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SIWALIK GROUP

The Siwalik Group also known as the Siwalik Series/System is an extension of molassic sediments from the outer most hills of the Himalayas including its entire length from the Indus to the Brahamputra as well as mountain ranges bordering the western periphery of the Indus Plain. The name Siwalik is derived from the hills near the Hindu holy city of Hardwar the place from where the first fossils were found. This range is less than 13 km wide in places with an average of 24 km, and it attains the height between 900 m and 1200 m. The same kind of molasses sediments have developed throughout the entire length of Pakistan, India, Nepal, Assam and Burma during the Neogene and Quarternary periods. For the first time it was Pilgrim (1910) who subdivided the Siwalik rocks in the Potwar Plateau into Lower, Middle and Upper units on the basis of both lithological and palcontological criteria. In 1913, he further subdivided the Middle Siwaliks into Dhok Pathan beds and included fauna of the Dhok Pathan zone, and an underlying Nagri zone. The Lower Siwalik unit was termed as the Chinji zone, while Tatrot and Pinjor zones were defined for the Upper Siwaliks. Later, Anderson (1927) used the terms Chinji stage, Middle Siwalik and Upper Siwalik only on the basis of lithology, however, his Middle and Upper Siwalik categories are different from those of most other workers. In the early 1930s Cotter and Colbert published slightly different stratigraphic schemes for the Siwaliks. Cotter (1933) used a 'stage' terminology such as Chinji Stage and so on, being defined on the basis of lithology and fauna. Colbert (1935) subdivided the sequence into zones using the same terminology, based almost exclusively on faunas. Lewis (1937), following Pilgrim, Anderson, Cotter and others, redefined Tatrot, Dhok Pathan, Nagri, Chinji and Kamlial formations, giving their type localities and key lithological descriptions and also included the descriptions of faunas. Later after the partition, The Stratigraphy Committee of Pakistan divided the entire Neogene molassic sequence of the Potwar Plateau and adjacent Kohat-Kala Chitta areas into a relatively thinner Rawalpindi Group succeeded upwards by thicker Siwalik Group (Fatmi, 1973). The Rawalpindi Group comprises the Murree Formation with gradual upward passage to the Kamlial Formation. The Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan in 1967 established "The Siwalik Group" for the "Siwalik Series/System", after Danilchik and Shah (1967).

This group has been divided on the basis of lithology into four formations. In descending order these formations are follows. 1. 2. 3. 4. Soan Formation. Dhok Pathan Formation. Nagri Formation. Chinji Formation.

The range of The Siwalik Group has also been extended by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan (Shah) to the same kind of rocks in the lower Indus Basin including the "Manchhar Series" of Blandford (1876), the "Manchhar' of Vredenburg (1906), the "Manchhar formation", and "Sibi" and "Urak" groups (excluding their lower parts) of Hunting Survey Corporation (1961). Further the Chinji formation was placed in Lower Siwalik Subgroup; Nagri, and Dhok Pathan in the boundry of Middle Siwalik Subgroup; and The Soan Formation (Tatrot, and Pinjore), and Boulder Conglomerate Formations (BCF) under the Upper Siwalik Subgroup. According to Sangode and Kumar (2003), estimated age of sedimentation for the Upper Siwalik formations are 3.4-5.6 myr for Tatrot, 1.7-2.5 myr for Pinjore, and 0.71.7 myr for the BCF. Lithologically, the Siwalik Group is comprised of an enormous thickness of detrital rocks like sandstones, clays and conglomerates having accumulative thickness of more than 5000m. The Soan Formation constitutes the upper part of the Siwalik Group and is composed of conglomerates, very poorly sorted sandstone as well as siltstone and shale. It also contains some glacial erratics. In the Upper Middle Siwalik the Dhok Pathan Formation shows a cyclic deposition of clays and sandstones. The clays are of red and brown colored. At places some gray colored shales are also present. This is followed downwards by the massive sandstones with very few shale hatches of local origin the Nagri Formation (Lower Middle Siwaliks). At the base occur the maroon colored shales with subordinate sandstones which indicate Chinji Formation (Lower Siwaliks).

