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A Handbook for High School Students

Model United Nations

Thank you for taking part in the Councils Model U.N. program, and we wish you the best of luck in preparing for a successful Model U.N. experience.

Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Student Delegates Chapter 3 Student Leaders Chapter 4 Faculty Sponsors Chapter 5 Additional Resources Chapter 6 Model U.N. Workbook

Page 1 Page 5 Page 16 Page 24 Page 30 Page 35

How to use this handbook

This handbook is designed to prepare students and teachers to successfully participate in the World Affairs Councils flagship education program Model United Nations [Model U.N.]. Three different groups take part in our Model U.N.: student delegates, student leaders and faculty sponsors. Once you have reviewed those sections of the handbook most relevant to your role, we encourage you to read through the rest of the handbook and complete the exercises in the Model U.N. Workbook, as well as consult the Additional Resources chapter.

Welcome to the world of Model U.N. and good luck!

This book was created by the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia, with special thanks to Alex Martins, an accomplished Model U.N. delegate and generous friend to the World Affairs Council. Copyright 2009 World Affairs Council of Philadelphia. The World Affairs Council www.wacphila.org

Chapter 1: Introduction
What is the World Affairs Council?
The World Affairs Council of Philadelphia is a nonprofit, nonpartisan, educational organization dedicated to informing and engaging people of all ages in matters of national and international significance. With an emphasis on providing opportunities for students to learn about these issues outside of the classroom, the Council sponsors programs that help enrich extracurricular experiences. Every year, these programs reach about 2,600 students and teachers from more than 200 schools. For additional information about the Council, its programs and how to contact us, please visit our website at www.wacphila.org.

What is Model U.N.?

Model U.N. is a simulation of the United Nations, with students assuming the roles of delegates (country representatives) or leaders. Delegates represent one of the U.N. member states in a specific committee, in order to debate and explore a pertinent global issue. During the Model U.N. conference, delegates work in their committees to craft solutions to these specific global issues. The World Affairs Councils Model U.N. is one of the longest running programs in the country and is open to all high school students in the Greater Philadelphia area, including New Jersey and Delaware. We simulate sessions of the General Assembly, Security Council and other branches of the United Nations during a dynamic and engaging conference that takes place near the end of the academic year. In the months leading up to the conference, students also participate in a variety of activities to prepare for the final day, including an intensive all-day preparatory conference where participants learn more about the substantive issues from college professors and Model U.N. experts. Note: If you have participated in a Model U.N. simulation elsewhere, you may find the Councils version somewhat different. This is because our Model U.N. takes place over one day as opposed to three or four days. We have made several modifications to condense the Model U.N. into one day, including requiring prewritten resolutions and simplifying certain rules.
Ismael Gaspar Martins, permanent representative of Angola, who was elected by acclamation as the Peacebuilding Commissions first chairman, addresses the Peacebuilding Commissions inaugural session at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/PaUlo FilgUeiras

What the Model U.N. can do for you

Why should you and your school take part in Model U.N.? Why is this simulation of the United Nations so popular? While everyones Model U.N. experience is unique, the opportunity to explore important global issues by actively participating in a simulated international conference alongside fellow students of varied interests and backgrounds holds universal appeal. Assuming the role of a diplomat or delegate is an exercise in role-play. As a delegate, you act on your countrys behalf, while addressing important and often complicated global issues like climate change, gender equality and universal access to education. Negotiating sustainable solutions to these issues is challenging and exciting and ultimately enhances your understanding of what it means to be a citizen and diplomat in the twenty-first century.

Model United Nations Handbook

By taking part in the Councils Model U.N., we hope students will begin to: develop an understanding of the United Nations and the complexities of working in an international system of laws, rules and policies; expand their knowledge of global issues, trends and conflicts; increase their understanding of different political, cultural, socio-economic and religious views; engage with a diverse group of students in challenging discussions on matters of international, political, economic, social and environmental importance; and enhance their leadership and advocacy skills by honing techniques in public speaking, negotiation and debate.

What is the United Nations?

Although many people have heard of the international organization known as the United Nations, few understand how it works. Though it is immensely complex, getting involved in Model U.N. is one of the most effective ways to grasp not only what the U.N. does, but also how it functions. Model U.N. is one of the best examples of learning-by-doing, as it gives you a closer look into the real challenges of international negotiation and diplomacy.

How did the U.N. emerge?

The United Nations was created in 1945 at the end of World War II with the purpose of promoting international peace and security among nations. At the time of its creation, 50 countries met in San Francisco to write the charter of an organization that would grow into the U.N. we know today. The charter was ratified on October 24, 1945now celebrated as U.N. Dayand, since then, the United Nations has grown to be the most important international organization in history. For more information about the history of the U.N., visit: www.un.org/aboutun/unhistory/.
The General Assembly Hall during a meeting on the revitalization of its work at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/eskiNder debebe

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What does the U.N. do?

The U.N. system has expanded dramatically since its founding. Today, the U.N. has 192 member states and many branches and components. The six main organs of the U.N. are the: General Assembly (GA) Security Council (UNSC) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) International Court of Justice (ICJ) Trusteeship Council Secretariat
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon addresses the Millennium Development Goals event in the Dag Hammarskjld Library Auditorium at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/Mark garteN

This Model U.N. only focuses on the first three organs. Delegates sit in committees created from one of these three organs, all of which are situated in the U.N.s New York headquarters. Its other headquarters are located in Geneva, Switzerland. General Assembly Acts as a forum for all 192 member states to arrive at collective decisions regarding the worlds most pressing problems. www.un.org/ga Consists of 15 members and acts as the decisionmaking head of the U.N., particularly in matters related to international peace and security around the globe. www.un.org/Docs/sc

Security Council

Economic and Social Council Consists of 54 members and coordinates the economic and social actions of the U.N., fostering cooperation between other development agencies. www.un.org/ecosoc The leader of the U.N. is called the Secretary-General. The Secretary-General is responsible for representing its mission around the world. Past Sec-Gens include Dag Hammarskjld (Sweden), Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) and Kofi Annan (Ghana). Ban Ki-Moon (South Korea) is the current Secretary-General. He was elected in 2006. For more information, visit www.un.org/aboutun.

Model United Nations Handbook

The U.N. System Chart

This chart illustrates the structure of the United Nations. As you can see, each of the three main organs is responsible for several commissions and committees. The delegation of responsibilities is just one way in which the U.N. deals with the diversity of issues it has to tackle on a daily basis. For a complete breakdown of the U.N. System, visit www.un.org/aboutun/chart_en.pdf.

The United Nations Security Council General Assembly Economic and Social Council

United Nations Peacebuilding Commission International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) U.N. Childrens Fund (UNICEF) U.N. Refugee Agency (UNHCR) World Food Programme (WFP)

World Health Organization (WHO) U.N. Education, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Labor Organ iza ion (ILO) t

Members of the Security Council unanimously adopt a resolution imposing sanctions on the Islamic Republic of Iran. Photo: U.N. Photo/devra berkowitz

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Chapter 2: Student Delegates

Are you a student taking part in Model U.N. this year? This section will help you: 1. 2. 3. Understand your role in Model U.N.; Research and prepare for the conference; and Perform well in committee.

From this point on, you will be referred to as a delegate.

What is a delegate?
A delegate is a person who is authorized to represent or act on behalf of someone else. In Model U.N., a delegate serves as a representative of his or her country. When you decide to take part in Model U.N., you will be assigned a specific country to represent, a committee on which to serve and a topic to discuss. Always keep in mind that when you assume the role of delegate, you must represent the position and beliefs of your country, not your own personal opinions.

Your goal as a delegate

When preparing for Model U.N., it helps to understand and visualize the goal you are working toward. In this case, your preparation will culminate in a final conference held in the spring. The diagram to the right illustrates the steps you will take to reach that point.

Research and Preparation Learn about your country, committee and topic.

Research and preparation

Being prepared to attend a Model U.N. conference is the surest way to do well and to have fun at the same time. Preparation involves researching all the information that may be useful in a committee. Research can seem daunting at first, but it becomes much easier once you know where to look. In Model U.N., there are three areas to research before the final day arrives: country, committee and topic.

Resolutions Write a resolution addressing a solution to a problem related to your topic.

1. Country
To faithfully represent your country, you must find out basic information about its history, geography, politics, economy and involvement with the U.N. Use the country profile worksheet found in the workbook to guide you in your research. A good place to start looking for basic facts and information is the CIA World Factbook at www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook. For information from your countrys government, use the U.N.s national government site at www.un.org/esa/national.htm. To find out about your countrys participation in the U.N., look at its permanent mission to the U.N. at www.un.int.

