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S.C.

R TRIGGER CIRCUITS ( a ) Triggering a SCR : SPL - 506

Switching a thyristor on, is called its triggering or firing. As we know that current flows in a SCR when it is in ON state. There are many methods by which a SCR can be triggered, but the most widly used is 'gate trigger method'. The gate triggering is most common in practice. In lab practicals we trigger the SCR at different gate current magnitudes to obtain forward breakover voltage earlier than its VBo. In SCR a positive polarity signal is applied between its gate - cathode junction to force it on at specified breakover voltage. In view of practical application ( the phase control ) the firing angle is controlled by varying the gate signal or current magnitude. In present board three mothod are given as a. The dc control with superimposed ac. b. The R and R - C phase shift triggering. c. The pulse triggering by a relexation oscillator. The board has inbuilt step down transformer, fixed value load resistor, one dc voltmeter to monitor average load voltage and associated independent circuits for triggering method. The procedure of experiment with the connection diagram is given one by one.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 1.

a. Trigger of SCR by dc voltage with superimposed ac : In fig 1, such method is shown. The Vdc is a variable dc voltage control and T is the transformer which is used to superimpose the ac signal upon the dc voltage. If the dc voltage is applied externally there is drawback of it that the SCR acts as switching on - off device rather than a phase control device because of fact that in such circuits it is not possible the gate control .To overcome the problem an ac signal is superimposed upon the dc gate control signal. In fig 1 such circuit is shown. The dc volage/ current , is passed through a secondary of small transformer the primary of which is connected with the ac voltage source. The magnitude of dc voltage and ac voltage are made adjustable to obtain required level of signals.

RL

2 P2

V SCR S

+ Vdc

Fig 1. The dc voltage trigger with superimposed ac.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 2.

v vvv
AC

vvv

How it works : The dc voltage are obtained from a regulated dc source which has a low impedance at its terminals. Keeping in view of this fact the end of transformer T secondary connected with dc +ve terminal is grounded in term of ac signal. The SCR gate cathode terminal has a higher impedance when it is not triggered. Thus an ac voltage waveform is superimposed upon the exsisting dc voltage level such as shown in fig 2.
Superimposed ac signal Vgk level dc voltage level Cathode Fig 2a. The dc voltage trigger signal with superimposed ac.

Triggering

When the SCR anode is positive in respect of its cathode it trigger earlier by this ac signal which has an upward level by mean of cathode potential since the dc voltage are quite close to Vgk potential. To vary the trigger level or say firing angle the dc level is bring down which cause to fire SCR later. In this scheme the SCR can be triggerd between 0 - 600 by adjusting the dc voltage level . This scheme is well suitable for close loop control since it is easy to control the dc voltage level, but there is drawback that firing angle can't adjust > 600.
SCR trigger circuits 506 - 3.

b. The R and R - C phase shift method : In trigger method a, we observe that firing angle can't be adjusted more than 600. To obtain much wide firing angle the in phase resistive triggering is used as shown in fig 3. In this way the magnitude of gate current is adjusted by varying R(P1). But it is not possible to bring > 900, since the falling slope of ac half cycle occurs. To obtain the goel an ac trigger circuit has use phase lag method in which the gate signal is delayed by a low pass filter which exhibit phase delay. In fig 4, this trigger circuit is shown.
RL 1K P1

V R P S SCR

Fig 3. The dc voltage trigger with in phase R - trigger circuit.

variable resistor P2 with R ( 1K ) and capacitor C forms a low pass filter. As we know that such R - C leg exhibit a phase lag of 600 ( 900 maximum if C has low ESR and R is non - indictive ) with the input. When P2 is introduced in the circuit the signal across C approach to peak level later due to charge current. It is fed into the gate - cathode circuit for trigger

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 4.

v vvv

vvv

vvv

purpose the firing angle can be achieved well within ( 90 + 60 = 1500 ) more than 1500 since the delayed angle of +ve leading waveform across C has same magnitude ( require to trigger ) later since charge rate is low because of R introduced by P2. Making P1 zero the faster charge rate obtained and SCR trigger earlier. During -ve half cycle the C charges to ve peak value and a diode( shown in dotted lines ) must be introduced in series with gate and trigger signal if applied voltages are larger. This type of circuits are in common practice in speed control of small dc motors and intensity of lamps. The close loop operation of such circuits is difficult and generally not used for the regulation purpose.
RL 1K P2

R SCR

Fig 4. The R - C phase delay trigger circuit.. INPUT TRIGGER SIGNAL

LAG
Fig 5. The R - C phase delay trigger signal. SCR trigger circuits 506 - 5.

v vvv
1 C 1uF

vvv

vvv

c. Pulse triggering : The most efficient method is pulse trigger. In pulse trigger circuits UJT relexation oscillator is most common in practice due to its simplicity and wide control ability. In fig 6, such circuit is shown. A UJT is bised with the full wave rectified dc voltage obtained from the bridge rectifier. The current in the circuit is limited by R1 ( 1 K ) and stablized by zener diode ZD. The capacitor C is made charged exponentially by emitter bias resistor 10 K + variable R ( 100 K ) which allows to fire it when the voltage across C approaches to Vp value. The discharge current through pulse transformer is mutually transferred to secondary which is used to trigger SCR. The firing angle is varied by variable resistor R. When R is introduced for maximum resistance charge current for C is low and UJT fires at later stage and vice versa. Note that no filter capacitor is used in dc power supply thus at end of each half cycle C discharge itself since VBB is low. This method allow to run the relexation oscillator in synchronism of mains frequency. The main benefit of this method are, to trigger SCR remotely possible, to regulate the output by simply control the emitter current or VBB voltage in close loop, perfact isolation between control circuit and SCR if isolated transformer used for UJT supply, no waste of power since