One of the most important and interesting character of the Siwalik Group is the rich vertebrate assemblage. The immediate ancestors of most of our modern species are from the Siwalik hills, the anthropoid apes. In the Siwaliks of India and Pakistan are entombed, the most ancient species of mammalia with species and genera which still are alive and inhabit India and Pakistan, Eleurogala, Hyaennodon. Dinotheria, mastodons, elephants, giraffas, hippopotani, rhinoceroses, horses, camels, antelopes monkeys struthious birds, crocodilian and cheloman reptiles. On the basis of above mentioned fossils of vertebrate fauna, the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene age is assigned to the Siwalik Group. The Siwalik Group is present all along the foot hills of the Himalayas, in Baluchistan, Sind, Calcareous zone of the northern Axial Belt, Waziristan, Parachinar and Potwar in Pakistan.

DIVISION, LITHLOGY AND FAUNA OF THE SIWALIK GROUP


The Siwaliks molassic deposits have attracted the attention of a large number of workers during the last one and half century. Meddlicot (1864) Wynne (1878), Oldham (1893), Holland & Tipper, (1913), Pilgrim (1913), Cotter (1933) and Lewis (1937) were the most prominent and outstanding pioneering workers. 3.1 Chinji Formation According to Shah (1977) "Pilgrim (1913) proposed the name Chinji Zone to designate the upper faunal subdivision of his "Lower Siwalik'. Then Lewis (1937) used the term Formation instead of Zone and hence named as "Chinji Formation and the name was accepted as such by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. The south section of Chinji Village (3241'N, 7222'E) in the Chakwal District has been assigned the type section. Lithology: The formation is composed mostly of red shales with subordinate light gray to ash gray sandstone. The sandstone is fine to medium grained, sometimes gritty, unsorted and cross-bedded. Scattered pebbles and conglomerates along some palaeochannels are present along different horizons of the formation. Sandstones are rather hard, well bedded, jointed and sometimes show primary sedimentary features like various types of cross-bedding.

the Chinji Formation is widely distributed in Kohat and Potwar Province. However this formation is not developed in the Western Sulaiman Range. The Chinji Formation varies in thickness in different parts of the country. It is 750m thick at the type section south of Chinji Village in the Chakwal District more than 1900m thick in Shinghar Range, 400m thick near Karak and 300m at Rakhi Gaj Nala. At Zindapir in tne Eastern Sulaiman Range it is only 150m thick. It is 600m to 900m thick in India (Wadia, 1966). (Fauna of chinji) Large number of fossils have been collected from this formation. The fauna includes Primates: Sivapithecus indicus, Dryopithecus. Indraloris. Bramapithecus. Paleosimiaa (Pilgrim 1913, 1926, Mathew 1929. Colbert, 1933; Lewis, 1937). Carnivorie, Dinotherium, Dissoposalis, Arnphicyon, Palhyaena, Vishnufelis. Proboscidian; Trilophodon. Unghlales; Aceratherium, Hyotherium, Anthracotherium,

Dorcabune, Dorcathenum, Hemimeryx, Brachyodus, Hyoboos, Giraffkeryx, Conohyus, Sanitherium, Listriodon Telmatodon; Birds; Phalacrocorax, Palecanus, struthio, Mergus. Reptiles (Crocodiles) Crocodilus, Gavialis, Rhamphasuchus, Lizarads, Varanus, Turtles colossochelys atLis, Beliia, Trionyx, Chitru. Snakes and fish remains of ophiocephalus chrysichthys, Rita, Arine. Giraffokeryx Punjabiensis Chilotherium intermedium and Siracluras Chinjiensis are also reported. On the basis of the above mentioned fossils a Late Miocene age has been assigned to the Chinji Formation.

3.2 Nagri Formation The Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan accepted the name "Nagri Formation" given by Lewis (1937). Different workers have given different names to this formation in the past. Pilgrim (1913, 1926) called it as "Nagri Zones" or "Nagri Stage". Wynne (1877) named it the "Dandot Sandstone. Kazmi et al., (1970) recognized it as "Uzhda Pusha formation". Type locality is designated near the Nagri Village of Chakwal District (3245'N, 7214'E). Lithology: The formation consists mainly of thick, massive sandstone with occasional shale beds. Conglomerates, with varying thicknesses are present along different

