phagocyte system. Blood-thymus barrier.
Difficulty: the classification of lymphocyte and functions of all kind of lymphocytes,
mononuclear phagocyte system
Contents:

(1) Constitutes and functions of immune system and concept of immune

(2) Classification of lymphocyte and functions of all kind of lymphocytes: T cells, B


cells, NK cells
(3) Constitutes and distributions of mononuclear phagocyte system: mononuclear
phagocyte system, monocytes, macrophages, Kupffer cells, osteoclasts, microglial
and Langerhans cells. Classification and functions of antigen presenting cells,
dendritic cells and macrophages
(4) Lymphoid tissue: diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid nodules(follicles)

(5) Thymus: structure: capsule, cortex, medulla, blood-thymus barrier. the functions
of thymus
(6) Lymph nodes: interstitium; cortex, superfacial cortex, paracortical zone, cortical
lymphoid sinuses; medulla, medullary cords, medullary lymphoid sinuses. The
functions of lymph node. recirculation of lymphocytes

(7) Spleen: general structure; white pulp, periarterial lymphatic sheath, lymphoid
nodules; red pulp, splenic sinusoids; marginal zone. The functions of spleen

20
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

Master the structures of lymph node and spleen.

Understand the structure of thymus.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

①Thymus No.43

②Lymph node No.41

③Spleen No.42

(2)Video: the structures of thymus, lymph node and spleen

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of lymph node and spleen.

(Fu Wenyu)

Chapter 11 Skin and Skin Appendage

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the general structure of skin.

(2) Understand the keratinization of the epidermis.

(3) Understand the locations, structures and functions of melanocyte and Langerhans
cell.
(4) Understand the structures and functions of Sebaceous gland and Sweat gland.

(5) Understand the general structure and growth of hair

Emphasis: the general structure of thick skin.

Difficulty: the keratinization of the epidermis

21
Contents:

(1) Skin: General structures of epidermis and dermis. Layers, structure, ultrastrucure
and keratinization of thick epidermis from base to top. The locations, structures and
functions of melanocyte and Langerhans cell. Layers of dermis, the characteristics of
papillary layer and reticular layer.
(2) Skin appendages: hair, sebaceous gland, sweat gland and nail

(3) Regeneration of skin

The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis

(1) Master the general structure of finger skin.

(2) Understand the general structure of head skin.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

① Finger skin No.96

② Head skin No.98

(2) Video: skin and skin appendage

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic of finger skin.

(Fu Wenyu)

Chapter 12 Endocrine System

The teaching of theory

(1) Understand the general structures of the endocrine glands, the ultrastructural
characteristics nitrogen-containing hormone-secreting cells and steroid hormone-
secreting cells

22
(2) Master the histological structures and their secreting hormones of thyroid gland,
parathyroid gland and adrenal gland.
(3) Master the histological structures and their secreting hormones of pituitary gland.
The relationship between hypophysis and hypothalamus.
Emphasis: the structures and functions of thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal
gland and hypophysis, hypophyseal portal system, relationship between hypophysis
and hypothalamus.

Difficulty: the steps of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, relationship between
hypophysis and hypothalamus
Contents:

(1) Constitutes of endocrine system, general structure of endocrine gland, the


ultrastructural characteristics nitrogen-containing hormone-secreting cells and steroid
hormone-secreting cells, meanings of target organ and target cell.

(2) Thyroid gland: general structure, structure and ultrastructure of thyroid follicles,
the processes of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, distribution, structure and
ultrastructure of parafollicular cells and the hormone they secreted.

(3) Parathyroid gland: general structure, structure of chief cells and the hormone they
secreted. structural characteristics of oxyphil cell.
(4)Adrenal gland: general structure. Cortex: structures of zona glomerulosa, zona
fasciculate and zona reticularis, hormones that they secreted. commom ultrastructural
features of cortical cells. Medulla: structure, ultrastructure and hormone they secreted
of medullary cells. Blood supply of adrenal gland.
(5) Relationship between hypothalamus and hypophysis: morphology, structure and
subsections of hypophysis. Adenohypophysis: structure and classification of
acidophil(somatotroph and mammotroph) in pars distalis, structure and classification
of basophil(thyroitroph, gonadotroph and corticotroph), structure of chromophobe
cell, structure and function of pars intermedia, structure of pars tuberalis, commom
ultrastructural features of endocrine cells of hypophysis. Neurohypophysis: structure

23
of pars nervosa, structures and hormones(antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin) it
secreted of Herring body. Relationship between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis,
hypophyseal portal system. Relationship between hypothalamus and
neurohypophysis.
The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) Master the structures of thyroid gland, adrenal gland and hypophysis.