Final Model U.N. Conference Debate and amend resolutions in one of seven committees.

Model United Nations Handbook

2. Committee
You must know how your committee functions and the issues it addresses. Start by referring back to the U.N. system chart in the introduction to see how your committee relates to other U.N. bodies. Find out whether your committee falls under the authority of the Security Council, the General Assembly or the Economic and Social Council, and then conduct research about the relevant group. (Note: if it does not relate to any of these, the committee is likely an independent branch of the U.N.) Next, find the website for your particular subsection of the U.N., which should give you a good introduction to its work.

3. Topic
Researching your topic can be challenging because the issues dealt with by the U.N. are often very broad. However, although gathering facts on topics like climate change or poverty may be difficult, your particular committee will only address one specific aspect of the issue. For example, if your committee is the U.N. refugee agency (UNHCR), you may focus on the refugee problem in the eastern reaches of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, rather than the refugee crisis in Africa as a whole. Begin by reading your committee background guide, which will be distributed by the World Affairs Council in late January. This will provide you with an overview of the topic and an introduction to the scope of the committee. The trick then is to find information that is relevant to your country and position. Use the following questions to direct your research: What is the nature of the problem? What are the various sides in the debate? How does it affect your country? What other countries are similarly affected by this problem? What has your country done to tackle the problem? Is there any evidence or statistical data that supports your countrys position? What are the political, economic, social, environmental and/or technological consequences of this issue for your country? For the international community? How would your country defend its position against opposition? Looking at the issue from both a national and global perspective, what are the short-term (five 10 years) consequences of this issue if no action is taken? What are the long-term (15 or more years) consequences of this issue if no action is taken?

School girls attend classes in a school built by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Wad Sjerofe refugee camp. The school operates two shifts, one in the morning for girls and another in the afternoon for boys, to provide education to many refugee children in Sudan. Photo: U.N. Photo/Fred Nov

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Do other countries or blocs share your perspective and interest in this issue, and will they be more likely to support your position? Which countries or blocs are more likely to oppose your proposal? Where do you see the possible areas of compromise? Dont forget to look at the chapter on additional resources for a complete list of websites and references that are useful for your research.

Once you complete your research, you must write a position paper. This is a chance to put your research to use by expressing your countrys views in writing. You should do three things in a position paper: 1. 2. 3. Write an overview of the issue; Describe how the topic relates to your country; and Outline possible solutions to the problem.

Keep in mind that your proposed solutions should be feasible for other countries that have a direct stake in the topic. The position paper should be one to two pages, so keep your information focused and to the point. Position papers are also useful in helping you organize your thoughts so that you are better prepared on the conference day.

Writing a resolution
The goal of a Model U.N. conference is to discuss global issues and address possible solutions with fellow delegates. In the actual United Nations, these delegates present their solutions in a document known as a resolution, so called because it refers to actions that countries jointly resolve to undertake. As a delegate, you are responsible for writing a resolution before arriving at the conference. Your resolution should do two things: outline the problem and offer solutions. Essentially, all you need to do is put the information from your position paper into the format of a resolution. The best way to think about a resolution is as a sentence with three main parts: 1. 2. 3. The header indicates the committee, the topic and the sponsor country; The preamble provides context, describing why the issue is important and what previous action has been taken; that is, it describes the problem; and The operative clauses describe what action the committee should take to solve the problem; in other words, it describes the solution.

Do you feel overwhelmed by all of this information? Dont worry, this is natural. If you need more help, talk to your faculty sponsor, and keep in mind that you will attend the Model U.N. preparatory conference early in the spring, where you will hear presentations on each of the topics addressed in this handbook.

This may seem complicated, so please take a look at the example on the next page, which illustrates the main features of a resolution.

Model United Nations Handbook

What does a resolution look like?

The three sections of a resolution are illustrated by bold ovals; the formatting points are in dashed ovals. Punctuation is important because a resolution reads as one long sentence. Organ: General Assembly Topic: Sustainable Energy and Development Sponsor: Germany The General Assembly, Preamble Recalling its resolution 57/254 of 21 February 2003 establishing a Decade of Education for Sustainable Development beginning on 1 January 2005, Emphasizing the importance of individual decisionmaking in the larger problems and solutions of worldwide consumption and development, Italics Comma


Further emphasizing that education is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development and consumption, 1. Decides to convene a Roundtable on Worldwide Energy Consumption in October 2006, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Program and the Commission on Sustainable Development, for the purposes of identifying potential modifications to individual energy consumption patterns; Semicolon 2. Urges all member states of the United Nations to engage in substantial research to identify the energy consumption patterns of their citizens; 3. Invites governments to share their findings with the international community at the 2006 Roundtable; 4. Encourages governments to educate their citizens on the options for energy consumption, in order to promote a culture of sustainability.

Operative clauses


The Security Council meets to consider the report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Sudan at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/devra berkowitz

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The preambulatory clauses in this resolution use language such as recalling and emphasizing to note previous action taken on the issue of sustainable energy and to highlight what Germany, the sponsor, finds important. The operative clauses use more direct language, such as decides and urges, in order to encourage action in the committee. The solution outlined in this resolution is for member states to engage in more research and public education. Remember, if you decide to support this resolution in committee, your country is agreeing to implement its suggestions. You will find more examples of preambulatory and operative clauses below. Choose each one carefully to make sure it expresses exactly what you want to say, and use different phrases for each clause to ensure variety.

Preambulatory clauses
Acknowledging Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Bearing in mind Believing Confident Considering Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Determined Encouraged Endorsing Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its appreciation Fulfilling Fully alarmed Fully aware Fully believing Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having examined Having heard Having received Having studied Hoping Keeping in mind Mindful Noting with regret Noting with deep concern Noting with satisfaction Noting further Noting with approval Observing Reaffirming Realizing Recalling Recognizing Referring Regretting Reiterating Seeking Stressing Taking into account Taking into consideration Taking note Welcoming
Riyad H. Mansour, permanent observer of the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations, addresses the Security Council meeting on the situation in the Middle East, including the question of Palestine, at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/devra berkowitz

Model United Nations Handbook

Operative clauses
Accepts Adopts Affirms Appreciates Approves Authorizes Calls upon Commends Condemns Confirms Congratulates Considers Declares Designates Directs Draws the attention Emphasizes
A member of the Security Council casts a vote during the election of the five members of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Photo: U.N. Photo/PaUlo FilgUeiras

Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation Expresses its hope Expresses its regret Expresses its sympathy Further invites Further proclaims Further reminds Further recommends Further requests Further resolves Has resolved Instructs Invites Notes Proclaims

Reaffirms Recognizes Recommends Regrets Reminds Renews its appeal Repeats Requests Resolves Solemnly affirms Strongly condemns Suggests Supports Takes note of Trusts Urges


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Use this information to write your own resolution on the topic assigned to you. Closer to the actual conference, your student leaders will pick three resolutions to debate in each committee. Remember, even if your resolution is not chosen, the process of writing one is still important because you will have the opportunity to include some of your own ideas during the debate.

Resolution writing dos and donts

Once you have reviewed this information, use the resolution template in the workbook, on page 43, to practice writing your own clauses, based either on your assigned topic or any issue you would like to explore further. Do write the correct names of the country and committee that you are assigned Do use many different sources to support your point Do look at the problem from different points of view Do represent your country and its actual foreign policy Dont simply copy an existing U.N. Resolution Dont use I when referring to yourself; say your country name or the delegate from ____ Dont write long resolutions; be specific when giving solutions

Parliamentary procedure
Parliamentary procedure, or Parli is a fancy name for the rules used during committee. Many delegates find Parli challenging, but it exists to make the committee run smoothly. Use the following guidelines to understand and practice the rules before the actual conference day arrives. Six main things can happen during a committee session: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Opening speeches: introduce your countrys position Resolution Q&A: clarify points on a resolution Speakers list: give your opinion Caucusing: debate sections of each resolution Amendments: propose and add changes to the resolution Voting: vote on whether to pass each resolution Remember, the preparatory conference offers another opportunity for you to learn more about Parli and ask any questions you may have.

You may never have heard these terms before, but they are easy to use and understand once you have taken part in a Model U.N. committee. The terms are explained in more detail below.

