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6/16/2011

INTELLIGENT PIG TECHNOLOGY FOR INLINE INSPECTION OF PIPELINES & INDIGENOUS CAPABILITIES DEVELOPMENT

MANAGER (INSPECTION) INDIANOIL CORPORATION LIMITED (PIPELINES DIVISION)

What is Pigging Types of Pigs & their utility What is an Intelligent Pig? Intelligent Pig Technologies Indigenous development of Intelligent Pig Technology

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IOCLs EXISTING PIPELINE NETWORK


Jalandhar Bhatinda Sangrur Panipat Rewari Sanganer Ajmer Jodhpur Chaksu Kot Sidhpur Mundra Kandla Vadinar Ambala Roorkee Najibabad Meerut Delhi Mathura Tundla Lucknow Barauni Rajbandh Mourigram Haldia
Paradip

Tinsukia Siliguri Bongaigaon Digboi Guwahati

Kanpur Chittaurgarh Ahmedabad Navagam Ratlam Koyali Dahej

Liquid Pipeline Product Crude Total Gas PL TOTAL

Length (km) 6401 4366 10767 132 10899

Capacity (MMTPA) 34.85 40.4 74.41 10 MMSCMD


Bangalore AFS Bangalore

Chennai
Chennai AFS

LEGEND
Product Crude Oil

Sankari

Asanur Trichy Madurai

Growth of IndianOils Pipeline Network


Length ( KM)

12000 10329 10899 10000 8000 6000 3980 4000


KM

7730 6364 5423

2014 2000 0 1964 1975 1985 1996


YEAR

471 2000 2004 2009 2010

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A process which is the act of propelling a properly sized spherical or cylindrical device through the interior of a pipeline by manipulating the pressure & flow of the existing media, or by artificially introduced media or by mechanically pulling the device through the pipeline for the specific purpose of cleaning, inspecting, distributing inhibitor throughout the pipeline or as a plug to isolate a section of the pipeline.

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The term PIG originated in the U.S.A but why the word was chosen has never been satisfactorily explained . . .
The most widely accepted explanation comes from the screeching sounds made by the early pigs as they went through the line. The theory is that two pipeliners were standing next to a line when a pig went past. As the pig travelled down the line pushing out debris, one of them made the comment that it sounded like a pig squealing. The pig in question consisted of leather sheets stacked together on a steel body. Another theory is that PIG stands for Pipeline Intervention Gadget.

The earliest pigs are believed to have been made on site from straw wrapped with barbed wire. During the 1940s pipelines in the USA were mainly pigged to remove paraffin to increase efficiency in crude oil pipelines in order to maximize flow conditions for the war effort. The pigging equipment utilized at that time was limited to a few applications while being very crude in nature. In today's world, pipelines are pigged for a variety of reasons and the pigging equipment used is designed by engineers to perform particular functions.

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Are you sure thats the right one ?

The type of pig to be used and its optimum configuration for a particular task in a particular pipeline is determined based upon several criteria, which include:

THE PURPOSE
Type, location, and volume of the substance to be removed or displaced in conventional pigging applications, Type of information to be gathered from an intelligent pig run, Objectives and goals for the pig run.

THE LINE CONTENTS


The contents of the line while pigging, Available vs. required driving pressure, Velocity of the pig.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PIPELINE


The minimum and maximum internal line sizes, Maximum distance pig must travel, Minimum bend radius, and bend angles, Additional features such as valve types, branch connections, and the elevation profile.

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Pigs can be broadly divided into three categories:

Utility Pigs: which are used to perform functions such as cleaning, separating, or dewatering.
In Line Inspection Tools: which provide information on the condition of the line, as well as the extent and location of any problems. Gel Pigs: which are used in conjunction with conventional pigs to optimize pipeline dewatering, cleaning, and drying tasks. Plugs: isolate a section of the pipeline.

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Utility pipeline pigs can be divided into two groups based upon their purpose: Cleaning Pigs: which are used to remove solid or semi-solid deposits or debris from the pipeline.

