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Chapter 1 All About Satellite Communications

Satcoms (Satellite Communications) is the generic term for communication via satellite. Transmitting a signal from the earth upto a satellite and then receiving that signal back at a different location on earth. The satellite does not have to be a huge expensive array of electronics and solar panels. In fact the moon was used, in the early years of satellite research, to bounce the signals off. The time it took for our signals to get to the moon and back was about 2 seconds. This time is called satellite delay and is still present today in all our satellite communications. It is the time taken for the transmission to get to the moon or satellite and then be bounced or transmitted back to earth. Another phrase for this time is the Turn Around Time. The ability to transmit your signal upto such a high relay point and then receive it again back on earth allows us to receive it where ever we are in the world as long as we can see the relay point or satellite. Taking the moon as our example, as long as we can see the moon then we can point a dish at it and receive the signal. This wide range broadcasting ability has given rise to a multitude of different satellites carrying all kinds of information such as telephone calls, television channels, internet traffic, military communications, weather data, Global Positioning signals, Earth ans Space observations and even radio stations.
So how does it actually work?

Well, this can be a massively complex and confusing subject, so to keep things simple I will use a simple analogy: The Torch.

Take a torch, and switch it on. The light bulb is our signal generator, be it voice, data or whatever you want to transmit, imagine those signals being the light from the bulb. The reflector behind our bulb is our antenna or dish. Now if you have a particularly good torch you will notice that the light is not sent in all directions but is focussed into a beam. The beam is our satellite transmission.

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Next, find a white wall. A small white piece of card is perhaps better for this analogy, 10cm by 10cm placed high up in the room or on the wall... aim the torch beam at the white card. The card is our satellite. Now comes the bit that gets hard to visualise. If you can see the light on the card, then you can see the satellite and if your eyes are the receiver then the light is travelling from the torch to the card and is then being reflected or bounced back and spread out over a larger area and your eyes are receiving the light where ever you are - as long as you can see the card.

Satellite Communications Systems


So in a satellite communications system we have a signal generator of some sort. This is usually a modem (modulator/demodulator) which takes in digital information, such as digital TV pictures, and modulates it (mixes) onto a signal carrier for transmission and can also demodulate (separates) the data from a received carrier to produce the data or digital TV picture. Then we have a transmitter and a receiver amplifier for two way communications. If we were only receiving we would only have the receive side of the system, this is why our satellite TV boxes are small and affordable. It is cheaper to receive than it is to transmit. Next we have our antenna. We point the antenna at the satellite and we can receive a signal. We can also now send our signal to the satellite if we are able to transmit. The satellite also has an antenna, receiver, transmitter and often another antenna. The signal it receives is at a frequency we will call 'A' but it will move this signal to frequency 'B' before sending it back to earth. This is so that we can keep our transmit signals separate from our receive signals. Otherwise, our receiver may pickup our own transmit signal and be swamped by it. The difference in these signal frequencies is known as the translation frequency. The transmit frequency is translated into a receive frequency. In terms of size our transmit signal is huge compared to our receive signal because it has to go a long way to the satellite. About 36,000 Km is the average distance it has to travel for a geostationary satellite.

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This is also the reason why our receive signal is so small, because the satellite that sent it is 36,000 Km away. The receiver has to amplify this signal without amplifying the noise, in a way our eyes do exactly that. Rain and weather generally also affects the signals. Rain, and the atmosphere generally, can reduce the size of the signal by half, this varies depending on where in the world you are. So now we can send out our signal and we can also receive someone elses.

Satellite Components
Satellite Payloads A payload is the part of the satellite that performs the purpose it was put in space for. There are many different types of satellite but communications satellites are the kind we are interested in here. The payloads on communications satellites are effectively just repeaters. They receive the signals that are transmitted to them and then retransmit them at a different frequency back to earth.

Modern satellites do more than this. They receive the signals and then sometimes demodulate them to access the data, the data can then be processed before being modulated and retransmitted. The data can be stored for later retransmission or modulated using a different method, even at a different data rate. The accompanying picture shows an anatomy of a typical satellite. You can see the uplink receiver chain and the downlink transmit chain. The central area shown as 'Processing', is where the frequency is translated or any demodulation, processing and modulation would take place. These are the basic main components of a satellite and form the payload. The reality is that most satellites have many different antenna with separate transmit and receive chains. These have back up and redundancy built in so that in the vent of failur all is not lost. The gain of the on board transmitter amplifiers, configuration of which antenna they are

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connected to and even where on the earth the antenna are aimed at is all controlled from the satellite controllers on earth. These are complex and versatile satellites and are in use doing the job they were intended for 24 hours a day 365 days a year for many years. They eventually fail due to worn out parts or lack of fuel which is used to keep them stationary so we don't have to follow them about with our dishes. They stay put because they are manoevered by the controllers who constantly monitor and adjust the satellite. Now that we have seen how satellites work and how the satellite terminals work we can take a look at the applications of this technology and why it is so important.

Basic Satellite Antenna Theory


A standard satellite dish antenna works by concentrating signals, that are picked up along its axis, to a single point. This point is called the focal point. The receiving amplifier is usually placed near the focal point and the concentrated signals are collected into the receiver using a small horn. This serves to further concentrate the signals to get the maximum possible signal level at the amplifier input.

The focal point can be offset from the main axis so that the receiving equipment does not obstruct the beam in any way. This offset has the effect of raising the beam of the antenna. The exact amount that the beam is raised is equal to the amount of offset. Thus, if the offset is 20 degrees then the beam is raised by 20 degrees.

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Antenna shapes and sizes vary but they all do the same thing, every antenna dish you see including radio telescopes, which are basically receive only antennas, all perform this function. they all focus the signals they receive from a specific point oin space onto a small area where they can be received and amplified. The principle works in exactly the same way for transmitting a signal. The transmit amplifier produces a large signal to a horn set at the focal point. The signal is then radiated onto the dish (through the same horn used to pick up the receive signals) which in turn focuses the transmit signal into a parallel beam of energy out into space to the satellite. The transmit amplifier is also positioned as close to the focal point as possible to reduce losses. The horn used to transmit and receive the signals to and from the reflector is called a feed horn and is placed at the focal point also known as the feed point.

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Chapter 2 Satcom Systems


In any satcom system, there are some fundamental building blocks. This diagram shows these blocks in a basic form to help you understand what they are. Suppliers Where ever the data to be transmitted via satellite is coming from is the supplier base. this could be anything from an outside broadcast unit to a studio or office complex. Even banks or communications headquarters.

Bearers & Terrestrial Links In order to get this data to the teleport (satellite uplink station) for onward transmission via satellite, we use a point to point terrestrial data link sometimes known as a bearer because is 'bears' the data or carries it. One of the most commonly used data link suppliers in the UK is BT but they are not the only supplier of such communications links. Many forms of bearer exist and are mainly fibre optic high speed lines or lower speed kilostreams and even permanent leased line (telephone line) connections. Bearers can be occassional use types such as 64k or 128k ISDN lines. Even the internet can be used for some applications. The end aim is to deliver error free reliable data to the teleport. Teleports Once the data arrives at the teleport (satellite uplink station) then it is passed to a satellite modem or multiplexed with several other data streams before reaching the modem. The modems then give an intermediate frequency output (I.F.) which are adjusted for level and frequency before entering the RF system which contains the up conversion, filters and high power amplifiers. The signal containing the suppliers data is then broadcast to the satellite through one or more antenna at the teleport. More than one antenna is used if the data is required on more than one satellite to increase coverage. Subscribers Finally the signal is received back on earth at the subscriber terminal. This could be a large VSAT for distribution of many data streams such as the internet or a small terminal such as a Satellite TV system or video conferencing system.

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This whole system can be two way or one way depending on the requirements. Broadcasting is usually one way and point to point transmission is usually two way. There are also Multicasting applications where the broadcast is sent to everyone but only those who are interested or requested the data can receive it. These principles are the same for all satellite systems however big or small. Star & Mesh Networks A Star Network comprises of a Hub satellite station which transmits to and receives from multiple remote subscriber sites. This kind of network can be used in one direction only such as from the Hub to the subscriber and this is how the Direct-ToHome (DTH) satellite TV systems are run. A Mesh Network consists of multiple Hub or mini-Hub satellite stations all transmitting and receiving between each other. This kind of network is often used between large organisations such as banks and other large corporate enterprises. This method is ideal for connecting large computer networks at each Hub together. Variations on these two core network topologies are used every day to connect up the world of internet, telephone, television, banking and countless other media and information systems. Now we can revisit the Modulation schemes touched upon earlier and see how they work.

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Chapter 3 Anatomy of a Satcom Terminal:


A satellite communications terminal has several parts which are essential for all such communications terminals. In other words every satcoms terminal that can transmit and receive to and from a satellite has the following parts:
LNB Modem

LNA Feeder

Down Conv.

Demodulator Data Interface To Baseband equipment

Dish

PA

Up Conv.

Modulator

BUC

An antenna. The antenna system comprises of a reflector, feedhorn and a mount. The size of a VSAT antenna varies from 0.75 metres to 3.8 metres. The feedhorn is mounted on the antenna frame at its focal point by support arms. Antenna size is used to describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength.

A Feeder. The FEEDER directs the transmitted power towards the antenna dish or collects the received power from it. It consists of an array of microwave passive components. It includes a feed horn and a circulator which is used to make sure that the transmit signals go out through the dish and not back into the receive chain. It also makes sure that the receive signals come from the dish into the receive chain and not into the transmit chain. It works much like a roundabout in principle. This is often referred to as an Orthomode Transducer or OMT and is, these days, built into the feed assembly. It can also be a polarisation device but they all do the same job. It also includes a Rx or receive filter which is usually a waveguide filter which tightly controls the frequencies allowed into the receive chain. This has the effect of reducing the unwanted noise from space and prevents interference from outside of the receive band of frequencies. This is often built in to the feed assembly.

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Similarly, there is a Tx or transmit filter which is usually a waveguide filter which tightly controls the frequencies allowed into antenna. This has the effect of reducing the unwanted signals from being accidentally transmitted onto the satellite and prevents interference to outside of the transmit band of frequencies. This is often built in to the feed assembly. LNA / LNB. The LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) is a very good amplifier which has the job of amplifying the small signals picked up by the antenna without amplifying the noise. Various kinds exist which all do the same thing, they provide enough signal level to demodulate the data from the carrier. The LNB is more than just an amplifier as it also handles polarisation selection and the down conversion to L-Band frequencies. PA / BUC The HPA (High Power Amplifier), otherwise known as a TWTA (Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier) or an SSPA (Solid State Power Amplifier), has one job. It amplifies a specific band of frequencies by a large amount, sufficiently large to enable the antenna to beam them up to the satellite. These can range in power from a few watts upto over 1000 watts in power. The bigger the dish, usually the bigger the power amp. The largest have to be cooled using liquid nitrogen and resemble electron microscopes. The smallest look more like a lump of metal bolted to a small heatsink. The Block Up converter is a combination of frequency up converter and an SSPA. Down Converters. The down converters 'do exactly as they say on the tin', they convert signals down in frequency. The signals arrive at the dish at anything from 10 to 40 GHz and are then filtered and amplified, they now need to be moved down the frequency spectrum so that the equipment can be made cheaper and easier. The 1st downconverter mixes the signals with another frequency, the result is both the sum and difference of the signals. By filtering out the original and the sum frequencies the result is that the original frequencies are now the difference frequencies - lower down in the frequency spectrum. An example would be the downconversion of 10 GHz to 1 GHz which is Ku band to L Band. The 2nd downconverter then downconverts the L Band signals to an Intermediate Frequency (IF) of around 70 MHz. this is then ready for the demodulator. Up Converters. The up converters 'do exactly as they say on the tin' aswell, they convert signals up in frequency. The signals are sent to the up converters at at around 70 MHz. They now need to be moved up the frequency spectrum so that the HPA can amplify them and transmit them through the antenna. The 1st upconverter mixes the signals with another frequency, the result is both the sum and difference of the signals. By filtering out the original and the difference frequencies the result is that the original frequencies are now the sum frequencies - higher up in the frequency spectrum. An example would be the upconversion of 70 MHz to 1 GHz which is IF to L Band. The 2nd upconverter then upconverts the L Band signals to a Radio Frequency (RF) of around 10 GHz. this is then ready for the HPA to transmit through the antenna.

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Modulator / Demodulator. (MODEM) Modulator / Demodulator (Modem) These two units are often combined as one and are known as modems. Just like the computer modem you may have at home, these units take digital data and modulate it onto a carrier and they demodulate the digital data from a carrier. Computer modems use audio frequency carriers but the end result is the same. That's it, anything else is not strictly part of the satcom system such as routers, computers, televisions and telephones.

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Chapter 4 Antenna Pointing & Set Up: When chosing a site for a VSAT installation, the antenna needs to be located with a clear view to the satellite. Access to the antenna should be restricted to prevent any damage or harm from occurring to either the antenna or people. Ideally, the antenna should be sheltered from wind. The outdoor unit (ODU) is mounted on the feed arm in front of the antenna and houses the Radio Frequency (RF) equipment required to transmit (TX) and receive (RX) from the antenna.