(2) Understand the structure of parathyroid gland.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

①Thyroid gland No.90

②Adrenal gland No.92

③Hypophysis No.94

(2) Video: The structure of thyroid gland, adrenal gland and hypothysis

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of thyroid gland, adrenal gland
and hypophysis.
(Fu Wenyu)

Chapter 13 Digestive Tract

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the general structures of digestive tract and the structural characteristics
and functions of each organ.

24
(2) Understand the distribution, kinds and functions of enteroendocrine cells in
digestive tract.
Emphasis: the general structures of digestive tract, histological structures of the
esophagus, stomach and small intestine.
Difficulty: mucous-HCO3- barrier(stomach mucous barrier)

Contents:

(1) General structures of the digestive tract: Mucosa, epithelium, lamina propria,
muscularis mucosae. Submucosa, villi, plicae. Muscularis externa. Serosa or
adventitia, serosa, adventitia

(2) Esophagus: The structural characteristics of esophagus.

(3) Stomach: Characteristics of the mucosa, the light microscopic structure,


ultrastructure and functions of surface mucous cells, structure of the fundic gland, the
histological structures, ultrastructures and functions of the parietal cells and the chief
cells, characteristics of the mucous neck cells, endocrine cells, undifferentiated cells.
(4) Small intestine: Structure of the intestinal mucous, the structure and function of
the villi, the light microscopic structure, ultrastructure and function of the absorptive
cells, the distribution, structure and function of the goblet cells, the structure of the
intestinal glands, the structure and function of the Paneth cells. Regional differences
of duodenum, jejunum and ilieum.

(5) Large intestine: Morphological features and functions of colon. Morphological


features of appendix.
(6) Enteroendocrine cells in digestive tract: The distribution, structure and functions
of the enteroendocrine cells in digestive tract.
The teaching of practice

1.Emphasis:

(1) Master the structures of esophagus, stomach and duodenum.

(2) Understand the structure of jejunum, ileum, colon and appendix.

25
2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

①Esophagus No.50

②Stomach No.53

③Duodenum No.54

④Jejunum No.55

⑤Ileum No.56

⑥Colon No.58

⑦Appendix No.59

(2) Video: The structures of esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine and
appendix.
Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of esophagus, stomach and
duodenum.
(Fu Wenyu)

Chapter 14 Digestive Glands

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the morphological characteristics of serous acini, mucous acini and mixed
acini.
(2) Master the structure and function of pancreas.

26
(3) Master the structure and function of liver, the structures of hepatic lobule and
portal area.
(4) Master the ultrastructural features and functions of the hepatocyte and sinusoid.

(5) Master the characteristics of blood supply of liver.

(6) Understand the distinctive features of three pairs of salivary glands.

(7)Understand the ultrastructural features and secreted hormones of cells in pancreatic


islets.
(8) Understand the passage of bile.

Emphasis: the morphological characteristics of serous acini, mucous acini and mixed
acini, the structure and function of pancreas, the structure and function of liver, the
structures of hepatic lobule and portal area, the ultrastructural features and functions
of the hepatocyte and sinusoid, the characteristics of blood supply of liver.
Difficulty: the ultrastructural features and functions of the hepatocyte and sinusoid.

Contents:

(1) General structures of the salivary glands, acini and duct system. serous acini,
mucous acini and mixed acini. Distinctive features of three pairs of salivary glands
(2) Pancreas gland

Exocrine pancreas: serous acini, centroacinar cells.

Endocrine pancreas: three major cell type identified by EM and


immunocytochemistry, the ultrastructural features and secreted hormones of four
kinds of cells in pancreatic islets.

(3) Liver

General structure of liver, the light microscopic structures of hepatic lobule, central
veins, hepatic plates, the light microscopic structure, ultrastructural features and
functions of the hepatocyte, the ultrastructure of bile canaliculi, the light microscopic
structure and ultrastructural features of sinusoid, structure and function of Kupffer

27
cells, structures and functions of perisinusoidal space and fat-storing cells. Constitute
and structure of portal area. Characteristics of blood supply of liver. Passage of bile.
The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis:

(1) Master the structures of pancreas and liver.

