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References:

http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/assist/cas/water/index.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_well
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwwells.htm
http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthgwquality.html
www.lwua.gov.ph/downloads/pdf/watercodephil.pdf

I. Introduction
II. Well Construction
-Types of wells
III. Well location
-Factors that influence ground water pollution
IV. Water Contaminants and their effects of one’s health
V. Protecting your well
- Water testing
- Water Treatment for specific contaminants
VI. Water Code of the Philippines

INTRODUCTION

Groundwater and Wells


Our drinking water comes either from surface water (lakes, streams, or rivers) or
from groundwater. Surface water is more vulnerable to contamination and
requires extensive testing and treatment to assure that it is safe to drink.
Groundwater obtained from a well is usually safe to drink without treatment, if the
well has been properly constructed and maintained.

Groundwater and surface water are both part of the “hydrologic cycle,” which is
illustrated in Figure 1. Water rises from the earth’s surface as evaporation and
falls to the earth as precipita-tion, in the form of snow or rain. Water that falls on
the ground either moves over the ground as runoff or down through the soil to
the saturated zone through infiltration — and then through an aquifer to an area
of discharge, such as a river, lake, or pumping well.
If you drink water, it comes from a well or spring (groundwater sources) or
a river or lake (surface water sources). Fifty percent of the drinking water comes
from wells, so it is important to take care of the groundwater upon which wells
rely and to take care of the wells themselves. Many of the things we do at home
can pollute our water and the environment. Poorly maintained or designed septic
systems or poor well construction can pollute surface water and groundwater.
Pesticides, fertilizers, fuels, and cleaning products can contaminate our water
when they are not stored and handled properly.

It is very expensive and in some cases nearly impossible to get pollutants


out of water once they get there. Expensive treatments or new wells would be
required to get safe drinking water again and clean up the pollutants in the
coastal waters. Clearly, it is much more effective to keep pollutants out of water
than to try to clean it up afterward.

People who have their own wells or springs for drinking water need to be
especially aware of pollution sources because their water is not tested for
contaminants as is city water. This is called "wellhead protection" and involves
careful attention to the activities near your well to be sure the water from that well
remains safe. However, everyone is responsible for protecting drinking water
supplies, whether it is their own or their neighbors'.

Keeping your well water free of harmful contaminants is top priority for
your health and for the environment. Areas experiencing rapid population growth
can deplete groundwater supplies. In places near the sea, if the water in a well is
pumped too quickly and the groundwater cannot replenish it, the well can go dry
or salt water can enter the well at the base and contaminate the drinking water.

One of the easiest ways to protect well water from pollution is to make
sure that the well is in good shape and placed in the right location. A poorly built
or maintained well can allow pollutants to enter water directly. The closer the well
is to sources of pollution, the more likely the well will become polluted. For
instance, if the well casing is cracked and pesticides that are being mixed near
the well are spilled, the pesticides can easily leak into the well and pollute your
drinking water. These pollutants can also spread to a neighbor's well and seep
into the tidal creeks, sounds, or estuaries that surround the home.

Well Construction

A well is the most common way to obtain groundwater for household use. A well
is basically a hole in the ground, held open by a pipe (or casing) that extends to
an aquifer. A pump draws water from the aquifer for distribution through the
plumbing system. The depth to which wells are constructed is determined by
factors such as 1) depth to groundwater, 2) the groundwater quality, and 3) the
geologic conditions at the well site.

Types of Wells
A. Drilled wells

One of two methods is typically used to construct a drilled well. One


method is called the cable tool method. A cable tool drilling machine uses
a wire or “cable” to raise and lower a heavy chisel-shaped bit, which
breaks up sediment and rock into small pieces called cuttings. The
cuttings are removed from the hole with a bailer — a hollow tube or pipe
with a valve on the bottom. Well casing, which is a special type of pipe, is
pounded into the ground as the hole is deepened to keep the hole open.

A second method is known as the rotary method. A rotary drilling


machine uses a rotating bit on the end of a hollow drill rod. Water and a
special kind of clay slurry (called drilling mud) or foam are forced down
the inside of the drill pipe as the bit rotates. The drilling mud or foam
carries the cuttings, which consist of ground up rock and sediment, up and
out of the space between the outside of the drill pipe and the drill hole.
Well casing is then lowered into the hole. Domestic and commercial wells
are usually constructed using the rotary method.