The outdoor unit (ODU) mainly consists of these devices:


o o o o

Low Noise Block (LNB) which is a down converter and receiver Block Up Converter (BUC) this is the up converter and transmitter Ortho-Mode Transducer (OMT) the Tx and Rx waveguide joint. Microwave filters which protect the LNB from the Tx signals.

Safety Is Important: Installing a VSAT can be very dangerous especially on a roof. Follow the instructions carefully to ensure that the antenna is correctly assembled. Care must be taken when working near the edge of roof tops such that you do not fall off or drop anything on people who may be below. Never work alone and always look out for each other.

Static - Permanent Mounting: This type of installation is usually a pole mount which is bolted securely to the ground. The pole can be concreted into a hole but in both cases must be completely vertical.

Temporary Mount (Non-Penetrating):


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This is a quickly deployed mount which consists of a frame constructed to hold the pole vertically and securely whilst providing a large base for the addition of ballast. Ballast (heavy bricks or concrete) weigh down the mount preventing the wind from overturning the antenna assembly. In extreme conditions even a permanent mount can sustain damage and so a sheltered location and saftey lines attaching the mount to the building should be considered. The antenna could otherwise be blown of the roof of a building. A structural survey is required before any such mounts are installed on a roof to ensure the weight is not a risk to the building.

Tx & Rx Coax Cables: Usually two coax cables carry the signals between the IDU and the ODU. Power for the LNB and BUC as well as control signals are carried along these coaxes. Ensure that the ends of the coax cables are properly terminated in F type connectors. There should be 2mm of copper coax centre conductor protruding from the connector in order to ensure a good connection is made. The braided screen of the coax cable must not touch the inner copper conductor. This will cause a short and damage the equipment. Connect the coaxes to the ODU noting which are Tx and Rx then run them to the IDU. The connectors at the ODU should be sealed against the weather with the cables dropping down from the connectors before being taped up to the feed arm. This allows water to harmlessly drip from the cable rather than run into the connector, in other words the connectors should be higher than the cables.

The indoor unit (IDU): The indoor unit (IDU) usually consists of a single box which should be located in a dry, cool and clean place. An office environment is ideal. The coax cables run from the antenna ODU to the IDU and should not cause a hazard to anyone along the way. Use cable ties to clip them safely to pipes, fencing or similar in order to make the installation neat, tidy and safe.
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Cables that can blow around in the wind will fail long before cables that are securely tied down. The IDU requires a stable mains supply and connection to the end user equipment. This could be further units for telephone exchanges or networks for internet or intranet connections.. Antenna Azimuth & Elevation Calculation To determine the required angles from your location to the satellite you wish to point at, try the Tools page for an online Azimuth & Elevation Calculator and links many others. http://www.satsig.net/ssazelm.htm Just enter your latitude and longitude and select the satellite then click 'Go' and the answers are displayed in a Google Maps display of your location. Find the Satellite: Set the antenna elevation angle using an inclinometer, or by using the scale on the antenna, as accurately as you can to the elevation of the desired satellite. Lock in position but make sure that you can still move the antenna left and right in Azimuth. To find the correct satellite you will ideally have a satellite meter or a spectrum analyser. Inexpensive signal meters will give an increased level reading as you pass each satellite. They do not identify the satellite you are looking at as you pass it or point up on it. If you can identify a known satellite with such as device then you will have found a reference satellite. The satellite you want can then be found by looking up the angles for the reference satellite and adjusting the antenna accordingly from this position to the angles for the satellite you actually want.

By Using a Spectrum analyser: Spectrum analysers are far better but much more expensive and require more expertise to set up and use. Care must be taken not to apply a DC

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signal to the analyser as this can cause a lot of damage to an already expensive peice of equipment. The cable from the antenna may have DC on it and so you must first be sure that it is safe before plugging into an analyser. You will need a supply of DC voltage and possibly a 22kHz tone. The receiver can provide these up the coax cable. An RF coupler with a DC block on one side is invaluable and is connected inbetween the receiver and the dish. The DC block side is to be connected to the analyser. The analyser can display the signals being received in a particular band of frequencies. Recognising these signals is key to finding your desired satellite. Again, it helps if you already know the location of a good reference satellite and can clearly see the signals being received from it. In my experience satellites are found mcuh more quickly with a spectrum analyser tuned to look at a known signal for a known satellite than by using a signal meter. You may not recognise the signals but if you are receiving signals then you can peak up on them to get the maximum signal strength and the biggest signals. then you can see if the receiver is getting what you expected. By Using a Satellite TV receiver: The TV receiver (for example a Sky DigiBox) can provide you with signal quality and level information. This is displayed as bar graphs on the TV. Not so useful if you are up a ladder but with the help of someone else you can be told if the signal levels are getting better or worse. If you can see the TV by putting it outside then even better. I have used an RF wireless portable TV attached to the Rf out of a Skybox to be able to see the screen when up the ladder and this was very useful. Peaking up: Start with the azimuth and move the dish from one side of the satellite through the main signal and out the other side untill you lose the signal. Peaking th esignal simply means finding the maximum signal strength which is known as the boresight of the satellite. Pointing directly at it. The Azimuth is only the first part however and so on to the next. Elevation is done in the same way and there may be no actual increase if by chance you already have the antenna on boresight.
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Antenna Polarisation Setup: (Not necessarily required for some TV satellite dishes such as Sky mini-dishes) Before alignment of the antenna with the satellite, the polarisation should be setup correctly. The polarisation is the axial rotation of the feed system (Feed horn/LNB/BUC) on the antenna. Polarisation Setup - Step 1: Loosen the feed assembly slightly to allow slight rotation by hand. Set the polarisation to the nominal position. Polarisation Setup - Step 2: Rotate the feed assembly based on the results of the antenna angle calculation (see below). Facing the satellite a positive rotation is clockwise and a negative rotation is anti-clockwise. Polarisation adjustment normally needs assistance from the NOC. The NOC can make your antenna system transmit a continuous wave (CW) on a frequency where it is unlikely to cause interference. The NOC uses a spectrum analyser to monitor this signal and detremine the polarisation and may ask you to make adjustments to the feed. This should be done in very small amounts leaving about 20 seconds between each small turn of the feed so that the NOC can measure any difference.

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Chapter 5 Spectrum Analysis Principles


Not everyone has access to a spectrum analyser. This is an expensive and used to be a strangely heavy piece of equipment similar to an oscilloscope but that measures signals in the frequency domain instead of the time domain on the horizontal axis.

The frequencies available to us range from DC (direct current) 0 Hz right upto visible light and beyond. Within this great range of frequencies lies the radio frequency spectrum. Within that lies our television and radio frequencies, and our satellite frequencies. It also contains radar and communications for aircraft, police, fire and ambulance, military forces and shipping to name but a few. This is a crowded part of the spectrum. These days nearly everything is wireless and that means more transmissions. Why do we need to analyse the frequency domain? Well because RF (radio frequency) waves are invisible, the only way we can see them and then measure them accurately is to analyse the spectrum of frequencies that they are in. Just like an oscilloscope measures voltage against time. To do this we use what is called a spectrum analyser. This peice of equipment is two things: expensive and complicated. They work by plotting the amplitude of a signal against the frequency. If you look at the picture above, you can see a signal in the middle of the analyser screen. The noise floor (level of background noise) is visible 2 squares up from the bottom and covers all frequencies across the screen. The signal is 5 squares tall and about half a square wide. This all tells us a lot of information about the signal. The reason is that the screen is divided into squares just like an oscilloscope. Instead of time being on the horizontal axis, it is frequency. Amplitude is on the vertical axis measured in dB.

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If our screen is set to 10 GHz wide (span) and our center frequency (CF) is 6 GHz, then our signal is at 6 GHz, the far left of the screen is 1 GHz and the far right is 11 GHz. The height of our signal is 5 squares and if our screen is set to 5 dB per square (dB/Div) then our signal is 25 dB above the noise floor. As you can see knowing all about our screen gives us the information we need to measure our signal. The noise floor can also be given a value and this allows us to reference the signal to the noise floor. This then lets us see and measure the signals to detrmine if they are the correct size and at the correct frequency. When compared with the expected results from the link budget this is a very useful way of checking all is well.

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Spectrum Analysis in Practice


What is Spectrum Analysis In order to see the signals that are being transmitted over a satellite, or indeed over any radio frequency system, the most effective tool for visualising them is a spectrum analyser. A spectrum analyser displays a graphical representation of small portion of radio frequency spectrum. In a way this is similar to looking at a map of a country and zooming in to view a town, street and a house within that street. Center Frequency and Span The display is made up of a 10 by 10 grid of squares just like an oscilloscope. The central verticle line represents the center frequency and either side is 5 vertical lines of freqency making up a span of frequencies. The horizontal lines represent amplitude in decibels. Each square is given a value by the user such as 5 dB per square or division for amplitude and say 10 MHz per division for frequency. The user chooses these settings in order to see the signals of interest and then measure them accurately. Other settings include Resolution Bandwidth and Video Bandwidth. Resolution Bandwidth (RBW) is the width of a filter that is swept across the selected Span of frequencies and this must be set to a value not less than the bandwidth of the signal you wish to view or it will not be fully captured by the filter and this will result in the signal being displayed inaccurately. Video bandwidth (VBW) is used to reduce the amount of noise displayed so that signals can be more easily seen and measured. A rule of thumb is to set the video bandwidth to a value of 1/10th or 1/100th of the RBW. This makes measurements easier to calculate in your head.

Reference Level The display above shows a signal at a center frequency of 6.5 GHz within a span of frequencies covering 20 MHz. The RBW is set to 10 KHz and the VBW is set to 1 KHz. The

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reference level is set to -40 dBm and this is the level of the base line of the display, the bottom line of the grid. The noise floor is 2 squares up from this and the dB/Div is set to 5 dB per division. Straight away we can see that the noise floor is at -30 dBm since the bottom line is at -40 dBm and the noise is 2 squares higher at 5 dB/Div. So now you can begin to see how these settings can be set to find and display a signal so that it be measured. In our next Tutorial we will look at how we can measure values for C/No and how that can be in turn used to verify a link budget.

Spectrum Analyser Measurements


C/No and C/KT Measurements C/No is the Carrier to Noise ratio sometimes known as C/KT because noise is measured as KT or Boltzmanns constant K multiplied by the noise temperature T. This picture shows a signal displayed on a spectrum analyser. The signal is at a frequency of 6.5 GHz as it is in the center of the screen and the center frequency of the analyser is 6.5 GHz.

Each square of the display is a division, the analyser is set to 5 dB/DIV which means that each square is 5 dB. The resolution bandwidth (RBW) is set to 10 KHz which is the width of the sweep filter inside the analyser. This filter is swept across the frequency span defined by the SPAN of the analyser, in this case 20 MHz. The RBW defines the amount of power captured by the analyser and displayed on the screen as a signal. Having an RBW to narrow will not capture all of the signal and will result in a less accurate display. In order to measure the C/No we first multiply the Log of the RBW by 10. 10 x Log (10,000) = 40 dB Next we add the size of the signal which is 5 squares or 25 dB.

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40 dB + 25 dB = 65 dB. Now because of an inherent error using this method we must subtract 2 dB. 65 dB - 2 dB = 63 dBc/Hz. This gives us a fairly accurate C/No of 63 dB (carrier power) in 1 Hz bandwidth.

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Radio & Satellite Frequency Bands


If you hear Ku Band, C Band and L band being discussed and wonder what on earth people are talking about then fear not, it isn't some special code. Radio & Satellite frequency bands are both Historic Radar bands and ITU definitions and they are given letters to represent bands of frequencies. Satellite Frequency Bands L BAND 1 - 2 GHZ MOBILE SERVICES [ Mostly used for Intermediate (IF) frequencies ] ( 950 - 1750 MHz is the Tx Band and 950 - 1900 MHz is the Rx Band ) S BAND 2.5 - 4 GHZ MOBILE SERVICES ( Not used apart from satellite control links & HAM radio. ) C BAND 3.7 - 8 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 5.7-6.725 GHz is the Tx Band [Linear] and 3.625-4.2 GHz is the Rx Band [circular] also 5.85-6.425 GHz is the Tx Band [cirular] ) X BAND 7.25 - 12 GHZ MILITARY ( 7.25 to 7.75 is the Rx Band and 7.9 to 8.4 is the Tx Band all circular ) Ku BAND 12 - 18 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 13.75 - 14.5 GHz is the linear Tx Band and 10.7 - 12.75 GHz is the linear Rx Band ) Ka BAND 18 - 30.4 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( 27.5 - 31 GHz is the Tx Band [linear] and 19.7 - 20.2 GHz is the Rx Band [circular] also 29.5 - 30 GHz is the Tx Band [circular] ) V BAND 37.5 - 50.2 GHZ FIXED SERVICES ( New - not widely used yet - maybe used instead of Ka Band in the future. ) Historic Radar Frequency Bands: Band: VHF UHF L S C X Ku K Ka MM Frequency: (GHz) 0.03 - 0.3 0.3 - 1 1-2 2-4 4-8 8 - 12 12 - 18 18 - 27 27 - 40 40 - 100 Wavelength: (cm) 1000 - 100 100 - 30 30 - 15 15 - 7.5 7.5 - 3.75 3.75 - 2.5 2.5 - 1.6 1.6 - 1.1 1.1 - 0.75 0.75 - 0.3

ITU Definitions for Frequency Bands:

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Band: ELF SLF ULF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF

Frequency: (Hz) 3 - 30 30 - 300 300 - 3000 3000 - 30k 30k - 300k 300k - 3M 3M - 30M 30M - 300M 300M - 3G 3G - 30G 30G - 300G

Wavelength: (km) 100,000 - 10,000 10,000 - 1000 1000 - 100 100 - 10 10 - 1 1 - 0.1 0.1 - 0.01 0.01 - 0.001 0.001 - 0.0001 0.0001 - 0.00001 0.00001 - 0.000001

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Chapter 6 EIRP & Power Measurements


This picture shows a power meter, transmitter and an antenna.