(2) Understand the structure of parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

①Pancreas No.66

②Pig liver No.63

③Human liver No.62

④Parotid gland

⑤Submandibular gland

⑥Sublingual gland

(2) Video: the structures of salivary glands, pancreas and liver.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structures of pancreas and liver.

(Fu Wenyu)

28
Chapter 15 Respiratory System

The teaching of theory

(1) Master the structure of the trachea.

(2) Master the structure of lung.

(3) Master the ultrastructure and function of alveoli.

(4) Understand the structure of nasal mucous membrane.

Emphasis: the structure of trachea, the structure of lung, the ultrastructure and
function of alveoli.
Difficulty: the ultrastructure and function of alveoli.

Contents:

(1) Nasal cavity: The parts of nasal cavity. The structures and functions of nasal
mucous menbrane in vestibular region, respiratory region and olfactory region.
(2) Trachea and bronchus: Structure of the trachea and bronchus. Mucous, submucosa
and adventitia. The light microscopic structure, ultrastructural feature and functions of
the epithelium, ciliated cell, goblet cell, basal cell brush cell and diffuse
neuroendocrine cell.
(3) Lung: General structure of the lung, pulmonary lobule, constitutes and structural
changes of pulmonary conductive portion. Constitutes and structures of pulmonary
respiratory portion, structural features of respiratory bronchiole, alveolar sac and

pulmonary alveolus. Ultrastructures and functions of type Ⅰalveolar cell and

typeⅡalveolar cell, structure of alveolar septum, alveolar pore, blood-air barrier.

Distribution and function of pulmonary marcrophage. Pulmonary blood vessels,


lymphatic vessels and nerves

The teaching of practice

29
1. Emphasis:

(1) Master the structures of trachea and bronchus.

(2) Master the structure of lung.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides:

①Trachea No.71

②Lung No.74

(2)Video: The structures of trachea and bronchus

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structure of trachea and lung.

(Fu Wenyu)

Chapter 16 Urinary System

The teaching of the theory:

(1)Master the distribution, the structure of light and electron microscope and the
functions of the nephron, collecting tubule and papillary duct.
(2) Master the composition and the structure of the juxtaglomerular complex.

(3)Master the function of the juxtaglomerular cell.

(4)Understand the general structure of the renal calyx, renal pelvis ureter and urinary
bladder.
Emphasis: The structure of light and electron microscope and the functions of the
nephron and the composition and the structure of the juxtaglomerular complex.
Difficulty: Difference of the structure between the proximal convoluted tubule and
the distal convoluted tubule.
Contents:

30
(1) Kidney: General structure: the location and composition of the cortex, medulla,
renal pyramid, medullary, cortical labyrinth and renal column, the composition of the
uriniferous tubule. Nephron: The light and electron microscopic structures and
functions of the renal corpuscle. The structure and the function of the filtration barrier.
The structure of light and electron microscope and the functions of the renal tubule.
Juxtaglomerular complex: the composition and structure of the juxtaglomerular
complex. The function and structure of the juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa and
extraglomerular mesangial cell. Interstitial tissue: the function and structure of the
interstitial cell.

(2) The structures of the renal calyx, renal pelvis ureter and urinary bladder.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the structural features of the kidney.

(2) Master the ultrastructure of the filtration barrier of the renal glomerulus.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

①Kidney No. 74

②Urinary bladder No. 78

(2) Video: The structures of kidney, injected renal blood vessels and urinary bladder.

(3) Homework: Draw the light microscopic structure of the renal cortex.

(Yue Bingde)

Chapter 17 Male Reproductive System

The teaching of the theory

31
(1) Master the structure of the seminiferous tubule and the conception of the
spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.
(2) Master the structure and the function of the interstitial cell and the conception of
blood-testis barrier.
(3) Know well the structure of the prostate.

(4) Understand the general structure of the testis and the structure of the epididymis
and ductus deferens.
Emphasis: The structure of the seminiferous tubule. the structure and the function of
the conception of blood-testis barrier.
Difficulty: The conception of the spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis.

Contents:

(1) Testis: General structure: the structure of the seminiferous tubule. The light and
electron microscopic structures and functions of the Sertoli cell. Spermatogenesis and
spermiogenesis. Blood-testis barrier and the light and electron microscopic structures
of the spermatozoon.
(2) Epididymis: the structure and the function of the ductulus efferentes and ductulus
epididymis.
(3) The structure of the ductus deferens.

