Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 51

1

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 OVERVIEW


For making available voltage to some critical loads all the time without any blackout such as for computers used for controlling important processes, some medical equipment etc., use of UPS is essential. A UPS should provide protection against power failure as also voltage regulation of the power system during its suffering from over voltage and under voltage. Thus in case of power failure, to avoid complete blackout, action is taken to make available power that can partially or fully replace the primary source of supply. The commonly used method is to store energy using batteries. The batteries are continuously charged by the source of supply. In the event of power failure, the energy of the batteries is converted to useful power to operate the load. This system of use of alternate energy source to

keep the power supply ON is called uninterruptable power system (UPS) or standby power systems (SPS). An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is a device that protects electronic equipment from power uncertainties. A UPS is a device that is interfaced between the electric network (connected to utility power) and the materials that need protecting. The UPS allows the materials to be switched to emergency battery power for several minutes in case of electrical problems, in particular during:

Power line disturbances, i.e. a split second power outage that can cause a computer to restart Power outages, corresponding to a break in the power supply for a given amount of time Overvoltage, i.e. a nominal value greater than the maximum value needed for the normal functioning of electrical appliances Undervoltage, i.e. a nominal value less than the maximum value needed for the normal functioning of electrical appliances Lightening, which is a source of extreme overvoltage that occur suddenly during bad weather (storms)

A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generatorin that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteriesand associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centres, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss. In the normal mode of operation, the power to the inverter is provided by the rectifier .in case of a line outage, power comes from the battery bank. The inverter produces either single phase or three phase sinusoidal waveform depending on the UPS.The output voltage of the inverter is filtered, prior to being applied to the load. 3

1.2. UPS TYPES


A variety of design approaches are used to implement UPS systems, each with distinct performance characteristics. The most common design approaches are as follows:

Standby

Line Interactive

Standby-Ferro

Double Conversion On-Line

Delta Conversion On-Line

1.2.1.The Standby UPS


The Standby UPS is the most common type used for Personal Computers. In the block diagram illustrated in Figure 1, the transfer switch is set to choose the filtered AC input as the primary power source (solid line path), and switches to the battery / inverter as the backup source should the primary source fail. When that happens, the transfer switch must operate to switch the load over to the battery / inverter backup power source (dashed path). The inverter only starts when the power 4

fails, hence the name "Standby." High efficiency, small size, and low cost are the main benefits of this design. With proper filter and surge circuitry, these systems can also provide adequate noise filtration and surge suppression.

SURGE SUPPRESSOR

FILTER

TRANSFER SWITCH

CHARGER

BATTERY

INVERTER

DC AC

Figure 1 Standby UPS

1.2.2.THE LINE INTERACTIVE UPS


The Line Interactive UPS, illustrated in Figure 2, is the most common design used for small business, Web, and departmental servers. In this design, the 5

battery-to-AC power converter (inverter) is always connected to the output of the UPS. Operating the inverter in reverse during times when the input AC power is normal provides battery charging. When the input power fails, the transfer switch opens and the power flows from the battery to the UPS output. With the inverter always on and connected to the output, this design provides additional filtering and yields reduced switching transients when compared with the Standby UPS topology. In addition, the Line Interactive design usually incorporates a tap-changing transformer. This adds voltage regulation by adjusting transformer taps as the input voltage varies. Voltage regulation is an important feature when low voltage conditions exist, otherwise the UPS would transfer to battery and then eventually down the load. This more frequent battery usage can cause premature battery failure. However, the inverter can also be designed such that its failure will still permit power flow from the AC input to the output, which eliminates the potential of single point failure and effectively provides for two independent power paths. High efficiency, small size, low cost and high reliability coupled with the ability to correct low or high line voltage conditions make this the dominant type of UPS in the 0.55kVA power range.

TRANSFER

SWITCH

INVERTER

AC
DC

BATTERY

<

CHARGING (NORMAL)

DISCHARGING (POWER FAULT)

Figure 2 Line Interactive UPS

1.2.3.THE STANDBY-FERRO UPS


The Standby-Ferro UPS was once the dominant form of UPS in the 315kVA range. This design depends on a special saturating transformer that has three windings (power connections). The primary power path is from AC input, through a transfer switch, through the transformer, and to the output. In the case of a power failure, the transfer switch is opened, and the inverter picks up the output load. In the Standby-Ferro design, the inverter is in the standby mode, and is energized when the input power fails and the transfer switch is opened. The transformer has a special "Ferro-resonant" capability, which provides limited voltage regulation and output waveform "shaping". The isolation from AC power transients provided by the Ferro transformer is as good as or better than any filter available. But the Ferro transformer itself creates severe output voltage distortion and transients, which can be worse than a poor AC connection. Even though it is a standby UPS by design, the Standby-Ferro generates a great deal of heat because the Ferro-resonant transformer is inherently inefficient. High reliability and excellent line filtering are this designs strengths. However, the design has very low efficiency combined with instability when used with some generators and newer power-factor corrected computers, causing the popularity of this design to decrease significantly.