In order to connect a power meter to measure the power into the antenna, a coupler is used. Power meters measure small amounts of power and can not be connected to transmitters directly unless a large load or attenuator is fitted in between the transmitter and the power meter. This can be seen in the diagram as a coupler with 40 dB of attenuation. The coupler works by tapping off a small part of the power which is 40 dB lower than the power passing through to the antenna. The power meter will then read 40 dB lower and so by adding the 40 dB onto the power meter reading the forward power (into the antenna) is measured as 56.7 dBm. The antenna has a gain of 20 dBi and so the EIRP of this system is simply 56.7 + 20 = 76.7 dBm. This is the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of the antenna. Now an Isotropic reference antenna radiates, or transmits equal amounts of power or signal in all directions. This is of little use and is a theoretical antenna. It has unity gain so what you put in you get out. So the EIRP is a comparative measurement which is used to compare every antenna to one single reference, the Isotropic antenna. The measurement is calculated by adding the antenna gain and forward power minus any loss. The system would normally have a transmit filter before the antenna to limit the unwanted sputious signals often generated by the transmitter. This filter gives us a loss. This loss can be as much as 2 dB which we would subtract from the EIRP figure given above. EIRP = Forward Power + Antenna Gain - Losses Each power meter is calibrated to a particular frequency by the user and the coupler is also calibrated to give an attenuation calibrated at a particlular frequency. These frequencies are normally listed over a range which is determined by the manufacturer.

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Chapter 7 Modems - What are they?


What is a modem? How does it work? A modem is a modulator / demodulator (modem) which is a two part system. Transmit & Receive (Modulate & Demodulate) In any satcom system the reason for broadcasting via satellite is that you want to get information from one part of the world to another. So how do we get lets say our TV picture from our tv camera into the antenna?

The transmit path up to the satellite uses a modulator to take the digitised TV camera data and modulate it onto a carrier signal. This is the same process as any radio transmission. Once modulated your data is hitching a ride on the carrier signal, this signal is transmitted to the satellite and back to earth again. At the destination antenna, your signal is then received at a demodulator. The demodulator works just as any radio receiver, the TV data is separated from the carrier signal and this is called demodulated. The data can then be fed into a TV once converted to the appropriate format and watched. This principle is the same for any modulator and demodulator. These two quite separate devices are usually packaged together to make a Modem. They can however, be used on their own, for example, just like your home Satellite TV receiver. This is usually a demodulator only and separates the TV data from the carrier signal for you to watch on your TV. So what is QPSK?

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That's a bit of a leap but QPSK stands for Quadrature Phased Shift Keying. if this all get's a bit confusing then don't worry too much as it is covered again in later Tutorials. Keying is a method of communication and is probably a word left over from the old morse code method. There are many modulation techniques of which QPSK is just one. It increases the accuracy of data at higher data rates by having 4 states instead of just on and off. This is acheived by using a sine wave which is phased shifted (delayed) by 90 degrees, 180 degrees and 270 degrees. With 0 degrees being state 1, 90 degrees being state 2 and so on. The diagram above shows 4 ellipses one in each quadrant. These vary in shape with the data that is modulated onto each phase. Four times the amount of data can therefore be transmitted with this technique or four times the accuracy. This is one of the most common forms of modulation. The most useful sounding technique is CDMA or Code Division Multiple Access. This technique spreads the data across a wide area of frequency or a wide bandwidth such that there is very little or no detectable carrier. The signal is said to be down in the noise. The data is coded on transmission and can be recovered from the noise by decoding the signal providing the correct range of frequencies or bandwidth is used. CDMA also allows multiple signals to be stacked upon each other at the same frequency. This then crams in more signals in the same frequency range requiring less space. The system is old but it is only recently being exploited to it's full potential and is being used in everything from the latest mobile phone technology to vehicle telematics applications. Another technique is FDMA, Frequency Division Multiple Access, and is most commonly used with satellites. Quite simply, each access has its own frequency. The power of each carrier is balanced across the whole satellite channel and with DAMA, Demand Assignment Multiple Access, the frequencies of each carrier are controlled by a central control center. Each transmitter is commanded to a frequency by the use of a common control channel. This is implemented in our every day lives through the management of our cellular phone network. We don't notice but our phones are continually changing frequency and power level as we speak. In terms of modulation, the most common is a derivitive of QPSK or is actually still QPSK: Quadrature Phase Shift Keying - Modulation Schemes: The 8-PSK modulation scheme utilises approx 66% of the bandwidth that QPSK does and therefore can reduce satellite charges by up to 66%. This is an obvious benefit to satellite users but then there is a better scheme. 16-QAM utilises approx 50% of the bandwidth that QPSK does and therefore can reduce satellite charges by up to 50%. There is a catch, these are more advanced modulation schemes than QPSK but require a higher C/No in terms of thermal noise (T) and phase noise (dBc/Hz). This results in an antenna at least twice the diameter of that required for QPSK. If the same size antenna is used then much more power from the satellite is needed and so greater charges will be incurred which will negate the benfits of using the more advanced modulation schemes. DVB-S2 uplink carriers provide the ability to change modulation schemes very rapidly between QPSK, 8QAM and 16QAM and also FEC rates. Each subscriber RX site measures its own downlink signal receive quality, (Eb/No) and reports this information back to the NOC via its return link. If the NOC needs to send data to that RX site it operates using the best

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modulation and FEC to maximise the data throughput. Poor weather at a RX site requires a lower modulation scheme with more FEC ensure data is received. This is a dynamic and semi-autonomous system of control. QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
(From Course 3 - Modulation Techniques (Part Two) - FSK, QPSK, QAM)

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying employs shifting the phase of the carrier plus an encoding technique. QPSK is used in almost all modems. The digital information is encoded using 4 (Quad) level differential PSK. The data is encoded as follows: DIBIT 00 01 10 11 Phase Shift +90 0 180 270

QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation refers to QPSK with Amplitude Modulation. Basically, it is a mix of phase modulation and amplitude modulation. QAM phase modulates the carrier and also modulates the amplitude of the carrier. Phase Modulated and Amplitude Modulated Carrier: There are two types, 8-QAM and 16-QAM: 8-QAM encodes 3 bits of data (23=8) and 16-QAM encodes 4 bits of data (24=16). 16-QAM has 12 phase angles, 4 of which have 2 amplitude values! Higher data rates use much more complex QAM methods. Enough of all that, lets take a step back and look at the anatomy of a satellite communications system otherwise known as a satcom terminal.

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Chapter 8 Modulation Techniques (Part One)


AM, FM, PM Tutorial Note: Although, this section refers to telephone modems and analogue audio modulation, the same principles apply to satellite modems. This material has been used for the tutorial as it explains the principles well.

Modulation Techniques
Modulation techniques are methods that are used to encode digital information in an analog world. The 3 basic modulation techniques are as follows: o o o AM (amplitude modulation) FM (frequency modulation) PM (phase modulation)

All 3 modulation techniques employ a carrier signal. A carrier signal is a single frequency that is used to carry the intelligence (data). For digital, the intelligence is either a 1 or 0. When we modulate the carrier, we are changing its characteristics to correspond to either a 1 or 0. AM - Amplitude Modulation Amplitude Modulation modifies the amplitude of the carrier to represent 1s or 0s.In the above example, a 1 is represented by the presence of the carrier for a predefined period of 3 cycles of carrier. Absence--or no carrier--indicates a 0. Advantages: Simple to design. Disadvantages: Noise spikes on transmission medium interfere with the carrier signal. Loss of connection is read as 0s. FM - Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation modifies the frequency of the carrier to represent the 1s or 0s. In the above example, a 0 is represented by the original carrier frequency, and a 1 by a much higher frequency (the cycles are spaced closer together).

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Advantages: Immunity to noise on transmission medium. Always a signal present. Loss of signal easily detected Disadvantages: Requires 2 frequencies Detection circuit needs to recognize both frequencies when signal is lost. PM - Phase Modulation Phase Modulation modifies the phase of the carrier to represent a 1 or 0. The carrier phase is switched at every occurrence of a 1 bit, but remains unaffected for a 0 bit. The phase of the signal is measured relative to the phase of the preceding bit. The bits are timed to coincide with a specific number of carrier cycles (3 in this example = 1 bit). Advantage: Only 1 frequency used Easy to detect loss of carrier Disadvantages: Complex circuitry that is required to generate and detect phase changes.

Modulation Techniques (Part Two)


FSK, QPSK, QAM Tutorial

Modulation Used in Modems


Here are the 3 basic types of modulation used in modems: o o o FSK - Frequency Shifted Keying QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shifted Keying QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

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FSK - Frequency Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying (or FSK) is the frequency modulation of a carrier that represents digital intelligence. For Simplex or Half Duplex operation, a single carrier is used communication can only be transmitted in one direction at a time. A Mark or 1 is represented by Freq A, and a Space or 0 is represented by Freq B. FSK is not really used in satellite communications because of the inefficient use of bandwidth and frequencies. QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Phase Shift Keying employs shifting the phase of the carrier plus an encoding technique. QPSK is used in almost all modems. The digital information is encoded using 4 (Quad) level differential PSK. The data is encoded as follows: DIBIT Phase Shift 00 +90 01 0 10 180 11 270 QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Amplitude Modulation refers to QPSK with Amplitude Modulation. Basically, it is a mix of phase modulation and amplitude modulation. QAM phase modulates the carrier and also modulates the amplitude of the carrier. Phase Modulated and Amplitude Modulated Carrier: There are two types, 8-QAM and 16-QAM: 8-QAM encodes 3 bits of data (2^3=8) and 16-QAM encodes 4 bits of data (2^4=16). 16-QAM has 12 phase angles, 4 of which have 2 amplitude values! Higher data rates use much more complex QAM methods.

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Chapter 9 Base Band Digital Communications


Base band is the lowest band of communications; we may have Ku Band Radio Frequency (RF) at the top, L Band Intermediate Frequency (IF) in the middle at the modem and then finally Base Band. The actual data that is being transported via satellite arrives at its intended destination from the modem. Asynchronous RS-232 Communications Asynchronous means the transmission of data without the use of an external clock signal. The timing required to recover the data from the communication link is encoded within the data link. Asynchronous communications allow for the transmitter and receiver clock generators to not be exactly synchronised or aligned. If we assume the data being sent is text based characters then the following will make more sense: Start Bits: Asynchronous data is framed by use of start bits, character bits, parity bits and stop bits. This allows for receiver synchronisation to extract the data in the correct format. [ Start Bit ] [ Data Bits ] [ Parity ] [ Stop Bits ] 1 8 0 1

The start bit is followed by 8 data bits, no parity bit and one stop bit, for a 10-bit frame. These days there is nearly always 1 start bit and so it is often not specified. Data Bits: The data bits are the number of bits per character. 7 bit characters are now rarely used and more often than not you will find that 8 bit characters are used. Both 7 bit and 8 bit characters are common in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), format. Parity Bits: A parity bit is added to ensure that the number of bits in a given set of bits is always even or odd. That is the number of bits with a value of 1. This is a simple form of error checking. 01101110 have 5 bits with a value of 1. If the parity is even the parity bit will also be 1. If the parity bit is not used it may be called 'mark', where the parity is always 1, or 'space' where the parity is always 0.

Stop Bits: The minimum stop bit quantity can be more than 1. Some systems required 2 stop bits and some require 1.5 stop bits. Equipment that don't support fractional stop bits quantities can be set to 2 stop bits for transmit and 1 stop bit for receive. Baud Rate or Speed: Rather than go into the history and complexity of baud rates here, see the Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baud_rate Synchronous Data Links: RS-232, RS-422, RS-423, X-21, RS-530, V11, V24, V35 and G703 are all examples of synchronous communications standards. All this means is that they have both data and clock for both transmit and receive lines. Some of these standards are balanced and others are single ended (unbalanced). These differences in the interfaces are discussed later. ---------o Tx Data ---------o Tx Clock ---------o Rx Data ---------o Rx Clock ---------o Signal Ground In its simplest form this is a synchronous un-balanced interface.

