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Electrohydraulic manual transmission is a type of semi-automatic transmission system, which uses an automated clutch unlike conventional manual transmissions

where the driver operates the clutch. The clutch is controlled by electronic computers and hydraulics. To change gears, the driver selects the desired gear with the transmission shift lever, and the system automatically operates the clutch and throttle to match revs and engage the clutch again. Also, many such transmissions operate in sequential mode where the driver can only upshift or downshift by one gear at a time. Depending on the implementation, some computer-controlled electrohydraulic manual transmissions will automatically shift gears at the right points (like an automatic transmission), while others require the driver to manually select the gear even when the engine is at the redline. Despite superficial similarity, clutchless manual transmission differ significantly in internal operation and driver's 'feel' from manumatics, the latter of which is an automatic transmission (automatics use a torque converter instead of clutch to manage the link between the engine and the transmission) with ability to signal shifts manually.

About Electrohydraulic Valve Actuators and Hydraulic Valve Actuators


Electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators convert fluid pressure into motion in response to a signal. They use an outside power source and receive signals that are measured in amperes, volts, or pressure. Some electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators move rotary motion valves such as ball, plug, and butterfly valves through a quarter-turn or more from open to close. Other valve actuators move linear valves such as gate, globe, diaphragm, and pinch valves by sliding a stem that controls the closure element. Throttling valves can be moved to any position, including fully open or fully closed, within the stroke of the valve. Typically, valve actuators are added to throttling valves as part of a control loop that includes a sensing device and circuitry. Electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators use several different types of actuators. Diaphragm actuators are used mainly with linear motion valves, but are suitable for rotary motion valves with a linear-to-rotary motion linkage. Rack-and-pinion actuators transfer the linear motion of a piston cylinder actuator to rotary motion. They are ideal for automating manually-operated valves. Scotch yoke actuators also transfer linear motion to rotary motion. With lever and link actuators, a splined or slotted lever attaches to the valve shaft in order to transfer the linear motion of a diaphragm or piston cylinder to rotary motion. Vane actuators are used only with rotary motion valves. Important specifications for electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators include actuation time and hydraulic fluid supply pressure range. Devices that move rotary motion valves vary in terms of actuator torque and range of rotary motion. Devices that move linear motion valves vary in terms of valve stem stroke length and actuator force or sealing thrust. For both types of electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators, acting type is an additional specification. With single-acting devices, fluid pressure actuates the valve in one direction while a compressed spring actuates the valve in the other. With doubleacting devices, fluid pressure actuates the valve in both directions. Since electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators work with multi-turn valves, the number of turns is another important specification.

Features for electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators include NEMA enclosures and actuator action. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), a non-profit trade organization, rates enclosures for electrical equipment. Devices with NEMA 4 and 4X ratings are suitable for indoor or outdoor use and provide protection against dirt, rain, sleet, and snow. For manual valve actuators, the actuator action can be direct (clockwise) or reverse (counterclockwise). Other features for electrohydraulic valve actuators and hydraulic valve actuators include overtorque protection, local position indication, and integral pushbuttons and controls. Travel stops or limit stops restrict linear or rotary motion. Manual overrides use handwheels, levers, or hydraulic hand pumps for emergency operation. An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Valve or EHSV is an electrically operated valve that controls how hydraulic fluid is ported to an actuator. Servo valves and Servo-Proportional Valves are electro-hydraulic operate by transforming a changing analogue or digital input signal into a smooth set of movement in a hydraulic cylinder. Servo valves can provide precise control of position, velocity, pressure and force with good post movement dampening characteristics. A low voltage is used control the servo valve. The control voltage is passed into an amplifier which provides the power to alter the valve's position. The valve will then deliver a measured amount of fluid power to an actuator. The use of a feedback transducer on the actuator returns an electrical signal to the amplifier to condition the strength of the voltage to the servo valve.
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Many of the servo valves in use today are manufactured by Moog Inc. A typical example of a servo valve is the Moog servo valve D631 series. An example of servo valve use is in Blow Molding where the servo valve controls the wall thickness of extruded plastic making up the bottle or container by use of a deformable die