TRANSFER

SWITCH

TRANSFORMER

DC AC
BATTERY CHARGER INVERTER

Figure 3 Standby-Ferro UPS

1.2.4.THE DOUBLE CONVERSION ON-LINE UPS


This is the most common type of UPS above 10kVA. The block diagram of the Double Conversion On-Line UPS, illustrated in Figure 4, is the same as the Standby, except that the primary power path is the inverter instead of the AC main.

STATIC BYPASS

SWITCH

AC

AC

DC
RECTIFIER

DC
INVERTER

BATTERY

Figure 4 Double Conversion On-Line UPS

In the Double Conversion On-Line design, failure of the input AC does not cause activation of the transfer switch, because the input AC is charging the backup battery source which provides power to the output inverter. Therefore, during an input AC power failure, on-line operation results in no transfer time. Both the battery charger and the inverter convert the entire load power flow in this design, resulting in reduced efficiency with its associated increased heat generation.

1.2.5.The Delta Conversion On-Line UPS


This UPS design, illustrated in Figure 5, is a newer, 10 year old technology introduced to eliminate the drawbacks of the Double Conversion On-Line design and is available in sizes ranging from 5kVA to 1.6MW. Similar to the Double Conversion On-Line design, the Delta Conversion On-Line UPS always has the inverter supplying the load voltage. However, the additional Delta Converter also contributes power to the inverter output. Under conditions of AC failure or disturbances, this design exhibits behaviour identical to the Double Conversion OnLine.

STATIC BYPASS

SWITCH

DELTA

TRANSFORMER

AC DC DC

AC

DELTA CONVERTER

MAIN INVERTER

BATTERY

10

Figure 5 Delta Conversion On-Line UPS

11

12

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2. LITERATURE SURVEY
The UPS market had its early beginnings nearly 60 years ago, and naturally there have been tremendous advances since then in reliability, efficiency, dimensions, and cost. But developments continue in a thriving and ever expanding market, and under such conditions one should expect a healthy development program. Indeed such is the case, we can see small gas turbines coming into the marketplace offering ease of installation and low NOlevels. Battery development shows a future where designs will reflect the increasing diversity in UPS design and application Batteries will, in the future, themselves possibly use other chemical formulae (lithium-ion), and on the horizon one can see fuel cells being developed for use with UPS system.

We believe the development of static UPS will continue as more diverse and 13

advanced solid state switching components become available.The rotary system, the earliest type of UPS, was at one time completely eclipsed by static systems but its more sophisticated successors have now regained a place in the market and will continue to increase their effectiveness.

The first uninterrupted power supply was invented and patented by John J. Hanley. He first filed for his patent on Nov. 2, 1932, and was finally granted his patent on April 3, 1934. His patent was called an "Apparatus for Maintaining an Unfailing and Uninterrupted Supply of Electrical Energy."

2.1. LEADING MANUFATURERS OF UPS


(i) APC by Schneider Electric West Kingston, RI Product:Silcon -- SL10KF Description: APC Silcon, 10 kW / 10 kVA,Input 208V 3PH / Output 120V, 208V, 208V 3PH, Interface Port DB-25 RS-232,. UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line(Double-conversion)

(ii) Caterpillar Electric Power Mossville, IL Product: Multi Module UPS 300 Series -- UPS250E Description: Caterpillar knows the importance of quality power to your operation. 14

UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: Line-interactive (iii) Eaton | Power Quality

