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Contents

1. Digital Image Fundamentals 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Fundamental steps in Digital Image Processing 1.3 Elements of an Image Processing Systems 1.4 Networking 1.5 Elements of Visual Perception 1.5.1 Structure of human eye 1.5.2 Image formation in the eye 1.5.3 Brightness Adaptation and discrimination 1.6 A simple function model 1.7 Image sampling and quantization 1.7.1 Decision making point 1.7.2 Spatial and Gray level resolution 1.8 Basic Relationships between pixels 1.8.1 Adjacency, Connectivity, Regions and Boundaries 1.8.2 Connectivity, Regions and Boundaries 1.8.3 Distance Measure 1.8.4 Image operation on a pixel basis 1.9 Imaging Geometry 1.9.1 Translation 1.9.2 Scaling 1.9.3 Rotation 1.9.4 Concatenation and Inverse transformation 2. Image Transform 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Need for Transform 2.3 Image Transforms 2.4 Fourier Transform 2.5 Properties of 2D-DFT 2.6 Walsh Transform 2.7 Hadamard Transform 2.8 Haar Transform 2.9 Slant Transform 2.10 Discrete Cosine Transform 2.11 Karhunen-Loeve Transform 2.12 Singular Value Decomposition

2.13 Image Arithmetic 3. Image Enhancement 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Background 3.3 Some Basic Gray Level Transformation 3.3.1 Power-Law Transformations 3.3.2 Piece Wise Linear Transformation Functions 3.4 Histogram Processing 3.4.1 Histogram Equalization 3.4.2 Histogram Matching (Specification) 3.4.3 Local Enhancement 3.5 Basics of Spatial Filtering 3.6 Smoothing Spatial Filters 3.6.1 Smoothing Linear Filters 3.6.2 Order Statistics Filters 3.7 Sharpening of Spatial Filters 3.7.1 Foundation 3.7.2 Use of Second Derivatives for Enhancement 4. Image Restoration 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Image Degradation Model 4.2.1 Inverse Filtering 4.2.2 Minimum Mean Square Error (Wiener) Filtering 4.2.3 Constrained Least Square Filtering 5. Image Segmentation 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Detection of Discontinuities 5.2.1 Point Detection 5.2.2 Line Detection 5.2.3 Edge Detection 5.3 Region Based Operations 5.3.1 Basic Formulation 5.3.2 Region Growing 5.3.3 Region Splitting

5.3.4 Region Merge 5.3.5 Split and Merge 5.4 Thresholding 5.4.1 Foundation 5.4.2 The Role of Illumination 5.4.3 Basic Global Thresholding 5.4.4 Basic Adaptive Thresholding 5.4.5 Optimal Global and Adaptive Thresholding 5.4.6 Threshold Based on Several Variables 5.5 Edge Linking and Boundary Detection 5.5.1 Local Processing 5.5.2 Global Processing via the Hough Transform 5.5.3 Global Processing via Graph-Theoretic Techniques 6. Image Compression 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Redundancy in Images 6.2.1 Coding Redundancy 6.2.2 Interpixel Redundancy 6.2.3 Psycho Visual Redundancy 6.2.4 Fidelity Criteria 6.3 Image Compression Model 6.3.1 The Source Encoder And Decoder 6.3.2 The Channel Encoder And Decoder 6.4 Error Free Compression 6.4.1 Variable Length Coding 6.4.2 Huffman Coding 6.4.3 Arithmetic Coding 6.4.4 Lzw Coding 6.4.5 Bit Plane Coding 6.4.6 Lossless Predictive Coding 6.4.7 Runlength Coding 6.5 Lossy Compression 6.5.1 Lossy Predictive Coding 6.5.2 Transform Coding 6.5.3 Wavelet Coding

7. Color Image Processing 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Color Fundamentals RGB Color Model 7.3 Color Models 7.4 RGB Color Model 7.5 The CMY And CMYK Color Models 7.5.1 HSI Color Model 7.6 Pseudo Color Image Processing 7.6.1 Intensity Slicing 7.6.2 Gray Level to Color Transformation 7.6.3 Basic of Full-Color Image Processing 7.7 Color Transformations 7.8 Color Components 7.9 Histogram Processing 7.9.1 Tone and Color Correction 7.10 Smoothing and Shaping 7.10.1 Color Image Smoothing 7.11 Color Image Shaping 7.12 Color segmentation 7.12.1 Segmentation in HSI Color space 7.12.2 Segmentation In RGB Vector Space 7.13 Color Edge Detection 7.14 Noise in Color Images 7.15 Color Image Compression 7.16 Color Slicing