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 6.

the trigger pulses are very narrow and it is possible to trigger SCR at higher frequecies.

vvv
UJT

R2 1K

R 10K ZD 12V C1 0.1

vvv

vvv

v vvv

VR 100K 220

PT

4 3

RL

+ P S

~ BDG RECT ~

SCR

Fig 6. The pulse trigger circuit. Below the trigger pulses.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 7.

vvv
V

Experiment Procedure : Other apparatus required : A dual trace CRO. Observe the circuit printed upon the panel. Identify the different trigger circuits and their controls. Exp a : To study dc voltage trigger with superimpsed ac ( Fig 7). 1. Connect the SCR gate with the open end of transformer T secondary numbered (3). The cathode is already connected with the -ve end of dc supply. The patch cord 'J' shown in fig 7, is not connected. 2. Keep control Vdc and pot P3 at their minimum positions. Connect CRO 1st channel with the gate - cathode junction such CRO ground lead with cathode. Select DC coupling for CRO ( 0.5V/ div, 2 mSec / div sweep ). Connect CRO 2nd channel with given AC sockets and trigger CRO with this signal. 3. Switch on power. Observe ( voltmeter ) that there is no voltage across the RL, thus SCR is not conducting. 4. Now increase dc potential gradually and observe that the base line of CRO increase upwards. At certain stage the SCR fires. Try to control the firng angle. It seems difficult to control. 5. Now bring Vdc back to such level that it is 0.3Vdc at CRO ( third sub divison of graticule ). Now connect primary of T with the AC input such as

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 8.

shown in fig 7 (A with A). Adjust the P2 gradually till SCR fires which will be shown by the voltmeter. Measure the control of firing angle range for min - max. 6. Now Connect CRO other channel live input with the AC input socket A and B such ground lead with B socket,and the other channel hot lead with gate. AC input to observe complete ac input cycle. Now observe the gate signal while varying the Vdc level. It is observed that the firng angle can be controlled easily between nearly 0 - 900, but not more than it. Conclude the result from the experiment.

ACROSS RL

AC SIGNAL at channel 2.

+dc 0

Trigger signal (across gate- cathode)

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 9.

CRO

observations of voltage across RL Ch1

Ch2

'J' see procedure A RL


VVV

1K
VVV

P2
V VVV

3 + T1 P AC
VVV V VVV

P3
V VVV

P1

10K 2 S T2 1 + DC C P

G B

Fig 7. Connection diagram for trigger circuit a.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 10.

b. Trigger by R circuit. 1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig 8. The SCR gate with socket marked (2) will complete the circuit. CRO channel 2 with AC sockets. 2. Connect CRO 1st channel with the gate cathode as previous experiment. Select CRO for obtain one ac complete cycle upon screen. 3. Keep pot P1 to fully clockwise to introduce maximum resistance in the circuit. Observe the voltmeter output and gate trigger signal. 4. Now gradually decrease R by mean of pot P1 and observe the effect upon the output at voltmeter and gate signal. Note the firing angle can't be adjusted beyond 900.

max 900

ACROSS RL

AC SIGNAL at ch 2.

Trigger signal (gate - cathode)

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 11.

CRO

observations of voltage across RL Ch1

Ch2

RL
VVV

1K
VVV

P2
V VVV

3
VVV V VVV

P3
V VVV

T1 P

P1

10K 2 S T2 1 + DC C P

S AC

G B

Fig 8. Connection diagram for R - trigger circuit b.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 12.

c. Trigger by R - C circuit. 1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig 9. The SCR gate with socket marked (1) will complete the circuit. CRO channel 2 with AC sockets. 2. Connect CRO 1st channel with the gate cathode as previous experiment. Select CRO for obtain one ac complete cycle upon screen. 3. Keep pot P2 to fully clockwise to introduce maximum resistance in the circuit. Observe the voltmeter output and gate trigger signal. 4. Now gradually decrease R by mean of pot P2 and observe the effect upon the output at voltmeter and gate signal. Note the firing angle can be adjusted well beyond 900. This circuit is useful to control phase angle in wide range.

range

ACROSS RL

AC SIGNAL at ch 2

Trigger signal (gate - cathode)

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 13.

CRO

observations of voltage across RL Ch1

Ch2

RL
VVV

1K
VVV

P2
V VVV

3
VVV V VVV

P3
V VVV

T1 P

P1

10K 2 S T2 1 + DC C P

AC

G B

Fig 9. Connection diagram for R -C trigger circuit c.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 14.

d. Pulse triggering. 1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig 10. The PT secondary output is still open (patch cords 'J' not connected with circuit). 2. Keep variable resistor situated in pulse trigger circuit, to fully clockwise direction thus minimum R introduced. Now connect CRO channel as previous mode with given AC sockets. Trigger CRO with this signal. 3. Connect CRO 1st channel with socket 4 and 5, in such respect that its ground lead should be with socket 5. 4. Decrease the VR and observe its effect upon the gate pulses one by one. Note the first firng pulse (left hand side) is trigger pulse. 5. Disconnect the CRO from the socket 4 and 5, and connect across the RL as previous experiments. Connect patch cords 'J' as shown in fig 10. 6. Observe different firng angle by varying the VR in pulse trigger circuit. The pulse trigger circuit is able to control over wide angle. Conclude the results from the experiment.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 15.

1K + ~ BDG RECT ~
V VVV

VVV

10K B ZD 12V 0.1 uF

VVV

Fig 10. Connection diagram for pulse trigger circuit d.

SCR trigger circuits 506 - 16.

VVV

V VVV

T1

P1

10K 2 S T2 1 + DC C P

V VVV

V VVV

VVV

VVV

VR

220 4

UJT

PT

'J' see procedure

RL
VVV

1K

P2 3

P3 A