Raleigh, NC Product:EATON 9170+ UPS -- PW 9170plus 6kVA (PW6S6K-LPD) Description: Eaton produces a broad range of products and services, from fuel-efficient systems, to Power Chain management tools and components that guide commercial aircraft. UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion) (iv)Emerson Network Power / Liebert Power & Cooling Columbus, OH Product:Liebert APM -- APM 15-90 kW Description: The row-based Liebert APM is a transformerless, on-line UPS that allows quick and easy capacity increases with FlexPower hardware assemblies - no additional floorspace UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion) (v) Energy Control Systems Fort Worth, TX Product:Powerware -- BladeUPS Power System Description: The Eaton BladeUPS is a revolutionary power quality solution ideal for blade servers, data centers, networking applications, storage devices and critical IT equipment. UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion)

(vi)

Excelitas Technologies Corp. 15

Waltham, MA Product:Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) Description:Excelitas has the experience to develop solutions to a broad range of power systems: Single and three-phase input 48 VDC output, 1 kW and up Sealed lead-acid UPS Type: Single Phase (optional feature); Three Phase (optional feature) Watt Rating: 1.00 kwatts (vii) GE Digital Energy

Atlanta, GA Product:Power Quality -- LP 31 Series 8-20 kVA Description: On line, double conversion transformer-based UPS incorporating the most advanced power electronics technology UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion) (viii) GUTOR Electronic LLC

Wettingen, Aargau, Switzerland Product:Three Phase Inverter -- AC Inverter System WDW 3000 Description: The important components of the AC inverter system are the inverter and static switching modules, a bypass switch, transformers, a controller and human-machine interface UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion) (ix)Rittal Corporation Urbana, OH Product:Three Phase Modular UPS -- 9971054

16

Description:Rittal'sRimatriX Modular UPS is designed specifically for high-density computing environments. The RimatriX Modular UPS delivers 12 kW of efficient power UPS Type: Three Phase Watt Rating: 1.20 kwatts (x) Tripp Lite Chicago, IL Product:SmartOnline 3-Phase UPS -- SU20K3/3 Description: The SU20K3/3 provides mission-critical equipment with the highest level of power protection available. Large capacity 20,000VA/16,000 watt UPS UPS Type: Three Phase Technology: On-line (Double-conversion)

2.2. PROTECTIVE DEVICES OTHER THAN UPS (i).Surge Protective Devices SPDS
Protects against spikes of limited energy Metal Oxide Varistors MOV diodes gas tubes LCR filters Hybrids

(ii).

Line filters

Filters out harmonics, transients and noise

(iii). Isolation transformer


17

Eliminates dc offset and noise

(iv). Voltage regulating line conditioner


Automatically adjusts for under and over voltages Constant Voltage Transformer - CVT Motorized VARIAC

POWER DISTURBANCES AND PROTECTIVE DEVICES


POWER DISTURBANCE SURGE PROTECTOR PROTECTIVE DEVICE OFFER PROTECTION LINE FILTER ISOLATION TRANSFOR MER VOLTAGE REGULAT ING LINE CONDITIO NER
INTERRUPTION SAG,UNDER VOLTAGE SURGE,OVER VOLTAGE FREQUENCY VARIATION SPIKES/TRANSIENTS IMPULSIVE OSCILLATORY YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

ONLINE UPS

WAVEFORM DISTORTION

DC OFFSET

YES

YES

HARMONICS

YES

YES

INTERHARMONICS

YES

NOTCHING

YES

YES

NOISE VOLTAGE IMBALANCE

18

YES

YES

YES YES

Table 1- power disturbances and protective device

PROJECTLAYOUT

19

WEEKS
Week 1

WORK SPECIFIED
Introduction to UPS

WORK DONE
General information about the UPS was gathered.

Week 2

Study on UPS

Old UPS kit was dismantled and the components were studied

Week 3

Study of UPS

Block diagram was built.

Week 4

Circuit description

Circuit diagram for Domestic UPS was designed.

Week 5

Simulation work

Circuit correction and simulation was done using MATLAB.

Week 6

Hardware design

Designing of hardware.