(4) Prostate: the composition of the prostate. The structure of the acinus.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the testis.

(2) Master the morphology of the spermatogenic cell, Sertoli cell, Leydig cell and
spermatozoa.
2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

32
①Testis No. 79

②Prostate No. 83

(2) Video: The structures of the testis, epididymia, protate and spermatozoa.

(3) Homework: Draw the structures of the seminiferous tubule and the interstitial
cells.
(Yue Bingde)

Chapter 18 Female Reproductive System

The teaching of the theory

(1) Master the structure of the ovary, the development and maturation of the ovarian
follicle.
(2) Master the formation, structure and function of the corpus luteum, the conception
of the ovulation.
(3) Master the structure of the uterus, master the relationship between the cyclic
changes of the uterine endometrium and the ovary.
(4) Know well the structure of the oviduct.

(5) Understand the structure of the vagina and mammary gland.

Emphasis: the development and maturation of the ovarian follicle, the relationship
between the cyclic changes of the uterine endometrium and the ovary.
Difficulty: the relationship between the cyclic changes of the uterine endometrium
and the ovary.
Contents:

(1) Ovary: General structure of the ovary, the development and maturation of the
ovarian follicle and the structure and function of the ovarian follicle, the formation,
structure and function of the corpus luteum. Ovulation.

33
(2) Oviduct: The structure and function of the oviduct.

(3) Uterus: The structure and function of the uterus,specially uterine endometrium.
The cyclic changes of the uterine endometrium.
(4) Vagina and mammary gland: The structure of the vagina and mammary gland.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the structural features of the ovary and corpus luteum.

(2) Master the structural features of the uterus and histological changes in the
endometrium during a normal menstrual cycle.
2. Contents of practice

(1)Slides

①Ovary No. 83

②Uterus(proliferating phase) No. 85

③Uterus(secreting pgase) No. 86

④Mammary gland No. 89

(2) Video: The structures of the ovary, uterus and oviduct.

(3) Homework: Draw the structures of the ovary cortex and uterine endometrium.

(Yue Bingde)

Chapter 19 Eye and Ear

The teaching of the theory

(1) Master the structure and function of the wall of eyeball.

34
(2) Master three tunics (outer fibrous tunic, middle vascular tunic and inner retina)
enclosing the refracting media (aqueous humor, lens and vitreous body) of the
eyeball.

(3) Understand the structure of the inner ear.

(4) Understand the bone and membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, containing
receptors for both hearing and position.
Emphasis: Three tunics of the eyeball: outer fibrous tunic (composed of cornea,
anterior1/6 and sclera, posterior5/6), middle vascular tunic (consisting from anterior
to posterior of iris, ciliary body and choroids) and inner retina (composed of 4 layers
of cells forming 10 layers of retina).
Difficulty: The bone and membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, containing receptors
for both hearing and position.
Contents:

(1) Eye:

Eyeball: The compositions, structures and functions of the fibrous tunic, vascular
tunic and retina. macula lutea and papilla of the optic nerve. The contents of eyeball.
(2) Ear: External ear: the structure of the external ear. Middle ear: the structure of the
middle ear. Inner ear: the bone and membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, containing
receptors for both hearing and position.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the each layer in the wall of the eyeball.

(2) Master the structure of the spiral organ in the inner ear.

2. Contents of practice

(1) Slides

35
①Eyeball No. 100

②Inner ear No. 104

(2) Video: The structures of eyeball and inner ear.

(3) Homework: Draw the structure of the retina.

(Yue Bingde)

Chapter 20 General Embryology

The teaching of the theory

(1) Understand the gametogenesis and fertilization.

(2) Master the development of embryo in preembryonic period and the process of
implantation.
(3) Master the development of embryo in embryonic and fetal period.

(4) Understand the calculation of embryonic age.

(5) Master the structures and functions of fetal membrane and placenta .

Emphasis: Development of bilaminar germ disc and relative structures, development


and differentiation of trilaminar germ disc, the structures and functions of fetal
membrane and placenta.