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The transmit data has an associated transmit clock which is used to clock the data in or out of the sending device and the edges of the clock are aligned or synchronised with the edges of the data. At the receiving device the received data is clocked in or out using the receive clock which is also aligned with the edges of the receive data. The complexities arise with the directions of the clocks and data which are dependant on the devices in terms of DCE or DTE interfaces. DCE stands for Data Communications Equipment and DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment. A modem is usually a DCE whereas a computer is usually a DTE. A DCE is normally connected straight to a DTE using pin to pin straight cabling. This means that the Tx Data from the DTE is connected to the Tx Data on the DCE because on the DTE this is an ouput and on the DCE it is an input. Connecting two computers via a modem link would involve a DTE (computer #1) connected to a DCE (modem #1), then over a link to the DCE (modem #2) which is connected to the other DTE (computer #2). Data and Clocking: DCE data and clocks are always received on the transmit lines and transmitted on the receive lines. This is because the interfaces are always referenced to the DTE. This is why a DTE to DCE interface cable is a straight pin to pin cable. A DCE to DCE or a DTE to DTE is a crossover cable because the DTE interfaces are expecting to receive the transmit data and clocks on the receive data and clock inputs and visa versa. The same goes for the DCE interfaces except they are expecting the receive data and clocks on the transmit data and clock inputs and visa versa. A further complexity comes from clocking schemes: Network Timing: In standard point to point communications, that do not involve satellite links but are effectively over copper wires end to end, the interfaces are straight forward. Data and clocks are sent from end A to end B and visa versa. There is little or no delay in the arrival of data and clock. If a communications network (such as the BT network) is in-between end A and end B then the clocking scheme can become interesting. The network sometimes supplies both the transmit and receive clocks. It is a DCE. Data is clocked into it and out of it using the same clock. This clock is derived from a very stable atomic clock. There is no better clock. End A and end B must use the clock to transmit the data and receive the data. For this reason most equipment has inputs for both transmit and receive clocks. This equipment may also be a DCE and that means that it is to be connected using a crossover cabling method as DCE to DCE. END A Tx Data o---------<--------o Rx Rx Data o--------->--------o Tx [ [ [ Tx Clock o---------<--------o Rx Rx Clock o---------<--------o Tx Tx Data o---------<--------o Rx Data Rx Data o---------<--------o Tx Data ] NETWORK CLOUD ] ] Clock Tx Clock o--------->--------o Rx Clock Clock Rx Clock o--------->--------o Tx Clock Data Data END B

As you can see from this diagram the network (sometimes known as a cloud) is providing timing for both ends. This is ok as it is the same clock so all the data is being clocked in and out at the same time. This is synchronised or 'synchronous' data. If you now put a satellite link at one end between the cloud and the user then there is a problem. The network clock has to be sent over the satellite link. Satellite Modem Clocks: END A Tx Data o--------->--------o Tx Data Tx Data o---------<--------o Tx Data Rx Data o---------<--------o Rx Data Rx Data o--------->--------o Rx Data [ ] [ SATELLITE LINK ] [ ] Tx Clock o--------->--------o Tx Clock Tx Clock o---------<--------o Tx Clock Rx Clock o---------<--------o Rx Clock Rx Clock o--------->--------o Rx Clock END B

The clocks from end A need to arrive at end B with the data. This does not always happen because the end A clock is used by the satellite modem to clock the data in to the modem. At end B the modem uses either a recovered clock derived from the received demodulated data on the satellite link or generated internally by the modem, to clock out the data which is then hopefully in sync with the received data and this is fed to the receiver at end B.

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If end B wants to supply the clock to the modem or rather the network clock to clock the data out from the modem then the modem will need to be able to use the clock from the network for both transmit and receive clocks. Satellite Buffers: If there is a buffer in between the modem and end B then the clock from end B is used to clock out the data from the buffer and the modem clocks its data into the buffer using its own clock. The buffer then takes up any differences and hopefully copes with the situation. Major differences between the clocks could result in the buffer overflowing and massive data errors reducing the availability of the link. Thankfully, these days the satellite buffer is built-in to the modem which is an increasingly sophisticated piece of equipment. It may provide a host of clocking options and buffer settings to match and interface with the network. Next we will look at the different standards in more detail.

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Data Communications - Data Interface Standards


Data Interface Standards There are a variety of data communications standards which can leave you totally confused. Fear not, they are actually fairly simple and easy to understand. Each standard defines the pinout (pin number and designation), connector type, voltage levels on each pin, and the maximum data rate and maximum distance of cable run. EIA-232 (CCITT V.24) / RS-232 This specifies a 25 pin D Type connector as a standard unbalanced (single wire signals) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE (Data Termination Equipment - PC Comm Port or User Equipment). EIA-423 / RS-423 This specifies a 25 pin D Type connector as a standard unbalanced synchronous (data and clocks) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE (Data Termination Equipment - User Equipment). This interface is almost identical to RS-422 but for RS-423 is unbalanced. Very similar to RS-232 but can drive longer cable lengths at higher data rates. EIA-422 (CCITT V.11) / RS-422 This specifies a 37 pin D Type connector as a standard balanced (signal pairs) synchronous (data and clocks) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE (Data Termination Equipment - User Equipment). This interface can also be on 9 way D Types and 15 way D Types. EIA-530 (CCITT ) / RS-530 This specifies a 25 pin D Type connector as a standard balanced (signal pairs) synchronous (data and clocks) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE (Data Termination Equipment - User Equipment). This interface is identical to RS-422 but uses a 25 Way connector and is also used for RS-423 which is the same interface again but unbalanced. V.35 / EIA-449 / RS-449 This specifies a 37 pin D Type connector as a standard balanced (signal pairs) synchronous (data and clocks) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE (Data Termination Equipment - User Equipment). X-21 This specifies a 15 pin D Type connector as a standard balanced (signal pairs) synchronous (data and clocks) interface for DCE (Data Communication Equipment - Modem) or DTE

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(Data Termination Equipment - User Equipment). This interface has only one clock normally but the full pinout caters for two. Next we will have a look at the pin outs...

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Data Communications - Data Interface Pin Outs


Pinout Tables The following Pinout tables are correct to the best of our knowledge and are reviewed regularly. Always double check pin outs against a second source. RS-232, RS-422, RS-530, RS-423, RS-449, AUI, RJ-45, EIA Standards and X-21 Pinouts. A pin out is the list of pins for a connector used with a particular interface such as RS-232. The pin out lists the pins and describes the function of each pin. RS-232 Pinout ( 25 Way D Type ) Asynchronous Pin 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 20 22 Description Tx Data Rx Data RTS CTS DSR Signal ground DCD DTR RI Connector DTE DCE Type 25 Way D-Type Out In In Out Out In In Out In Out Notes

RTS/CTS RTS/CTS DSR/DTR

In Out Out In In Out

DSR/DTR

EIA-232 / RS-232 Pinout ( Mainly 25 Way D Type ) Synchronous Pin 2 3 7 15 17 24 Description Tx Data Rx Data Signal ground Tx Clock Rx Clock Tx Clock Connector Type 25 Way D-Type DTE Data Out Data In Clock Out Clock Out Clock In DCE Data In Data Out Clock In Clock In Clock Out Notes

EIA-232 / RS-232 Pinout ( PC Comm Port - 9 Way D Type ) Asynchronous Pin Description 1 2 3 DCD Data Carrier Detect Rx Data Tx Data Connector Type 9 Way D-Type Male DTE(PC) Data In Data In Data Out DCE Data Out Data Out Data In Notes

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4 5 6 7 8 9

DTR Data Terminal Ready Signal Ground DSR Data Set Ready RTS Request to Send CTS Clear to Send RI Ring Indicator

Data Out Data In Data Out Data In Data In

Data In Data Out Data In Data Out Data Out

EIA-449 / V.35 Pinout ( Mainly 37 Way D Type or Cannon ) Synchronous Pin Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Shield Signal Rate Indicator N/C Send Data (A) Send Timing (A) Receive Data (A) Request To Send (A) Receive Timing (A) Clear To Send (A) Local Loopback Data Mode (A) Terminal Ready (A) Receiver Ready (A) Remote Loopback Incoming Call Signal Freq./Sig. Rate Select. Terminal Timing (A) Test Mode (A) Signal Ground Receive Common N/C Send Data (B) Send Timing (B) Receive Data (B) Request To Send (B) Receive Timing (B) Clear To Send (B) Terminal In Service Data Mode (B) Terminal Ready (B) Receiver Ready (B) Designation / Label DCE DTE Notes

S SDSTRDRSRTCSLL DMTRRRRL IC SF/SR+ TTTMSG RC SD+ ST+ RD+ RS+ RT+ CS+ IS DM+ TR+ RR+

In Data In Clock Out Data Out In Clock Out Out In Out In Out In Out Out/In Clock In Out

Out Data Out Clock In Data In Out Clock In In Out In Out In Out In In/Out Clock Out In

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Data In Clock Out Data Out In Clock Out Out In Out In Out

Data Out Clock In Data In Out Clock In In Out In Out In

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32 33 34 35 36 37

Select Standby Signal Quality New Signal Terminal Timing (B) Standby Indicator Send Common

SS SQ NS TT+ SB SC

Out Out In Clock In Out

In In Out Clock Out In

EIA-423 / RS-423 Pinout Synchronous Pin Description 2 3 7 Tx Data Rx Data Signal ground Connector Type 25 Way D-Type (Can be a variety of Connectors) Clock Out Clock Out Clock In Clock In Clock In Clock Out DTE Data Out Data In DCE Data In Data Out Notes

15 Tx Clock 17 Rx Clock 24 Tx Clock

X-21 Pinout Synchronous Pin 2 9 4 11 8 6 3 Description Tx Data A Tx Data B Rx Data A Rx Data B Signal ground Tx Clock A Control A Connector Type 15 Way D-Type DCE Data In Data In Data Out Data Out Clock Out Clock Out Handshake In Handshake In Handshake Out Handshake Out DTE Data Out Data Out Data In Data In Clock In Clock In Handshake Out Handshake Out Often Looped Notes

13 Tx Clock B

10 Control B 5 Indication A

Handshake In 3 - 5 Handshake In 10 12

12 Indication B

V.35 / EIA-442 / RS-442 Pinout (See also EIA-449 Above) Synchronous Pin Description 4 Tx Data A Connector Type 37 Way D Type DTE Data Out DCE Data In Notes

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22 Tx Data B 6 Rx Data A 24 Rx Data B 19 Signal ground 17 Tx Clock A 35 Tx Clock B 8 Rx Clock A 26 Rx Clock B 5 Tx Clock A 23 Tx Clock B EIA-530 / RS-530 Pinout Synchronous Pin Description 2 Tx Data A 14 Tx Data B 3 Rx Data A 16 Rx Data B 7 Signal ground 15 Tx Clock A 12 Tx Clock B 17 Rx Clock A 9 Rx Clock B 24 Tx Clock A 11 Tx Clock B Connector Type 25 Way D Type

Data Out Data In Data In Clock Out Clock Out Clock In Clock In Clock In Clock In

Data In Data Out Data Out Clock In Clock In Clock Out Clock Out Clock Out Clock Out

DTE Data Out Data Out Data In Data In Clock In Clock In Clock In Clock In Clock Out Clock Out

DCE Data In Data In Data Out Data Out Clock Out Clock Out Clock Out Clock Out Clock In Clock In

Notes

Ethernet Transceiver (AUI) Interface - 15 Pin Connector Pinout Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Signal Control In (Shield) Control In Transmit Data Receive Data (Shield) Receive Data Voltage Control Out Control Out (Shield) Pin 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Signal Control In (Return) Transmit Data (Return) Transmit Data (Shield) Receive Data (Return) Voltage Plus Voltage (Shield) Control Out

RJ-45 Ethernet 10Base-T Pinout

Pin 1

Ethernet 10BASE-T Transmit +

Cross-Over White with green

Standard White with orange stripe

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stripe 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Transmit Receive + N/A N/A Receive N/A N/A Green with white stripe White with orange stripe Blue with white stripe White with blue stripe Orange with white stripe White with brown stripe Brown with white stripe Orange with white stripe White with green stripe Blue with white stripe White with blue stripe Green with white stripe White with brown stripe Brown with white stripe
Note that with ethernet cables, connecting a PC or another ethernet device to a hub, switch or router requires a standard cable. Connecting two devices of the same type such as a PC to a PC or a hub to a switch requires the crossover cable. Some hubs and switches have a dedicated or switchable 'Uplink' port which can be used with a standard cable.

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Chapter 10 Data Communications - Test Sets


In any satcom system, there is a need to test the path of the data from end to end to ensure that the bit error rate (the amount of errors) is minimal or error free.

Test Sets We use test sets to send test data across the system where it can either be received and analysed by a compatible test set for one way testing or looped round and sent back to be received and analysed by the same test set. What the test sets are looking for is errors in the received data. Since they know what was originally transmitted they can accurately monitor errors in transmission. Bit Error Rate If you have sent 1,000,000 bits of data and receive 1 error then that is an error rate of 1 in 1 million bits or 1 x E-6. Acceptable error rates start from 1 error in 10 million bits or 1 x E7. To measure this kind of error rate accurately the tests have to run over time to build up a statistical picture of the errors. 1 error in 24 hours and then 2 million in the next 10 minutes is not a good link but for the first 24 hours is was a superb link. Eb/No & Bit Error Rates Eb/N0 is a specification of the satellite modem which states the size of the signal for a given data rate to give a specified bit error rate. It comprises of the energy per bit in a 1 Hz bandwidth. In order to calculate this we need the data rate. Data Rate = 64 kBps We simply subtract 10 Log this data rate from the measured C/N0 to give the Eb/N0.