B. Driven wells

A drive-point well — also known as a sand-point or well-point — is an


example of a driven well. Drive-point wells are constructed using a
pointed screen on the end of a series of tightly coupled lengths of steel
pipe. The well casing pipe, which is usually 1¼ inches in diameter, is
driven into the ground with a heavy hammer or well driver until the point is
below the water table. Water then flows into the pipe through screened
openings in the well point.

C. Dug wells

A bored well is constructed using an earth auger, which bores a hole into
the earth. The bore hole is then lined — or cased — with masonry,
concrete curbing, or casing. A dug well is constructed by excavating or
digging a hole, generally several feet in diameter, down to the water table.
Rock, brick, wood, pipe, and other materials have been used in the past to
line the walls of dug wells.

Dug wells, bored wells, and drive-point wells are often less than 50 feet
deep, and are more likely to be contaminated by surface water, sewage from
septic systems, or chemical spills. Many of the construction techniques
historically used for these shallow wells are not sanitary and are no longer legal
under the state rules.
Well Location

A well's location is important. Stormwater runoff (water that flows over the
land during a storm) can carry pollutants such as bacteria, oil, and pesticides.
Wells in the path of stormwater runoff can become polluted if stormwater runoff
flows into a well that is not properly sealed. A well that is downhill from pollutants
such as an overfertilized crop field or garden, a leaking home heating tank, or a
failing septic system runs a greater risk of becoming polluted than a well that is
uphill from these sources of pollution. People with wells located near a canal,
tidal creek, or estuary also need to be careful of pollution sources that can
spread to those waters. Salt water intrusion can occur in wells near canals,
creeks, and estuaries, as well as when a well is over-pumped.

A. How close is the well to sources of pollution?

Minimum allowable distances by which well can be built away from


sources of pollution are called "separation distances." These minimum distances
are set in order to make use of the natural protection soil provides. Some
variances permit as little as 50 feet separation, which is fairly common in coastal
counties. It is important to check with your local health department for this
information.

When no distances are mentioned for the specific activity or structure you
have in mind, provide as much separation as possible between your well and any
potential source of pollution. If your home is located on soils that soak up water
very quickly (such as sandy soils) maximum separation is needed. If the source
or activity presents a high risk of pollution, keep it as far away from your well as
possible.
The isolation distances are based on the ability of soil and bedrock to
remove certain types of contaminants from the groundwater before they reach
the well. A well may be more susceptible to contamination if its watertight casing
extends less than 50 feet below the soil surface — or if it passes through less
than 10 feet of a confining layer. These more vulnerable wells must be located
at least twice as far as other wells from sources of contamination that leach
contaminants to the soil, such as septic system drainfields.
Figure shows Selected “Isolation” or Separation Distances.

B. How well does the soil filter out pollutants?


Soil can filter pollutants carried by stormwater runoff as it travels down to
groundwater. The ability of soil to filter your water depends on the type of soil
around the well. Water passes quickly through sand, so sandy soil cannot filter
out pollutants. Water and pollutants move more slowly through clay, so clay soils
have more time to filter out pollutants. Soils high in organic matter content also
filter pollutants.

C. How quickly does water reach your well?

Another factor that influences groundwater pollution is the depth from the
soil surface to the water table. The water table is the top of the groundwater.
Groundwater can be stored in soil. The farther water and pollutants have to move
through the soil to reach the top of the water table, the longer the soil will have to
filter the groundwater.

D. Is your well drilled or dug?

Wells that have been dug rather than drilled pose the highest risk of
pollution because they are shallow and often poorly protected from stormwater
runoff.
A dug well is a large-diameter hole (usually more than 2 feet wide), which often
has been constructed by hand.

Shallow driven wells, also known as sand point wells, pose a moderate to
high risk of being polluted. They can only be installed in areas of relatively loose
soils, such as sand, because they are constructed by driving a small-diameter
pipe into the ground.