horizons. The sandstone is from greenish gray to gray, medium to coarse grained and highly cross bedded. At some places, the color of the sandstone is dark gray. Some limonitic staining is also present. It mainly shows a salt and pepper texture. Occasionally some hard bands are present along the strike of the bedding of sandy horizons. The shales are reddish, brown, pale orange and sometimes chocolate colored. Thickness of these shale horizons varies from place to place within the formation. This formation is widely developed all along the foot hills of the Himalayas. Its thickness generally varies from 300m to 1500m (Shah.1977). In Thatti Nasrati its thickness is upto 2200m. It is also present in the Indus Basin and Quetta region of the Calcareous zone of the northern axial belt. In Litra Nala it is 700m thick. In Sibi area of Sulaiman Province its thickness is 1100m. In Urak area of the Calcareous zone it is 600m thick and in Gaj River area of the Kirthar Province its thickness is 940m. It's upper contact with the Dhok Pathan Formation has usually been regarded as transitional (Shah, 1977). Fauna: This formation has also yeilded very rich assemblage of vertebrate fauna mainly recorded by Pilgrim (1913, 1926), Anderson (1928), Colbert (1933). Lewis (1937) Gill (1952) and others. Pascoe (1963) observed crocodiles, chelonians, proboscideans rhinoceratides and artiodactyles from the Kirthar Province and Marri Bugti area of the Sulaiman Province. Some of the important mammals are: Triophodon angustidens var. Palaecindicus. Pentalophodon falconer! Dinolherium Indicum var. Pentapotamiae. Girafforkeryx Chinjiensis etc. The fauna indicate Late Middle Miocene to Late Miocene age. In the Lower Indus Basin and Quetta region, the Nagri Formation ranges from Late Middle Miocene to Late Miocene whereas in the Kohat -Potwar Province, it is Early Pliocene. 3.3 Dhok Pathan Formation According to Shah (1977) the name "Dhok Pathan" was introduced by Pilgrim (1913) in a biostratigraphic sense for the upper subdivision of the "Middle Siwalik" in the

northeast Punjab. Cotter (1913) redefined the unit as "Dhok Pathan Formation" which was adopted as such by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan for application in the Kohat-Potwar Province. Type locality for the said formation is near the Dhok Pathan village of district Chakwal (3307 N: 72 14'E). Lithology: Lithology of the formation is characterized by the alternate cycles of sandstone and shale. The color of sandstone is mainly gray, greenish gray, gleaming white, reddish brown and brownish gray with occasional limonttrc staining -associated with wood, log fossils, The sandstone beds are moderate to thick bedded. Hard calcareous bands are present throughout its extension along bedding. Cross bedding is common. Shales are of varied color ranging from bright orange, brown, dull red, reddish orange, greenish, yellowish gray and chocolate colored. Sometimes intercalations of siltstone are also present. Discrete pebbles as well as conglomerates are usually present along the cross sets of the palaeochannels. Occasionally in the form of layers conglomerates have also been recorded. Scouring is also present. The thickness of sandstone and shale horizons varies from 10 to 200m and 5 to 100m respectively. Thickness of the formation varies in different parts of the country. It is 1820m thick in the Potwar area, south east of the Khair-e-Murat range. In the Gaud River section it is 1330m thick. In the eastern Sulaiman Range it is 1330 to 15C0 m thick. In the SibiKachi area its thickness varies from 1330m to more than 2000m. Its thickness varies from 120 to 300m in the Marri-Bugti and Quetta region. The lower contact with the Nagri Formation is transitional. The upper contact with the Soan Formation is disconformable in the Kohat - Potwar Province Fauna: From the Kohat - Potwar Province rich faunal assemblages have been

encountered, (Pascoe, 1963). But in the Lower Indus Basin and Quetta region, the formation is less fossiliferous. Some important fossils are Indarctos Salmontanus, Arctamphicyon Lydekkeri, Ictitherium indicum. Mastodon (Trilophodon) brownt, Dicoryphochoerus titanoides, pachyportax latidens var dhokpathanensis,