Week 7

Hardware design

Designing of hardware

Table 2- project layout

20

21

CHAPTER 3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

22

Figure 6-circuit diagram of uninterruptable power supply

3.1. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


23

An AC load can be powered from a DC source by using a converter to change DC to AC. This circuit is designed for taking 230V AC from the 12V DC input. An AC load can be powered from a DC source by using a converter to change DC to AC. This is efficiently done through above circuit with the use of two transistors Q1 & Q2 and one Transformer (T). The wattage of output depends on these three equipments. A DC-to-AC inverter energized from a 12-volt DC input signal uses a single stage inverter circuit to produce a quasi-sine wave output signal. When we are giving 12v DC input to the circuit, initially it goes to diode D1 which is used to product reverse voltage. Then Q1 will conduct first, at that time we can get the positive cycle of 230v output in the output transformer side. It will prolong some seconds and gets saturated then Q2 will conduct this time. This switching makes the reverse polarity in the output side with constant 230v output. Then Q2 will conduct some seconds and gets saturated and Q1 will conduct. Likewise this switching makes alternating 230v output in the transformer output side. This will continue up to the input given to the circuit, which makes constant 230V AC output in the transformer side. The output voltage of the inverter is decided only in the transformer. While saying in briefly, DC to AC converters a direct current voltage is applied to a so-called half bridge with two power transistors connected in series. The power transistors are gated alternatively conducting and generate at their connection point an alternating voltage for the load. DC-to-AC voltage converters have many uses, such as the supply of power to gas discharge lamps or, after rectifying and smoothing the AC voltage, supplying power to electronic circuits, motors, relays, magnetic valves, magnetic clutches, etc. DC-to-AC power converters are often used in uninterruptible power supplies.

3.2. COMPONENTS DETAILS & WORKING

3.2.1. TRANSFORMER (220/12V) The transformer in the circuit is used to step down the input voltage 230 to 12V, 4 amps,50 HZ AC Supply. 24

3.2.2. RECTIFIER(KLB06) The output of the transformer is given to the rectifier circuit (KLB06).

3.2.3. CAPACITOR 2200 microF/63V,0.01UF The rectified 12v DC is passed through 2200 micro farad capacitor for filtering purpose.

3.2.4. INVERTER SD1351 The Filtered DC output from the capacitor is fed into the battery. From the battery the DC input is given to the inverter circuit which converts the direct current into alternating current.

3.2.5. BATERRY cycle use standby use initial current 14.4 -15V 13.5-13.8V less than 2.1A

Here in this circuit the battery of model MS1270E (12V 7AH/20HR) is used to store the DC voltage of 12V.

3.2.6. TRANSFORMER The transformer at the end of this circuit is used to step up from 12V-50V. 25

3.2.7. FILTER CIRCUIT The output from the transformer is filtered using the RC Filter having capacitor of rating 330micro farad/50V and resistor of 1kilo ohm.

3.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM

230 V AC Supply

Rectifier

Inverter

Battery

Figure 7- Block diagram for uninterruptable power supply

3.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM DETAILS


The UPS consists of three main components: 3.4.1.RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC) which flows in only one direction. The process is known as rectification. Physically, rectifiers take a number of forms, including vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, solid statediodes, silicon-controlled rectifiers and other silicon-based semiconductor switches. Historically, even synchronous electromechanical switches and motors have been used. Early radio receivers, called crystal

26

radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a point-contact rectifier or "crystal detector". Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. The simple process of rectification produces a type of DC characterized by pulsating voltages and currents (although still unidirectional). Depending upon the type of end-use, this type of DC current may then be further modified into the type of relatively constant voltage DC characteristically produced by such sources as batteries and solar cells. Half-wave rectification In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

Figure 8- circuit and output waveform of half-wave rectifier The output DC voltage of a half wave rectifier can be calculated with the following two ideal equations:

...(3.1)

27

(3.2) Full-wave rectification A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tappedtransformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for halfwave rectification. (See semiconductors, diode). Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier.

Figure 9-circuit and output waveform of full-wave rectifier

The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave rectifier can be calculated as:

...(3.3)

...(3.4) For an ideal three-phase full wave rectifier, the average output voltage is

...(3.5) Where: Vdc, Vav - the average or DC output voltage, 28

Vp - the peak value of half wave, Vrms - the root-mean-square value of output voltage. = ~ 3.14159 = firing angle of the thyristor (0 if diodes are used to perform rectification) 3.4.2.BATTERY An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery (or "voltaic pile") in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. According to a 2005 estimate, the worldwide battery industry generates US$48 billion in sales each year with 6% annual growth. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers. 3.4.2.1 CATEGORIES AND TYPES OF BATTERIES Batteries are classified into two broad categories, each type with advantages and disadvantages.

Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means.

Secondary batteries can be recharged; that is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.

Some types of primary batteries used, for example, for telegraph circuits, were restored to operation by replacing the components of the battery consumed by the chemical reaction.