Difficulties: Development and differentiation of trilaminar germ disc

Contents:

(1) Gametogenesis and fertilization

Gametogenesis in the male and female, sperm capacitation. Time, position, process
and significance of the fertilization.
(2) Development of embryo in preembryonic period

36
①Cleagvage and formation of blastocyst: process of cleagvage, formation of

blastocyst, inner cell mass and trophoblast.

②Implantation: definition,time,position and process of the implantation,

cytotrophoblast and syntrophoblast, ectopic pregnancy.

③Formation of decidua: formation of decidua and villus, structure and evolution

of chorion.

④Formation of bilaminar germ disc: development of bilaminar germ

disc,epiblast,hypoblast, formation of amnion and yolk sac.


(3) Development of embryo in embryonic period

①Development of trilaminar germ disc: development of primitive streak,

formation of endoderm and ectoderm, structure of trilaminar germ disc.

②Development of notochord

③Differentiation of three germ discs: formation of neural plate, neural groove and

neural fold. Formation of paraxial mesoderm, lateral mesoderm and


intermediate mesoderm. Formation and differentiation of primitive gut.

④Changes of embryonic form. characteristics of embryonic period.

(4) Development of embryo in fetal period

①Development of embryo in fetal period:characteristics of fetal period.

②Calculation of embryonic age.

(5) Fetal membranes and placenta

37
①Fetal membranes: formation and functions of chorion, amnion, yolk sac, allantois

and umbilical cord, umbilical fistula, Meckel’s diverticulum, urachal fistula.

②Placenta: structure and functions of placenta, placental barrier.

(6) Twins, multiple births: Concept of twins, multiple births. Malfomations of


conjoined twins.
Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: fertilization and development in preembryonic period,


embryonic period and fetal period, trilaminar germ disc,fetal membranes and
placenta.

(Guan Yingjun)

Chapter 21 Development of Head and Neck

The teaching of the theory

Understand the development of head and neck and malformations.

Contents:

(1)Development of branchial apparatus: formation of branchial arches, branchial


rooves (clefts), pharyngeal pouches, and branchial membranes.
(2)Derivatives of Pharyngeal Pouches: derivatives of five pairs of pharyngeal pouch.

(3)Formation of the face: development and formation of Primordia: maxillary


prominences, mandibular prominences and stomodeum. Formation of nasal placode
and nasal pit.

(4)Development of palate: development and formation of median palatine process and


lateral palatine process.
(5) Malformations: Cleft lip, oblique facial cleft, Cleft palate.

Contents of practice

38
Samples, models and video: Development of the face and palate, Cleft lip, oblique
facial cleft, Cleft palate.
(Guan Yingjun)

Chapter 22 Development of Digestive and Respiratory System

The teaching of the theory

(1) Understand the development and differentiation of foregut.

(2) Understand the development of liver,gallbladder and pancreas.

(3) Understand the evolution and malformations of midgut and hindgut.

(4) Understand the evolution of respiratory system.

Emphasis: The evolution and malformations of midgut and hindgut.

Difficulties: Rotation and folding of midgut loop.

Contents:

(1)Development and differentiation of primitive gut: foregut, midgut and hindgut.

(2)Development of esophagus and stomach.

(3)Evolution of midgut: formation of midgut loop, physiological umbilical hernia,


rotation and folding of midgut loop.
(4)Evolution of hindgut: formation of cloaca, cloacal membrane, development of
urogenital sinus and anorectal canal.
(5)Development of liver, gallbladder and pancreas: formation of hepatic diverticulum,
formation of dorsal pancreatic bud and ventral pancreatic bud.
(6)Malformations of digestive sysytem: stenosis and atresia of digestive system,
congenital umbilical hernia, umbilical fistula, Meckel’s diverticulum, congenital
megacolon, imperforate anus, abnormal rotation of the midgut loop, annular
pancreas.
(7)Development and malformations of respiratory system: formation of

39
laryngotracheal groove, development of larynx, trachea and lung. tracheoesophageal
fistula,hyaline membrane disease.
Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: Development and malformations of digestive tract and
digestive glands and respiratory system.
(Guan Yingjun)

Chapter 23 Development of the Urinary System and Genital System

The teaching of the theory

(1) Master the development of metanephros and the congenital malformations.

(2) Understand the development of pronephros and mesonephros.

(3)Understand the development of bladder and urethra and the congenital


malformations.
(4)Understand the development of gonads and the mechanism of sexual
differentiation.
(5)Understand the sexual differentiation mechanism of genital ducts and exteral
genitalia; the congenital malformations.
Emphasis: development of metanephros and the congenital malformations.

