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Finite Element Formulation of
Solid Continua
By
Mechanical Engineering Department, IUT
Introduction
 In linear description of motion of solid bodies
one assumes that displacements and strains are
small and the material is elastic.The equilibrium
equations are derived using the undeformed
configuration.
 In nonlinear analysis of beams and plates the
strain was assumed to be small and thus one can
ignore the geometry of the body and different
measures of strain and stress.
Introduction
 When the geometry changes are significant, i.e.
displacements and strains are large, the
geometry of the body must be updated to
determine the new position x of the material
point X.
 Thus, it is necessary to distinguish between
different measure of strain and stress.
 Since strain energy in an object is independent
of strain or stress measure, thus we need to
introduce the concept of “energetically pairs of
strain and stress”.
Description of Motion
 Consider a body with initial description of
C0.
 X=(X1,X2,X3)
Material coordinates
Description of Motion
After application of load, the body deforms and
have a new configuration C with x=(x1,x2,x3)
 Material or Lagrange description: the motion of
the body is referred to a reference configuration,
usually C0.
 Thus in Lagrange description the current
coordinates (x1,x2,x3) are express in terms of
reference coordinates (X1,X2,X3) , i.e.
 And the typical behavior of a variable is express
wrt material coordinates (X1,X2,X3)
Description of Motion
 In spatial or Eulerian description the motion is
described wrt the current configuration, i.e. in
terms of (x1,x2,x3). For a typical variable
 Each description convoys different information.
 In Lagrangian Description, the focus is on material
point X.The particle X has different phi at different
time t.
 In Eulerian description, the phi is constant and
different material points occupied position X at
different time t.
 Consider 2 particle P and Q near each other
 In configuration C0
 After deformation
 The displacement of material particle P and Q
 Deformation Gradient Tensor F, relation
between a material line dX before deformation
to the line dx after deformation.
 Also,
 Or in indicial notation
F
xx
 x
11
1
x
x X X
(
,
,
X t
,)
 dx
dX
dX
dX
1
112
3
1
1
2
3
 XX
 X
12
3

xx
 x
x
x X X
(
,
,
X ,) t
 dx
22
dX
dX
2
dX
2
2123
2
1
2
3
 XX
 X
12
3

xx
 x
33
3
x
x X X
(
,
,
X ,) t
 dx
dX
dX
dX
3
3123
3
1
2
3

XX
 X
12
3
x
 
xxx
dx
i
dX
111
i
I
  X

XXX
I
123
dx
dX
1
1 
xxx
dx
F dX
i
iI
I
222
dx
dX
2
2 
XXX
x
123
dx
dX
F
i
 
 
 