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Eb/N0 = 54 dBc/Hz - 48 = 6 Thus, to find the required C/N0 we simply rearrange: C/N0 = 10 Log Data Rate + Eb/No required C/N0 = 48 + 6 = 54 dBc/Hz The modem manufacturer states the Eb/N0 for a given data rate so you can easily know the required C/N0 to acheive this.

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Chapter 11 Claculations Link Budget Calculations:

What is a link budget?


A link budget is actually not as complicated as it sounds. Put simply, it is the sum of all the losses between your transmitter and the satellite and back down again to a receiver. These losses are reduced by any gain you have at the transmitter, satellite and receiver. So in order to see if your signal is still going to be big enough to use after it has been sent to a receiver via satellite, the gains and losses are effectively all added together and the result will be the net gain or loss. A loss means your signal has got smaller, and a gain means it has got bigger. This is a very simplified explanation, but it gives you an idea of what the link budget is trying to calculate. The following more in depth explanations talk you through each major parameter. The maths behind all of this, and there is a lot of it, is not looked at here. Words are much easier to understand than equations I think. Besides, maths was never my strong point. These parameters may seem scary or alien to you. Fear not, learning what they are is all that is important at this stage. The Transmit (Uplink) Terminal: The transmit frequency is the RF radio frequency at which this carrier wave is transmitted. Usually measured in GHz and sometimes MHz (multiplied by 1000). The EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) is a measure of the power which is required to transmit the carrier signal so that it reaches the satellite. The G/T is a measure of the performance of the transmitter and is based on the gain of the transmitter (the amplifier, other parts of the uplink equipment chain and the antenna) and the noise of the equipment in the uplink chain. o o Just as in an audio system, a noisy amplifier is not as good as a quiet amplifier. The uplink chain is the series of stages the signal goes through before leaving the antenna on its way to the satellite.

The Lat and Long is the location of the transmit terminal on the earth. Measured in degrees the latitude and longitude is a global position reference used by the GPS system amongst others. The elevation is the angle up from horizontal (0 degrees) that the antenna must point at to see the satellite in conjunction with azimuth.

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The azimuth is the compass angle from true north that the antenna must be pointed at to see the satellite in conjunction with elevation. Path loss is the attenuation of the signal due to the inverse square law and the earths atmosphere which reduces the size of your signal on its way to the satellite. Losses are the attenuating factors within the transmitter system such as RF radio frequency cable connectors and different types of RF cable. Lastly the margin is used to allow for extra atmospheric attenuation due to localised rain or snow at the transmitter location. The Satellite: Starting with the translation frequency, this is used by the satellite to convert the transmitted signal to a new frequency so that the satellite doesn't retransmit the signal at the same frequency as the transmitter on earth. If it did the two signals would interfere with each other and the result would be unusable. Instead, the signal is moved, usually down in frequency to a 'Receive Band'. The translation frequency is the amount by which the transmitted signal is moved in MHz. The EIRP is again the same for the satellite as it is for the transmit terminal. Not the same value but the same explanation. The G/T is also the same explanation for the satellite as it is for the transmit terminal. The C/No Sat is the carrier signal level to noise level ratio of the transmitted signal when it reaches the satellite. This is a measure of the signal reaching the satellite after travelling through the atmosphere into space. The Long is the longitude of the satellite. The satellite is usually located above the equator at a latitude of 0 degrees. Thus, only the longitude is required to identify the satellites location. Ant Gain is the gain of the receive antenna on the satellite. Transp Gain is the gain of the transponder on the satellite, this is in effect one channel of many that are arranged in bands of frequency on the satellite. They can be independantly controlled to increase or decrease the gain. They are sometimes even organised so that they cover different areas of the earth through the use of different antenna systems. Transp Gain is the gain of the satellite transponder. Req'd EIRP is the amount of power the satellite has to use to get your signal back to earth. % EIRP is the percentage of total satellite power available for all of the signals using it, that it must devote to your signal. Pwr @ Sat is the actual power of your signal transmitted from the satellite.

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The Receive (Downlink) Terminal: The Rx Freq is the receive frequency determined by the satellite translation freqency. the receiver must be tuned to this frequency to pick up the signal from the satellite. C/No is the carrier power to noise level ratio which is a measure of how much signal is visible above the noise. In audio terms this would be exactly the same as music and hiss. Less hiss more music. G/T is the same as the transmitter G/T except it is now for the receive terminal. Lat is the same as the transmitter Latitude except it is now for the receive terminal. Long is the same as the transmitter Longitude except it is now for the receive terminal. Elevation is the same as the transmitter Elevation except it is now for the receive terminal. Azimuth is the same as the transmitter Azimuth except it is now for the receive terminal. Path Loss is the same as the transmitter Path Loss except it is now for the receive terminal. Losses is the same as the transmitter Losses except it is now for the receive terminal. Margin is the same as the transmitter Margin except it is now for the receive terminal taking into account any weather at the location of the receive terminal. The Modem: Data Rate is described as the amount of data you wish to transmit per second. This is measured in bits. In a link budget the calculation is usually for just one direction so this is the data rate in one direction. Eb/No Req'd is the energy per bit to noise level ratio that is required to provide error free data. This is usually specified by the modem manufacturer. Link margin is the overall amount of attenuation in any part of the satellite link that can be tolerated by the modems before they've lost lock. Losing lock means losing the signal because it is too small and thus the satellite link is said to be lost, no data received. Calculations: With all this data and a lot of maths, the calculations can be made and the Link Margin obtained, if the Link Margin is too small, extra losses may occur due to atmospheric conditions which cause the link to fail. Rainfall when heavy can reduce received signals by around half. Balancing the budget is to end up with either 0 dB if no extra margin is required, or about 3 dB if some protection is needed.

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Antenna Gain Calculation


The antenna gain is calculated as follows: Ant Gain = 4 x PI x 'efficient area' = dBi ----------------------------wavelength (lamda) PI = 3.1415927 approx 'efficient area' = antenna reflector area x antenna efficiency Antenna efficiency is the ability of the antenna to radiate all of the power fed into it. An efficiency of 100% is theoretical but in practice not achievable. The average efficiency of an antenna is in the region of 70%, but often 60% is used as a worst case figure.

70% means that 30% of the input power is lost and this is due to factors such as mismatch, reflected power and imperfections. A reflector is not always a perfect reflector. wavelength = Speed of Light = 3 x 10^8 ------------------------------frequency frequency

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Turnaround Frequency Calculation


The turnaround frequency is calculated by subtracting the satellite translation frequency from the uplink Transmit frequency. This is used to calculate the Rx downlink frequency that the Transmit signal will return at, this is also known as the Return link or Downlink frequency. Rx Freq (T/R) = Tx Freq - Trans Freq Example: Tx Freq = 10.5 Ghz Satellite Translation Freq = 650 MHz Rx Freq = 10.5 - 0.65 = 9.85 GHz.

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Eb/No Calculation
Eb/No is the Energy per bit divided by the spectral noise density. Eb/No is related to the C/No. Eb/No = C/No - (10 x Log(data rate)) Example: If the data rate is 2048 kbps or 2 Mb then Log(2048000) = approx 6.31 If the C/No is 65 dBc/Hz then Eb/No = 65 - (10 x 6.31) = 65 - 63.1 = 1.9 Usually an Eb/No of at least 6 or more is expected so in this example the C/No is too small.

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BER Calculation
BER is the Bit Error Rate of a digital data transmission. This is the ratio of errors to the number of bits transmitted. BER = the number of errors in the number of bits Example: BER = 100 errors in 1000 bits = 100 / 1000 = 0.01 This is expressed as 1 error in 10 to the power of -2 = 1.0 E-2.

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EIRP Calculation
EIRP is the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power. This is the comparison between the antenna under test and a perfect theoretical omni-directional antenna radiating the same power in all directions. This is called Isotropic radiation. The reason for EIRP is that the power out of the antenna can be determined by a simple formula based on the power into the antenna and the gain of the antenna: EIRP = Forward transmit power (dB) + Antenna Gain (dB).

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G/T Calculation
G/T is the figure of merit for a satellite system. G is the Receive antenna gain.

T is the system noise temperature. System noise temperature = antenna noise temperature + Receiver noise temperature (LNA) Antenna noise temperature is the noise power seen at the receive output of the antenna. (To LNA) If you are not measuring with an LNA or Receiver then the System noise temperature = antenna noise temperature. This is not a representative value for calculating G/T since the G/T relates to the receive performance of both antenna and receiver. To convert to dB, T dB = 10 log(T kelvin) If both are measured in dB then the G/T = Ant Gain - System Noise Temp.

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C/No Calculation
C/No is the ratio of the carrier power to the noise power. No = k x T x 1 Hz bandwidth. No is the noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth. k is Boltzmann's constant = -228.6 dBW/K/Hz. T is the system noise temperature. C/No is sometimes referred to as the C/kT or just C/N. C/No = Rx carrier power (dBW) = dB Hz ----------------------------Rx noise power (dB Hz)

That completes our tutorials.

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ANNEX

Satellite Communications Terms & Explanations:


ACTS Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. A NASA experimental satellite project to demonstrate the use of the Ka-Band (30/20 GHz) services. A Amplifier A device used to boost the strength of an electronic signal. Amplitude Modulation (AM) The baseband signal is caused to vary the amplitude or height of the carrier wave to create the desired information content. Analog A form of transmitting information characterized by continuously variable quantities, as opposed to digital transmission, which is characterized by discrete bits of information in numerical steps. An analog signal is responsive to changes in light, sound, heat and pressure. Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC) Process of converting analog signals to a digital representation. DAC represents the reverse translation. ANIK The Canadian domestic satellite system that transmits Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's (CSC) network feeds throughout the country. This system also carries long distance voice and data services throughout Canada as well as some transborder service to the U.S. and Mexico. Antenna A device for transmitting and receiving radio waves. Depending on their use and operating frequency, antennas can take the form of a single piece of wire, a di-pole a grid such as a yagi array, a horn, a helix, a sophisticated parabolic-shaped dish, or a phase array of active electronic elements of virtually any flat or convoluted surface. Aperture A cross sectional area of the antenna which is exposed to the satellite signal. Apogee The point in an elliptical satellite orbit which is farthest from the surface of the earth. Geosynchronous satellites which maintain circular orbits around the earth are first launched into highly elliptical orbits with apogees of 22,237 miles. When the communication satellite reaches the appropriate apogee, a rocket motor is fired to place the satellite into its permanent circular orbit of 22,237 miles. Apogee Kick Motor (AKM) Rocket motor fired to circulate orbit and deploy satellite into geostationary orbit. Apstar (Asia-Pacific Star) Name of the Chinese satellite system which carries commercial video services in the region. Arabsat This is the Arabsat Satellite Organization and its is headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It provides regional telecommunications services for the Middle East region.

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AsiaSat A satellite system covering the Asia mainland. Asynchronous Communications Stream of data routed through a network as generated, rather than in organized message blocks. Most personal computers send data in this format. (See ATM) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) This is the new form of super-fast packet switching operating at speeds in the Gigabits/second. Attenuation The loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points. Attitude Control The orientation of the satellite in relationship to the earth and the sun. Audio Subcarrier The carrier between 5 MHz and 8 MHz containing audio (or voice) information inside of a video carrier. Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) A circuit which automatically controls the frequency of a signal. Automatic Gain Control (AGC) A circuit which automatically controls the gain of an amplifier so that the output signal level is virtually constant for varying input signal levels. AZ/EL Mount Antenna mount that requires two separate adjustments to move from one satellite to another; Azimuth The angle of rotation (horizontal) that a ground based parabolic antenna must be rotated through to point to a specific satellite in a geosynchronous orbit. The azimuth angle for any particular satellite can be determined for any point on the surface of the earth giver the latitude and longitude of that point. It is defined with respect to due north as a matter of easy convenience. B-Mac A method of transmitting and scrambling television signals. In such transmissions MAC (Multiplexed Analog Component) signals are time-multiplexed with a digital burst containing digitized sound, video synchronizing, authorization, and information. Backhaul A terrestrial communications channel linking an earth station to a local switching network or population center. Backoff The process of reducing the input and output power levels of a traveling wave tube to obtain more linear operation. Band Pass Filter An active or passive circuit which allows signals within the desired frequency band to pass through but impedes signals outside this pass band from getting through.

