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ECOSTAT

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Introduction:

Thousands and even millions of people both teenagers and adults what they do when they woke up in the morning is to view or watch themselves in the mirror, looking for some flaws. We would find ourselves painfully staring at our reflection in the mirror. Why the bloody scabbing, unsightly bumps, and burning inflammation of our skin? Acne also called as pimples, zit or tigyawat in Tagalog, is a common skin disease that typically affects adolescents and young adults. Hundreds of treatment products exist for clear skin, yet there is still no cure for this dreadful and hideous disease. Acne has infected almost everyone in their life but only some were affected severely that would really affect their self esteem and confidence, personally this have been my problem for my whole college life. This has affected the way I think, the way I do things and the way I prioritize my responsibilities. It has affected everything that I want my life to go upon to; to be able to make new friends and go out with them in events and parties, to be able to court the girl I like, to be able to go out from my room and have that confidence and pride to myself without having a single doubt at myself of having this terrible flaw. Going to school has always been so hard and stressing for me, every time I take a bath and see my reflection in the mirror, every time I wash my face then suddenly feel the bumps in my skin. Commuting really takes the challenge in my day to day activity, people usually looks at my face and then suddenly looks away; deep in my mind they were curious on how I got this acne that looks so monstrous. Acne affects approximately 85% of teenagers and young adults, ages 12 to 24. The disease usually starts in adolescence, with the onset of puberty (Acne statistics, n.d.). Acne occurs more commonly on the face, because it is the area with the highest concentration of oil producing glands. However, it is important to know that acne can occur on the neck, chest, back, arms, legs, and of the body (Mitchell & Dudley, 2002). Though clogged pores cause acne, there are several reasons why these pores are blocked initially. One explanation for acne is genetics. If a person has acne, it is likely his

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or her children will also have acne. Stress and physical irritation are widely believed to worsen acne. It is debatable among dermatologists whether diet and exercise affects the condition (Acne statistics, n.d.). Acne is one of the most common diseases, as almost everyone worldwide has acne to some extent during puberty. The effects of acne, including physical and emotional problems, can be very serious. Researchers continue to look for a cure for this ubiquitous disease, such that millions of people can look in the mirror and have a clear face looking back at them. This is the reason why I want to make a study about acne, on how it is affected by race and gender differences affects the severity and outcome of acne to an individual or to a group. This paper has the following objectives: A. To determine if gender affects how severe or frequent acne would occur. B. To determine if race is one of the factors that affects the severity of acne.

Scope, Limitations and Nature of the Study: The focus of the study is to find out if gender and race are the key factors that affect the production or outbreak of acne. Some people believe that the female population is greatly affected by acne more than those of the male population. They say that genetics has a primal role on the glands that produces this oil called sebum that greatly affects the outbreaks of acne. Race as they say also is one factor to be considered, they say that Caucasians tend to be more acne-prone than any of the other races and is given the acne equation of, [Caucasian>Asians>Hispanic>Blacks], having the Black population as having less acne than of the other three races. There are two important key variables that must be used in this study, the gender difference and the racial agenda.

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Key Variables: Gender: A set of classes that together include all nouns, membership in a particular class being shown by the form of the noun itself or by the form or choice of words that modify, replace sex. Can be grouped by male and female.

Race: An arbitrary classification of modern humans, sometimes, especially formerly, based on any or a combination of various physical characteristics, as skin color, facial form, or eye shape, and now frequently based on such genetic markers as blood groups. Can be grouped by Caucasian, Asian, Hispanic and Negro.

[Encarta Encyclopedia (2010)] The study includes 77 major countries that are grouped by sub-heritage or continental difference. The observations on the number of acne infected male and female based on the total population would be the basis for the computation of the sample mean, sample standard deviation, and sample variance. Other basis also would be the infected race of Caucasian, Asians, Hispanic, and Negro. To be able to fully understand the situations of each category their corresponding sample mean, sample standard deviation, and sample variance will be computed to show the distribution of infected individuals across each category. Aside from the basics of mean, variances, and standard deviation, other descriptive statistics would also be presented to the reader to better understand the data. Other statistical measure would also be used to better clarify each category of study such as the frequency table, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, the ANOVA test, the chi-square analysis and much more.

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Descriptive Statistics A. Acne for Males and Females (Totality)

To be able to understand if gender affects the production of acne, we must look at the data presented at Table 1, it shows there the total population of acne infected individuals in selected countries. Based on percentage points the lowest percentage points of males infected in a country is .4 and the highest being .52. In the female acne infected population of a country the lowest percentage is .48 and the highest being .6 of the total acne population of the country. Based on the data presented in Table 1, we can say that the female population is predominantly more affected than of the males in regards of having acne troubles but we cannot conclude that because other factors and test must be made to be able to comply and conclude that such event is true. Countries that have the lowest percentage of .4 of acne infected boys are Sudan and Zimbabwe. Country that has the lowest percentage of .48 of acne infected boys is Denmark.