3
iI
3 
xxx
  X
333
I

XXX
123
 The deformation gradient tensor F can be
expressed in terms of displacement u, x=X+u;
 The determinant of F is called Jacobian of the
motion J=det(F)
 If F=I, then the body is not rotated and
undeformed.
 Note that F has no information about the body
translation.
Green and Almansi Strain Tensor
 Next a general measure of deformation
independent of both translation and rotation is
discussed.
 The distance between points P and Q in C0 and
C are
Right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor
Green and Almansi Strain Tensor
 The change in line length wrt the original
configuration is
Green strain Tensor
 E is symmetric, i.e. E’=E
 If E=0  change in square length is zero
Green and Almansi Strain Tensor
 The change in line length wrt the current body
configuration is
Almansi strain tensor
Green and Almansi Strain Tensor
 In indicial notation
Green and Almansi Strain Tensor
 In expand notation
Example
 Consider a block (a*b*h) where h is small wrt a
and b. Suppose that the body deform to a
diamond shape
Example (cont)
 The coordinate mapping and its inverse is
 The displacements are
 The only nonzero components of Green tensor
are
Example (cont)
 The Almansi strain tensor
Polar Decomposition
 Note that tensor F transform material
vector dX into spatial vector dx
 Another rule for F is with help of Polar
Decomposition theorem
 R orthogonal rotation tensor
 U,V symmetric stretch tensors.
Polar Decomposition
 To evaluate R and U
 To compute U, it is necessary to write C in
terms of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors
 Then
 And
Stress Tensor
 The equation of motion must be derived for the
deformed configuration of the structure at time
t.
 However, the geometry of the deformed body
is unknown, the equation of motions must be
written in terms of known reference
configuration.
 In doing so, different measure of stress must be
introduced.
Stress Tensor
 First, introduce the True stress, which is the stress
in the deformed configuration.
 The stress vector
 The Cauchy stress tensor is defined as the
current force per unit deformed area
 where
Stress and strain measure between
configurations
 The determination of final configuration for a solid
body undergoing large deformation is a difficult
 A practical way to determine the final configuration
is to apply the load incrementally.
 It means that the load is applied in increments so
that the body occupies several intermediate
configurations prior to the final configuration.
 The magnitude of load increment should be such
that the computational method used is capable of
predicting the deformed configuration at each load
step.
Stress and strain measure between
configurations
 In Lagrange description assume that
CC
,,,
C
,,,
C
C
01
ii
 1
n
 If the initial configuration C0 is used as
reference configuration with respect to which al
quantities are measured, it is called the total
Lagrangian description.
 if the latest known configuration is used as
known configuration, it is called the updated
Lagrangian description.
Stress Tensor
 In order to express df in terms of a stress time
the initial undeformed area dA, we need a new
stress tensor
 Where N is the unit vector normal to the
undeformed area dA.
 P is called first Piola-Kirchhof stress tensor and it
gives the current force per unit undeformed
area.
Stress Tensor
 The second Piola-Kirchhof stress tensor S is defined
as follows
 As we can transform dx to dX by use of inverse
 We can transform df (current force) to dF
(transformed current force) by
P is the transformed current force per unit
undeformed area
Stress tensor
 In summary, the following relations
between different stress measure exist
 J is the determinant of F
Energetically conjugate stress and
strain
 The rate of internal work done in a continuous
medium in current configuration is
 Sigma is the Cauchy stress tensor and d is the
symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor.
 Sigma and d are energetically conjugate since
their products produces the energy stored in
the body.
Energetically conjugate stress and
strain
 One can show that
 Second Piola-Kirchhof stress S is conjugate with
the rate of Green strain tensor. (Prove it!)
Notation
 C0 initial undeformed configuration
 C1 the last known deformed configuration
 C2 the current deformed configuration (to be determined)
Assumptions
 All variables such as displacement, strain, stress
and … are known up to C1.
 We wish to develop a formulation to find the
displacement fields in C2 configuration.
 The deformation of the body from C1 to C2 is
small due to the load increment.
 The deformation from C0 to C1 is large but
continuous.
Notation
 A left superscript  the configuration in which
the quantity occurred.
 A left subscript  the configuration with respect
to which the quantity measured.
 , Quantity occurred in Ci but measured in Cj
i
i
Q  Q
i
i
C 1 C 2
i
Q
Q
Quantity occurred and measured in the same
configuration (left subscript is not shown)
occurred between C1-C2 but measured in Ci
Notation
 The following symbols in 3 configurations are used
Notation
 When a body deform under the action of an
 A Particle X in C0
moves to a new position in C1
and position in C2
 The total displacement of particle X in C1 and
C2
Notation
 The displacement increment of the particle
from C1 to C2
Conservation of Mass
 The relation between the mass densities
in C0, C1 and C2 can be found from conservation
of mass law.
 The mass of a material body remain constant
during the movement from one configuration to
another
Conservation of Mass
 A change in integration
Green strain tensor in various
configurations
 The Green strain tensors in 2 configurations C1
and C2 are defined as
 In term of displacements
 Note that
Green strain tensor in various
configurations
 After substitution
Green incremental strain tensor
 The incremental strain component
 Strain induced from moving from C1 to C2
 It is defined
Green incremental strain tensor
 For geometrically linear analysis, C0=C1, C2
 Thus,
Updated Green strain tensor
 The Green strain tensor
is useful for total
Lagrangian formulation.
 For updated formulation we introduce the
strain wrt configuration C1 and call it
updated Green strain tensor.
Updated Green strain tensor
 We can write
Euler strain tensor
 This is the strain occurred in C2 and measured
in C2
 note
Euler strain tensor
 The linear part of this tensor is the infinitesimal
strain tensor
 Here, the only difference is that it is measured
wrt configuration C2. For linear analysis,
however, C0=C1=C2.
 These strain components are energetically
conjugate to true Cauchy stress tenmsor.
Relationship between various stress
tensors
 The Cauchy stress components in configuration
C1 an C2
 Recall that second Piola-Kirchhoff stress is the
current force in C2 but transferred to C0 and
measured per unit area in C0
Normal to unit area 0A in C0
Relationship between various stress
tensors
 Then,
Deformation gradient between configuration C0 and C2
Updated Kirchhoff stress tensor
 It is useful to defined another stress tensor in
updated Lagrangian.
 Consider an infinitesimal cube containing point