Sealing Pigs: which are used to provide a good seal in order to either sweep liquids from the line, or provide an interface between two dissimilar products within the pipeline.

Utility Pigs may also be classified as under: Mandrel pigs, which have a central body tube, or mandrel, and various components which can be assembled onto the mandrel to configure a pig for a specific duty. Foam pigs, which are molded from polyurethane foam with various configurations of solid polyurethane strips and/or abrasive materials permanently bonded to them. Solid cast pigs, which are molded in one piece, usually from polyurethane. Spherical pigs or spheres, which are of either a solid composition or inflated to their optimum diameter with glycol and/or water.

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The primary purpose of a Pig Launcher and Receiver is to Launch and/or Receive a pig into a pipeline system without interruption of flow.

INLINE INSPECTION TOOLS &

PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT

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IOCL pipelines, those commissioned in 60s have

already served for more than 40 years and still being operated at Max. allowable operating pressure (MAOP) & continue to achieve throughput targets.
Implementation of an effective Pipeline Integrity

Management programme has helped in achieving the continued safe, economical & reliable operations of even these old pipelines.
We shall now see how Intelligent help pipeline

operators in Integrity Management.

Causes of pipelines failures Construction/Material defect Corrosion (External/Internal) Third party damage Natural Calamities/Ground movement Other causes (operational error)

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Integrity Management of Old Pipelines Challenges


Mostly CTE (over the ditch) coated Conventional CP system

High current density i.e poor coating


History of inconsistent CP Power availability Highly corrosive soil Low frequency ERW mainline pipes History of line failures

INCIDENTS WE STRIVE TO PREVENT

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Asset Reliability
The BATHTUB curve is widely used in reliability engineering. It can also be equally suited to the context of Pipeline assets The first part is a decreasing failure rate, known as early failures. The second part is a constant failure rate, known as random failures. The third part is an increasing failure rate, known as wearout failures.

Pipeline Reliability & Life


As long as pipelines are regularly monitored for all relevant threats, maintained & remediated as required they can continue to be operated beyond design life indefinitely until economically unviable

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Inspection and Monitoring Methods

1. Pro-active method Objective : To ensure pipeline do not become defective or damaged. 2. Reactive methods Objective : Damage or defects are detected before they cause serious problems.

Inspection and Monitoring Methods


Method
Patrolling
CP & Coating surveys Intelligent Pig Surveys (IPS)

Looks for / Reveals


Third party damage, Sabotage
CP performance/ Coating damage Metal loss (External / Internal Corrosion), Construction defects, Material defects

Hydro-test

Material/Construction fault, Fatigue cracks, Leakage Pipe weld seam

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Intelligent Pig Surveys (IPS)


IPS is a well proven and latest technique for health monitoring of a pipeline and it can scan the complete pipeline. The original concept of using a pig to inspect a pipeline came from Shell Research in 1963 and they patented the idea of an eddy current based inspection tool. Tuboscope bought the patent and changed the design to an MFL (magnetic flux leakage) system based on their existing drill pipe inspection techniques. Out of this research the first MFL tool was created and it was called the 90 Tool

History of Intelligent Pigging Tuboscope bought the patent and changed the design to an MFL (magnetic flux leakage) system based on their existing drill pipe inspection techniques. Out of this research the first MFL tool was created and it was called the 90 Tool

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History of Intelligent Pigging


Early Intelligent PIG 90 Tool In 1964 started commercial operation Used 6 coil sensor and inspected bottom th of the pipeline Used a 7 channel tape recorder Did not have a measuring wheel 1966: First full-circumference MFL pig (Tuboscope) 1971: Other vendors introduce low-resolution MFL pigs. 1986: First ultrasonic pig for corrosion in liquid lines 2000 onwards : Higher resolution Intelligent Pigs started commercial operation.