Other types of wells include jetted wells, in which water under high
pressure washes away the soil, and bored wells, in which an earth auger
removes the soil. Drilled wells are made either by rotary drilling or by percussion
drilling. (Some people refer to drilled wells as "punched.") Drilled wells for home
use are commonly 2 to 4 inches in diameter. Bored wells are commonly 18-24
inches in diameter. Drilled or jetted wells are the safest types.

Water Contaminants
Contaminants can be natural or human-induced

Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments.


As ground water flows through sediments, metals such as iron and manganese
are dissolved and may later be found in high concentrations in the water.
Industrial discharges, urban activities, agriculture, ground-water pumpage, and
disposal of waste all can affect ground-water quality. Contaminants from leaking
fuel tanks or fuel or toxic chemical spills may enter the ground water and
contaminate the aquifer. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to lawns and crops can
accumulate and migrate to the water table.

The physical properties of an aquifer, such as thickness, rock or sediment


type, and location, play a large part in determining whether contaminants from
the land surface will reach the ground water. The risk of contamination is greater
for unconfined (water-table) aquifers than for confined aquifers because they
usually are nearer to land surface and lack an overlying confining layer to impede
the movement of contaminants. Because ground water moves slowly in the
subsurface and many contaminants sorb to the sediments, restoration of a
contaminated aquifer is difficult and may require years, decades, centuries, or
even millennia.

Inorganic contaminants found in ground water


Contaminant Sources to ground water Potential health and other
effects
Aluminum Occurs naturally in some rocks and Can precipitate out of water
drainage from mines. after treatment, causing
increased turbidity or
discolored water.
Antimony Enters environment from natural Decreases longevity, alters
weathering, industrial production, blood levels of glucose and
municipal waste disposal, and cholesterol in laboratory
manufacturing of flame retardants, animals exposed at high
ceramics, glass, batteries, fireworks, levels over their lifetime.
and explosives.
Arsenic Enters environment from natural Causes acute and chronic
processes, industrial activities, toxicity, liver and kidney
pesticides, and industrial waste, damage; decreases blood
smelting of copper, lead, and zinc ore. hemoglobin. Possible
carcinogen.
Barium Occurs naturally in some limestones, Can cause a variety of
sandstones, and soils in the eastern cardiac, gastrointestinal, and
United States. neuromuscular effects.
Associated
with hypertension and
cardiotoxicity in animals.
Beryllium Occurs naturally in soils, ground water, Causes acute and chronic
and surface water. Often used in toxicity; can cause damage
electrical industry equipment and to lungs and bones. Possible
components, nuclear power and space carcinogen.
industry. Enters the environment from
mining operations, processing plants,
and improper waste disposal. Found in
low concentrations in rocks, coal, and
petroleum and enters the ground and
Cadmium Found in low concentrations in rocks, Replaces zinc biochemically
coal, and petroleum and enters the in the body and causes high
ground and surface water when blood pressure, liver and
dissolved by acidic waters. May enter kidney
the environment from industrial damage, and anemia.
discharge, mining waste, metal plating, Destroys testicular tissue
water pipes, batteries, paints and and red blood cells. Toxic to
pigments, plastic stabilizers, and landfill aquatic
leachate. biota.
Chloride May be associated with the presence of Deteriorates plumbing, water
sodium in drinking water when present heaters, and municipal
in high concentrations. Often from water-works equipment at
saltwater intrusion, mineral dissolution, high levels.
industrial and domestic waste. Above secondary maximum
contaminant level, taste
becomes noticeable.
Chromium Enters environment from old mining Chromium III is a
operations runoff and leaching into nutritionally essential
ground water, fossil-fuel combustion, element. Chromium VI is
cement-plant emissions, mineral much more toxic than
leaching, and waste incineration. Used Chromium III and causes
in metal plating and as a cooling-tower liver and kidney damage,
water additive. internal hemorrhaging,
respiratory
damage, dermatitis, and
ulcers on the skin at high
concentrations.
Copper Enters environment from metal plating, Can cause stomach and
industrial and domestic waste, mining, intestinal distress, liver and
and mineral leaching. kidney damage, anemia in
high doses. Imparts an
adverse taste and significant
staining to clothes and
fixtures. Essential
trace element but toxic to
plants and algae at
moderate levels.
Cyanide Often used in electroplating, steel Poisoning is the result of
processing, plastics, synthetic fabrics, damage to spleen, brain,
and fertilizer production; also from and liver.
improper waste disposal.
Dissolved Occur naturally but also enters May have an influence on
solids environment from man-made sources the acceptability of water in
such as landfill leachate, feedlots, or general. May be indicative of
sewage. A measure of the dissolved the
“salts” or minerals in the water. May presence of excess
also include some dissolved organic concentrations of specific
compounds. substances not included in
the Safe Water
Drinking Act, which would
make water objectionable.
High concentrations of
dissolved
solids shorten the life of hot
water heaters.
Fluoride Occurs naturally or as an additive to Decreases incidence of
municipal water supplies; widely used in tooth decay but high levels
industry. can stain or mottle teeth.
Causes crippling
bone disorder (calcification
of the bones and joints) at
very high levels.
Hardness Result of metallic ions dissolved in the Decreases the lather
water; reported as concentration of formation of soap and
calcium carbonate. increases scale formation in
Calcium carbonate is derived from hot-water heaters
dissolved limestone or discharges from and low-pressure boilers at
operating high levels.
or abandoned mines.
Iron Occurs naturally as a mineral from Imparts a bitter astringent
sediment and rocks or from mining, taste to water and a
industrial waste, brownish color to laundered
and corroding metal. clothing and
plumbing fixtures.
Lead Enters environment from industry, Affects red blood cell
mining, plumbing, gasoline, coal, and as chemistry; delays normal
a water physical and mental
additive. development in
babies and young children.
Causes slight deficits in
attention span, hearing, and
learning
in children. Can cause slight
increase in blood pressure in
some adults. Probable
carcinogen.