Difficulty: development of ureteric bud and metanephrogenic tissue; development of


gonads.
Contents:

(1)Development of urinary system

①Development of kidney and ureter: development of pronephros、 mesonephros、

metanephros and ureter.

40
②Development of ureteric bud and metanephrogenic tissue; position changing of

metanephros.

③Development of bladder and urethra.

④Congenital malformations: Horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney, ectopic

kidney.
(2) Development of genital system

①Development of gonads: origin of the primordial germ cell; development and

sexual differentiation of gonads; H-Y antigen; development and descent of


testis and ovary.

②Development of genital ducts: structure of indifferent stage; differentiation of

genital ducts in male and female

③Development of external genitalia: structure of indifferent stage ;differentiation

of external genitalia in male and female .

④Congenital malformations: cryptorchidism, congenital inguinal hernia, double

uterus, vaginal atersia, true hermaphroditism, pseudohermaphroditism.


The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1)Master the development of metanephros and the congenital malformations.

(2)Understand the development of pronephros and mesonephros.

(3)Understand the development of bladder and urethra and the congenital


malformations .
(4)Understand the development of gonads and the mechanism of sexual

41
differentiation.

(5)Understand the sexual differentiation mechanism of genital ducts and exteral


genitalia; the congenital malformations.
2. Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: Gonadal ridge; mesonephros, metanephros; subdivision


of cloaca; urogenital sinus; development of external genitalia.
(Yu Li)

Chapter 24 Development of the Cardiovascular System

The teaching of the theory

(1) Master the development of the heart.

(2) Master the blood circulation of fetus and its changes.

(3) Master the malformation of the cardiovascular system.

(4) Understand the establishment of the primitive cardiovascular system.

Emphasis: Development of the heart and malformation of the cardiovascular system.

Difficulty:

Contents:

(1) Establishment of the primitive cardiovascular system: Development of


extraembryonic and intraembryonic blood vessels; establishment of early embryonic
circulation.

(2) Development of heart

①Development of primitive cardiac tube、cardiogenic area and pericardiac coelom;

evolution of cardiac tube; subdivison of cardiac tube (truncus arteriosus 、bulbus

42
cordius、ventricle、atrium and sinus venosus); formation of bulboventricular loop.

②Formation of the cardiac septa; formation of atrial septum and ventricular

septum; separation of truncus arteriosus and bulbus cardius.

③Fetal circulation and its changes after birth.

④Malformations: Atrial septal defect; Ventricular septal defect; Tetralogy of Fallot;

Patent ductus ateriosus.


The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Master the development of the heart.

(2) Master the blood circulation of fetus and its changes.

(3) Master the malformation of the cardiovascular system.

(4) Understand the establishment of the primitive cardiovascular system.

2. Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: Fetal heart; development and malformation of the
cardiovascular system.
(Yu Li)

Chapter 25 Development of the nervous system

The teaching of the theory

(1) Understand the development of nervous system.

(2) Understand the migration and differentiation of neural crest.

Emphasis: development of spinal cord and brain; congenital malformations.

43
Difficulty: differentiation and migration of neural crest.

Contents:

(1) Development of central nervous system: development of spinal cord and brain;
development and evolution of brain vesicle; differentiation and migration of neural
tube.

(2) Development of peripheral nervous system: development of ganglion and


peripheral nerve.
(3) Differentiation and migration of neural crest.

(4) Congenital malformations: anencephaly; myeloschisis.

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

(1) Understand the development of nervous systerm.

(2) Understand the migration and differentiation of neural crest.

2. Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: Development of the brain and its congenital
malformations.
(Yu Li)

Chapter 26 Development of the Eye and Ear

The teaching of the theory

Understand the development of the eye and ear and congenital malformations.

Emphasis: congenital malformations of eye and ear.

Difficulty: development of the eye and ear

Contents:

44
(1) Development of the eye: optic cup; lens placode; origin of the part of eye.

(2) Development of the ear: development of the external ear、middle ear and inner ear.

(3) Congenital malformations: congenital deafness; coloboma iridis;

The teaching of practice

1. Emphasis

Understand the development of the eye and ear and congenital malformations.

2. Contents of practice

Samples, models and video: Development of the eye and ear and their congenital
malformations.
(Yu Li)

45