Model United Nations Handbook


The rules
The most important Model U.N. rules are listed below. You dont have to memorize each one, but you should be familiar with them before attending the conference. Points: Points are questions or concerns a delegate may raise with the chair. You may raise three kinds of points: 1. 2. 3. Point of order: to correct the chair if he or she violates the rules Point of parliamentary procedure: any question or clarification regarding the rules Point of personal privilege: for issues of personal comfort, such as room temperature or using the restroom

Speeches: Most of your participation in committee will occur during speeches. Each time you wish to speak, you must raise your country placard (given to you at the beginning of the conference) and wait for the chair to recognize you. Keep in mind that all speeches will have a time limit. Yielding: At the end of your speeches, you may yield (or give up) your remaining time to one of three options: 1. 2. 3. Questions: posed by other delegates regarding your speech Comments: two 30-second comments from other delegates following your speech The chair: your speech ends with no comments or questions

Note: Yielding is not necessary in a moderated caucus (explained below). Motions: In committee, motions are used to make suggestions to the chair. For example, if you would like to move into more specific debate, you may motion for a moderated caucus. If you would like a break from committee rules to speak with your fellow delegates, you may motion for an unmoderated caucus. Moderated caucuses: A caucus is any group or meeting organized to further a special interest or cause. A moderated caucus, therefore, is simply a section of the committee dedicated to discussing one aspect of a topic or resolution. The following example is taken from the sample resolution above: Motion for a moderated caucus to discuss clause 1, specifically relating to the agenda of the proposed Roundtable. This caucus would then be devoted to creating an agenda outlining what countries want to achieve during this meeting. Unmoderated Caucus: This is a break from committee rules where delegates may communicate without the moderation of the chair. For example, if you think you would make more progress by speaking to another delegate one-on-one, you would motion for an unmoderated caucus for a specific period of time to discuss a certain topic.


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Amendments: These are changes made to resolutions throughout a committee session. To amend a resolution, you can revise, add or delete one or more clauses. Remember, you amend a resolution to make it stronger. For example, clause 4 of the sample resolution [page 8] is vague on how governments should educate their citizens. A good amendment would add details to make this clause more specific. Voting: Although the chair moderates the committee, the delegates make the most important decisions by voting. There are two types of voting: 1. 2. Procedural: votes pertaining to the flow of committee, such as on motions for moderated or unmoderated caucuses Substantive: voting on amendments and resolutions

The conference
The final conference runs from 8:30 a.m. to 3:15 p.m. Here is a schedule of the days activities: 8:10 8:30 a.m. 8:30 9:15 a.m. 9:30 11:30 a.m. 11:30 12:15 p.m. 12:15 1:45 p.m. 1:45 2:30 p.m. 2:30 3:15 p.m. 3:15 p.m. Registration Opening plenary session Morning committee sessions Recess for lunch Afternoon committee sessions Committee reports Guest speaker Adjournment
A young woman patient waits to check in for treatment under a tent in the compound of the Fistula Unit of Zalingei Hospital in Sudan. Photo: U.N. Photo/Fred Nov

During the plenary session, delegates from all schools will hear welcoming remarks by Council members and student leaders. Delegates will also be told where to find their committee rooms. There are usually seven committees running at the same time, and each delegate is assigned to one. The selected committees will either be part of the General Assembly (GA) or the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the U.N. Be sure to research your committee to determine where it belongs in the U.N. system. Debate will begin during the morning committee session and conclude in the afternoon session. The details of what to expect in committee are included belowbe sure to read this section carefully! The closing plenary session of the conference will feature a guest speaker.

Model United Nations Handbook


What to expect in committee

Model U.N. is the perfect example of learning by doing. This section will provide you with a sense of what takes place during your committee session in a Model U.N. Conference. The information here is a good start, but you will learn even more by sitting in committee and following the instructions provided by your student leaders. ACTION 1. Opening speeches 2. Introduction of resolutions
Operation Lifeline Sudan helps about 2.5 million displaced people facing famine in the Sudan. A baby is being given oral rehydration solution by a nurse belonging to Doctors without Borders, a nongovernmental organization based in Belgium. Photo: U.N. Photo/eskiNder debebe

DETAILS ach delegate delivers three lines on their countrys E position on the topicuse your position paper to guide you ponsors of the three selected resolutions read them S aloud to the committee short Q&A session follows each reading of A a resolution

3. Speakers list

elegates have the opportunity to speak about all D three resolutionsnoting which clauses are the strongest and which can be improved he chair presents three issues addressing key aspects T of the resolutions elegates are given time to debate each issue by D making speeches t the end of the three moderated caucuses, A delegates may propose their own topic to discuss

4. Moderated caucus

5. Unmoderated caucus

fter each moderated caucus, delegates are broken A up into blocs to write an amendment nce each amendment is presented, the committee O votes on each one separately elegates may also combine amended resolutions to D produce a stronger solution

6. Closing speakers list 7. Voting procedures

pproximately 1015 minutes are allocated for general A comments on the amended resolutions nce debate is officially closed, the committee votes O separately on each resolutionthe possibilities are yes, no or abstain he chair announces the voting results. (Note: you T may pass more than one resolution.)


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Use the following chart to guide you through the three steps of Model U.N.: research, resolutions and debate. Step 1: Research Country Topic Research basic information about your country, as well as its relationship with and participation in the United Nations. Begin research on your topic by reading your background guide thoroughly. Take notes on anything you dont understand or want to follow up on, and use the websites and materials listed in this book to find out more about the problems and potential solutions. How does your country act and feel about this issue? Taking a stance does not mean you are inflexible or unwilling to compromise, but it is important to know your countrys bottom line on important issues. Writing your position paper will help you define this stance. Search the U.N. website (www.un.org) for resolutions that have been passed on your committees topic. This will give you an idea of what previous action has been taken. Once you have researched your topic, use the resolution template found in the workbook to write your own resolution. Remember to refer to your position paper to draft the preambulatory and operative clauses. Read all the draft resolutions (posted on the Council website, www.wacphila.org, before the conference) before arriving in committee. As you read, think about what changes (or amendments) your country will propose during committee to make each resolution as strong as possible. Review the section that explains how a committee session works. Though it may seem complicated, the best way to learn Parli is by taking part in committee. If you feel lost at any point during committee, you may ask the chair for help. Making speeches is a great way to participate in committee. Write down your main points on a piece of paper before delivering your speech to make sure you get your message across. Be sure to stay within the time limit. Proposing amendments is the best way to improve a resolution. This process happens during an unmoderated caucus, when the committee is split into blocs. Make sure that you take part in your bloc by voicing your ideas and suggestions. You will get as much out of the conference as you put in to it. Dont hesitate to raise your placard and discuss an issue. Remember, your countrys voice will only be heard if you speak out!


Step 2: Resolutions



Draft Resolutions

Step 3: Debate

Parliamentary Procedure Speeches

Amending Resolutions Participation

Model United Nations Handbook


Chapter 3: Student Leaders

What is a student leader?
Student leaders are responsible for creating the best possible Model U.N. experience for their delegates. These students help run the conference and staff the committees. This section focuses on leadership positions and the preparation necessary for each one. There are two main components to the role of a student leader: preparation and participation. Each of the following positions requires meeting with World Affairs Council staff in the months leading up to the spring Model U.N. conference, as well as participation in the preparatory conference, Council briefing sessions and final conference activities. After reading this section, you should also study the section on delegates to familiarize yourself with their process of preparation and participation.

Leadership positions
1. Secretary-General: The sec-gen acts as the face of student leadership during the Model U.N. conference. Main responsibilities include delivering an address at the opening session of the conference, supervising committees throughout the day and possibly chairing a committee. President of the General Assembly: The role of the President of the General Assembly is to assist the secretary-general throughout the conference day. This includes helping to chair the opening session, conducting a roll call of all nations, supervising committees and also possibly chairing a committee. Committee chair: The chair manages the committee sessions during the conference. This requires thorough preparation in terms of both the topic at hand and the rules of parliamentary procedure. Committee rapporteur: The rapporteur functions as a vice-chair, helping the chair run the committee session by keeping track of all documents, caucuses and votes.