Manganese Occurs naturally as a mineral from Causes aesthetic and


sediment and rocks or from mining and economic damage, and
industrial waste. imparts brownish stains to
laundry. Affects
taste of water, and causes
dark brown or black stains
on plumbing fixtures.
Relatively
non-toxic to animals but
toxic to plants at high levels.
Mercury Occurs as an inorganic salt and as Causes acute and chronic
organic mercury compounds. Enters the toxicity. Targets the kidneys
environment from industrial waste, and can cause nervous
mining, pesticides, coal, electrical system disorders.
equipment (batteries, lamps, switches),
smelting, and fossil-fuel combustion.
Nickel Occurs naturally in soils, ground water, Damages the heart and liver
and surface water. Often used in of laboratory animals
electroplating, stainless steel and alloy exposed to large amounts
products, mining, and refining. over their lifetime.
Nitrate (as Occurs naturally in mineral deposits, Toxicity results from the
nitrogen) soils, seawater, freshwater systems, the body’s natural breakdown of
atmosphere, and biota. More stable nitrate to nitrite. Causes
form of combined nitrogen in “bluebaby disease,” or
oxygenated water. Found in the highest methemoglobinemia, which
levels in ground water under extensively threatens oxygen-carrying
developed areas. Enters the capacity of the blood.
environment from fertilizer, feedlots, and
sewage.
Nitrite Enters environment from fertilizer, Toxicity results from the
(combined sewage, and human or farm-animal body’s natural breakdown of
nitrate/nitrite) waste. nitrate to nitrite. Causes
“bluebaby disease,” or
methemoglobinemia, which
threatens oxygen-carrying
capacity of the blood.
Selenium Enters environment from naturally Causes acute and chronic
occurring geologic sources, sulfur, and toxic effects in
coal. animals--”blind staggers” in
cattle. Nutritionally essential
element at low doses but
toxic at high doses.
Silver Enters environment from ore mining Can cause argyria, a blue-
and processing, product fabrication, and gray coloration of the skin,
disposal. Often used in photography, mucous membranes, eyes,
electric and electronic equipment, and organs in humans and
sterling and electroplating, alloy, and animals with chronic
solder. Because of great economic exposure.
value of silver, recovery practices are
typically used to minimize loss.
Sodium Derived geologically from leaching of Can be a health risk factor
surface and underground deposits of for those individuals on a
salt and decomposition of various low-sodium diet.
minerals. Human activities contribute
through de-icing and washing products.
Sulfate Elevated concentrations may result Forms hard scales on boilers
from saltwater intrusion, mineral and heat exchangers; can
dissolution, and domestic or industrial change the taste of water,
waste. and has a laxative effect in
high doses.
Thallium Enters environment from soils; used in Damages kidneys, liver,
electronics, pharmaceuticals brain, and intestines in
manufacturing, glass, and alloys. laboratory animals when
given in high doses over
their lifetime.
Zinc Found naturally in water, most Aids in the healing of
frequently in areas where it is mined. wounds. Causes no ill health
Enters environment from industrial effects except in very high
waste, metal plating, and plumbing, and doses. Imparts an
is a major component of sludge. undesirable taste to water.
Toxic to plants at high levels.
Organic contaminants found in ground water
Contaminant Sources to ground water Potential health and
other effects
Volatile organic Enter environment when used to Can cause cancer and liver
compounds make plastics, dyes, rubbers, damage, anemia,
polishes, solvents, crude oil, gastrointestinal disorder,
insecticides, inks, varnishes, skin irritation, blurred
paints, disinfectants, gasoline vision, exhaustion, weight
products, pharmaceuticals, loss, damage to the
preservatives, spot removers, nervous system, and
paint removers, degreasers, and respiratory tract irritation.
many more.
Pesticides Enter environment as herbicides, Cause poisoning,