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Bandwidth A measure of spectrum (frequency) use or capacity. For instance, a voice transmission by telephone requires a bandwidth of about 3000 cycles per second (3KHz). A TV channel occupies a bandwidth of 6 million cycles per second (6 MHz) in terrestrial Systems. In satellite based systems a larger bandwidth of 17.5 to 72 MHz is used to spread or "dither" the television signal in order to prevent interference. Baseband The basic direct output signal in an intermediate frequency based obtained directly from a television camera, satellite television receiver, or video tape recorder. Baseband signals can be viewed only on studio monitors. To display the baseband signal on a conventional television set a "modulator" is required to convert the baseband signal to one of the VHF or UHF television channels which the television set can be tuned to receive. Baud The rate of data transmission based on the number of signal elements or symbols transmitted per second. Today most digital signals are characterized in bits per second. Beacon Low-power carrier transmitted by a satellite which supplies the controlling engineers on the ground with a means of monitoring telemetry data, tracking the satellite, or conducting propagation experiments. This tracking beacon is usually a horn or omni antenna. Beamwidth The angle or conical shape of the beam the antenna projects. Large antennas have narrower beamwidths and can pinpoint satellites in space or dense traffic areas on the earth more precisely. Tighter beamwidths thus deliver higher levels of power and thus greater communications performance. Bird Slang for a communications satellite located in geosynchronous orbit. Bit A single digital unit of information Bit Error Rate (BER) The fraction of a sequence of message bits that are in error. A bit error rate of 10-6 means that there is an average of one error per million bits. Bit Rate The speed of a digital transmission, measured in bits per second. Blanking An ordinary television signal consists of 30 separate still pictures or frames sent every second. They occur so rapidly, the human eye blurs them together to form an illusion of moving pictures. This is the basis for television and motion picture systems. The blanking interval is that portion of the television signal which occurs after one picture frame is sent and before the next one is transmitted. During this period of time special data signals can be sent which will not be picked up on an ordinary television receiver. Block Down Converter A device used to convert the 3.7 to 4.2 KHz signal down to UHF or lower frequencies (1 GHz and lower). BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying) A digital modulation technique in which the carrier phase can have one of two possible values, namely 0

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degrees or 180 degrees. Broad beam A single large circular beam that covers a large geographic area Broadcast The sending of one transmission to multiple users in a defined group (compare to unicast). BSS (Broadcast Satellite Service) This is the ITU designation but DBS or Direct Broadcast Service is more commonly used term in the satellite industry. Business Television Corporate communications tool involving video transmission of information via satellite. Common uses of business television are for meetings, product introductions and training. Buttonhook Feed A shaped piece of waveguide directing signal from the feed to the LNA behind the antenna. Bypass Use of satellite, local area network, wide area network or metropolitan area network as an alternative transmission facility. C Band This is the band between 4 and 8 GHz with the 6 and 4 GHz band being used for satellite communications. Specifically, the 3.7 to 4.2 GHz satellite communication band is used as the down link frequencies in tandem with the 5.925 to 6,425 GHz band that serves as the uplink. Carrier The basic radio, television, or telephony center of frequency transmit signal. The carrier in an analog signal. is modulated by manipulating its amplitude (making it louder or softer) or its frequency (shifting it up or down) in relation to the incoming signal. Satellite carriers operating in the analog mode are usually frequency modulated. Carrier Frequency The main frequency on which a voice, data, or video signal is sent. Microwave and satellite communications transmitters operate in the band from 1 to 14 GHz (a GHz is one billion cycles per second). Carrier to Noise Ratio (C/N) The ratio of the received carrier power and the noise power in a given bandwidth, expressed in dB. This figure is directly related to G/T and S/N; and in a video signal the higher the C/N, the better the received picture. Cassegrain Antenna The antenna principle that utilizes a subreflector at the focal point which reflects energy to or from a feed located at the apex of the main reflector. CATV Originally meant Community Antenna Television. Independent smaller companies in rural communities would build a large television receiving antenna on a nearby mountain to pick up the weak TV signals from a distant metropolis. These signals were amplified, modulated onto television channels and sent along a coaxial cable strung from house to house.

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CCITT (now TSS) Comite Consultatif Internationale de Telegraphique et Telephonique. International body, associated with the ITU, which establishes worldwide standards for telecommunications. Reorganized to include CCIR (radio standards group) and renamed TSS (Telecommunications Standardization Sector). CDMA Code division multiple access. Refers to a multiple-access scheme where stations use spread-spectrum modulations and orthogonal codes to avoid interfering with one another. Channel A frequency band in which a specific broadcast signal is transmitted. Channel frequencies are specified in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission. Television signals require a 6 MHz frequency band to carry all the necessary picture detail. CIF Common Intermediate Format. A compromise television display format adopted by the CCITT which is relatively easy to derive from both PAL and NTSC. Circular Polarization Unlike many domestic satellites which utilize vertical or horizontal polarization, the international Intelsat satellites transmit their signals in a rotating corkscrew-like pattern as they are down-linked to earth. On some satellites, both right-hand rotating and left-hand rotating signals can be transmitted simultaneously on the same frequency; thereby doubling the capacity of the satellite to carry communications channels. Clamp A video processing circuit that removes the energy dispersal signal component from the video waveform. Clarke Orbit That circular orbit in space 22,237 miles from the surface of the earth at which geosynchronous satellites are placed. This orbit was first postulated by the science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in Wireless World magazine in 1945. Satellites placed in these orbits, although traveling around the earth at thousands of miles an hour, appear to be stationary when viewed from a point on the earth, since the earth is rotating upon its axis at the same angular rate that the satellite is traveling around the earth. C/No or C/kT or C/kTB Carrier-to-noise ratio measured either at the Radio Frequency (RF) or Intermediate Frequency (IF). Coaxial Cable A transmission line in which an inner conductor is surrounded by an outer conductor or shield and separated by a nonconductive dielectric. Codec Coder/decoder system for digital transmission. Co-Location Ability of multiple satellites to share the same approximate geostationary orbital assignment frequently due to the fact that different frequency bands are used. Color Subcarrler A subcarrier that is added to the main video signal to convey the color information. In NTSC systems, the color subcarrier is centered on a frequency of 3.579545 MHz, referenced to the main video carrier.

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Common Carrier Any organization which operates communications circuits used by other people. Common carriers include the telephone companies as well as the owners of the communications satellites, RCA, Comsat, Direct Net Telecommunications, AT&T and others. Common carriers are required to file fixed tariffs for specific services. Companding A noise-reduction technique that applies single compression at the transmitter and complementary expansion at the receiver. Composite Baseband The unclamped and unfiltered output of the satellite receiver's demodulator circuit, containg the video information as well as all transmitted subcarriers. Compression Algorithms Software that allows codecs to reduce the number of bits required for data storage or transmission. COMSAT The Communications Satellite Corporation (part of Lockheed Martin) which serves as the U.S. Signatory to INTELSAT and INMARSAT. Conus Contiguous United States. In short, all the states in the U.S. except Hawaii and Alaska. Cross Modulation A form of signal distortion in which modulation from one or more RF carrier(s) is imposed on another carrier. CSU Channel service unit. A digital interface device that connects end-user equipment to the local digital telephone loop. CSU is frequently coupled with DSU (see below) as CSU/DSU. C/T Carrier-to-noise-temperature ratio. DAMA Demand-Assigned Multiple Access - A highly efficient means of instantaneously assigning telephony channels in a transponder according to immediate traffic demands. DBS Direct broadcast satellite. Refers to service that uses satellites to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to home mounted small-dish antennas. dB The decibel is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses a power relative to a reference. dBi The dB power relative to an isotropic source. dBW The ratio of the power to one Watt expressed in decibels.

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De-BPSK Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying De-QPSK Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.Decibel (dB) The standard unit used to express the ratio of two power levels. It is used in communications to express either a gain or loss in power between the input and output devices. Declination The offset angle of an antenna from the axis of its polar mount as measured in the meridian plane between the equatorial plane and the antenna main beam. Decoder A television set-top device which enables the home subscriber to convert an electronically scrambled television picture into a viewable signal. This should not be confused with a digital coder/decoder known as a CODEC which is used in conjunction with digital transmissions. Deemphasis Reinstatement of a uniform baseband frequency response following demodulation. Delay The time it takes for a signal to go from the sending station through the satellite to the receiving station. This transmission delay for a single hop satellite connection is very close on one-quarter of a second. Demodulator A satellite receiver circuit which extracts or "demodulates" the "wanted "signals from the received carrier. Deviation The modulation level of an FM signal determined by the amount of frequency shift from the frequency of the main carrier. Digital Conversion of information into bits of data for transmission through wire, fiber optic cable, satellite, or over air techniques. Method allows simultaneous transmission of voice, data or video. Digital Speech Interpolation DSI - A means of transmitting telephony. Two and One half to three times more efficiently based on the principle that people are talking only about 40% of the time. Discriminator A type of FM demodulator used in satellite receivers. Dithering he process of shifting the 6-MHz satellite-tv signal up and down the 36-MHz satellite transponder spectrum at a rate of 30 times per second (30 Hertz). The satellite signal is "dithered" to spread the transmission energy out over a band of frequencies far wider than a terrestrial common carrier microwave circuit operates within, thereby minimizing the potential interference that any one single terrestrial microwave transmitter could possibly cause to the satellite transmission. Down-Converter That portion of the Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) television receiver that converts the signals from the 4GHz microwave range to (typically) the more readily used baseband or intermediate frequency (IF) 70MHz range.

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Downlink The satellite to earth half of a 2 way telecommunications satellite link. Often used to describe the receive dish end of the link. DSU Data service unit. A device used in digital transmission that adapts the physical interface on a DTE device to a transmission facility such as T1 or E1. The DSU is also responsible for such functions as signal timing. DSU is freqnetly coupled with a CSU (see above) as CSU/DSU. DTV Digital Television Dual Spin Spacecraft design whereby the main body of the satellite is spun to provide altitude stabilization, and the antenna assembly is despun by means of a motor and bearing system in order to continually direct the antenna earthward. This dual-spin configuration thus serves to create a spin stabilized satellite. Duplex Transmission Capability for simultaneous data transmission between a sending station and a receiving station. DVB Digital Video Broadcasting - The European-backed project to harmonise adoption of digital video. E1 Wide-area digital transmission facility used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of 2.048 Mbit/s. E3 Wide-area digital transmission facility used predominantly in Europe that carries data at a rate of 34.368 Mbit/s. Earth Station The term used to describe the combination or antenna, low-noise amplifier (LNA), down-converter, and receiver electronics. used to receive a signal transmitted by a satellite. Earth Station antennas vary in size from the.2 foot to 12 foot (65 centimeters to 3.7 meters) diameter size used for TV reception to as large as 100 feet (30 meters) in diameter sometimes used for international communications. The typical antenna used for INTELSAT communication is today 13 to 18 meters or 40 to 60 feet. Echo Canceller An electronic circuit which attenuates or eliminates the echo effect on satellite telephony links. Echo cancellers are largely replacing obsolete echo suppressors. Echo Effect A time-delayed electronic reflection of a speaker's voice. This is largely eliminated by modern digital echo cancellers. Eclipse When a satellite passes through the line between the earth and the sun or the earth and the moon. Eclipse Protected Refers to a transponder that can remain powered during the period of an eclipse. El/Az

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An antenna mount providing independent adjustments in elevation and azimuth. Edge of Coverage Limit of a satellite's defined service area. In many cases, the EOC is defined as being 3 dB down from the signal level at beam center. However, reception may still be possible beyond the -3dB point. EIRP Effective Isotropic Radiated Power - This term describes the strength of the signal leaving the satellite antenna or the transmitting earth station antenna, and is used in determining the C/N and S/N. The transmit power value in units of dBW is expressed by the product of the transponder output power and the gain of the satellite transmit antenna. Elevation The upward tilt to a satellite antenna measured in degrees required to aim the antenna at the communications satellite. When. aimed at the horizon, the elevation angle is zero. If it were tilted to a point directly overhead, the satellite antenna would have an elevation of 90 degrees. Encoder A device used to electronically alter a signal so that it can only be viewed on a receiver equipped with a special decoder. Energy Dispersal A low-frequency waveform combined with the baseband signal prior to modulation, to spread the FM signal's peak power across the available transponder bandwidth in order to reduce the potential for creating interference to ground-based communications services. EOL End of Life of a satellite. Equatorial Orbit An orbit with a plane parallel to the earth's equator. ESC Engineering Service Circuit - The 300-3,400 Hertz voice plus teletype (S+DX) channel used for earth station-to-earth station and earth station-to-operations center communications for the purpose of system maintenance, coordination and general system information dissemination. In analog (FDM/FM) systems there are two S+DX channels available for this purpose in the 4,000-12,000 Hertz portion of the baseband. In digital systems there are one or two channels available which are usually convened to a 32 or 64 Kbps digital signal and combined with the earth station traffic digital bit stream. Modern ESC equipment interfaces with any mix of analog and digital satellite carriers, as well as backhaul terrestrial links to the local switching center. Eutelsat The European Telecommunications Satellite Organization which is headquartered in Paris, France. It provides a satellite network for Europe and parts of North Africa and the Middle East. FCC (Federal Communications Commission) The U.S. federal regulatory body, consisting of five members, one of who is designated chairman, appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, which regulates interstate communications under the Communications Act of 1934. F/D Ratio of antenna focal length to antenna diameter. A higher ratio means a shallower dish.