Hydaspitherium megacephalum. From the Lower Indus Basin Pascoe (1963) has recorded, Hipparion Punjabiense, Rhinoceros, sivalensis and pachyportax latidens. The fauna is remarkable for its rich Hipparion assemblage and numerous artiodactylas. On the basis of fauna an Early to Middle Pliocene age is assigned to this formation. But in Kohat Potwar Province specifically Middle Pliocene age is given to this formation. 3.4 Soan Formation The Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan accepted the name "Soan Formation" of Kravtchenko (1964) who followed Meddlicot (1868) The "Upper Siwalik" was divided by Pilgrim (1913) into two biostratigraphic units the "Tatrot" and "Pinjor" zones in the northwest Punjab. This division also represents the upper division of the "Sibi Group" and the "Urak Group" of Hunting Survey Corporation, (1961). All these have been incorporated into the Soan Formation as formalised by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. Near Mujahad Village north of Soan River (3222'N; 7247'E), the section along the road from Gun Jagir to Sihal in Attock District has been designated as the type section. Lithology: The formation is mainly composed of bands of pebbles and subordinate sandstone and shale horizons of varied color. The conglomerate horizons are not laterally continuous for long distances. Lateral pinch outs are common. The size of clasts in the conglomerate generally varies from 5 cm to 30 cm. the clasts are mainly ellipsoidal to oblong, usually well rounded and of quartzite, porphyritic igneous rocks, sandstone, gneiss, schist, diabase, cherts and slate. In the Kohat-Potwar Province the gravel are mainly derived from the "Margala Hill" type gray limestone. Intercalations of silly shale and sandstone in conglomerate horizons are common. The color of shale varies from brown, orange, pinkish or reddish brown. The sandstone is mostly coarse grained, light gray to gray, greenish gray and cross bedded. Kirthar Formation carbonates have also contributed to the limestone conglomerates of the Soan Formation in the Lower Indus Basin and Quetta region. Moreover

sandstone, chert quartzite and igneous pebbles and boulders are also embedded within a sandy and clayey matrix. Intercalations of sandstone and shale with conglomerate beds are common. This formation is widely distributed all along the feet hills of the Himalayas. In Pakistan it is present in the Indus Basin and the Quetta region of the Calcareous Zone of the Axial Belt with different thicknesses. It's thickness varies from 120m to 450m in the Kohat-Potwar Province. In Sulaiman Province it is less than 300m. Its lower contact with the Dhok Pathan Formation in the Kohat Potwar area is disconformable and characterized by conspicuous coarsening of detritus and abundance of thick bands of conglomerates. The upper contact with Lei Conglomerates is marked by an angular unconformity. Its lower contact is gradational in the Lower Indus Basin and Quetta region. Hunting Survey Corporation (1961) has also reported the upper contact as transitional in parts of the Lower Indus Basin and Quetta region. (Fauna) Pascoe (1963) has reported vertebrate fossils which include Mastodon Sivalensts, Stegodon Clifti, Elephas (Archidiscodon) cf. planiforns. Sivatherium gigante, Proamphilbos Lachrymans, Dicoryphochoerus Durandi and Sivafelis potens. On the basis of above mentioned fossils Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (Astian to Villafranchian) age has been assigned to this formation. Kravtchenko (1964) assigned an Early Pleistocene (Villafranchian) age, extending in places into very late Astian, Consequently the age of the Soan Formation is Late Astian to Villafranchian.

SEDIMENTOLOGY OF THE SIWALIK


Description of the Chinjj Formation The Chinji Formation is mainly composed of alternate beds of shale and sandstone. Sandstone is fine to medium grained and occasionally gritty. Color of sandstone varies from greenish gray to light gray. Two types of sand bodies have been observed within the Chinji Formation. First the major sand bodies: which have been deposited by the active palaeochannels. The

second, intercalated sandstones within siltstone/mudstone. The bodies of the second category are mainly a part of the flood plain sediments. These sandbodies containing palaeochannels have erosional bases. Each storey is 3 to 5 m thick bounded by an erosional surface. Interconnection of storeys has resulted in greater thicknesses. Minor sandstone bodies are intercalated within the brownish maroon colored shale and siltstone. Their thickness is less than 3m. They are mainly parts of overbank fine sediments. These are mainly fine grained and greenish gray to reddish brown in color and are generally 1-2 meter thick. The deposition of the Chinji Formation sandstone bodies and overbank fine silt and shale is caused by braided river system. Flume experiments and observations on modern rivers have shown that a wide variety of bedforms can be formed on non-cohesive sand beds, depending upon grain size, flow depth, velocity and rate of sediment supply.