To sum up, the conference includes one secretary-general, one President of the General Assembly, and seven chairs and rapporteurs, one per committee.
A United Nations vehicle drives through the village of Alaimbata that was burnt to the ground during the recent unrest in Timor-Leste. Photo: U.N. Photo/MartiNe Perret


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Preparing to chair a committee

The chair is one of the most important roles in Model U.N. The chair is responsible for moderating the activities of the committee and ensuring that delegates adhere to the days schedule. The chair must strike a balance between following the delegates suggestions and steering the committee in the right direction. The duties of this position include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Thoroughly reading the background guide for your committee and conducting extra research as necessary Helping select resolutions to debate in committee Selecting three topics in preparation for three moderated caucuses during the committee session Understanding the rules of parliamentary procedure Facilitating debate and encouraging participation during the committee session Preparing committee remarks to deliver at the conferences closing session

The rapporteur functions as the chairs assistant and is responsible for keeping track of everything that happens in committee. This student leader should also be prepared to run the committee in case of a temporary or permanent absence of the chair. The duties of this position include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Thoroughly reading the committee background guide Helping select resolutions to debate in committee Keeping detailed notes of the days proceedings Writing and tracking the progress of amendments Recording all important votes

During your time as a student leader, you will meet Council staff to help you prepare for this role in Model U.N. The first Council meeting will give you an overview of our expectation of student leaders. Subsequent meetings will focus on reviewing resolutions and Model U.N. procedure.
A young boy plants the rice crop in the village fields. Photo: U.N. Photo/Martine Perret

Model United Nations Handbook


Selecting resolutions
After meeting Council staff, the student leaders first responsibility is to choose the resolutions to debate in committee. Your job is to select three of the resolutions submitted by students to serve as the focus of debate and discussion on the day of the conference. You will help edit these three resolutions in preparation for committee.

Guidelines to help you choose suitable resolutions:

First, make sure the resolution includes all three parts: 1. 2. 3. Header (committee, topic, country) Preamble Operative clauses

Note: Good resolutions often vary in their selection of preambulatory and operative phrases; that is, they do not use Acknowledges or Requests for every clause. The preamble The preamble states why the topic is important to the U.N. The preamble should do at least one of the following:
u u

Acknowledge previous action taken by the U.N. and/or other bodies Introduce new or pertinent facts relevant to the issue

Operative clauses Operative clauses propose solutions to the problem addressed by the committee They must recommend specific and concrete action for the U.N.s member states Creativity is also important; good resolutions will propose unique, innovative and sometimes unexpected solutions to problems

In summary, make sure the resolution:

u u u u

Is well-written and focused on the topic Is formatted correctly, according to the template Proposes specific action for the members of the committee and Proposes new and interesting ideas

Keep in mind that these draft resolutions should generate debate in the committee. If every delegate agrees on each proposal, the session will be dull. Therefore, look for diversity in your selections.


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Moderated caucuses
To facilitate discussion of the selected topics, the chair is responsible for preparing three moderated caucuses before the day of the conference. For example: You may notice that clause 1 of the sample resolution on page 8 suggests a Roundtable to identify potential modifications that will provide an opportunity for delegates to discuss ways to modify energy consumption in their own countries. Thus, as chair, you may propose the following: Motion for a moderated caucus to discuss the agenda of the Roundtable on Worldwide Energy Consumption. The length will be 10 minutes with a 30-second speaking time. Your committee may take matters into its own hands and make changes to your suggested moderated caucuses. This is a good sign, indicating that the delegates understand the procedures of debate and are ready to propose original ideas. You must balance two responsibilities: facilitating the suggestions of the committee and, if no suggestions are made, offering your own topics to explore.

Running a committee session

As a chair, you face the challenge of making sure your committee stays on schedule, while also fostering substantive debate throughout the session. The best way to prepare yourself is to follow guidelines that allow you to set various goals for the day. Keep in mind that you will have roughly five hours to debate and vote on your committees resolutions.
Cheick Sidi Diarra (fourth from left), high representative for the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states, moderates a panel discussion on the role of international support in establishing efficient transit transport systems to expand trade opportunities for landlocked developing countries. Photo: U.N. Photo/PaUlo FilgUeiras

Model United Nations Handbook


Sample committee agenda

The following agenda outlines committee procedures throughout the conference. Keep in mind that the conference is split into two committee sessions. The first session runs from 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and the second from 12:15 p.m. to 1:45 p.m. We have suggested approximate times for each action of the committee, but keep in mind that timing may change on the actual day, depending on how much progress is made.

ACTION Introductions

APPROX. TIME 5 minutes

DETAILS hair/rapporteur: Welcome delegates and introduce C yourselves. hair: Introduce other members of the committee, including C the Council staff member and the committee mentor.

Opening Speeches

15 minutes

hair: Announce opening speeches. Remind delegates to C keep their remarks to three sentences. apporteur: Call countries alphabetically to the podium, five R at a time, noting which delegations are absent.

Introduction of Resolutions

1520 minutes

hair: Call on the sponsors of the first resolution to read the C operative clauses to the committee. llow five minutes of questions, reminding delegates that A these must be for clarifications only. epeat this process for the remaining two resolutions. R

Speakers List

10 minutes

hair: Invite delegates to speak generally about the content C of the three resolutions. Encourage suggestions to make each one stronger. apporteur: Make note of whom the chair calls and stick to R this order. llow roughly 10 minutes, but move on if no delegates wish A to speak.

Moderated Caucus

10 minutes per topic

reak the resolutions down into more manageable parts. B hair: Introduce the first of your prepared moderated C caucuses by making a motion. Be sure to include the purpose, length (ten minutes) and speaking time (one minute). en minutes allows for ten speakers. Call up delegates a few at T a time to speak on the topic you have proposed.


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Unmoderated Caucus

10 minutes

hair: Once the moderated caucus has elapsed, split C the committee into four blocs by dividing the room into four corners. ach group must write one amendment to any or all of the E resolutions. hair: Encourage delegates to think creatively and remind C them that they may combine different parts of each resolution.


15 minutes

ach bloc will nominate a representative to read the E amendment to the committee. hair: Call on the representatives and allow each to answer up C to two questions about their blocs amendment. apporteur: Collect each amendment and write it out for R the entire committee to see.

Vote on Amendments

510 minutes

fter all amendments are read, the committee will vote A separately on each one. apporteur: Read each amendment aloud and ask R delegates to raise their placards in favor or against each one. hair: Once voting is complete, summarize the results by C announcing which amendments passed and which failed. (Amendments and resolutions both need a majority vote to pass.)


hair: Introduce the topic of the second moderated caucus and C repeat the above steps until a second round of amendments is passed. emember that you must leave time for your third topic and R final voting, so allocate time accordingly.

Closing Speakers List

510 minutes

hair: Encourage delegates to deliver short speeches on their C reactions to the amendments. This is a good opportunity for them to also express their support for a particular resolution. apporteur: After the last speaker, lead the committee into R voting procedures. Deal with each resolution separately. Start by providing a summary of all the amendments to that resolution. Delegates will then vote either yes, no or abstain. epeat this process until you have voted on all three resolutions. R hair: Summarize the results by announcing which C resolutions were passed and which were not. If a roll call vote was conducted, announce the number voting for and against.

Voting Procedures

Closing Remarks

hair: Wrap up the session by summarizing the procedure and C progress of the committee. Point out things that went well and suggestions on what to improve in the future. llow time for the rapporteur and other committee staff to A make their own brief comments.

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Setting Goals
Its easy to get bogged down by the details of running a committee session, so try to focus on specific goals. The following chart shows what each procedure of the committee should achieve, so you can make a checklist as you go through the day. PROCEDURE Opening Speeches Resolutions Speakers List GOAL Allow each delegate to introduce him or herself Familiarize the committee with the draft resolutions and allow delegates to clarify points of confusion Provide opportunities for delegates to speak about all three resolutions and point out strengths and weaknesses Divide the resolution into smaller segments to allow focused debate on the most important issues Provide delegates with time to discuss the moderated caucus among themselves and propose amendments

Moderated Caucus Unmoderated Caucus

Closing Speakers List Allow time for delegates to express their approval or disapproval of the amended resolutions and encourage others to vote Voting Decide which resolutions to pass and which to fail after a full day of debate, diplomacy and compromise

A young girl attends one of the thousands of community based schools supported by the United Nations Childrens Fund to make formal education accessible to children. Photo: U.N. Photo/roger leMoyNe


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What to do if things dont go as planned

Flexibility is a key component of chairing. Things may not always go according to plan during committee, so you must be prepared to handle several different outcomes. In general, you should allow any suggestions and motions from the committee, as long as they dont severely disrupt the flow of debate. The following chart identifies common problems and offers suggestions on how to keep your committee on track. ISSUE There are no points or motions on the floor, and debate seems to be stalled. Delegates are behaving poorly and not paying attention. The delegates are acting too informally. SOLUTION Debate will sometimes slow down. This is normal. Allow for moments of informal questions and discussion throughout the committee session, during which you can offer advice to the delegates about how to next proceed. You may also talk informally about the topic itself and how its being handled in the United Nations today. Maintaining decorum can sometimes be difficult, especially with high school students. Try to engage their attention by being friendly but strict. Impose high standards at the beginning of the committee and allow them to relax slightly as the session goes on. If the problem continues, the Council staff in your committee can handle disciplinary issues. Establish a level of formality at the beginning of the session and enforce certain standards, such as referring to each other as country delegates and not as individuals. Emphasize that these rules are used in the real U.N., so it is important to know them well. Delegates will sometimes disagree with the decision of the chair. This can happen even if the decision seems reasonable. In this case, the speaker will present his case, the chair will respond and the committee will then vote. A two-thirds majority is needed to overturn the chairs decision. If this happens, take it in stride and resume the session as before. Keep a copy of the rules of parliamentary procedure with you during the committee session. If a delegate brings up an unfamiliar point, ask the rapporteur to check the rules. In the meantime, continue with debate and return to the question once you have confirmed the procedure. Chairs often make minor mistakes in using parliamentary procedure. Delegates may raise points of order regarding these mistakes. If this happens, apologize for the oversight and correct your mistake.