P in C1
 The Cauchy stress components in this point are
 As the body transform from C1 to C2, the
rectangular cube deforms to a non-rectangular
tube
Updated Kirchhoff stress tensor
 Tensor
the internal force acting along the
normal and two tangential directions of each side
surface of cube in C2
 The tensor can be decomposed of
Cauchy stress tensor in C1
Updated Kirchhoff stress increment tensor
 Suppose
are Piola-Kirchhoff
stresses in C1 and C2 configurations
Component of Kirchhoff increment stress
Updated Kirchhoff stress tensor
 According to previous relations
 Since
thus
Relations
Cauchy stress and updated Kirchhoff
stress tensor
Second Piola Kirchhoff stress in C1 and C2
Relation between incremental stress
Constitutive equation
Materials for which the constitutive behavior is only a function of
the current state of the deformation are known as elastic.
If the work done by stresses during a deformation is dependent
only on the initial state and the current configuration the material
is called hyperelastic.
For hyperelastic material there is a stored strain energy function
U0 per unit undeformed volume, such that the material elasticity
tensor C is
Constitutive equation
 For fe analysis of incremental nonlinear
analysis of solid continua, it is necessary
to express stress-strain relation in
incremental form
 In Total Lagrangian
Kirchhoff stress
incremental tensor
Green-Lagrange
strain increment
tensor
Incremental constitutive tensor wrt C0
Constitutive equation
 In Updated Lagrangian
Updated Kirchhoff stress
increment tensor
Updated Green-Lagrange strain
increment tensor
Incremental constitutive tensor wrt C1
 It can be shown that
Principle of virtual displacement
 FE analysis can be done based on
◦ Displacement
◦ Forces
◦ Mixed displacements and forces
• The equation then can be extracted from
principle of
• Virtual displacements
• Virtual forces
• Mixed virtual displacements and forces
Principle of virtual displacement
 The principle of virtual displacement says
that sum of the external virtual work done on
a body and the internal virtual work stored in
the body is zero
Virtual work done by
Applied forces
Principle of virtual displacement
 The virtual work equation can not be
solved since configuration C2 is unknown.
 This is the main difference with linear
analysis where it is assumed the body
configuration does not change.
 In large deformation analysis the body
configuration is changing continuously.
 The aim now is to express the virtual
work integral over a configuration which
is known.
Total Lagrangian formulation
 In total Lagrangian formulation, all
quantities are measured wrt C0.
 We use the following identities
Body forces wrt
C0
Boundary
tractions wrt C0
Total Lagrangian formulation
Next, we simplify the above equation
Since it is not a function of unknown displacements
Total Lagrangian formulation
The virtual displacements are given by
Substituting for S and E
Total Lagrangian formulation
Virtual internal energy stored in the body at configuration C1
Since the body is in equilibrium at configuration C1
By principle of virtual work applied to C1
and thus
Total Lagrangian formulation
This is the main equation for FE analysis. We just need to replace stress
by strain using an appropriate stress-strain relation and ultimately by
displacements.
Change in the virtual strain
energy due to virtual
incremental displacement
between C1 to C2
Virtual work done by
forces due to initial stress
Change in the
virtual work
done by applied
body forces and
tractions in
moving from C1
to C2
Total Lagrangian formulation
The equation represents the statement of virtual work for the incremental
deformation between C1 to C2.
No approximations were made into it so far.
Next we replace
into it.
This is a nonlinear equation in incremental displacement ui
Total Lagrangian formulation
Now we assume that ui is small. This is true as the load step from C1
to C2 is small.
This is the weak form for the development of finite element model based
on total Total Lagrangian formulation.
Total Lagrangian formulation
The total stress components
are evaluated by
Where
are Green-Lagrange Strain Tensor components.
Total Lagrangian formulation (summary)
Total Lagrangian formulation (summary)
Total Lagrangian formulation (summary)
Updated Lagrangian formulation
 In updated Lagrangian formulation, all
quantities are measured wrt C1.
 We use the following identities
Updated Green-
Lagrange strain tensor
Body forces wrt
C1
Boundary
tractions wrt C1
Updated Lagrangian formulation
The virtual strain is
Updated Lagrangian formulation
where
Now
Updated Lagrangian formulation
where
Virtual strain energy stored in the
body at configuration C1
Since at configuration C1 the body is in equilibrium
Next we use the constitutive equation
Updated Lagrangian formulation
Next assume that the displacement ui is small and
then use the following approximation
The above equation is the weak form for the FE analysis
based on the updated Lagrangian formulation.
Updated Lagrangian formulation
The total Cauchy stress components are evaluated using the
constitutive equation
Where
are the components of the Almansi strain tensor
Updated Lagrangian formulation summary
Updated Lagrangian formulation summary
Updated Lagrangian formulation
summary
Finite Element Model for 2D
continua
In the following the FE formulation based on the previous formulation
is presented.
The focus is on 2D and Linear materials.
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Let us introduce the following notation
The first term of the weak formulation is rewritten as
Total Lagrangian Formulation
where
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
The second term can be written
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
However the expression is not convenient for FE, thus we rewrite it as
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Where
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Now let assume interpolation for both total and incremental displacements
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Then we have
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Substituting into the weak form one get the following relation for
the total Lagrangian formulation of 2D nonlinear continua
Total Lagrangian Formulation
The total Lagrangian formulation (and also updated) are incremental
this means that
And the stiffness matrix
is the tangent stiffness matrix
The direct stiffness matrix is implicit in vector
For linear analysis
The above formulation is easily extendable to 3D problems.
Total Lagrangian Formulation
For 2D problems
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
The finite element equation can be expressed in explicit form as
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Total Lagrangian Formulation
Updated Lagrangian Formulation
Similar to the discussion for the total Lagrangian, the FE model based
on the updated Lagrangian can be written as
where
Updated Lagrangian Formulation
Updated Lagrangian Formulation
Updated Lagrangian Formulation
The explicit form for the FE equation is
Updated Lagrangian Formulation
Updated Lagrangian Formulation