Within the Chinji Formation shale/clay deposits mainly indicate the overbank fines or flood plain sediments. The color of these beds varies from maroon to brown, reddish maroon and dark maroon. At places shale is also greenish and earthy colored. Rarely yellowish siltstone also occurs. Intercalations of fine sandstone bands are present within the shale beds. The maximum thickness of these sandstone bands are upto 2 m. Chinji Formation shows relatively mature paleosols with thickness varies from 1 to 2 m. Shale beds were deposited mainly on the overbank areas covered by water at only the highest flood stages. Flow velocity was slow in such areas because of shallow depth and the friction caused by vegetation. Trapping of fine sediments was considerable Small. The shale beds with mottling coloration, slickensiding, abundant root traces and upper parts devoid of groundmass carbonate are characteristic features of paleosol (Sehgol and Stoops, 1972; Ahmed et a! 1977' Behrensmeyer 1987 1989; Behrensmeyer and Willis, 1992, Bowa and Kraus 1987a; Wilis, 1991, Willis and Behrensmeyer, 1992). The reddish and yellow coloration in paleosols is due to the presence of iron compounds (Bowa and Kraus, 1987 a ; Kraus and Middleton, 1987 a). Mottling is produced due to

difference jn Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio; higher the ratio redder the coloration, lower the ratio, grayish the color. 4.6 Description of the Naqri Formation Nagri Formation consists of thick massive sandstones with hardly any shale or mudstone. Sandstones are mainly medium grained. At a few places fine and coarse grained beds may be encountered. Occasional intraclast pebbles are also present within sandstone bodies. The color of sandstone varies from greenish gray to light gray and dark gray. Very rarely off white or gleaming white colors may be seen. In general the sandstone is immature and poor to moderately sorted. Sandstone bodies are mainly composed of different storeys stacked both vertically and laterally. Cross-bed set thickness varies from a few centimeters to one meter in the lower part of the formation. The lateral extensions of these cross-sets varies from a few 10 of meters to few hundreds of meters. The cross-set thicknesses of the order of 4 to 5m are present within this sandstone sequence. They extend laterally for many kilometers. It contains a large number of palaeochannels throughout its thickness. Major channels have widths of 103m or more. Water rushed through them during high water stages. Sandy bed forms, the familiar flow regime that forms in sand dominated river systems has been described by many writers (Allen, 1968; Southard, 1971; Harm et.al., 1975, 1982; Miall, 1977) is mainly applicable to the interpretation of the lithofacies present within this formation. There is only one shale bed on the top of the thick massive sandstone. A very few shale patches of local origin upto a few meters thick continue along the bedding for a few tens of meters only. The color of shale beds varies from reddish brown, chocolate brown, pale orange to dark gray. The maximum thickness of these sandstone bodies varies upto 3m, while 12m thicknesses are common. A few hard sandstone bands upto a few centimeters thick and a few tens of meters long have been noted within shale beds. Friend (1983) has pointed out that there are many factors which control the geometry and thickness of overbank sequences and their relative importance in a fluvial succession. Among these

are; sediment

supply, channel pattern, subsidence rate and channel migration /

avulsion behaviour. At places shale beds show concave up basal contact caused by the filling of abandoned channels. 4.8 Description of the Dhok Pathan Formation Dhok Pathan Formation consists of alternate cyclic deposition of sandstone/shale horizons. The color of sandstone varies from light gray to ash gray and gleaming white. At some places light brownish color can also be seen. Sandstone is mainly fine to medium grained. At some places small brownish red colored clay balls are embedded along cross-sets within sandstone. Major sandstone bodies are exposed mainly along the palaeochannel direction. Mostly sandstones are single storeyed. Occasional hard sandstone bands are generally present along the strike of bedding. The thickness of these hard bands varies from a few centimeters to half meter. Laterally they extend for tens of meters then taper and diminish. Sandstone bodies show scouring at their bases. Scouring is related to strong separation eddies in the lee of advancing dunes sand waves as described by Niisen (1968), McGowen ana Groat (1971), Costello and Walker (1972). Some of the smaller channels probably represent scour hollows such as have been observed in the Rio Gronde (Harm and Fahrmestock 1965), the Brahamapufa , Coleman. 1969 ) and the Donjek (William and Rust. 1969). Lateral accretion surfaces present within this formation are the result of, where the main flow in a channel is directed away from the bank as on the inside of a curve centrifugal forces which load A diamictite bed has been identified at the base of Dhok Pathan Formation in the Spilmai Tangi area (Fig. 4:27 & 28), It has heterogeneous lithology and clast size ranging, upto 20 cm diameter. Matrix is composed mainly of silt and clay. This distinctive, resistant, cliff-forming unit is light gray to off white in colour. The larger boulders of volcanics have also been recorded. Metamorphic rock fragments are also present. The Diamictite bed contains abundant clasts of various sizes of limestone,