insecticides, fungicides, headaches, dizziness,
rodenticides, and algicides. gastrointestinal
disturbance, numbness,
weakness, and cancer.
Destroys nervous system,
thyroid, reproductive
system, liver, and kidneys.
Plasticizers, Used as sealants, linings, Cause cancer. Damages
chlorinated solvents, pesticides, plasticizers, nervous and reproductive
solvents, components of gasoline, systems, kidney, stomach,
benzo[a]pyrene, disinfectant, and wood and liver.
and dioxin preservative. Enters the
environment from improper waste
disposal, leaching runoff, leaking
storage tank, and industrial
runoff.
Microbiological contaminants found in ground water
Coliform Occur naturally in the environment from soils Bacteria, viruses, and
bacteria and plants and in the intestines of humans and parasites can cause
other warm-blooded animals. Used as an polio, cholera, typhoid
indicator for the presence of pathogenic fever, dysentery, and
bacteria, viruses, and parasites from domestic infectious hepatitis.
sewage, animal waste, or plant or soil material.
Radiological contaminants found in ground water
Gross alpha- A category of radioactive isotopes. Occurs Damages tissues
particle activity from either natural or man-made sources and destroys bone
including weapons, nuclear reactors, atomic marrow.
energy for power, medical treatment and
diagnosis, mining radioactive material, and
naturally occurring radioactive geologic
formations. Primary concern is natural
sources, which are ubiquitous in the
environment (Durrance, 1986); secondary
concern is man-made sources.
Combined Enters environment from natural and man- Causes cancer by
radium-226 made sources. Historical industrial-waste concentrating in the
and radium- sites are the main man-made source. bone and skeletal
228 tissue.
Beta-particle A category of radioactive isotopes from either Damages tissues
and photon natural or man-made sources including and destroys bone
radioactivity weapons, nuclear reactors, atomic energy for marrow.
power, medical treatment and diagnosis,
mining radioactive material, and naturally
occurring radioactive geologic formations.
Primary concern is man-made sources
because of widespread use (Durrance,
1986); secondary concern is natural sources.
Physical characteristics of ground water
Turbidity Caused by the presence of Objectionable for aesthetic
suspended matter such as clay, silt, reasons. Indicative of clay or other
and fine particles of organic and inert suspended particles in
inorganic matter, plankton, and drinking water. May not adversely
other microscopic organisms. A affect health but may cause need
measure how much light can filter for additional treatment. Following
through the water sample. rainfall, variations in ground-water
turbidity may be an indicator of
surface contamination.
Color Can be caused by decaying leaves, Suggests that treatment is needed.
plants, organic matter, copper, iron, No health concerns. Aesthetically
and manganese, which may be unpleasing.
objectionable. Indicative of large
amounts of organic chemicals,
inadequate treatment, and high
disinfection demand. Potential for
production of excess amounts of
disinfection byproducts.
pH Indicates, by numerical expression, High pH causes a bitter taste; water
the degree to which water is pipes and water-using appliances
alkaline or acidic. Represented on become encrusted; depresses the
a scale of 0-14 where 0 is the most effectiveness of the disinfection of
acidic, 14 is the most alkaline, and chlorine, thereby causing the need
7 is neutral. for additional chlorine when pH is
high. Low-pH water will corrode or
dissolve metals and other
substances.
Odor Certain odors may be indicative of
organic or non-organic
contaminants that originate from
municipal or industrial waste
discharges or from natural sources.
Taste Some substances such as certain
organic salts produce a taste
without an odor and can be
evaluated by a taste test. Many
other sensations ascribed to the
sense of taste actually are odors,
even though the sensation is not
noticed until the material is taken
into the mouth.