Intelligent Pig Surveys (IPS)


Currently, two technologies are used for IPS : A. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) High and low resolution axial Circumferential (TFI or transverse flux inspection) B. Ultrasonics Normal beam (wall thickness) Angle beam (cracks)

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Intelligent Pig Surveys (IPS)


Ultrasonic type: This type of survey requires the introduction of a liquid into the pipeline to couple the sensor signal to the pipe wall. Magnetic Flux leakage (MFL) type: MFL method involves introduction of a magnetic field on the pipe wall and sensing the leakage of field. Presently MFL technique is the most commonly used technique for Inline Inspection surveys.

Ultrasonics based IPS

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Magnetic Flux Leakage based IPS

DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF ALL INTERNAL ANOMALIES

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SAFE MAOP OF DEFECTS IN CHAKSU - MATHURA SECTION (ERF >1)


60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25
127.653 7.323 2.489 43.080 43.060 43.417 54.535 55.677 57.069 43.145 56.988 56.925 45.698 55.151 56.593 57.089 60.214 34.906 43.060 43.398 57.071 43.137 43.120 43.052 54.667 57.089 42.756 43.114 43.060 43.057 43.487 54.507 56.898 57.271 43.139 43.137 43.060 52.689 43.607 43.112 43.059 57.207 43.130 43.139 43.054 57.084 54.832 43.140 43.060 53.711 57.239 57.053 57.069 43.128 43.128 43.051 43.138 43.130 43.139 43.055 43.128 130.307 43.137 43.136 156.524 54.854 80.085 80.084 80.059 80.709 98.132 106.541 97.991 106.438 117.116 97.986 106.078 98.225 106.742 98.806 106.763 98.801 106.743 99.263 107.495 107.934 129.035 137.987 147.632 130.308 130.298 130.292 141.017 130.259 140.998 130.245 138.190 148.490 131.190 131.077 141.541 131.679 131.664 159.273 161.163 178.713 183.266 193.284 80.086 80.083 80.059 88.481 97.675 104.482 97.907 105.833 98.225 107.234 117.666 127.652135.256 98.220 106.427 127.653 138.070 129.106 129.099 129.054 138.888 129.034 138.722 130.310 130.298 130.297 130.294 130.257 130.617 130.328 141.304 131.213 131.114 131.073 132.307 160.212 161.330 177.320 177.144 182.204 191.656 183.284 193.309 183.269 192.980 188.484 80.095 80.576 83.439 92.813 97.916 106.076 107.478 127.653 135.742 129.105 129.004 138.703 129.748 140.068 150.275 158.617 130.309 130.306 130.293 130.258 130.995 141.466 131.349 131.618 154.555162.207 159.099 161.330 161.327 98.047 106.427 98.001 105.872 98.290 106.434 98.535 98.959 98.807 98.806 127.324 135.279 143.315 129.105 138.442 129.034 138.195 130.308 130.304 130.297 130.289 141.018 132.306 141.129 141.570 141.447 141.992 159.200 159.227 161.997 193.333 192.777 78.339 80.055 97.925 106.697 98.408 98.217 107.322 129.259 130.311 130.306 130.298 130.289 130.258 131.678 131.661 141.872 132.306 147.281 154.099 159.097 183.249 192.972 193.265 192.981 80.084 80.082 97.676 106.456 98.132 130.294 130.363 131.050 141.881 131.679 180.876 190.756 195.648 84.562 97.993 106.541 129.034 138.045 130.308 130.292 130.291 138.977 149.672 159.114 131.618 177.311 186.161 192.977 80.066 98.534 106.697 127.198 135.249 127.653 130.310 130.309 130.295 131.133 131.618 142.315 177.408 180.443 192.769 98.045 107.319 128.811 130.309 97.908 140.999 171.984 80.087 98.800 103.755 131.121 131.678 161.795 130.288 130.225 131.680 192.980 80.086 98.535 127.652 131.035 141.872 131.618 160.317 80.138 138.074 80.086 128.836 138.047 193.280 98.925 138.731 80.082 131.746 180.876 98.082 138.860 173.786 98.131 106.521 98.808 98.216 98.535 98.806 128.809 177.309 98.806 98.535 106.080 129.106 130.330 106.430 129.100 131.680 131.679 131.618 129.034 130.293