followed by dark greywacke. The most diagnostic of transport direction are the clasts of mudstone, shale and slate, most of which are soft and fissile. The source of these friable fragments is reported to be the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of South Waziristan (Stuart, 1922; Coulson, 1937). The source of the brownish quartzite also lies in Waziristan. Diamictite is most probably a result of debris flow or volcanic lahar from Dasht-i-Nawar caldera 300 -400 km away in Afghanistan. (Khan et al., 1985). An angular erratic boulder (8 x 6 x 2.5m ) of diorite (Fig.4:36) has been recorded within the upper part of this formation. The lower contact of Dhok Pathan Formation with the Nagri Formation is transitional. Similarly the upper contact with the Soan Formation is also gradational. The frequency of conglomerate horizons increases progressively upwards in the section. The color of fine sediments changes from light orange to earthy and buff upward. The shale beds are mainly composed of terrigenous mud consisting of clay minerals as well as fine quartz, feldspar and detntal micas. These have been mostly generated by the erosion of preexisting mud, mudstones and shales. Sedimentary rocks themselves cover most of-the earth's surface, (Way. 1973). The ultimate source is the weathering of silicates formed at high pressure and temperatures and therefore mostly unstable at the earth's crust. Another probable source, at least during the earlh's major periods of glaciation. Other sources include volcanic dust and dust from the deflation of continental deserts. Organisms that pulverize and ingest sediments are a very minor source. Regarding lithofacies Friend (1983) has pointed out that there are many factors which control the geometry and thickness of overbank sequences. Among these are sediment supply, channel pattern, subsidence rate and channel migration/avulsion behavior. Reddish colour off shale indicates that it has been deposited under oxidizing condition.

4.10 Description of the Soan Formation This formation consists of massive conglomerates, sandstone and siltstone/mudstone. At the base of the formation sandstone and siltstone are dominant. While in the upper part conglomerates predominate. The color of sandstone is light gray to eartm gray.

Siltstone/mudstone are pale pinkish and buff colored Sandstone is medium to coarse grained and Friable. Sandstone and siltstone intercalations are common. The conglomerates are composed mainly of limestone, quartzite, sandstone, gneiss, granite, tonalite, amphibolite, chert, jasper and volcanics. The size of clasts varies from a few centimeters to twenty centimeters. A few boulders of upto one and half meter diameter have been recorded. The thickness of the formation is more than 1000m. The formation is underlain by Dhok Pathan Formation with a gradational contact. Lithofacies study in the upper part of this formation has shown that clast by clast accretion over an obstruction or channel lag deposit has occured. This is a typical character of pebbly braided rivers. The trapping of finer particles in the interstices amongst larger clasts clearly shows a clast-supported framework. So a well defined stratification has not developed. During episodes of high water and sediment discharge these sheets had grown.upward and downstream by the addition of clasts to form longitudinal bars (Rust, 1972; Hein and Walker, 1977). Southard et. al,, (1984) reported a gravel transport process they have observed in shallow channels, which they described as the formation of chutes and lobes. The lobes are distinctive, coarse gravel accumulation, but their preservation potential appears to be low.

STRATIGRAPHY OF SIWALIK (Aziz ul lah)


The Siwalik Group is present as a thick continental deposit showing extreme contrast with the underlying marine succession. On the basis of lithology and faunal assemblage it can be subdivided into four subdivisions. In descending order these are Soan Formation, Dhok Pathan Formation, Nagri Formation and Chinji Formation. The subdivision along with relevant information is shown in Table 2.1. The Soan Formation may be divided into Tatrot and Pinjor Stages. The sandstone and shale of different colors and thickness are present here. A portion of Pinjor stage is absent in the area. The lower portion of Pinjor and Tatrot stages are represented by a 300 to 500m thick sequence. The Soan Formation is characterized by its predominant

shales of earthy and brownish yellow color. Sandstone interbedded with shale is gleaming white coloured, very friable, fine to coarse grained and loosely cemented. The number of pebbles and conglomerate horizons increase higher in the section. These pebbles and conglomerates form distinct zones of varying thickness within the sandstone and run parallel to bedding. The sandstones are massive. Size of the individual framework clasts in gravel and conglomerate horizons generally varies from a few centimeters upto about half a meter. Soan Formation reflects a profound change in the environment of sedimentation following the deposition of the underlying three Coarse fan shaped deposits of Soan Formation reflect the onset and progression of a sudden and strong orogenic upheaval in the southern Himalayas.