In the Descriptive Statistic we can see in Table 2-1 that the total population of countries used was 77 (n=77). The mean of acne infected boys are 1,894,901.74 and for the girls are 2,272,059.82. The study also reveals that the sample variance, which shows the dispersion or variation of observations in the population has a difference of 11,457,244,388,985 in favor of the girls population and the standard deviation, which is the square root of the sample variance have a difference of 930,795.64. The standard deviation observed in the female population clustered nearer the mean shown in the same year than the previous study therefore implying that the difference computed from the statistical average is smaller. We can see here now that the sample standard deviation for the boys is closer to its mean than those of the girls population hinting that the computed average of it smaller than the other one.

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To better understand this situation I grouped now that total population to 4 depending on its geography and race factor to better understands the breakdown of the data. Let us see now if the mean, standard deviation and sample variance would change from the observations of the breakdown.

B. Acne for Males and Females (North and South America) In the Descriptive Statistic we can see in Table 2-2 that the total population of countries used was 13 (n=13). The mean of acne infected boys are 1,590,280.7 and for the girls are 2,043,964.2. The study also reveals that the sample variance, which shows the dispersion or variation of observations in the population has a difference of 4,764,311,634,744.8 in favor of the girls population and the standard deviation, which is the square root of the sample variance have a difference of 867,552.98. The standard deviation observed in the female population clustered nearer the mean shown in the same year than the previous study therefore implying that the difference computed from the statistical average is smaller. We can see here now that the sample standard deviation for the boys is closer to its mean than those of the girls population hinting that the computed average of it smaller than the other one. The result is almost the same of the descriptive statistics of the totality as a whole.

C. Acne for Males and Females (Europe) In the Descriptive Statistic we can see in Table 2-3 that the total population of countries used was 24 (n=24). The mean of acne infected boys are 588,478.25 and for the girls are 719,613.79. The study also reveals that the sample variance, which shows the dispersion or variation of observations in the population has a difference of 260,745,779,834 in favor of the girls population and the standard deviation, which is the

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square root of the sample variance have a difference of 166,115.53. The standard deviation observed in the female population clustered nearer the mean shown in the same year than the previous study therefore implying that the difference computed from the statistical average is smaller. We can see here now that the sample standard deviation for the boys is closer to its mean than those of the girls population hinting that the computed average of it smaller than the other one. The result is almost the same of the descriptive statistics of the totality as a whole.

D. Acne for Males and Females (Asia and the Pacific) In the Descriptive Statistic we can see in Table 2-1 that the total population of countries used was 24 (n=24). The mean of acne infected boys are 4,230,215.11 and for the girls are 4,947,315.12. The study also reveals that the sample variance, which shows the dispersion or variation of observations in the population has a difference of 32,013,084,235,275 in favor of the girls population and the standard deviation, which is the square root of the sample variance have a difference of 1,525,443.58. The standard deviation observed in the female population clustered nearer the mean shown in the same year than the previous study therefore implying that the difference computed from the statistical average is smaller. We can see here now that the sample standard deviation for the boys is closer to its mean than those of the girls population hinting that the computed average of it smaller than the other one. The result is almost the same of the descriptive statistics of the totality as a whole.

E. Acne for Males and Females (Africa) In the Descriptive Statistic we can see in Table 2-5 that the total population of countries used was 16 (n=16). The mean of acne infected

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boys are 599,071.52 and for the girls are 773,173.56. The study also reveals that the sample variance, which shows the dispersion or variation of observations in the population has a difference of 331,426,072,957.48 in favor of the girls population and the standard deviation, which is the square root of the sample variance have a difference of 212,245.01. The standard deviation observed in the female population clustered nearer the mean shown in the same year than the previous study therefore implying that the difference computed from the statistical average is smaller. We can see here now that the sample standard deviation for the boys is closer to its mean than those of the girls population hinting that the computed average of it smaller than the other one. The result is almost the same of the descriptive statistics of the totality as a whole.

Frequency Distribution Table A. The Male Population Across the 77 samples from different counties, I used the percentage points of male and female acne infected population as in comparison of the total population because the population of each countys difference is relatively high in comparison and it is easier and more convenient to analyze the percentage points of this data that analyzing the exact numerical values for each. Looking at Table 3-1, in the frequency table we can see that the distance of the lower and the upper interval is at 2% starting from 40 up to 54 consisting of 7 sets of placement. We can see that the frequency of the male population having acne is greatest at the 40 < 42 bracket meaning that many countries have more acne infected females in comparison of the males. We can also see in the data that only 9 countries out of 77 has greater acne infected male than that of the females. The frequency distribution table

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is great in assessing and analyzing the data of which each category falls upon into. B. The Female Population Looking at Table 3-2, in the frequency table we can see that the distance of the lower and the upper interval is at 2% starting from 48 up to 62 consisting of 7 sets of placement. We can see that the frequency of the female population having acne is greatest at the 58 < 60 bracket meaning that many countries have more acne infected females in comparison of the males. We can also see in the data that only 6 countries or less out of 77 has greater acne infected male than that of the females.