You hear a motion to appeal the decision of the chair.

A delegate mentions an unfamiliar rule.

Points of order.

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Chapter 4: Faculty Sponsors

What is a faculty sponsor?
A faculty sponsor is a teacher who acts as a representative from his or her school and takes responsibility for coordinating all programs and activities between their students and the World Affairs Council of Philadelphia. The faculty sponsor is invaluable to the Model U.N. process, especially because the majority of student preparation occurs beyond the Councils reach. Whether Model U.N. preparation takes place inside a classroom or as part of a school club, faculty sponsors are responsible for corresponding with the World Affairs Council, as well as helping students with preparation for the Model U.N. conference. This chapter is designed to ensure that you have all the materials you need to serve effectively in your role as a faculty sponsor.
Jan Eliasson (left), Special Envoy of the SecretaryGeneral for Darfur, meets with the former traditional leader of the Fur Tribe in Nyala, Sudan. Photo: U.N. Photo/Fred Nov

If you have taken part in Model U.N. before, your school is already part of our program. If you are new to the World Affairs Council, please contact the Councils Education and Public Programs staff to be added to our distribution list.

How does the Model U.N. program work?

The Councils program is designed to give students the opportunity to experience the world of international affairs and diplomacy firsthand. The faculty sponsors role in Model U.N. includes: Encouraging student participation at school; Corresponding with the Council regarding registration and event instructions; Guiding students during the Model U.N. process; Helping students prepare for the final conference; and Attending the final conference.

All Model U.N. deadlines and events occur in winter and spring. The calendar below lists the events leading up to the conference. Specific dates are sent out via e-mail closer to each event.

Registration form deadlines Model U.N. Faculty Sponsors workshop Student Leader selection interviews

Model U.N. preparatory conference Student Leader Briefing 1 Student Leader Briefing 2

Deadline for submitting resolutions Student Leader Briefing 3 Final Model U.N. conference


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To participate in Model U.N., you must register your schools delegation. Please submit all necessary forms before the deadline. You will receive both the application and deadlines via e-mail.

Sample registration form

Schools are required to submit separate forms if they are applying for a Big Five country, Security Council positions and/or student leadership roles. Participating schools will be assigned up to three countries in the U.N. General Assembly. Each school must send three students per country. Each student will be assigned to one of three committees. If you are representing a Big Five nation (China, France, Russian Federation, U.K., U.S.A.), you must select seven students to represent that country. Each of these students will represent their country on one of the seven committees. All schools must complete this registration form to participate in the Model U.N. program. The earlier your reply is received, the more likely you are to be assigned the country delegation(s) of your choice. Note that there are additional forms (enclosed) to complete and return if you wish to represent a Big Five country in the General Assembly. Please print School: ___________________________________________________________ Faculty Sponsor: ____________________________________________________ Email: _____________________________________________________________ COUNTRY PREFERENCE: General Assembly Write your choices below in order of preference. 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________ Total number of General Assembly delegations your school WOULD LIKE to send: _________ NOTE: In the event that our quota is not reached, we may assign schools additional countries. Please indicate your interest in this option by stating the total number of countries you would like to represent.

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After receiving all applications, Council staff will assign each school one or more countries to represent during the conference, as well as the committees in which they will sit. Please note that each countrys delegation should have three students. Each student in that delegation will be assigned to one of three committees. Big Five countries (U.S., U.K., China, France and Russia) are assigned to all committees. To represent one of the Big Five countries, a one-page essay explaining that countrys priorities for the United Nations in the current session must be submitted to the Council along with the other registration materials. Be sure to put the countrys U.N. agenda in context by explaining why the agenda is shaped as it is (e.g., internal and/or external factors). You must also nominate seven students that you believe are capable of handling a Big Five role. You must fill out an additional form if any of your students want to participate in the Security Council. Again, you are responsible for nominating students you believe will do well in this advanced committee. Only 15 students will be chosen to participate. You will need to provide the following information on the Security Council form: 1. Please list the students previous Security Council experience. Has the student previously assumed a Model U.N. Security Council role? If yes, describe when and what country.

2. What leadership qualities and/or other role-playing experience does the student have? 3. Please confirm that the student agrees to attend the Model U.N. preparatory conference as well as the Security Council briefing.

Once you have received your country allocations, you should assign positions to your students. Model U.N. works best when students are genuinely interested in their topics, so we suggest allowing them some freedom in choosing their own country and topic from those assigned to your school. Be mindful of the level of difficulty of each committee, as well as the prior experience of your students.
Three young girls in the Bam Sarai village in Bamyan province prepare for exams as part of an effort in which UNICEF and the government of Afghanistan aim to increase girls primary school attendance by 20 percent by the end of 2008. Photo: U.N. Photo/shehzad NooraNi


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Student Leaders
Nominating student leaders is a crucial component of the faculty sponsors role. These leadership positions are essential to the success of the Model U.N. Any student who would like to take on a leadership position is required to attend a selection interview (approximately 20 minutes) held at the Council offices. During the selection interview, candidates should demonstrate the following: experience conducting meetings; familiarity with the United Nations; general knowledge of world affairs; and experience of the Model U.N. or similar simulation programs (preferred but not required).

Please refer to the sample recommendation form for student leaders below.

Student Leader Recommendation Form

I am pleased to recommend ___________________________________________ to serve as an officer at the Model United Nations. Below are my comments on the students qualifications: 1. 2. Leadership qualities and experience: Ability to speak articulately before a group:

3. Model U.N. and other role-playing experience (preferred but not necessary): 4. Commitment, dependability and assurance of attendance at the preparatory conference, officers briefings and the Model United Nations conference.

Student will attend selection interviews at the Council on (circle one): February X, 200X February X, 200X

Faculty sponsor signature: ____________________________________________ School: _____________________________________________________________

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Once you have completed the registration and applications forms, you should begin preparing your students for the program. This preparation can begin during the fall school semesterprior to any official spring deadlineswhether in a classroom or club setting.

In the Fall
Your school will not receive its country assignments until late winter/early spring. However, you should begin a general study of the United Nations, including an overview of its history, structure and actions, as soon as possible. Teaching the U.N. can be daunting, but there are many resources and online publications dedicated specifically to this. Two good online resources on the United Nations are the U.N.s website at www.un.org, and the United Nations Associations of the USA (UNA-USA) at www.unausa.org. Bear in mind that the Model U.N. procedures used by the Council are different from those listed online; however, the preparation and research activities are both pertinent and helpful. See Chapter 5 for additional resources. When your students are comfortable with the basics of the U.N., you may consider conducting mock Model U.N. sessions. If you have never witnessed a committee before, we suggest starting with the committee session script included in Chapter 5 of this handbook. We recommend distributing the roles in the script among your students for a read-through. Once everyone is familiar with the procedures, you may deviate from the script to choose a new topic and assign new countries to your students. For example, you may wish to discuss the topic of war in Sudan among several African nations, as well as members of the Security Council such as the U.S., China and the U.K.