26.829

PRESSURE

131.618

20 15 10 5 0 0 CHAKSU 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 LOG DISTANCE SAFE MAOP OF DEFECTS PREDICTED OPERATING PRESSURE WITH MAOP = 40kg/sq.cm Linear (PREDICTED OPERATING PRESSURE WITH MAOP = 55.6kg/sq cm) Linear (MAOP = 55.6 kg/sq cm) Linear (SHUTDOWN PRESSURE) Linear (PREDICTED OPERATING PRESSURE WITH MAOP = 40kg/sq.cm)

MATHURA @ Log Dist 33 197.2 km

Weld Location
35110 37609.775 m Marker at Reference magnet No. 1... Reference magnet No. 1... Reference magnet No. 1... 32888.590 m 34878.946 m 36892.809 m 1990.356 m 2013.863 m 716.966 m Reference at Valve 0.000 m 44.902 m Valve 44.902 m 37564.873 m Valve Valve Valve 50175.843 m 63373.617 m 100785.520 m 12566.068 m 13197.774 m 37411.903 m

1246.071 m

Reference magnet No. 1... Reference magnet No. 2... Reference magnet No. 2... 38855.846 m 40875.437 m 42843.567 m 2019.591 m 1968.130 m

Installation at Repair-Welded sleeve en...Weld-Change in wall thic...Weld-Change in wall thic... 36481.505 m 36914.284 m 37087.995 m 432.779 m 173.711 m 521.780 m W eld at 35060 12.116 m t =7.14 mm

505.136 m

Repair-Welded sleeve be...Repair-Welded sleeve en...Repair-Welded sleeve be... 38114.911 m 38118.508 m 38689.721 m 3.597 m 571.213 m

35070 11.584 m

35080 7.560 m

35090 9.325 m

35100 10.581 m t =7.14 mm 12.112 m

35120 12.057 m

35130 11.587 m

35140 12.050 m

35150 8.529 m

35160

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

t =7.14 mm

Feature Location
37615.817 m 37609.775 m 6.042 m 37621.887 m 6.070 m 07:02 24 mm 26 mm OD = 610mm FLOW 6 9 looking d/s 3 766mm 12 1122mm

Feature Information
log dist. : 37615.817 m cluster : clock : 07:02 anomaly type-identification : Anomaly-Corrosion t : 7.14 mm depth : 6 % length : 26 mm width : 24 mm

Not to scale!
comment : AFS

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DIG VERIFICATION OF DEFECTS

Checking Depth (or metal loss) of an external corrosion pit using a Pit Gauge

Checking Wall Thickness at a reported Internal corrosion feature using an UT Thickness meter

A VIEW OF FEW DEFECTS REVEALED

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INDIGENOUS DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT PIGGING CAPABILITIES

Indigenous Development of Inline Inspection tools


Very few companies have developed these tools worldwide and are only providing inspection services globally. IndianOil is the first company in India to venture into development of Intelligent pigging technology in association with BARC, Mumbai. In addition to tool development infrastructure for tool verification such as wet test loop, linear pull through rig, Pressure and leak resistance test rig, Laboratory test rig etc. have been created. Further, Vibration test rig, Electronics test facility, Hysteresis loop tracer, data analysis laboratory as well as simulation and software laboratories are being created.

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Development of 12 IPIG
Collaborative project with BARC - MoU signed in April 1995 and completed in April 2008 Development of 12 size Instrumented PIG (IPIG) completed after extensive research work: Two designs of 12 IPIG developed Design and development of components /modules on specially designed test rigs Evaluation in 12 wet test loop at IndianOil-R&D Extensive evaluations of prototype IPIG/CPIG in field pipelines.