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FDMA Frequency division multiple access. Refers to the use of multiple carriers within the same transponder where each uplink has been assigned frequency slot and bandwidth. This is usually employed in conjunction with Frequency Modulation. Feed This term has at least two key meanings within the field of satellite communications. It is used to describe the transmission of video programming from a distribution center. It is also used to describe the feed system of an antenna. The feed system may consist of a subreflector plus a feedhorn or a feedhorn only. Feedhorn A satellite TV receiving antenna component that collects the signal reflected from the main surface reflector and channels this signal into the low-noise amplifier (LNA). FM - Frequency Modulation A modulation method whereby the baseband signal varies the frequency of the carrier wave. FM Threshold That point at which the input signal power is just strong enough to enable the receiver demodulator circuitry successfully to detect and recover a good quality television picture from the incoming video carrier. Focal Length Distance from the center feed to the center of the dish. Focal Point The area toward which the primary reflector directs and concentrates the signal received. Footprint A map of the signal strength showing the EIRP contours of equal signal strengths as they cover the earth's surface. Different satellite transponders on the same satellite will often have different footprints of the signal strength. The accuracy of EIRP footprints or contour data can improve with the operational age of the satellite. The actual EIRP levels of the satellite, however, tends to decrease slowly as the spacecraft ages. Forward Error Correction (FEC) Adds unique codes to the digital signal at the source so errors can be detected and corrected at the receiver. Frequency The number of times that an alternating current goes through its complete cycle in one second of time. One cycle per second is also referred to as one hertz; 1000 cycles per second, one kilohertz; 1,000,000 cycles per second, one megahertz: and 1,000,000,000 cycles per second, one gigahertz. Frequency Coordination A process to eliminate frequency interference between different satellite systems or between terrestrial microwave systems and satellites. In the U.S. this activity relies upon a computerized service utilizing an extensive database to analyze potential microwave interference problems that arise between organizations using the same microwave band. As the same C-band frequency spectrum is used by telephone networks and CATV companies when they are contemplating the installation of an earth station, they will often obtain a frequency coordination study to determine if any problems will exist. Frequency Reuse A technique which maximizes the capacity of a communications satellite through the use of specially isolated beam antennas and/or the use of dual polarities. Gain A measure of amplification expressed in dB.

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GE Americon This is a large U.S. corporation providing satellite systems for domestic communications. Has ownership in some international satellites. Geostationary Refers to a geosynchronous satellite angle with zero inclination. so the satellite appears to hover over one spot on the earth's equator. Geostationary Transfer Orbit This orbit is in the equatorial plane. This type of orbit has an elliptical form, with a perigee at 200 km and an apogee at 35870 km. Geosynchronous The Clarke circular orbit above the equator. For a planet the size and mass of the earth, this point is 22,237 miles above the surface. Gigahertz (GHz) One billion cycles per second. Signals operating above 3 Gigahertz are known as microwaves. above 30 GHz they are know as millimeter waves. As one moves above the millimeter waves signals begin to take on the characteristics of Iightwaves. Global Beam An antenna down-link pattern used by the Intelsat satellites, which effectively covers one-third of the globe. Global beams are aimed at the center of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans by the respective Intelsat satellites, enabling all nations on each side of the ocean to receive the signal. Because they transmit to such a wide area, global beam transponders have significantly lower EIRP outputs at the surface of the Earth as compared to a US domestic satellite system which covers just the continental United States. Therefore, earth stations receiving global beam signals need antennas much larger in size (typically 10 meters and above (i.e.30 feet and up). Gregorian Dual-reflector antenna system employing a paraboloidal main reflector and a concave ellipsoidal subreflector. Globalstar A mobile satellite system that deployes a network of 48 satellites to create a global voice and data service. This system is backed by Qualcomm, Loral, and Alcatel. G/T A figure of merit of an antenna and low noise amplifier combination expressed in dB. "G" is the net gain of the system and "T" is the noise temperature of the system. The higher the number, the better the system. Guard Channel Television channels are separated in the frequency spectrum by spacing them several megahertz apart. This unused space serves to prevent the adjacent television channels from interfering with each other. Half Transponder A method of transmitting two TV signals through a single transponder through the reduction of each TV signal's deviation and power level. Half-transponder TV carriers each operate typically 4 dB to 7 dB below single-carrier saturation power. Headend Electronic control center - generally located at the antenna site of a CATV system - usually including

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antennas, preamplifiers, frequency converters, demodulators and other related equipment which amplify, filter and convert incoming broadcast TV signals to cable system channels. Heliosynchronous Orbit At an altitude of 600 to 800 km and situated in a quasi-polar plane. The satellite is permanently visible from that part of the Earth in sunlight. Heliosynchronous orbits are used for Earth observation or solarstudy satellites. HEO Highly Elliptical Orbit. This is type of orbit used by the Russian Molniya Satellite system. It is also referred to as Extremely Elliptical Orbit (EEO). Hertz (Hz) The name given to the basic measure of radio frequency characteristics. An electromagnetic wave completes a full oscillation from its positive to its negative pole and back again in what is known as a cycle. A single Hertz is thus equal to one cycle per second. High Frequency (HF) Radio frequencies within the range of 3,000 to 30,000 kilohertz. HF radio is known as shortwave. High-Power Satellite Satellite with 100 watts or more of transponder RF power. Hour Angle Steering direction of a polar mount. An angle measured in the equatorial plane between the antenna beam and the meridian plane. Hub The master station through which all communications to, from and between micro terminals must flow. in the future satellites with on-board processing will allow hubs to be eliminated as MESH networks are able to connect all points in a network together. Hughes Galaxy A domestic U.S. satellite system which provides a range of telecommunications services. IBS INTELSAT Business Services. IFRB International Frequency Registration Board of the ITU - International Telecommunications Union. The IFRB regulates the allocation of satellite orbital locations. Inclination The angle between the orbital plane of a satellite and the equatorial plane of the earth. INMARSAT The International Maritime Satellite Organization operates a network of satellites for international transmissions for all types of international mobile services including maritime, aeronautical, and land mobile. INTELSAT The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization operates a network of satellites for international transmissions. Interference Energy which tends to interfere with the reception of the desired signals, such as fading from airline

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flights, RF interference from adjacent channels, or ghosting from reflecting objects such as mountains and buildings. Inter Satellite Link - ISL Radio or optical communications links between satellites. They serve to interconnect constellations of satellites. INTERSPUTNIK The international entity formed by the Soviet Union to provide international communications via a network of Soviet satellites. IRD An integrated receiver and decoder for reception of a transmission of voice, video and data. Iridium Satellite System This was a 66 satellite network designed for mobile telephone use and is now defunct. ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network. A CCITT standard for integrated transmission of voice, video and data. Bandwidths include: Basic Rate Interface - BR (144 Kbps - 2 B & 1 D channel) and Primary Rate - PRI (1.544 and 2.048 Mbps). ISO International Standards Organization. Develops standards such as JPEG and MPEG. Closely allied with the CCITT. Isotropic Antenna A hypothetical omnidirectional point-source antenna that serves as an engineering reference for the measurement of antenna gain. ITU International Telecommunication Union. Jammer An active electronic counter-measures (ECM) device designed to deny intelligence to unfriendly detectors or to disrupt communications. JPEG ISO Joint Picture Expert Group standard for the compression of still pictures. Ka Band The frequency range from 18 to 31 GHz. Kbps Kilobits per second. Refers to transmission speed of 1,000 bits per second. Kelvin (K) The temperature measurement scale used in the scientific community. Zero K represents absolute zero, and corresponds to minus 459 degrees Fahrenheit or minus 273 Celsius. Thermal noise characteristics of LNA are measured in Kelvins. Kilohertz (kHz) Refers to a unit of frequency equal to 1,000 Hertz. Klystron A microwave tube which uses the interaction between an electron beam and the RF energy on microwave cavities to provide signal amplification. The klystron operates on principles of velocity modulation very similar to those in a TWT except that klystron interaction takes place at discrete locations

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along the electron beam. Common types of klystrons are the reflex klystron (an oscillator having only one cavity), two-cavity klystron amplifiers and oscillators, and multi-cavity klystron amplifiers. Ku Band The frequency range from 10.9 to 17 GHz. L-Band The frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 GHz. Also used to refer to the 950 to 1450MHz used for mobile communications. Leased Line A dedicated circuit typically supplied by the telephone company. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) This is the preamplifier between the antenna and the earth station receiver. For maximum effectiveness, it must be located as near the antenna as possible, and is usually attached directly to the antenna receive port. The LNA is especially designed to contribute the least amount of thermal noise to the received signal. Low Noise Block Downconverter (LNB) A combination Low Noise Amplifier and downconverter built into one device attached to the feed. Low Noise Converter (LNC) A combination Low Noise Amplifier and down converter built into one antenna-mounted package. Low Orbit At an altitude of 200 to 300 km this orbit is used for certain types of scientific or observation satellites, which can view a different part of the Earth beneath them on each orbit revolution, as they overfly both hemispheres. Low-Power Satellite Satellite with transmit RF power below 30 watts. MAC (A, B, C, D2) Multiplexed analog component color video transmission system. Subtypes refer to the various methods used to transmit audio and data signals. Margin The amount of signal in dB by which the satellite system exceeds the minimum levels required for operation. Master Antenna Television (MATV) An antenna system that serves a concentration of television sets such as in apartment buildings, hotels or motels. Medium-Power Satellite Satellite generating transmit power levels ranging from 30 to 100 watts. Megahertz (MHz) Refers to a frequency equal to one million Hertz, or cycles per second. Microwave Line-of sight, point-to-point transmission of signals at high frequency. Many CATV systems receive some

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television signals from a distant antenna location with the antenna and the system connected by microwave relay. Microwaves are also used for data, voice, and indeed all types of information transmission. The growth of fiber optic networks have tended to curtail the growth and use of microwave relays. Microwave Interference Interference which occurs when an earth station aimed at a distant satellite picks up a second, often stronger signal, from a local telephone terrestrial microwave relay transmitter. Microwave interference can also be produced by nearby radar transmitters as well as the sun itself. Relocating the antenna by only several feet will often completely eliminate the microwave interference. Modem (modulator/demodulator) A communications device that modulates signals at the transmitting end and demodulates them at the receiving end. Modulation The process of manipulating the frequency or amplitude of a carrier in relation to an incoming video, voice or data signal. Modulator A device which modulates a carrier. Modulators are found as components in broadcasting transmitters and in satellite transponders. Modulators are also used by CATV companies to place a baseband video television signal onto a desired VHF or UHF channel. Home video tape recorders also have built-in modulators which enable the recorded video information to be played back using a television receiver tuned to VHF channel 3 or 4. Molniya The Russian domestic satellite system which operated with highly elliptical satellites which overlooked the high latitudes of the territories of the USSR. MPEG The Moving Pictures Experts Group, the television industry's informal standards group. MPEG-2 The agreed standard covering the compression of data (coding and encoding) for digital television. MPEG-2 MP@HL Main Provile at High Level - The agreed much higher bit-rate system adopted to provide high definition television in wide screen format. Multiple Access The ability of more than one user to have access to a transponder. Multiple System Operator (MSO) A company that operates more than one cable television system. Multipoint Distribution System (MDS) A common carrier licensed by the FCC to operate a broadcast-like omnidirectional microwave transmission facility within a given city typically carrying television signals Multicast Multicast is a subset of broadcast that extends the broadcast concept of one to many by allowing "the sending of one transmission to many users in a defined group, but not necessarily to all users in that group."

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Multiplexing Techniques that allow a number of simultaneous transmissions over a single circuit. Mux A Multiplexer. Combines several different signals (e.g. video, audio, data) onto a single communication channel for transmission. Demultiplexing separates each signal at the receiving end. NAB National Association of Broadcasters. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) The U.S. agency which administers the American space program, including the deployment of commercial and military satellites via a fleet of space shuttle vehicles. NASDA National Space Development Agency of Japan. NCTA National Cable Television Association. Noise Any unwanted and unmodulated energy that is always present to some extent within any signal. Noise Figure (NF) A term which is a figure of merit of a device, such as an LNA or receiver, expressed in dB, which compares the device with a perfect device. NTIA The National Telecommunications and Information Administration is a unit of the Department of Commerce that address U.S. government telecommunications policy, standards setting and radio spectrum allocation. Nutation Damping The process of correcting the nutational effects of a spinning satellite which are similar in effect to a wobbling top. Active nutation controls use thruster jets. NTSC - National Television Standards Committee A video standard established by the United States (RCA/NBC} and adopted by numerous other countries. This is a 525-line video with 3.58-MHz chroma subcarrier and 60 cycles per second. OFTEL The Office of Telecommunications of the United Kingdom government. This unit a part of the Department of Industries regulates telecommunications in the United Kingdom. Orbital Period The time that it takes a satellite to complete one circumnavigation of its orbit. Packet Switching Data transmission method that divides messages into standard-sized packets for greater efficiency of routing and transport through a network. PAL - Phase Alternation System The German developed TV standard based upon 50 cycles.per second and 625 lines.