Looking up at the table of the histogram of the frequency table we could greatly analyze which part of the categories have the highest number of population, this could really help us understand more and easier the information that is presented by the study.

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Inferential Statistics After getting the descriptive statistics of the data, lets now move on to the inferential statistics to be able to answer our main problem and to further analyze and conclude what the data shows us. This kind of statistics would give us concrete proof and proper analysis.

Confidence Interval For us to determine the estimated intervals we would the confident interval statistics; a confidence interval gives an estimated range of values which is likely to include an unknown population parameter, the estimated range being calculated from a given set of sample data. (John H. McColl's Statistics Glossary). For this study I used a 95% confidence level because the current dates were not exact and only sample sets were presented by the data. There might be some other people who have been counted of the population. Based on the population used which is n=77 (countries) out of the whole countries, we can say that this is a good sample size because of its concrete and near numbers to the actual size. Looking at Table 4-1, we can see the Confidence Intervals of the Mean for the boys. At 95% confidence level we can see that the lowest point is 624,182.0018 while the highest point is 3,165,621.4837. Looking at the other table 4-2, we can see here the Confidence Intervals of the Mean for the girls. At 95% confidence level we can see that the lowest point is 793,438.8441 while the highest point is 3,750,680.7966.

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Hypothesis Testing For this experiment we will now find out if we are going to accept or reject the mean and variances that acne has equal outbreaks in both males and females. The null hypothesis is that acne has equal outbreaks in both males and females and the alternative hypothesis is that gender affects acne outbreaks. Looking at Table 5-1, having a population size of n=77, we can see here that the p-value is equal to .7046 which is not significant the p-value did not fall in the rejection of null hypothesis so there is basically no hard evidence against the hypothesized mean. We accept now the null hypothesis.

One-Factor ANOVA Another way of testing or experimenting if we are going to accept or reject the null hypothesis is the one-factor ANOVA, we now look at Table 6-1, based on the population size of n=77, we then use the one-factor ANOVA as an experiment to answer the problem, after imputing and analyzing the data we can see that the p-value resulted to a .7051 and we got an F of 0.14 since CR: F<p-value or 0.14<0.7051 we can conclude that it is not significant so we must accept the null hypothesis. Both the hypothesis testing and the onefactor ANOVA proved that gender has no relation to acne breakouts but is caused by some other factors.

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Chi-square Analysis for Independence We are not testing for the chi-square analysis for independence we would now look at Table 7-1, we then test the sample data for their independence level, almost all of the sample population observed and expected percent are almost equal resulting to a near 0% chi-squared only certain countries showed significant result which is the USA and India with 30.8% and 27.5% respectively. This means that larger geography and countries that are more populated differ from their expected outcome than the rest of the data. Conclusion and Recommendation In my paper we could see the difference in the descriptive statistics and the inferential statistics, in the descriptive statistics we could see the simple result of mean, median, simple variance and standard deviation, and we could compare and contrast the difference of each result to the totality as a whole. In the descriptive statistic we could easily infer that the female population is more prone to the male population if we are going to based it in numerical values. In the inferential statistics we are given a more detailed answer and experiment that is able to explain the direct and close relationship of each data. In here we have found out that acne and genders and race have no direct contact or is independent to one another. Reference

Acne Statistics (2005). Statistics by Country for Acne. Retrieve on August 15, 2011 at http://www.cureresearch.com/a/acne/stats-country_printer.htm

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Table 1: Recorded Acne Patients for 2004

Countries North and South America USA Canada Belize Brazil Chile Colombia Guatemala Mexico Nicaragua Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico Venezuela Europe Austria Belgium Britain Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Greece Germany Iceland Hungary Liechtenstein Ireland Italy Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom Wales Total 47,245,184 18,353,462 2,031,742 17,059 11,506,319 988,997 2,644,423 892,537 6,559,974 334,984 386,960 1,721,519 243,622 1,563,586 31,401,329 510,922 646,767 3,766,919 77,886 338,337 325,907 3,776,513 665,470 5,151,538 18,372 627,023 2,089 248,097 3,628,592 28,918 2,016 1,019,887 2,414,146 657,759 2,517,548 561,650 465,679 3,766,919 182,375 Male 20,673,649 7,341,385 853,332 7,677 5,523,033 405,489 1,348,656 428,418 2,951,988 150,743 170,262 705,823 114,502 672,342 14,123,478 204,369 271,642 1,695,114 37,385 138,718 166,213 1,812,726 299,462 2,060,615 7,716 282,160 836 104,201 1,632,866 13,881 827 520,142 1,158,790 295,992 1,132,897 247,126 190,928 1,770,452 78,421