29

Secondary batteries are not indefinitely rechargeable due to dissipation of the active materials, loss of electrolyte and internal corrosion. 3.4.2.2 BATTERY CELL TYPES There are many general types of electrochemical cells, according to chemical processes applied and design chosen. The variation includes galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles. Wet cell A wet cell battery has a liquid electrolyte. Other names are flooded cell, since the liquid covers all internal parts, or vented cell, since gases produced during operation can escape to the air. Wet cells were a precursor to dry cells and are commonly used as a learning tool for electrochemistry. It is often built with common laboratory supplies, such as beakers, for demonstrations of how electrochemical cells work. A particular type of wet cell known as a concentration cell is important in understanding corrosion. Wet cells may be primary cells (non-rechargeable) or secondary cells (rechargeable). Originally, all practical primary batteries such as the Daniell cell were built as open-topped glass jar wet cells. Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell. The Leclanche cell chemistry was adapted to the first dry cells. Dry cell A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, with only enough moisture in the paste to allow current to flow. As opposed to a wet cell, the battery can be operated in any random position, and will not spill its electrolyte if inverted. While a dry cell's electrolyte is not truly completely free of moisture and must contain some moisture to function, it has the advantage of containing no sloshing liquid that might leak or drip out when inverted or handled roughly, making it highly suitable for small portable electric devices. By comparison, the first wet cells were typically fragile glass containers with lead rods hanging from the open top, and needed careful handling to avoid spillage. An inverted wet cell would leak, whereas a dry cell would not. Lead-acid batteries would not achieve the safety and portability of the dry cell until the development of the gel battery. 30

A common dry cell battery is the zinc-carbon battery, using a cell sometimes called the dry Leclanch cell, with a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts, the same nominal voltage as the alkaline battery (since both use the same zinc-manganese dioxide combination). The makeup of a standard dry cell is a zinc anode (negative pole), usually in the form of a cylindrical pot, with a carbon cathode (positive pole) in the form of a central rod. The electrolyte is ammonium chloride in the form of a paste next to the zinc anode. The remaining space between the electrolyte and carbon cathode is taken up by a second paste consisting of ammonium chloride and manganese dioxide, the latter acting as a depolariser. In some more modern types of so-called 'high-power' batteries, the ammonium chloride has been replaced by zinc chloride. Molten salt A molten salt battery is a primary or secondary battery that uses a molten salt as its electrolyte. Their energy density and power density give them potential for use in electric vehicles, but they must be carefully insulated to retain heat. Reserve A reserve battery can be stored for a long period of time and is activated when its internal parts (usually electrolyte) are assembled. For example, a battery for an electronic fuze might be activated by the impact of firing a gun, breaking a capsule of electrolyte to activate the battery and power the fuze's circuits. 3.4.2.3BATTERY CAPACITY AND DISCHARGING The more electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell the greater the capacity of the cell. A small cell has less capacity than a larger cell with the same chemistry, and they develop the same open-circuit voltage. The battery capacity that battery manufacturers print on a battery is usually the product of 20 hours multiplied by the maximum constant current that a new battery can supply for 20 hours at 68 F (20 C), down to a predetermined terminal voltage per cell. A battery rated at 100 Ah will deliver 5 A over a 20 hour period at room temperature. However, if it is instead discharged at 50 A, it will have a lower apparent capacity. 31

The relationship between current, discharge time, and capacity for a lead acid battery is approximated (over a certain range of current values) by Peukert's law:

...(3.6) Where QP is the capacity when discharged at a rate of 1 amp. Iis the current drawn from battery (A). t is the amount of time (in hours) that a battery can sustain. k is a constant around 1.3.

3.4.3.INVERTER

An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC) the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utilityhigh-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries.

3.4.3.1 TYPES
Modified sine wave The output of a modified sine wave inverter is similar to a square wave output except that the output goes to zero volts for a time before switching positive or negative. It is simple and low cost (~$0.10USD/Watt) and is compatible with most electronic devices, except for 32

sensitive or specialized equipment, for example certain laser printers, fluorescent lighting, audio equipment. Pure sine wave A pure sine wave inverter produces a nearly perfect sine wave output (3% total harmonic distortion) that is essentially the same as utility-supplied grid power. Thus it is compatible with all AC electronic devices. This is the type used in grid-tie inverters. Its design is more complex, and costs more per unit power. The electrical inverter is a highpower electronic oscillator. It is so named because early mechanical AC to DC converterswere made to work in reverse, and thus were "inverted", to convert DC to AC. Grid tie inverter A grid tie inverter is a sine wave inverter designed to inject electricity into the electric power distribution system. Such inverters must synchronise with the frequency of the grid. They usually contain one or more Maximum power point tracking features to extract the maximum amount of power, and also include safety features.