Two Haitian girls wait at a warehouse operated by the humanitarian organization CARE, in which civilians are receiving food and water rations distributed by the World Food Programme (WFP) in the aftermath of hurricane Ike. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) military personnel provide security. Photo: U.N. Photo/logaN abassi

In the Spring
The pace of Model U.N. picks up during the spring, but, if you adhere to Council deadlines, you will have all the resources you need to prepare your students for the conference. The following information is presented in greater detail in the chapter dedicated to delegate preparation, so we suggest going through each section of that chapter carefully with your students. 1. Country research: Once you have allocated country roles among your students, ask your students to begin their research and complete the country profile worksheet starting on page 36. Committee/topic research: Delegates must possess detailed knowledge of their assigned committee and topic. Each student is required to write a position paper summarizing his or her research. Preparatory Conference: Your students must attend the preparatory conference held in March to hear presentations on research/preparation and parliamentary procedure and to learn more about their committee topics.




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Resolution Writing: Each student must prepare a draft resolution that will be submitted to the Council a few weeks before the Model U.N. conference.

Sample Model U.N. schedule

The Model U.N. conference is highly structured, and it is important that activities run on schedule. The following is a detailed schedule of the day. 8:10 8:30 a.m. 8:30 9:15 a.m. 9:30 11:30 a.m. 11:30 12:15 p.m. 12:15 1:45 p.m. 1:45 2:30 p.m. 2:30 3:15 p.m. 3:15 p.m. Registration Opening plenary session Morning committee sessions Recess for lunch Afternoon committee sessions Committee reports Guest speaker Adjournment
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon (front row, sixth from left) joined by his wife, Yoo Soon-taek (front row, eighth from left), visits the Grameen Bank project for poverty eradication in Bogra, Bangladesh. Photo: U.N. Photo/Mark garteN

How you can get more help and/or more involved

If you need any further assistance, do not hesitate to e-mail a Council staff member for extra help. The best way to get help early in the process is to attend the Model U.N. faculty workshop held in late winter. Even if you have attended before, we suggest registering again to find out about any changes made to Model U.N. from the previous year. We also suggest reading the entire handbook to get a sense of what preparation is necessary for both delegates and student leaders. If you are a seasoned Model U.N. faculty sponsor, we encourage you to become more involved in the preparation for the conference. There are two main options for greater participation: 1. Committee expert: The Council is always searching for experts in specific areas to form the basis of a Model U.N. committee. The expert will be responsible for conducting a presentation on a specific topic during the student preparatory conference. Please e-mail the Council if you believe your area of expertise may be useful in a Model U.N. setting. Advisor: The Council would also like to establish partnerships between teachers from different schools, so that more experienced teachers can help those less experienced. If you would like to help fellow faculty sponsors with the logistics of participating in Model U.N. or help prepare their students for the conference, please e-mail the Council.


Model United Nations Handbook


Chapter 5: Additional Resources

Abstain: If a delegate abstains from voting, he or she casts a neutral vote towards a resolution. Amendments: Changes made to a resolution by delegates in committee. There are three possible amendments: modifying, deleting or adding a clause. In addition, delegates may choose to merge elements from several resolutions. Background guide: A document that provides the important information and details concerning a specific committee topic. Delegates should read this guide as part of their research and preparation.
Jackie Chan (center), kung-fu master, actor and United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) goodwill ambassador, poses for a photo during a visit to promote the use of martial arts for peace. Photo: U.N. Photo/MartiNe Perret

Blocs: A united group of countries with a shared goal; in the case of Model U.N., countries in a bloc work together to create amendments to resolutions. Chair: The chair is the moderator of the committee. He or she is responsible for conducting the committee session. Clauses: Phrases in any given resolutions, either preambulatory or operative (explained below). Delegate: A student who represents a country in any given committee. Faculty Sponsors: High school teachers or faculty members that help their students become involved in and prepare for the Councils Model U.N. program. Header: Section at the beginning of a resolution that specifies the committee, topic and sponsor country. Leaders: The students who assume leadership roles during the conference, including the chair and rapporteur. Member States: Countries that are part of the United Nations. Currently there are 192 U.N. Member States. Moderated Caucuses: Periods of a committee session that are dedicated to addressing one specific aspect of the topic. Motion: A suggestion that a delegate makes to the committee about the next step in the debate. Operative clauses: Phrases in a resolution that propose action on the topic at hand. Parliamentary Procedure: The set of rules that govern debate in committee. Pass/Fail: A resolution passes if it receives more than half the votes in committee; it fails if it does not. Placard: Sign indicating the country each delegate represents. Plenary session: The opening ceremony on the day of the conference where delegates from all committees sit together in the General Assembly.


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Points: Questions or comments made by delegates to the chair, including a point of order (correcting a mistake in the rules), a point of parliamentary procedure (question about the rules) or a point of personal privilege (such as speaking louder). Position Paper: A document written by all delegates that discusses both the reasons why this topic impacts their country and what solutions they will present in their resolution. Delegates should use their position papers to write their final resolutions. Preambulatory clauses: Phrases in a resolution that provide background information or statistics on the topic, as well as acknowledge previous action taken by the U.N. and its members. Rapporteur: Student that assists the chair during committee by keeping track of all actions taken by the delegates. Resolution: Document written by delegates, and discussed and amended during committee. Roll call voting: A system of voting on a resolution or amendment that requires a formal record of the presence and vote or abstention of each delegate individually. Speakers Lists: The opening and closing lists of countries that wish to speak generally about the topic at hand. Delegates must raise their placards to be included on the list. Sponsor country: The country (or countries) that has written a resolution on the given topic. Unmoderated Caucuses: Breaks from formal debate during which delegates are divided into separate blocs to write an amendment relating to the topic of the preceding moderated caucus. Voting: Occurs at the end of the final committee session. Each resolution is voted upon separately. Yields: Options for using your time after delivering a speech, either to comments, questions or back to the chair. Yields are only necessary for delegates on a speakers list.
A nongovernmental organizations staff member (left) explains to children of the Al Salam Internally Displaced Persons camp in Omdurman the meaning of mines warning boards, as part of the activities for the observance of the International Day for Mine Awareness and Assistance. This program was organized by the Public Information Office of the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Khartoum, Sudan. Photo: U.N. Photo/Fred Nov

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List of References
General U.N. Resources
United Nations www.un.org U.N. CyberSchoolBus www.un.org/cyberschoolbus U.N. Peace and Security www.un.org/peace U.N. Human Rights www.un.org/rights U.N. Economic and Social Development www.un.org/esa U.N. Humanitarian Affairs www.un.org/ha U.S. Department of State www.state.gov/p/io/mdlun

Principal Organs of the U.N.

General Assembly www.un.org/ga Economic and Social Council www.un.org/docs/ecosoc Security Council www.un.org/sc International Court of Justice www.icj-cij.org

U.N. Programmes and Funds

U.N. Childrens Fund (UNICEF) www.unicef.org U.N. Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) www.unifem.org U.N. Development Programme (UNDP) www.undp.org U.N. Environment Programme (UNEP) www.unep.org U.N. Habitat www.unhabitat.org U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees www.unhcr.ch U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) www.unfpa.org World Food Programme (WFP) www.wfp.org

Country Information
The U.N.s National Government Information www.un.org/esa/national.htm BBC News Country Profiles news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/country_profiles/default.stm CIA World Factbook www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook Embassies in Washington, D.C. www.embassy.org/embassies Library of Congress Country Studies lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html U.N. Missions www.un.int U.S. Department of State Country Background Notes www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn U.N. Member States www.un.org/members U.N. News Centre www.un.org/news

U.N. Specialized Agencies

Food and Agriculture Organization www.fao.org International Fund for Agricultural Development www.ifad.org International Labour Organization www.ilo.org


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International Monetary Fund www.imf.org U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization www.unesco.org World Bank Group www.worldbank.org World Health Organization www.who.int

The New York Times www.nytimes.com Reuters www.reuters.com The Washington Post www.washingtonpost.com

International Affairs
Brookings Institution www.brookings.org Foreign Affairs www.foreignaffairs.org Council on Foreign Relations www.cfr.org Foreign Policy www.foreignpolicy.com Global Policy Forum www.globalpolicy.org Carnegie Endowment for International Peace www.ceip.org

Related Organizations and Other U.N. Bodies

International Atomic Energy Agency www.iaea.org International Criminal Court www.icc-cpi.int Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS www.unaids.org U.N. Department of Peacekeeping www.un.org/depts/dpko U.N. Office on Drugs and Crime www.unodc.org World Trade Organization www.wto.org

United Nations Development Programme www.undp.org United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report hdr.undp.org/statistics/data