Female 26,571,535 11,012,077 1,178,410 9,382 5,983,286 583,508 1,295,767 464,119 3,607,986 184,241 216,698 1,015,696 129,120 891,244 17,270,731 281,007 355,722 2,071,805 42,837 186,085 179,249 2,077,082 366,009 2,833,346 10,105 344,863 1,149 136,453 1,995,726 15,905 1,109 560,938 1,327,780 361,767 1,384,651 308,908 256,123 2,071,805 100,306

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Asia and The Pacific Bangladesh Bhutan China East Timor Hong Kong India Indonesia Japan Laos Macau Malaysia Mongolia Philippines Papua New Guinea Vietnam Singapore Pakistan North Korea South Korea Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Australia New Zealand Africa Angola Botswana Central Republic Chad Congo Brazzaville Congo Kinshasa Ethiopia Ghana Kenya Sudan South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe 215,882,842 8,833,779 136,598 81,177,976 63,703 428,445 66,566,912 14,903,309 7,958,312 379,257 27,830 1,470,155 171,957 5,390,106 338,767 5,166,425 272,118 9,949,771 1,418,597 3,014,610 1,244,072 1,421,864 4,054,095 1,244,571 249,613 22,492,322 1,782,104 4,757,338 82,811 4,218,950 1,585,918 387,438 350,700 141,096 236,076 351,974 1,612,246 1,126,054 4,305,869 157,744 144,450 1,251,554 101,525,163 3,533,512 57,371 36,530,089 30,577 175,662 33,949,125 7,153,588 3,581,240 170,666 12,245 602,764 68,783 2,263,845 152,445 2,479,884 111,568 5,074,383 680,927 1,356,575 559,832 625,620 1,662,179 584,948 107,334 9,585,144 712,842 1,998,082 33,124 1,687,580 666,086 174,347 168,336 57,849 120,399 168,948 725,511 506,724 1,894,582 64,675 67,892 538,168

118,735,563 4,858,578 75,129 44,647,887 35,037 235,645 36,611,802 8,196,820 4,377,072 208,591 15,307 808,585 94,576 2,964,558 186,322 2,841,534 149,665 5,472,374 780,228 1,658,036 684,240 782,025 2,229,752 684,514 137,287 12,370777 980,157 2,616,536 45,546 2,320,423 872,255 213,091 192,885 77,603 129,842 193,586 886,735 619,330 2,368,228 86,759 79,448 688,355

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Table 2-1: Descriptive Statistics (Recorded Acne Patients for 2004 World)

Descriptive Statistics

Totality (World) Count Mean Sample Variance Sample Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Population Variance Population Standard Deviation Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval 95.% lower Confidence Interval 95.% Upper Half-width Empirical Rule Mean - 1s Mean + 1s Percent in Interval (68.26%) Mean - 2s Mean + 2s Percent in Interval (95.44%) Mean - 3s Mean + 3s Percent in Interval (99.73%) Skewness Kurtosis Coefficient of Variation (CV) 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Inter Quartile range Mode Low Extremes Low Outliers High Outliers High Extremes Boys 77 1,894,901.742727 32,366,377,624,893.300000 5,689,145.597090 826.56 36530089.2 36529262.64 31,946,035,058,336.300000 5,652,082.364787 648,338.311807 Girls 77 2,272,059.820390 43,823,622,013,878.700000 6,619,941.239458 1108.8 44647886.8 44646778 43,254,484,065,646.500000 6,576,814.127345 754,412.319778

-3,794,243.854363 7,584,047.339818 97.4% -9,483,389.451454 13,273,192.936908 97.4% -15,172,535.048544 18,962,338.533999 97.4% -15,172,535.048544 18,962,338.533999 17,067,436.791271 5.475584 30.818791 300.23% 120,398.760000 428,417.760000 1,632,866.400000 1,512,467.640000 #N/A 0 0 2 4

-4,347,881.419069 8,892,001.059848 96.1% -10,967,822.658527 15,511,942.299306 97.4% -17,587,763.897985 22,131,883.538764 97.4% -17,587,763.897985 22,131,883.538764 19,859,823.718374 5.455699 31.156550 291.36% 149,664.900000 560,937.850000 1,995,725.600000 1,846,060.700000 #N/A 0 0 3 4

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Table 2-2: Descriptive Statistics (Recorded Acne Patients for 2004 North and South America)