3.4.3.2 APPLICATIONS
DC power source utilization Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile. The unit shown provides up to 1.2 amperes of alternating current, or enough to power two sixty watt light bulbs. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. Uninterruptible power supplies An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries. 33

3.4.3.3 OUTPUT WAVEFORMS


The switch in the simple inverter described above, when not coupled to an output transformer, produces a square voltage waveform due to its simple off and on nature as opposed to the sinusoidal waveform that is the usual waveform of an AC power supply. Using Fourier analysis, periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine waves. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the fundamental component. The other sine waves, called harmonics, that are included in the series have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. The quality of the inverter output waveform can be expressed by using the Fourier analysis data to calculate the total harmonic distortion (THD). The total harmonic distortion (THD) is the square root of the sum of the squares of the harmonic voltages divided by the fundamental voltage:

(3.7)

34

35

CHAPTER 4 SIMULATION RESULTS


4. SIMULATION RESULTS 4.1 SIMULATION MODEL
36

Figure 10- simulation model in MULTISIM

37

4.2 SIMULATION DESCRIPTION


The 230V AC supply is given to the primary side of the transformer and is stepped down to 12V AC supply which is obtained across the secondary terminals of the transformer. This is given to the bridge rectifier which consists of four PN junction diodes. The diode conducts only when it is forward biased and for an AC supply only two diodes will be conducting at a time. During the positive half cycle diodes D2 and D3 will be forward biased and as such conduction of current occurs through the diodes D2 and D3 during the positive half cycle. After the completion of the positive half cycle, i.e. during the negative half cycle the diodes D2 and D3 will become reverse biased and do not conduct. Now the diodes D1 and D4 become forward biased and the current flows through D1 and D4. Thus with the help of the four diodes the direction of current flow is maintained in the same direction. A diode D5 is connected in series to the bridge rectifier to avoid any AC ripples from entering into the circuit at high frequency. The output obtained across the bridge rectifier will be in the form of pulsating DC. A capacitor is used that filters the pulsating DC and filters it to a DC supply. The charging and discharging action of the capacitor reduces the pulsations in the DC supply obtained across the terminals of the bridge rectifier. An AC load can be powered from a DC source by using a converter to change DC to AC. This circuit is designed for taking 230V AC from the 12V DC input. An AC load can be powered from a DC source by using a converter to change DC to AC. This is efficiently done through above circuit with the use of two transistors Q1 & Q2 and one Transformer (T). The wattage of output depends on these three equipments.

38

4.3 SIMULATION OUTPUT

--------> Time(sec) 39

Figure 11- Output of Rectifier Voltage

Figure 12- Output of Inverter Voltage

40

41

CHAPTER 5 HARDWARE RESULTS

5. HARDWARE RESULTS

Figure 13- top view of the project

Figure 14- with load connection

42

Figure 15- working proto type

43

44

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 6.1 CONCLUSION
The uninterruptable power supplycircuit was designed and analysed in the Simulink software .Based on the simulation results, hardware was assembled and fabricated. The output was verified using a compact fluorescence lamp. This online UPS is very cost effective, compact in size and Power quality problems such as blackouts, brownouts, long and short interruptions are reduced. By this way even during the failure of the main supply from the grid, the ups can be an alternate power supply to power the homes, hostels, hospitals etc.

6.2 FUTURE WORK


45

As a future work, the transistors in the inverter circuit will be replaced by IGBTs fired by pulse width modulated signal in order to reduce DC offset value.

46

47

REFERENCE

REFERENCE
1.

Telecommunications Energy Conference, 1989 Proceedings., Eleventh International

INTELEC '89. Conference

2. 3.

IEEE - Transactions on Power Electronics, VOL. 18, NO. 3, MAY 2003 Uninterruptible power supplies and active filters AliEmadi, AbdolhoseinNasiri, Stoyan B. Bekiarov,Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press, c2005. Uninterruptible power supplies and standby power systems Alexander King, William Knight,New York : McGraw-Hill, c2003 "Control of Distributed Uninterruptible Power Supply Systems J.M. Guerrero, L. Hang, J. Uceda, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 28452859, August 2008.

4.

5.

48

49

50

APPENDIX

51