Specification of 12 IPIG
Parameter Features to be detected Nominal definition Ext & int corrosion pits with at least 10% wall loss at least 3t surface extent in either dimension & also pipe features like Girth welds, Valves, Tees, Taps, Clamps, Supports, Casings, Sleeves etc. Axially 1 meter from nearest benchmark and circumferentially 15 50 hrs 400 hrs 150 km

Accuracy of flaw location Continuous Data recording Continuous Transmitter functioning Distance covered in one single run

Max. working pressure & temp


Vibration and shock Minimum bend negotiability Tool speed

100 kg/cm (approx. 1500 psi) & 0 C to 70 C


3 g vibration, 5-100 Hz, 0.5 octave per minute sweep rate, 10 G, 2ms shock 5 D 90 bend 1 to 8 Kmph

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Features of the 12 IPIG Tools


Octagonal (hexagonal) magnetic module and PU (metallic) sensor arms 64(72) primary and 56(66) secondary sensors Fast flash disk for permanent storage of data Max 1200 Hz time sampling per channel (430 Hz @3.6 Kmph) On-line monitoring of shock, vibration and temperature to diagnose cause of failure Independent monitoring of the health of the power supply & data acquisition and odometer system by PSSV and SLC circuits Multiple level of system recovery using software and hardware watch-dog

12 Instrumented pig

Magnetic module Data Acquisition system

Battery module

Pig Locator

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Components of 12 IPIG

Magnetic Module

DAS Module

Primary Sensor Assembly

Secondary Sensor assembly

DAS Cartridge

Power Supply Module

Components of 12 IPIG

Pig Locator Module

Odometer Assembly

Sensor Arm Assembly of 12 Caliper pig

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Salient features of Instrumented pig

Magnet Module

Data Acquisition System

The tool moves with the flow of


oil and works at 100 bar pressure. Inspects 150 Km of pipeline in one run. Longer lines can be pigged by delayed switching. Detects metal loss defects and pipe features Features are thicker pipe section, girth weld, valve, clamp, support, casing, sleeve repair etc.

Minimum detectable defect size: 3t


(l), 3t (w), 0.1t (d), Three odometers locate detects within +/- 5m from the nearest marker. DSP based DAS system for low power consumption and on line signal processing. Data analyzed off-line using inhouse software.

Major Achievements
Design of pressure vessel to withstand 100 KG/cm2 oil pressure: ASME B&PV code, section VIII, division 1 Mechanical negotiability through bends and installations, 3-D solid modeling and experimental validation Localization of pipe features and defects with required accuracy reliable and repeatable odometer system Reliability of data storage: Redundancy, Reinitialization High confidence in detecting defects: Signal de-noising using wavelets and unsupervised feature extraction Reliable packaging: validation by shock and vibration test at BARC as per IEC 571 for rolling stock

Accurate characterization of defects: Classification using reference database QA & QC, maintenance and up gradation

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In-house development of electronics


In-house development of fixed and floating point DSP based multiprocessor data acquisition hardware and system software On-line data compression in wavelet transform domain Data storage in highly reliable fast flash disk Independent micro-controller based system for monitoring important system parameters such as shock & vibration, acquisition on, temperature, power supply Multi-level watch dog reinitialization to overcome transient problems Future electronics with low power processors and flash memory
DSP Processor

Dual DSP Processor

Defects between sleeves


A detected severe defect - out put of analysis package developed inhouse. Sleeves are used for repairing defects in pipelines. A severe defect > 60% WL found at the predicted location after excavation A Java based data presentation package is developed to see data in tabular, A-scan and C-scan forms simultaneously. Color variation indicates the change in intensity of MFL signal.
Severe defect

Severe defect

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FACILITIES FOR TESTING & EVALUATION OF TOOLS

VARIOUS RIGS USED TO EVALUATE THE TOOLS


Static Rig Linear Pull Through rig Rotary Test rig Wet Test Loop

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STATIC RIG
Used for:
To study experimentally the Magnetic Flux leakage levels around a test section The test section (320 mm X 125 mm) is made out of actual pipe. the plates used for the test section are 6 mm and 9 mm thick.