Descriptive Statistics

North and South America Count Mean Sample Variance Sample Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Population Variance Population Standard Deviation Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval 95.% lower Confidence Interval 95.% Upper Half-width Empirical Rule Mean - 1s Mean + 1s Percent in Interval (68.26%) Mean - 2s Mean + 2s Percent in Interval (95.44%) Mean - 3s Mean + 3s Percent in Interval (99.73%) Skewness Kurtosis Coefficient of Variation (CV) 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Inter Quartile range Mode Low Extremes Low Outliers High Outliers High Extremes Boys 13 1,590,280.690769 5,345,606,482,950.080000 2,312,056.764647 7676.55 7341384.8 7333708.25 4,934,405,984,261.620000 2,221,352.287293 641,249.170517 193,118.772638 2,987,442.608900 1,397,161.918131 Girls 13 2,043,964.232308 10,109,918,117,694.900000 3,179,609.742987 9382.45 11012077.2 11002694.75 9,332,232,108,641.450000 3,054,870.227791 881,865.074177 122,545.296862 3,965,383.167754 1,921,418.935446

-721,776.073878 3,902,337.455416 84.6% -3,033,832.838525 6,214,394.220063 92.3% -5,345,889.603172 8,526,450.984710 100.0% 1.876046 2.641628 145.39% 170,262.400000 672,341.980000 1,348,655.730000 1,178,393.330000 #N/A 0 0 0 2

-1,135,645.510679 5,223,573.975294 84.6% -4,315,255.253665 8,403,183.718281 92.3% -7,494,864.996652 11,582,793.461267 100.0% 2.290172 5.223513 155.56% 216,697.600000 891,244.020000 1,295,767.270000 1,079,069.670000 #N/A 0 0 1 2

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Table 2-3: Descriptive Statistics (Recorded Acne Patients for 2004 Europe)

Descriptive Statistics

Europe Count Mean Sample Variance Sample Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Population Variance Population Standard Deviation Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval 95.% lower Confidence Interval 95.% Upper Half-width Empirical Rule Mean - 1s Mean + 1s Percent in Interval (68.26%) Mean - 2s Mean + 2s Percent in Interval (95.44%) Mean - 3s Mean + 3s Percent in Interval (99.73%) Skewness Kurtosis Coefficient of Variation (CV) 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Inter Quartile range Mode Low Extremes Low Outliers High Outliers High Extremes Boys 24 588,478.256250 492,487,975,782.363000 701,774.875428 826.56 2060615.2 2059788.64 471,967,643,458.098000 686,999.012705 143,249.196592 292,144.717225 884,811.795275 296,333.539025 Girls 24 719,613.789583 753,233,755,616.357000 867,890.405303 1108.8 2833345.9 2832237.1 721,849,015,799.009000 849,616.981821 177,157.387137 353,135.814532 1,086,091.764635 366,477.975052

-113,296.619178 1,290,253.131678 79.2% -815,071.494607 1,992,028.007107 95.8% -1,516,846.370035 2,693,802.882535 100.0% 1.081026 -0.496993 119.25% 97,755.867500 259,384.070000 1,139,369.970000 1,041,614.102500 #N/A 0 0 0 0

-148,276.615719 1,587,504.194886 79.2% -1,016,167.021022 2,455,394.600189 95.8% -1,884,057.426325 3,323,285.005491 100.0% 1.199782 0.036280 120.61% 127,416.575000 326,885.075000 1,341,998.075000 1,214,581.500000 #N/A 0 0 0 0

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Table 2-4: Descriptive Statistics (Recorded Acne Patients for 2004 Asia and the Pacific)

Descriptive Statistics

Asia and The Pacific Count Mean Sample Variance Sample Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Population Variance Population Standard Deviation Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval 95.% lower Confidence Interval 95.% Upper Half-width Empirical Rule Mean - 1s Mean + 1s Percent in Interval (68.26%) Mean - 2s Mean + 2s Percent in Interval (95.44%) Mean - 3s Mean + 3s Percent in Interval (99.73%) Skewness Kurtosis Coefficient of Variation (CV) 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Inter Quartile range Mode Low Extremes Low Outliers High Outliers High Extremes Boys 24 4,230,215.111667 94,679,114,136,653.800000 9,730,319.323468 12245.2 36530089.2 36517844 90,734,151,047,626.500000 9,525,447.551041 1,986,193.114737 121,461.632559 8,338,968.590775 4,108,753.479108 Girls 24 4,947,315.129167 126,692,198,371,929.000000 11,255,762.896043 15306.5 44647886.8 44632580.3 121,413,356,773,099.000000 11,018,772.925018 2,297,572.980088 194,423.325545 9,700,206.932788 4,752,891.803621