Protecting your well

When landscaping, keep the top of the well at least one foot above the
ground surface. Make sure that the well cap is undamaged and securely
attached to the well casing, and that any connections to the well stay watertight.
Keep hazardous chemicals like paint, fertilizer, pesticides, fuels, and motor oil
away from your well.

Seal any unused wells on your property to protect your groundwater from
contamination. Unused or abandoned wells that have not been properly sealed
can provide a direct pathway for contaminants to enter the groundwater. An
unused, unsealed well can potentially threaten water quality for new wells.
Unused wells also pose a safety hazard, especially for children, pets, and
livestock. It is illegal to dispose of wastes in an unused well, and it will result in
additional costs to clean the well and possibly the groundwater before the well is
sealed.

Water Testing
Water should be tested once a year for bacteria and nitrate, which can
cause health problems. Yearly testing is necessary because groundwater travels
and may pick up pollutants elsewhere. So even if you are doing everything you
can to prevent your well from being contaminated, it may become polluted from
other people's activities. If your water has high bacteria or nitrate levels, talk to a
county health specialist. There may be problems with the location or construction
of your well.

Test for pollutants that are most likely at your home.

• Test for lead if you have lead pipes or soldered copper joints or
brass fixtures.
• Test for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) if you have an
underground fuel storage tank, or if there has been a nearby use or
spill of oil, petroleum, or solvent.
• Testing for pesticides can be expensive but it is important if the
potential for pesticide pollution is high, such as after a spill or if your
well is downhill from fields where pesticides have been applied.
Testing for pesticides may also be justified if your well has high
nitrate levels or if your well is shallow or not properly cased and
grouted.

It is important to record test results and to note changes in water quality


over time.

Test your well water at least once a year for bacterial safety.

Water that has become contaminated by human or animal wastes


can transmit a variety of infectious diseases, including dysentery,
salmonellosis, hepatitis, and giardiasis. Symptoms vary, but nausea,
vomiting, and diarrhea, with or without fever, are most common. To assess
bacterial safety, drinking water is tested for a group of "indicator bacteria"
called total coliform bacteria. These bacteria do not usually cause disease
themselves, but their presence indicates that surface contamination has
found its way into the well and disease organisms may also be present.
When total coliform bacteria are found in well water, the water should not
be consumed without boiling, and the well should be disinfected.

If testing does indicate the presence of a health-related contaminant,


treatment should be considered only if no other options are possible. Options
may include a new well, repair of the existing well, or removal of the source of
contamination. For example, the presence of coliform bacteria in the water often
does not indicate that the groundwater is contaminated, but that there is a
problem with well construction, operation, or maintenance, allowing surface water
or contaminants to enter the well. If multiple thorough well disinfections do not
solve the problem, the well probably needs to be repaired, upgraded, or
replaced.

WATER CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


( I ONLY COPIED THOSE SECTIONS ABOUT WELL DRILLING, but in case u
want to see ung entire code, I included un sa mga attachments )

Section 5. A. For Well Drilling – Except when manual well drilling will be
employed, all applications involving extraction of ground water shall
include the name of a duly licensed well driller who will undertake the
drilling. Except for manual well drilling, no person shall engage in the
business of drilling wells for the purpose of extracting ground water
without first registering as a well driller with the Council.

Section 25. Registration of Wells in Control Areas. – In declared control areas, all
wells without water permits, including those for domestic use, shall be
registered with the Council within two years from the declaration otherwise
any claim to a right on a well is considered waived and use of water there
from shall be allowed only after a water permit is secured in accordance
with Rule 1 hereof.