Major News Outlets

Newspaper from around the World www.onlinenewspapers.com World Magazine and Newspaper Directory www.ecola.com Associated Press www.ap.org BBC News news.bbc.co.uk The Economist www.economist.com The Financial Times www.ft.com

Human Rights
Amnesty International www.amnesty.org Center for the Study of Human Rights www.hrcolumbia.org Human Rights First www.humanrightsfirst.org Human Rights Watch www.hrw.org Universal Declaration of Human Rights www.un.org/Overview/rights.html

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Friends of... Organizations

Americans for UNFPA www.americansforunfpa.org Friends of WFP www.friendsofwfp.org U.S.A. for UNHCR www.unrefugees.org U.S. National Committee for UNDP www.undp-usa.org U.S. Committee for UNIFEM www.unifemusa.org U.S. Fund for UNICEF www.unicefusa.org
Women carry their ration of food after fleeing their homes in the village of Abyei, engulfed by heavy fighting between the Sudan Armed Forces and the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army. Photo: U.N. Photo/tiM MckUlka


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Chapter 6: Model U.N. Workbook

Use this workbook to review and practice some of the concepts introduced in the Model U.N. handbook and to further prepare for the Model U.N. conference. The following are included in this section: 1. 2. 3. 4. Country profile worksheet Committee worksheet Resolution template Committee script

Cheerful young students in their traditional dress proudly wave their national flags during the Peace Bell ceremony of the observance of the International Day of Peace: PeaceA Climate for Change, at U.N. Headquarters in New York. Photo: U.N. Photo/PaUlo FilgUeiras

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Country profile worksheet

After receiving their country assignments, delegates should complete this worksheet in order to better understand the country they will represent during the Model U.N. conference.

1. What is the full name of your country? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Where is it located? (Include the continent, bordering countries and bodies of water) ___________________________________________________________________ 3. How does its geography affect its political relationships? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the capital city of your country? ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Describe your countrys flag. ___________________________________________________________________

1. What is your countrys population and growth rate? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Which ethnicities can be found in your country (include percentages)? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Describe any prevalent cultural characteristics of these ethnicities. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Which languages can be found in your country (include percentages)? ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Which religions can be found in your country (include percentages)? ___________________________________________________________________


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1. What sort of government does your country have? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What types of ideologies (political, religious or other) influence your countrys government? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Which domestic issues might influence your countrys foreign policy? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Who is the head of state? How is s/he elected or appointed? What is their title? What is the name of the legislative body? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

1. What are some major events in your countrys history? Why are they important? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Did your country colonize any other country(ies)? If so, which ones? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Was your country ever colonized? If so, by which country(ies)? ___________________________________________________________________

1. Define Gross Domestic Product (GDP). ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What is your countrys GDP? How does it compare to other countries in the world? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

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What is the growth rate? ___________________________________________________________________


What are its major exports? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


What are its major imports? Who are your countrys major trading partners? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


What are the general characteristics of your countrys economy? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

1. What is the life expectancy for men and women? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the birth and fertility rates? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the maternal mortality rate? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the infant mortality rate? ___________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the major infectious diseases? ___________________________________________________________________ 6. What is the HIV/AIDS infection rate? ___________________________________________________________________ 7. What are the major general health concerns for your country? (Examples include lack of healthcare, malnutrition, obesity, infectious diseases, malaria, TB, access to clean water, etc.) ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


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1. What is the literacy rate? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Is education free and/or mandatory? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. How many years, on average, do children attend school? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. At what age do children begin school? ___________________________________________________________________ 5. How many colleges or universities does your country have? What are the admission/attrition rates? ___________________________________________________________________

Development and Foreign Aid

1. Is your country considered part of the developed or developing world? What is its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking? (The HDI is an index combining normalized measures of human developmenthealth (life expectancy at birth), knowledge (adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio) and the standard of living (GDP per capita).) ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What percentage of the population lives below the poverty line? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Does your country receive significant external assistance from other countries or organizations? If so, what type of assistance does it receive? Food, medicine, etc? ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

1. Describe your countrys climate. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What environmental problems does your country face? What solutions has your country implemented or proposed to address environmental issues? ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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What are its most important natural resources? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


What are its main energy sources? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

1. What percentage of GDP is spent on defense? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Does your country have missile/nuclear capabilities? Please describe. ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. How does your countrys military acquire members? Is there a draft? Voluntary sign-up? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Are children involved in your countrys military? If so, at what level? ___________________________________________________________________

1. What are two major problems affecting your country? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Which countries are considered adversaries of your country? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Which countries are considered allies of your country? ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Have any ethnic, cultural or political issues led to violence? Please describe. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Provide details of the most recent conflict, either domestic or international, if one exists. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 40 The World Affairs Council www.wacphila.org


Has conflict in your country created a refugee crisis? If so, explain. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


Does your country host refugees from any external conflicts? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

United Nations
1. When did your country become a member of the U.N.? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. Does your country owe any payment/dues to the U.N.? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Has the U.N. ever intervened in a conflict involving your country? If yes, when and how? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. How does your country contribute to U.N. peacekeeping? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. Has the U.N. ever cited your country for human rights violations? If yes, when and why? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Does your country belong to any intergovernmental organizations outside the U.N. system such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)? Please describe. ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Does your country belong to any regional organizations such as the European Union (EU), the African Union (AU) or the Organization of American States (OAS)? Please describe. ___________________________________________________________________ 8. Does your country belong to any trade organizations or agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)? Please describe. ___________________________________________________________________ Model United Nations Handbook 41 Bonus Try to find at least one recent article that focuses on or refers to your country.

Committee Worksheet
After receiving their country and/or committee assignments, delegates and student leaders should complete this worksheet in order to better understand the committee in which they will serve during the Model U.N. conference. 1. What is the full name and acronym of this U.N. committee? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What year was it founded? ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Why was this committee created? What specific problems does it tackle? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Which U.N. member states comprise this committee? Are they permanent members or does a rotation system exist? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. How is this committee funded? Who are the main donors? Does your country contribute funds? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 6. Does your country have any special involvement with this U.N. committee? Has it had any special involvement in the past? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Has this committee passed any important resolutions or taken any significant action over the past few years? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________


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Resolution Template
U.N. organ: ___________________________________ (e.g. General Assembly, ECOSOC, etc.)

U.N. committee: Topic: Sponsor:

The ______________________________________________________ (U.N. organ), [Preambulatory clauses] Preambulatory clause,

Preambulatory clause,

Preambulatory clause,

[Operative clauses] 1. ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ;


___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ;


___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ .

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Sample Committee Script

Below is a mock script for a Model U.N. committee session. This script will be useful for delegates, leaders and faculty sponsors alike. Read it by yourself or with fellow students during a Model U.N. meeting to get a sense of how a committee session runs. (Please note that the names and circumstances are fictional.) Once you understand the basic procedure of committee work, you can create a new committee, choose a new topic and hold your own mock session. CHAIR: Good morning delegates and welcome to the Disarmament and International Security committee of the General Assembly. Today, we will discuss the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. My name is Alex Martins and I will be your chair for today. Please also welcome Council staff member, Amy Schlosberg, and our committee expert, Professor Goldstein, who will be helping us out today. RAPPORTEUR: Hello, my name is Kayla Haidara and I will be your rapporteur for todays session. CHAIR: Let us begin. Please keep in mind that our goal is to find collective solutions to the global problem of small-arms trade. By the end of the day, I hope this committee will have debated, amended and voted on three different resolutions addressing this issue. I also want to remind everyone of the importance of maintaining decorum at all times. Please refer to your fellow delegates by their country name or as the delegate from (the country name). Now, lets begin with opening speeches. RAPPORTEUR: I will call upon five countries at a time. Please come to the front of the room to deliver three prepared lines on your countrys position on small arms. Will Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra and Angola please approach the podium? AFGHANISTAN: The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan strongly condemns global support for the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. Since 1979, the Afghan people have suffered greatly from wars and the small arms that were supplied by the West, many of which have fallen into the hands of terrorists and rebels. Afghanistan hopes that the countries here today will work together to stop powerful nations from supplying weaker ones with weapons. [A delegate from each country (A-Z) will deliver an opening speech.] CHAIR: Thank you delegates for your insightful comments. We will now introduce each resolution, followed by a short Q&A session for clarification. Would Brazil, the sponsor of Resolution 1, please come to the front and read the operative clauses. BRAZIL: Thank you, chair. Resolution number 1: Calls on all member states to renew support for the U.N. Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects. Number 2: Emphasizes the need to facilitate the implementation of the Programme of Action on a national level by strengthening coordination between agencies. [Brazil reads all operative clauses of the resolution.]