-5,500,104.211801 13,960,534.435135 91.7% -15,230,423.535269 23,690,853.758603 91.7% -24,960,742.858737 33,421,173.082071 91.7% 3.039926 8.357948 230.02% 142,225.957500 614,191.855000 2,743,290.900000 2,601,064.942500 #N/A 0 0 1 2

-6,308,447.766876 16,203,078.025209 91.7% -17,564,210.662919 27,458,840.921252 91.7% -28,819,973.558961 38,714,603.817295 95.8% 3.090067 8.864279 227.51% 177,157.612500 781,126.775000 3,317,686.625000 3,140,529.012500 #N/A 0 0 1 2

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Table 2-5: Descriptive Statistics (Recorded Acne Patients for 2004 Africa)

Descriptive Statistics

Africa Count Mean Sample Variance Sample Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum Range Population Variance Population Standard Deviation Standard Error of the Mean Confidence Interval 95.% lower Confidence Interval 95.% Upper Half-width Empirical Rule Mean - 1s Mean + 1s Percent in Interval (68.26%) Mean - 2s Mean + 2s Percent in Interval (95.44%) Mean - 3s Mean + 3s Percent in Interval (99.73%) Skewness Kurtosis Coefficient of Variation (CV) 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Inter Quartile range Mode Low Extremes Low Outliers High Outliers High Extremes Boys 16 599,071.523750 455,139,695,132.094000 674,640.419136 33124.4 1998081.96 1964957.56 426,693,464,186.338000 653,217.776998 168,660.104784 239,581.021721 958,562.025779 359,490.502029 Girls 16 773,173.568750 786,565,768,089.565000 886,885.431208 45546.05 2616535.9 2570989.85 737,405,407,583.968000 858,723.126266 221,721.357802 300,585.683613 1,245,761.453887 472,587.885137

-75,568.895386 1,273,711.942886 81.3% -750,209.314522 1,948,352.362022 93.8% -1,424,849.733658 2,622,992.781158 100.0% 1.294489 0.406018 112.61% 107,271.945000 340,535.700000 716,008.875000 608,736.930000 #N/A 0 0 3 0

-113,711.862458 1,660,058.999958 81.3% -1,000,597.293667 2,546,944.431167 93.8% -1,887,482.724875 3,433,829.862375 100.0% 1.291175 0.352179 114.71% 119,071.150000 416,210.300000 910,090.775000 791,019.625000 #N/A 0 0 3 0

Page 19

Frequency Distribution - Quantitative Data lower 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 upper midpoint width 42 41 2 44 43 2 46 45 2 48 47 2 50 49 2 52 51 2 54 53 2 Cumulative frequency percent frequency percent 12 15.6 12 15.6 19 24.7 31 40.3 10 13.0 41 53.2 15 19.5 56 72.7 12 15.6 68 88.3 8 10.4 76 98.7 1 1.3 77 100.0 77 100.0

Histogram

30 25 Number of Countries 20 15 10 5 0 % of Boys with Acne

Page 20

Frequency Distribution - Quantitative Data lower 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 upper midpoint width 50 49 2 52 51 2 54 53 2 56 55 2 58 57 2 60 59 2 62 61 2 cumulative frequency percent frequency percent 6 7.8 6 7.8 6 7.8 12 15.6 16 20.8 28 36.4 16 20.8 44 57.1 9 11.7 53 68.8 20 26.0 73 94.8 4 5.2 77 100.0 77 100.0

Histogram

30 25 Number of Countries 20 15 10 5 0 % of Girls with Acne Series1

Page 21

Confidence Interval - Mean 95% 1894901.743 5689145.597 77 1.960 1,270,719.7409 3,165,621.4837 624,182.0018 Confidence Level Mean Std. Dev. n z Half-width Upper confidence limit Lower confidence limit

Confidence Interval - Mean 95% 2272059.82 6619941.239 77 1.960 1,478,620.9763 3,750,680.7966 793,438.8441 Confidence Level Mean Std. Dev. n z Half-width Upper confidence limit Lower confidence limit

Page 22

Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (z-test) Group 1 1,894,901.742727 5,689,145.597090 77 Group 2 2,272,059.820390 mean 6,619,941.239458 std. dev. 77 n -377,158.0776623 difference (Group 1 - Group 2) 994,726.3517115 standard error of difference 0 hypothesized difference -0.38 z .7046 p-value (2-tailed) -2,326,785.9014898 confidence interval 95.% lower 1,572,469.7461651 confidence interval 95.% upper 1,949,627.8238274 half-width

Page 23

One factor ANOVA Mean n 1,894,901.74273 77 2,272,059.82039 77 2,083,480.78156 154 ANOVA table Source Treatment Error Total Std. Dev 5,689,145.597090 Boys 6,619,941.239458 Girls 6,154,819.849360 Total