Section 42. Permit to Drill a Well. - Except for domestic use, no person shall drill
any well
for the extraction of ground water or make any alteration to any existing well
without securing a permit from the Council.
For this purpose, only wells with casings not exceeding 75 millimeters in
for the extraction of ground water shall conform with the following
requirements:
a) The well shall be so designed and constructed that it will seal off
contaminated water-bearing formations or which have undesirable
characteristics;
b) There shall be no unsealed openings around the well which may
conduct surface water or contaminated or undesirable ground water
vertically to the intake portion of the well;
c) All parts of a permanent well shall be of durable materials;
d) Wells constructed in a sand or gravel aquifer shall be provided with a
watertight
casing to a depth of 1.5 meters or more below the lowest expected
pumping level, provided that where the pumping level is less than ten (10)
meters from the surface, the casing shall extend three (3) meters below
the lowest pumping level,
e) Casings of wells constructed in sandstone aquifers where the over
burden consists of unconsolidated materials shall be grouted to a
minimum depth of ten (10) meters, provided, that should there be an
additional overlying formation of creviced or fractured rock, the casing
shall be grouted to its full depth;
f) Casings of wells constructed in limestone, granite or quartzite where the
overburden consist of drift materials shall be extended to a depth of at
least fifteen (15) meters, and firmly seated in rock formation, provided,
where the overburden is less than fifteen (15)
meters, the casing shall be extended three (3) meters into uncreviced
rock, provided, finally, that in no case shall the casing be less than 15
meters;
g) Well for domestic and municipal water supply shall be constructed in
accordance with sound public health engineering practice;
h) The extent of pumping and extraction of ground water shall take into
consideration the possibility of salt water intrusion, land subsidence and
mining of ground water;
i) Unless otherwise allowed by the Council, an abandoned well shall be
properly plugged or sealed to prevent pollution of ground water, to
conserve aquifer yield and artesian head, and to prevent poor-quality
water from one aquifer entering another;
j) Free-flowing wells shall be provided with control valves or other similar
devices to control and regulate the flow of water from such wells for
conservation purposes;
k) Well site shall be provided with drainage facilities for the proper
disposal/conveyance of surface water flow from the site;
l) In general, spacing requirements except for wells less than 30 meters
deep, shall be in accordance with the table below:

RATE OF WITHDRAWAL MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN IN LITERS PER


SECONDWELLS IN METERS
2 - 10 200
More than 10 - 20 400
More than 20 - 40 600
More than 40 1000

The Council, may increase or decrease the above spacing requirements under
any of the following circumstances:
a) for low-income housing development projects where home lot size will
limit available spacing between homeowners' wells;
b) where the geologic formation may warrant closer or farther spacing
between wells; and
c) where assessment of pumping test records on yields, drawdown, circle
of influence, seasonal fluctuations in water table and other technical date
on ground water wells, drilling and operation indicate possible closer or
farther spacing between wells.

In modifying the spacing requirements the following criteria shall be applied:

a) no new well shall cause more than 2 meters of additional drawdown to


any existing well;
b) where the geologic formation may warrant closer or farther spacing
between wells: and
c) where assessment of pumping test records on yields drawdown, circle
of influence seasonal fluctuation in water table and other technical data or
ground water wells, drilling and operation indicate possible closer or
farther spacing between wells.

In modifying the spacing requirement the following criteria shall be applied:

a) No new well shall cause more than 2 meters of additional drawdown to


any existing well;
b) If the rate of withdrawal applied for a well will cause additional
drawdown of more than 2 meter to any existing well the rate of withdrawal
applied for shall be reduced to satisfy the drawdown limit.
c) The Council shall prescribe the maximum pump size and horsepower in
the water permit to so that the rate of withdrawal shall not exceed that
authorized.
d) Groundwater mining may be allowed provided that the life of the
groundwater reservoir system is maintained for at least 50 years.

Section 45. Protection of Water Supply


Sources. - No person shall discharge into any source of water supply any
domestic sewage, industrial waste, or pollutant not meeting the effluent standard
set by the National Pollution Control Commission.