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Parabolic Antenna The most frequently found satellite TV antenna, it takes its name from the shape of the dish described mathematically as a parabola. The function of the parabolic shape is to focus the weak microwave signal hitting the surface of the dish into a single focal point in front of the dish. It is at this point that the feedhorn is usually located. PBS (Public Broadcasting System) A domestic USA television and radio broadcast network. Perigee The point in an elliptical satellite orbit which is closest to the surface of the earth. Perigee Kick Motor (PKM) Rocket motor fired to inject a satellite into a geostationary transfer orbit from a low earth orbit especially that of a STS or Shuttle-based orbit of 300 to 500 miles altitude. Period The amount of time that a satellite takes to complete one revolution of its orbit. Phase Alternation System (PAL) A European color television system incompatible with the US NTSC television system. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) A type of electronic circuit used to demodulate satellite signals. Polarization A technique used by the satellite designer to increase the capacity of the satellite transmission channels by reusing the satellite transponder frequencies. In linear cross polarization schemes, half of the transponders beam their signals to earth in a vertically polarized mode; the other half horizontally polarize their down links. Although the two sets of frequencies overlap, they are 90 degree out of phase, and will not interfere with each other. To successfully receive and decode these signals on earth, the earth station must be outfitted with a properly polarized feedhorn to select the vertically or horizontally polarized signals as desired. In some installations, the feedhorn has the capability of receiving the vertical and horizontal transponder signals simultaneously, and routing them into separate LNAs for delivery to two or more satellite television receivers. Unlike most domestic satellites, the Intelsat series use a technique known as left-hand and right-hand circular polarization. Polarization Rotator A device that can be manually or automatically adjusted to select one of two orthogonal polarizations. Polar Mount Antenna mechanism permitting steering in both elevation and azimuth through rotation about a single axis. While an astronomer's polar mount has its axis parallel to that of the earth, satellite earth stations utilize a modified polar mount geometry that incorporates a declination offset. Polar Orbit An orbit with its plane aligned in parallel with the polar axis of the earth Protected-Use Transponder A satellite transponder provided by the common carrier to a programmer with a built-in insurance policy. If the protected-use transponder fails, the common carrier guarantees the programmer that it will switch over to another transponder, sometimes pre-empting some other non-protected programmer from the other transponder. PTT - Post Telephone and Telegraph Administration

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Refers to operating agencies directly or indirectly controlled by governments in charge of telecommunications services in most countries of the world. Pulse Code Modulation A time division modulation technique in which analog signals are sampled and quantized at periodic intervals into digital signals. The values observed are typically represented by a coded arrangement of 8 bits of which one may be for parity. QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is a modulation scheme which transmits data by modulating the amplitude of two carrier waves. The two waves, usually sinusoids, are out of phase with each other by 90 and are called quadrature carriers. QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is a modulation technique in which the carrier phase can have one of four possible values of 0, 90, 180, 270 degrees on the equivalent of a 90 degrree rotation. There are even more advanced concepts based upon 8-phase (45 degree rotation), 16 phase (22.5 degree rotation) and so on to 32 phase, etc. Rain Outage Loss of signal at Ku or Ka Band frequencies due to absorption and increased sky-noise temperature caused by heavy rainfall. Receiver (Rx) An electronic device which enables a particular satellite signal to be separated from all others being received by an earth station, and converts the signal format into a format for video, voice or data. Receiver Sensitivity Expressed in dBm this tells how much power the detector must receive to achieve a specific baseband performance, such as a specified bit error rate or signal to noise ratio. RF Adaptor An add-on modulator which interconnects the output of the satellite television receiver to the input (antenna terminals) of the user's television set. The RF adaptor converts the baseband video signal coming from the satellite receiver to a radio frequency RF signal which can be tuned in by the television set on VHF channel 3 or 4. Router Network layer device that determines the optimal path along which network traffic should be forwarded. Routers forward packets from one network to another based on network layer information. Satellite A sophisticated electronic communications relay station orbiting 22,237 miles above the equator moving in a fixed orbit at the same speed and direction of the earth (about 7,000 mph east to west). Satellite Terminal A receive-only satellite earth station consisting of an antenna reflector (typically parabolic in shape), a feedhorn, a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a down converter and a receiver. SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) A type of steep-skirted filter used in the baseband or IF section of satellite reception and transmission equipment.

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Scalar Feed A type of horn antenna feed which uses a series of concentric rings to capture signals that have been reflected toward the focal point of a parabolic antenna. Scrambler A device used to electronically alter a signal so that it can only be viewed or heard on a receiver equipped with a special decoder. Secam A color television. system developed by the French and used in the USSR. Secam operates with 625 lines per picture frame and 50 cycles per second, but is incompatible in operation with the European PAL system or the U.S. NTSC system. SFD - Saturated Flux Density The power required to achieve saturation of a single repeater channel on the satellite. Sidelobe Off-axis response of an antenna. Signal to Noise Ratio (S/N) The ratio of the signal power and noise power. A video S/N of 54 to 56 dB is considered to be an excellent S/N, that is, of broadcast quality. A video S/N of 48 to 52 dB is considered to be a good S/N at the headend for Cable TV. SILVO An organization formed in the mid 1980's to monitor frequency re-use. Simplex Transmission Capability for transmission in only one direction between sending station and receiving station. Single-Channel-Per-Carrier (SCPC) A method used to transmit a large number of signals over a single satellite transponder. Single Sideband (SSB) A form of amplitude modulation (AM) whereby one of the sidebands and the AM carrier are suppressed. Skew An adjustment that compensates for slight variance in angle between identical senses of polarity generated by two or more satellites. Slant Range The length of the path between a communications satellite and an associated earth station. Slot That longitudinal position in the geosynchronous orbit into which a communications satellite is "parked". Above the United States, communications satellites are typically positioned in slots which are based at two to three degree intervals. SMATV (Satellite Master Antenna System) The adding of an earth station to a MATV system to receive satellite programs. SNG Satellite news gathering usually with a transportable uplink truck.

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Snow A form of noise picked up by a television receiver caused by a weak signal. Snow is characterized by alternate dark and light dots appearing randomly on the picture tube. To eliminate snow, a more sensitive receive antenna must be used, or better amplification must be provided in the receiver (or both). Solar Outage Solar outages occur when an antenna is looking at a satellite, and the sun passes behind or near the satellite and within the field of view of the antenna. This field of view is usually wider than the beamwidth. Solar outages can be exactly predicted as to the timing for each site. Sparklies A form of satellite television "snow" caused by a weak signal. Unlike terrestrial VHF and UHF television snow which appears to have a softer texture, sparklies are sharper and more angular noise "blips". As with terrestrial reception, to eliminate sparklies, either the satellite antenna must be increased in size, or the low noise amplifier must be replaced with one which has a lower noise temperature. Spectrum The range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in transmission of voice, data and television. Spillover Satellite signal that falls on locations outside the beam pattern's defined edge of coverage. Spin Stabilization A form of satellite stabilization and attitude control which is achieved through spinning the exterior of the spacecraft about its axis at a fixed rate. Splitter A passive device (one with no active electronic components) which distributes a television signal carried on a cable in two or more paths and sends it to a number of receivers simultaneously. Spot Beam A focused antenna pattern sent to a limited geographical area. Spot beams are used by domestic satellites to deliver certain transponder signals to geographically well defined areas such as Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. Spread Spectrum The transmission of a signal using a much wider bandwidth and power than would normally be required. Spread spectrum also involves the use of narrower signals that are frequency hopped through various parts of the transponder. Both techniques produce low levels of interference Between the users. They also provide security in that the signals appear as though they were random noise to unauthorized earth stations. Both military and civil satellite applications have developed for spread spectrum transmissions. SSMA Spread spectrum multiple access. Refers to a frequency multiple access or multiplexing technique. SSPA Solid state power amplifier. A VSLI solid state device that is gradually replacing Traveling Wave Tubes in satellite communications systems because they are lighter weight and are more reliable. Stationkeeping Minor orbital adjustments that are conducted to maintain the satellite's orbital assignment within the allocated "box" within the geostationary arc. Subcarrier A second signal "piggybacked" onto a main signal to carry additional information. In satellite television transmission, the video picture is transmitted over the main carrier. The corresponding audio is sent via

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an FM subcarrier. Some satellite transponders carry as many as four special audio or data subcarriers whose signals may or may not be related to the main programming. Subsatellite Point The unique spot over the earth's equator assigned to each geostationary satellite. Superband The frequency band from 216 to 600 MHz, used for fixed and mobile radios and additional television channels on a cable system. Synchronization (Sync) The process of orienting the transmitter and receiver circuits in the proper manner in order that they can be synchronized . Home television sets are synchronized by an incoming sync signal with the television cameras in the studios 60 times per second. The horizontal and vertical hold controls on the television set are used to set the receiver circuits to the approximate sync frequencies of incoming television picture and the sync pulses in the signal then fine tune the circuits to the exact frequency and phase. T1 The transmission bit rate of 1.544 millions bits per second. This is also equivalent to the ISDN Primary Rate Interface for the U.S. The European T1 or E1 transmission rate is 2.048 million bits per second. T3 Channel (DS-3) In North America, a digital channel which communicates at 45.304 Mbps. Teleconference An electronic multilocation, multiperson conference using audio, computer, slow-scan, or full-rate video systems. Teledesic The name of the U.S. proposed LEO satellite system that would deploy 840 satellites for global telecommunications services. Telstar The AT&T Corporation has maintained its trademark for the Telstar name and currently operates its domestic satellite system under the Telstar name. Terrestrial TV Ordinary "over the air" VHF (very high frequency) and UHF (ultrahigh frequency) television transmissions which are usually limited to an effective range of 100 miles or less. Terrestrial tv transmitters operate at frequencies between 54 megahertz and 890 megahertz, far lower than the l4/l2 and 6/4 billion hertz (gigahertz) microwave frequencies used by satellite transponders. Three-Axis Stabilization Type of spacecraft stabilization in which the body maintains a fixed attitude relative to the orbital track and the earth's surface. The reference axes are roll, pinch, and yaw, by nautical analogy. Threshold Extension A technique used by satellite television receivers to improve the signal-to noise ratio of the receiver by approximately 3 db (50%). When using small receive-only antennas, a especially equipped receiver with a threshold extension feature can make the difference between obtaining a decent picture or no picture at all. Thruster A small axial jet used during routine stationkeeping activities. These are often fueled bydrazine or bipropellant. In time ion-engines will probably replace such thrusters. TI - Terrestrial Interference Interference to satellite reception caused by ground based microwave transmitting stations.

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Transfer Orbit A highly elliptical orbit which is used as an intermediate stage for placing satellites into geostationary orbit. Transmitter An electronic device consisting of oscillator, modulator and other circuits which produce a radio or television electromagnetic wave signal for radiation into the atmosphere by an antenna. Transponder A combination receiver, frequency converter, and transmitter package, physically part of a communications satellite. Transponders have a typical output of five to ten watts, operate over a frequency band with a 36 to 72 megahertz bandwidth in the L, C, Ku, and sometimes Ka Bands or in effect typically in the microwave spectrum, except for mobile satellite communications. Communications satellites typically have between 12 and 24 onboard transponders although the INTELSAT VI at the extreme end has 50. Transponder Hopping A single TDMA equipped earth station can extend its capacity by having access to several down-link beams by hopping from one transponder to another. In such a configuration the number of available transponders must be equivalent to the square of the number of beams that are interconnected or crossstrapped. TSS Telecommunications Standardization Sector. The world standards setting organization resulting from the combination of the CCITT (Consultative Committee on Telephony and Telegraphy) and the CCIR (Consultative Committee on International Radio). Turnkey Refers to a system that is supplied, installed and sometimes managed by one vendor or manufacturer. TVRO Television Receive Only terminals that use antenna reflectors and associated electronic equipment to receive and process television and audio communications via satellite. Typically small home systems. Tweeking The process of adjusting an electronic receiver circuit to optimize its performance. TWT (Traveling-wave tube) A microwave tube of special design using a broadband circuit in which a beam of electrons interacts continuously with a guided electromagnetic field to amplify microwave frequencies. TWTA (Traveling-wave-tube amplifier) A combination of a power supply, a modulator (for pulsed systems), and a traveling-wave tube, often packaged in a common enclosure. Ultra-high Frequency (UHF) Officially the band of frequencies ranging from 300 to 3000 MHz. In television use, refers to the set of frequencies starting at 470 MHz, The UHF channels are designated as 14 through 70. Unicast A unicast application transmits a copy of every packet to every receiver. Uplink The earth station used to transmit signals to a satellite

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USAT Ultra Small Aperture Terminal. This refers to very small terminals for DBS and other satellite applications where the terminal can be very small (under 50 cms). V.35 ITU-T standard describing a synchronous, physical layer protocol used for communications between a network access device and a packet network. V.35 is most commonly used in the United States and in Europe, and is recommended for speeds up to 48 Kbit/s. Van Allen radiation belts These are two high level radiation belts discovered by an Explorer Satellite designed by Dr. Van Allen of Cal Tech. These belts which are highly destructive to communications satellites consists of two belts of highly charged particles and high energy neutrons. VBI Vertical blanking interval. Vertical Interval Test Signal A method whereby broadcasters add test signals to the blanked portion of the vertical interval. Normally placed on lines 17 through 21 in both field one and two. Very High Frequencies (VHF) The range of frequencies extending from 30 to 300 MHz; also television channels 2 through 13. VSAT Very small aperture terminal. Refers to small earth stations, usually in the 1.2 to 2.4 meter range. Small aperture terminals under 0.5 meters are sometimes referred to Ultra Small Aperture Terminals (USAT's) VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. A measurement of mismatch in a cable, waveguide, or antenna system. WARC World Administrative Radio Conference sponsored by the ITU Waveguide A metallic microwave conductor, typically rectangular in shape, used to carry microwave signals into and out of microwave antennas. X-Band The frequency band in the 7-8 GHz region which is used for military satellite communications X.25 A set of packet switching standards published by the CCITT. X.400 A set of CCITT standards for global messaging. Zulu Time This is the same a Greenwich Meridian Time (GMT). This is the time standard used in global satellite systems such as INTELSAT and INMARSAT in order to achieve global synchronization.

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