MS 5,476,556,298,519.1 38,094,999,819,386.0

F 0.14

p-value .7051

Comparison of Groups

2,400,000.00000 2,300,000.00000 2,200,000.00000 2,100,000.00000 2,000,000.00000 1,900,000.00000 1,800,000.00000 1,700,000.00000 Boys Girls

Page 24

USA

Canada

Belize

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Guatemala

Mexico

Nicaragua

Paraguay

Peru

Puerto Rico

Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed

Boys 7341385 8346131.05 16.8% 853332 923922.96 0.7% 7677 7757.48 0.0% 5523033 5232432.24 2.2% 405489 449740.68 0.6% 1348656 1202536.12 2.5% 428418 405876.06 0.2% 2951988 2983110.36 0.0% 150743 152332.04 0.0% 170262 175967.83 0.0% 705823 782850.84 1.1% 114502

Girls 11012077 10007330.95 14.0% 1178410 1107819.04 0.6% 9382 9301.52 0.0% 5983286 6273886.76 1.9% 583508 539256.32 0.5% 1295767 1441886.88 2.1% 464119 486660.94 0.1% 3607986 3576863.64 0.0% 184241 182651.96 0.0% 216698 210992.17 0.0% 1015696 938668.16 0.9% 129120

Total 18353462 18353462.00 30.8% 2031742 2031742.00 1.4% 17059 17059.00 0.0% 11506319 11506319.00 4.1% 988997 988997.00 1.1% 2644423 2644423.00 4.5% 892537 892537.00 0.3% 6559974 6559974.00 0.1% 334984 334984.00 0.0% 386960 386960.00 0.0% 1721519 1721519.00 1.9% 243622

Page 25

Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq 110785.70 0.0% 672342 711031.72 0.3% 204369 220721.94 0.2% 271642 285290.16 0.1% 1695114 1712984.70 0.0% 37385 36480.49 0.0% 138718 147702.29 0.1% 166213 157096.85 0.1% 1812726 1768867.77 0.2% 299462 302619.10 0.0% 2060615 2225500.55 1.7% 7716 8104.00 0.0% 282160 285135.09 0.0% 836 902.67 0.0% 104201 109436.02 0.0% 132836.30 0.0% 891244 852554.28 0.2% 281007 264654.06 0.1% 355722 342073.84 0.1% 2071805 2053934.30 0.0% 42837 43741.51 0.0% 186085 177100.71 0.1% 179249 188365.15 0.1% 2077082 2120940.23 0.1% 366009 362851.90 0.0% 2833346 2668460.45 1.4% 10105 9717.00 0.0% 344863 341887.91 0.0% 1149 1082.33 0.0% 136453 131217.98 0.0%

243622.00 0.0% 1563586 1563586.00 0.5% 485376 485376.00 0.3% 627364 627364.00 0.2% 3766919 3766919.00 0.0% 80222 80222.00 0.0% 324803 324803.00 0.1% 345462 345462.00 0.1% 3889808 3889808.00 0.3% 665471 665471.00 0.0% 4893961 4893961.00 3.1% 17821 17821.00 0.0% 627023 627023.00 0.0% 1985 1985.00 0.0% 240654 240654.00 0.1%

Page 26

Venezuela

Austria

Belgium

Britain

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Greece

Germany

Iceland

Hungary

Liechtenstein

Ireland

Italy Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected 1632866 1650081.30 0.0% 13881 13545.01 0.0% 827 880.38 0.0% 520142 491614.90 0.2% 1158790 1130753.37 0.1% 295992 299112.11 0.0% 1132897 1144840.44 0.0% 247126 252853.26 0.0% 190928 203293.87 0.1% 1770452 1747244.22 0.0% 78421 81275.07 0.0% 3533512 3816254.55 2.9% 57371 60253.61 0.0% 36530089 36915216.64 0.6% 30577 29837.59 1995726 1978510.70 0.0% 15905 16240.99 0.0% 1109 1055.62 0.0% 560938 589465.10 0.2% 1327780 1355816.63 0.1% 361767 358646.89 0.0% 1384651 1372707.56 0.0% 308908 303180.74 0.0% 256123 243757.13 0.1% 2071805 2095012.78 0.0% 100306 97451.93 0.0% 4858578 4575835.45 2.4% 75129 72246.39 0.0% 44647887 44262759.36 0.5% 35037 35776.41

3628592 3628592.00 0.0% 29786 29786.00 0.0% 1936 1936.00 0.0% 1081080 1081080.00 0.4% 2486570 2486570.00 0.2% 657759 657759.00 0.0% 2517548 2517548.00 0.0% 556034 556034.00 0.0% 447051 447051.00 0.2% 3842257 3842257.00 0.1% 178727 178727.00 0.0% 8392090 8392090.00 5.3% 132500 132500.00 0.0% 81177976 81177976.00 1.0% 65614 65614.00

