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STANDARD TENSILE SPECIMEN reduced section 2.25" .505" 2.00" gauge length .375" radius .

750"

TENSILE STRESS AND STRAIN


F l

l lo d

do tensile stress: tensile strain: modulus of elasticity: s = F/Ao e = Dl/lo E = s/e

SHEAR STRESS AND STRAIN F l

l lo d

do shear stress: shear strain: modulus of rigidity: = F/Ao e = Dl/lo G = s/e

STRESS-STRAIN CURVE TS y
stress (GPa)
P

strain TS = tensile strength F = failure point y = yield strength

P = proportional limit Y = yield point (elastic limit) M = maximum stress point

elastic deformation occurs for <y plastic deformation occurs for >y

stress (GPa)

TERMINOLOGY elastic deformation - the deformation of a material by stress which is fully recoverable upon the removal of the stress (recoverable strain); this deformation is not necessarily linear in the applied stress plastic deformation - the deformation of a material by stress which is not fully recoverable upon the removal of the stress (permanent strain) tensile strength (TS) - the maximum tensile stress that a material can be subject to without it being brought to fracture upon constant application of that stress yield strength (y) - the maximum tensile stress that a material can be subject to without plastic deformation occuring proportional limit - that point on the stress-strain curve for a material under which the stress is a homogeneous linear function of strain (i.e. for which there exists a constant E such that =E)

SECANT MODULUS

1
stress (GPa) stress (GPa)

strain

If a material does not have an obviously linear lower portion of its stress-strain curve, a secant modulus can be defined for the material for a given strain value 1 as: Es=1/1 [note that this value is the slope of the line connecting the origin to the point (1,1) on the curve].

TANGENT MODULUS

1
stress (GPa) stress (GPa)

strain

If a material does not have an obviously linear lower portion of its stress-strain curve, a tangent modulus can be defined for the material for a given strain value 1 as: Et=(d/d)(1) [note that this value is the slope of the line tangent to the stress-strain curve at the point (1,1)].

INTERPRETING YIELD STRENGTH

y
stress (GPa) stress (GPa)

.002

strain

If a material has an obviously linear lower section of - curve, the yield strength y can be interpreted as the stress value associated with the intersection of the - curve and a line drawn from the =.002 value on the abscissa, up through the - curve and parallel to the linear portion of the - curve.

INTERPRETING YIELD STRENGTH

stress (GPa)

.005

strain

If a material does not have an obviously linear lower portion of its stress-strain curve, the yield strength y of the material can be interpreted as the stress value associated with the =.005 strain value.

stress (GPa)

INTERPRETING YIELD STRENGTH

Yu y
stress (GPa) stress (GPa)

Yl

strain If a material has a stress-strain behavior that exhibits the "yield point phenomenon" (such as some types of steel), the yield strength y is taken to be the stress value associated with the lower yield point Yl on the curve above.

TENSILE PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS material tungsten (W) steel (1020) titanium (Ti) brass (70-30) aluminum (Al) E(GPa) 407 207 107 97 69 y(MPa) TS(MPa) %EL .28 .30 .34 .34 .33 .22 .31 .17 .23 .39 .39 --.38 --760 180 450 75 35 --------64 34 29 43 --960 380 520 300 90 500 1150 110 69 85 36 26 7 3850 2 25 25 68 40 --------225 350 1100 60 2.8

393 alumina Al2O3 205 zirconia ZrO2 73 fused silica SiO2 soda-lime glass 69 nylon 6,6 polypropylene HD polyethylene polyvinyl chloride Kevlar 49 2.7 1.4 1.1 3.2 131

note: a theoretical shear modulus value can be calculated using G=E/2(1+)

RESILIENCE

y
stress (GPa) stress (GPa)

strain

The resilience (Ur) of a material is the maximum amount of energy per unit volume the material can absorb elastically during tensile deformation. It is equal to the area under the stress-strain curve between =0 and =y. This energy is recoverable upon unloading. Ur =

sd = sEd (1/2)E

2 y

= y2/2E