ROTARY TEST RIG


Test Rig Used for:
Sensing and recording the size and location of defects Studying the effect of varying rotation speed on defect signals Dynamic testing of sensors and their mountings Studying the accuracy of data acquisition system

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LINEAR PULL - THROUGH RIG


To test the negotiability of mechanical components through pipe internals and fittings in dry conditions Standardization of signals with known defects Helped in improving the design of mechanical and electronic components

12 WET TEST LOOP at R&D Centre

When PIG passes PS1 Valves V1, V3 & V2 opened Valves V4, V6 & V5 closed

When PIG passes PS2 Valves V4, V6 & V5 opened Valves V1, V3 & V2 closed

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12 WET TEST LOOP AT FARIDABAD


120 meter in length and 12 in diameter. Max. Flow rate 200 m3/hr Verification of pull rig, linear test rig results Negotiation through pipe fittings and bends Once through and continuous operation mode Endurability test of mechanical components

RAISED SECTION IN WET TEST LOOP ( 90 deg and 45 deg % D Bend)

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SPOOL WITH VARYING DIAMETER 311-275-311 MM

SPOOL WITH 12 mm PROTRUSION

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SPOOLS WITH DEFECTS

Development of Higher Sizes of IPIG/CPIG (2nd MoU with BARC)


Development of 14, 18, 24 IPIG and 12,14,18, 24 CPIG are also being taken up under MoU with BARC Status of 2nd MoU 12, 14 CPIG and 14 IPIG developed and under field evaluation. 12 CPIG tested in P - M and B - P sections of BKPL. Inspection data to be validated by dig-site verification. Trial runs of 24 CPIG tool being carried out.

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12 Caliper PIG
Battery Module

DAS Module

Pig locator Module + Geometry Sensors

3D Model of Transverse Field Inspection (TFI) Tool.

Capable of detecting low width axial cracks as they threaten pipe integrity. These defects cannot be detected by axial magnetizer based PIGs
Electromagnetic design is more challenging

3D FEM Model of TFI Tool

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Defect creation Machine


To cut defects on 12, 14, 18 and 24 pipes (upto 3m in length) Defect on external surface of any size and shape.

Hydro Test Facility


Length 3m Sizes and thickness of vessel 24 (OD) x 0.375(WT) Max. test pressure 100kg /cm2 For leakage testing of various sizes of DAS and batterys pressure vessels of IPIGs/ CPIGs under pressure

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Linear Pull Through Rig (LPTR) under construction at R&D


Faridabad

Length 46.5m Sizes 12, 14, 18 and 22 Max. Speed 2 m/s For evaluation runs of 12, 14, 18 and 22 IPIG/CPIG

ILI Capabilities at IOC R&D

IPIG tools
12 Inch 3 Nos. (Hexagonal & octagonal) 14 Inch 1 No. 24 inch 1 No.

CPIG tools
12 Inch 2 Nos. 14 inch 1 No. 24 Inch 1 No.

~1000kms IPIG and ~ 500kms CPIG trials


conducted

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14 IPIG - Pilferage Site

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Present developmental activities


Software based Simulation of ILI signatures Laboratory and Pilot plant simulation of ILI signatures Creation of defect library of regular / irregular geometry Data compression and defect extraction as per set threshold level of acceptance Up-gradation of electronics. Defect analysis and Fitness for purpose assessment

Way Forward
Continual improvement in the developed IPIG/CPIGs with respect to characterization of ILI signals, accuracy of detection and sizing of features as well as portability of the tool Creation of defect library, defect analysis algorithm for reduction in analysis time as well as compatibility of data acquisition module to present generation electronics are underway Utilization of the tools for IOCL pipelines as well as for other Oil companies for mutual benefit

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THANK YOU..
for kind attention
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