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CHAIR: Thank you, Brazil. Do any delegates have questions? Yes, Somalia. SOMALIA: What exactly is the Programme of Action? BRAZIL: The Programme of Action was agreed upon during a U.N. conference held in July 2001. The goal was to establish a global agenda for addressing the problem of small arms and light weapons. CHAIR: Are there any more questions for Brazil? All right, let us proceed to Resolution 2. Would India please read the operative clauses. Afterwards, I will allow time for questions. [India and the third sponsor, Bolivia, will read their resolutions and answer questions.] CHAIR: Delegates, we have now introduced all three resolutions. Lets open a speakers list to discuss the issues raised by all of them. Raise your placard if you would like to speak France, Zambia, Mexico, India and Sudan, please come to the front. Keep your comments to 30 seconds please. FRANCE: France believes that Resolution 2 is the strongest because it specifically addresses the issue of manufacturing, dealing with the root of the problem, not only its effects. France urges the committee to focus on making this resolution attractive to all member states. CHAIR: Thank you, France. How do you yield? FRANCE: I yield back to the chair. CHAIR: Thank you. Zambia, you are next. ZAMBIA: The Republic of Zambia disagrees with the delegate of France. Resolution 2 only benefits wealthy nations, while Resolution 1 addresses the concerns of developing nations. Zambia would also like to see a greater focus on the issue of child soldiers in sub-Saharan Africa. I yield to comments. CHAIR: Are there any comments? Yes, South Africa. SOUTH AFRICA: Thank you, chair. The Republic of South Africa strongly agrees with Zambias statement. Africa suffers greatly from the small arms trade, and yet it is not mentioned specifically in any of the resolutions. I suggest we amend this. [The speakers list continues until no more delegates wish to speak.] CHAIR: Thank you for those speeches, delegates. We will now move on to our first moderated caucus. I will motion for a moderated caucus to discuss the issue of child soldiers and small arms. The caucus will last for ten minutes with a oneminute speaking time. MOZAMBIQUE: Point of parliamentary procedure! CHAIR: Yes, Mozambique? MOZAMBIQUE: Do our speeches have to address child soldiers?

These questions are for clarification only.

Remember to yield (or give up) your time once you have finished your speech.

Remember: a motion is essentially a suggestion for which action the committee should take next. A point of parliamentary procedure is used for any question to the Chair. You may also raise a point of personal privilege or a point of order.

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CHAIR: Yes. They should also address why the relationship between child soldiers and small arms is an important issue. All right, lets begin. All those wishing to speak, please raise your placards. Democratic Republic of the Congo, you have been recognized. DR CONGO: Child soldiering is an extremely important issue because of the impact it has on a societys development, as we see in the DR Congo. We therefore propose adding a clause to Resolution 1 that specifically addresses disarming child soldiers and reintegrating them into society. [The moderated caucus elapses after 10 speakers.] CHAIR: We will now move into an unmoderated caucus to discuss amendments relating to child soldiering. I will split the committee into four blocs. Each bloc will need to discuss and write one amendment. Please make sure that you specify which resolution and which clause you have decided to change. And please remember that your amendment must pertain to child soldiers. You have 15 minutes, starting now. [During the unmoderated caucus, delegates in each bloc will discuss one amendment to any of the three resolutions. Each bloc will write one amendment on a piece of paper.] CHAIR: The time for our unmoderated caucus has now elapsed. RAPPORTEUR: Will a representative from each bloc please bring me a copy of your amendment? Make sure you keep one for your bloc. CHAIR: Will the first representative please read their amendment to the committee? Remember that you can add, delete or modify a clause to make an amendment. UNITED STATES: Our bloc has added a clause to Resolution 1 that reads as follows: Clause 5Calls upon all nations to provide funding for local U.N. initiatives against child soldiering, with a focus on providing incentives for disarmament, including food, education and shelter. [The three remaining representatives present their amendments.] CHAIR: Thank you, delegates. Let us now vote on each amendment. Remember, if more than half the committee votes for the amendment, it will be included in the final resolution. Lets begin with the first submitted amendment. All in favor of Amendment 1 presented by the United States, please raise your placards. All against, please raise your placards. RAPPORTEUR: I have counted the votes, and this amendment clearly passes. Clause 5 will now be included in Resolution 1. [The committee votes on the three remaining amendments.] CHAIR: Congratulations, delegates. You have voted for two amendments to the resolutions on the topic of child solders. As we progress, remember that you may combine resolutions into one amendment, in order to incorporate the best points from each one. You can merge two resolutions into one, or simply add the most relevant clauses of one to the other. JAPAN: Point of parliamentary procedure!


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CHAIR: Yes, Japan, you are recognized. JAPAN: Could you give us more details about merging two resolutions? CHAIR: Of course. If your bloc decides that Resolution 3 is the strongest, but Resolution 2 raises a few original points, you may include these clauses into the first resolution. For example, you may propose the following amendment: Insert clauses 3, 4 and 5 from Resolution 2 into Resolution 3. Does that answer your question Japan? JAPAN: Yes, thank you. CHAIR: Great. We will now move onto our next moderated caucus. The subject is the role of manufacturing countries in the production and distribution of small arms and light weapons. [The above process of short speeches and writing amendments in blocs is repeated twice more, for a total of three moderated caucuses proposed by the chair.] CHAIR: Now, would any delegate like to propose a moderated caucus of their own? GUATEMALA: Motion for a moderated caucus to discuss the enforcement of weapon laws in individual countries, for five minutes with a 30-second speaking time. CHAIR: I think that motion covers an important topic we havent discussed yet. Unless there is opposition, we will now move into this moderated caucus. I will call on ten countries to make speeches. Lets start with Guatemala. [The above process is repeated once more.] CHAIR: This concludes our time for moderated caucuses. Lets move into the final stages of debate. I would like to open a closing-speakers list for any delegates wishing to give their final input before voting procedures. Are there any nations wishing to speak at this time? Yes, Colombia. COLOMBIA: After listening to the debate in this committee and after passing several excellent amendments, Colombia encourages all nations to support Resolution 1. This is the only resolution to support countries suffering from violence related to the small arms trade. We urge you to vote for this resolution. CHAIR: Thank you, Colombia. Any others wishing to speak please raise your placard. Yes, Canada. CANADA: While Canada agrees with Colombia, we believe that Resolution 2 deals with the root causes of the small arms trade, namely the fact that some nations take advantage of conflict in weaker nations for their own economic gain. If we do not nip this problem in the bud, it will never end. CHAIR: Thank you, Canada. [The committee will hear closing speeches from several more delegates.] Use this time to persuade delegates to support a particular resolution.

Model United Nations Handbook


CHAIR: Delegates, you have conducted an excellent debate here today on the topic of the small arms and light weapons trade. Congratulations on cooperating and compromising with each other throughout the day, and for proposing so many insightful amendments. We are now ready to vote on the final amended versions of the resolutions we introduced at the beginning of the session. RAPPORTEUR: We will begin with Resolution 1, which includes the new clauses added by the committee. Each country may vote only once. Your options are yes, no, or abstain. Abstain means you are choosing not to vote. Is everyone ready? All those in favor of passing Resolution 1, please raise your placards. Thank you. All those against passing this resolution, please raise your placards. Thank you. [The chair calls out the delegates, and the Rapporteur records their votes.] CHAIR: Give us a moment to tally the results. RAPPORTEUR: I am pleased to announce that with 65 votes for and 21 votes against, this resolution passes. Congratulations everyone! This committee has decided to take decisive action on the issue of small arms and light weapons. Lets move onto the next vote. [This process is conducted for the remaining two resolutions.] CHAIR: Delegates, we are almost at the end of the committee session. I would like to say congratulations on an excellent days work. I would also like to congratulate you on passing two out of three resolutions. You have all contributed by crafting and debating original solutions to the serious problem of the small arms trade. On behalf of Ms. Haidara and myself, thank you for a productive and exciting day!

Committee Tips:
If you were assigned to the Disarmament and International Security committee, as either a delegate or a student leader, you would start your research at the Disarmament and International Security committee (DISEC) of the General Assembly to find out about DISECs mission and purpose. The committees website is www.un.org/ga/first/. Next, you would familiarize yourself with the topic of illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. You can refer back to DISECs website, but you should also conduct general searches in Google and on the U.N.s main website, www.un.org. In addition, you would look for more specialized resources, such as the International Action Network on Small Arms at www.iansa.org.


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