The Dhok Pathan Formation exhibits excellent development of cyclic deposition of alternate shale and sandstone sequence. The thickness of this formation varies from 950 to 1200m. Here the rocks comprise dominantly of poor to moderately cemented, friable, medium to coarse grained sandstone. It's color is gleaming white, dirty gray and dull gray. Due to weathering a black color coating usually develops on the exposed surface. The thickness of the sandstone beds decreases as we go higher in the section, with gradual increase in the thickness of intermittent shaly horizons. The color of the shales is orange, brown dull red, greenish and yellowish gray to chocolate. The sandstones are composed essentially of quartz, feldspar, rock fragments and micas, Hornblende, garnet, epidote, magnetite, and zircon are present as accessories. The sandstone beds are separated by shale beds/horizons. The thickness of these shales varies from 5 to 20m. The maximum thickness of Dhok Pathan Formation in the study area is 1200m. There are three mineralized horizons within the Dhok Pathan Formation. These are 75 to 150m thick. These horizons are highly cross bedded. The Nagri Formation is marked by a thick sequence of massive sandstone with lot of palaeochannels within it. Thick hard calcareous bands are abundant. The thickness of the Nagri Formation varies from 1050 m to 2075m. Sandstone is light gray to greenish

gray in color with "Salt and Pepper" pattern texture. It is medium to coarse grained. Trough cross bedding is common, but at places horizontal bedding is also present. At places cross sets 8 to 10m long and upto 4m thick have been seen. Half to two meter thick cross sets are common. Hard calcareous bands are present, intermittently, throughout the thickness of Nagri Formation. These hard bands have varied thickness, ranging commonly from few centimeters to one and half meter. Strikewise length of these hard bands ranges upto a few tens of meters. Pebbles of varied composition are present, mostly embedded along cross-bedding of the palaeochannel. Abundant palaeochannels are present within this formation. Some of these palaeochannels have been cemented while the remaining are without cementation. Shale beds of dark gray to light brown color are very rarely present. In the lower portion wood logs with limonitic staining have also been observed Some petrified wood and fossil remains such as teeth of elephant are also present. The Chinji Formation consists of maroon and reddish brown colored shale and thin sandstone horizons. The contact between Nagri Formation and Chinji Formation also forms the water divide between water shed area of Chichali Rud and Loghar Algad. The thickness of Chinji Formation varies from 1160m to 1400m. The Siwalik Group in the Trans-Indus ranges in age show Pliocene to Pleistocene age (Danilchik and Shah, 1976). The sandstone is fine to medium grained. Trough cross as well as horizontal bedding are present. Grit, clay balls and pebbles are present along the cross bedding of paleostream channels. Scattered pebbles of quartzite and thin lenses of intraformationa! conglomerates are found at different horizons throughout the formation. The shale/sandstone ratio is 1:1.75. The thickness of shale horizons vanes from 5 to 70 m, while the thickness of sandstone horizons ranges from 2 to 50 m. The Formation is conformably overlain by the Nagri Formation,

Biochronology of Siwalik The Manchar Formation is broadly exposed on the borders of Lake Manchar, along the foothills of the Kirthar Mountain Range and in areas between the Kirthar Range and the Indus River (Raza et al., 1984). Dionysopithecus sp. small catarrhines are important from a number of standpoints. Biochronologically and biostratigraphically they and their associated fauna

correlate with Kamlial Formation faunas in the Potwar Plateau Siwalik Group that are dated magnetostratigraphically at 17 to 16 Ma (megaannum; see Johnson et al., 1985; Barry et al., 1985). Presently only biochronology provides an estimate for the age of the Manchar levels where the Dionysopithecus specimens occur. De Bruijn Localities. & Hussain (1984) analyzed microfaunas from six Manchar Fm.

Bruijn H. de & Hussain, S. T. (1984). The succession of rodent faunas from the Lower Manchar Formation Southern Pakistan and its relevance for the biostratigraphy ofthe Mediterranean Miocene. Paliobiol. Contin. 14, 191-204.

Fatmi , A . N. . 1973 . Lithoslraligraphi c unil s ofTh e Koha l Potwa r Pro\'inee , Indu s Basin , Pakistan , Mem. Geo!. Sitrv. Pak. 10, 1-80

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