Page 27

Luxembourg

Monaco

Netherlands

Poland

Portugal

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

United Kingdom

Wales

Bangladesh

Bhutan

China

East Timor

% of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq 0.0% 175662 187039.49 0.1% 33949125 32087174.81 15.0% 7153588 6980509.55 0.6% 3581240 3618996.51 0.1% 170666 172464.93 0.0% 12245 12529.11 0.0% 602764 641802.82 0.3% 68783 74286.56 0.1% 2263845 2377586.13 0.8% 152445 154052.34 0.0% 2479884 2419884.16 0.2% 111568 118794.20 0.1% 5074383 4796076.95 2.2% 680927 664451.81 0.1% 0.0% 235645 224267.51 0.1% 36611802 38473752.19 12.5% 8196820 8369898.45 0.5% 4377072 4339315.49 0.0% 208591 206792.07 0.0% 15307 15022.89 0.0% 808585 769546.18 0.3% 94576 89072.44 0.0% 2964558 2850816.87 0.6% 186322 184714.66 0.0% 2841534 2901533.84 0.2% 149665 142438.80 0.1% 5472374 5750680.05 1.9% 780228 796703.19 0.0%

0.0% 411307 411307.00 0.2% 70560927 70560927.00 27.5% 15350408 15350408.00 1.1% 7958312 7958312.00 0.1% 379257 379257.00 0.0% 27552 27552.00 0.0% 1411349 1411349.00 0.6% 163359 163359.00 0.1% 5228403 5228403.00 1.4% 338767 338767.00 0.0% 5321418 5321418.00 0.4% 261233 261233.00 0.1% 10546757 10546757.00 4.1% 1461155 1461155.00 0.1%

Page 28

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Japan

Laos

Macau

Malaysia

Mongolia

Philippines

Vietnam

Singapore

Pakistan

North Korea

South Korea Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq 1356575 1370876.97 0.0% 559832 565734.57 0.0% 625620 640118.45 0.0% 1662179 1769833.19 0.9% 584948 577280.53 0.0% 107334 111239.99 0.0% 712842 769881.54 0.6% 1998082 2098470.93 0.7% 33124 35774.73 0.0% 1687580 1822616.26 1.4% 666086 699551.70 0.2% 174347 176185.20 0.0% 168336 164263.17 0.0% 57849 61596.02 0.0% 1658036 1643734.03 0.0% 684240 678337.43 0.0% 782025 767526.55 0.0% 2229752 2122097.81 0.8% 684514 692181.47 0.0% 137287 133381.01 0.0% 980157 923117.46 0.5% 2616536 2516147.07 0.6% 45546 42895.27 0.0% 2320423 2185386.74 1.2% 872255 838789.30 0.2% 213091 211252.80 0.0% 192885 196957.83 0.0% 77603 73855.98 0.0%

3014611 3014611.00 0.0% 1244072 1244072.00 0.0% 1407645 1407645.00 0.1% 3891931 3891931.00 1.7% 1269462 1269462.00 0.0% 244621 244621.00 0.0% 1692999 1692999.00 1.1% 4614618 4614618.00 1.2% 78670 78670.00 0.0% 4008003 4008003.00 2.5% 1538341 1538341.00 0.4% 387438 387438.00 0.0% 361221 361221.00 0.0% 135452 135452.00 0.1%

Page 29

Sri Lanka

Taiwan

Thailand

Australia

New Zealand

Angola

Botswana

Central Republic

Chad

Congo Brazzaville

Congo Kinshasa

Ethiopia

Ghana

Kenya Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq Observed Expected % of chisq 120399 113795.65 0.1% 168948 164860.25 0.0% 725511 733159.57 0.0% 506724 512066.57 0.0% 1894582 1938488.27 0.1% 64675 68863.74 0.0% 67892 67002.02 0.0% 538168 557754.26 0.1% 145907436 145907436.00 54.5% 129842 136445.35 0.0% 193586 197673.75 0.0% 886735 879086.43 0.0% 619330 613987.43 0.0% 2368228 2324321.73 0.1% 86759 82570.26 0.0% 79448 80337.98 0.0% 688355 668768.74 0.1% 174948607 174948607.00 45.5%

250241 250241.00 0.1% 362534 362534.00 0.0% 1612246 1612246.00 0.0% 1126054 1126054.00 0.0% 4262810 4262810.00 0.3% 151434 151434.00 0.1% 147340 147340.00 0.0% 1226523 1226523.00 0.2% 320856043 320856043.00 100.0%

Sudan

South Africa

Swaziland

Tanzania

Uganda

Zambia

Zimbabwe

Total

Page 30

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