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LAB REPORT

FAMILIARIZATION WITH ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) WAVES


Course- EECE- 164
Expt No- 6
OBJECTIVE.
To study ac (sinusoidal) wave forms and correlate them with practically measurable
effective values as well as developing an understanding on a simple ac circuit in the
process of performing the experiment.
THEORY.
Any periodic variation of current or voltage where the current (or voltage), when
measured along any particular direction, goes positive as well as negative, is defined to
be an AC quantity. Sinusoidal AC wave shapes are the ones where the variation
(current or voltage) is a sine function of time.

Vm

T
Fig 1. An ac (sinusoidal) voltage waveform

For the wave form in Fig.1,


Time period = T
Frequency, f = 1/ T
v = V sin 2πft = V sin( 2π / T )t
Effective value:
Effective (rms) values of sinusoidal waveforms are given as:
T
1 2 V
V= ∫
T0
v dt = m
2
(For sinusoidal wave)

T
1 2 I
I= ∫
T0
i dt = m
2
(For sinusoidal wave)

These values are directly measured in ac voltmeter / ammeters and can be used in
power calculation as:
P = I 2R = V 2 / R

1
Phase difference:

v/i

t
θ

Fig 2. Two sinusoidal waves with phase difference


Phase difference between two ac sinusoidal waveforms is the difference in electrical
angle between two identical points of the two waves. In fig. 2, the voltage and current
equations are given as:
v = Vm Sin(2π / T )t
i = I m Sin(2π / Tt − θ )

Impedance:
Relation between the voltage across and the current through any component of an ac
circuit is given by impedance. For the voltage and current waveforms in Fig. 2, the
corresponding impedance Z is given as:
Z = Vm / I m ∠θ = Vrms / I rms ∠θ

APPARATUS.
Oscilloscope
Function generation
Decade resistor
Capacitor bank
AC voltmeter
AC ammeter
SPST
Breadboard

PROCEDURE.

+ _ 1μF
+
Capacitor

10 VP-P Osc 10 VP-P Osc Osc


Ch#1 1 KHz Ch#1 Ch#2
1 KHz

Fig – 1 Fig – 2

2
1. I connected the output of the function generator directly to channel 1 of the
oscilloscope as shown in fig 1. I set the amplitude of the wave at 10V and the
frequency at 1 kHz and selected sinusoidal wave shape.

2. I sketched the waveshape observed on the oscilloscope as shown bellow and


determine the time period of the wave and calculate the frequency.

Function Generator Frequency = 1 KHz

T = 5 x time/div
= 5 x 0.2 ms
= 1 ms

f = 1/T = 1/1ms
= 1 KHz
T

3. I changed the frequency to 500 Hz and observed the display of the wave. I
sketched the wave shape observed on the oscilloscope as shown bellow and determine
the time period of the wave and calculate the frequency.

Function Generator Frequency = 500 Hz

T = 4 x time/div
= 4 x 0.5 ms
= 2 ms

f = 1/T = 1/2ms
= 500 Hz
T

4. Again, I changed the frequency to 2 KHz and observed the display of the wave. I
sketched the wave shape observed on the oscilloscope as shown bellow and determine
the time period of the wave and calculate the frequency.

Function Generator Frequency = 2 KHz

T = 5 x time/div
= 5 x 0.1 ms
= 0.5 ms

f = 1/T = 1/0.5ms
= 2 KHz
T

3
5. Now, I measure the input voltage with an ac voltmeter and the input current with
an ac ammeter and found the following readings:
Input voltage = 3.17 volt ac
Input current = 21.7 mA
The ratio between the voltage and the current gives the magnitude of the impedance,
Z.

6. Now, I constructed the circuit as shown in Fig. 2 and observed the wave shapes
of oscilloscope channels 1 and 2 simultaneously. I found the frequency of both the
waves and amplitude from the display and determined the phase difference between
the two waves. The phase difference is given by, 360 X ∆T T , where ‘ ∆T ’ is the time
delay between the two waves. I also observed which of the two waves lead and noted
that the voltage in channel 2 is the voltage across a resistance and hence this is in
phase with the current flowing in the circuit.

Phase Difference =
=

= 32.40

Report:

1. I compared both the frequency of the wave determined from the oscilloscope. I
found out the value of the frequency at both the channels.

1 1
Frequency at Channel#1 : = = 2 KHz
T 5Χ0.1ms
1 1
Frequency at Channel#2 : = = 2 KHz
T 5Χ0.1ms
The value of the frequency of this wave is equal to the frequency of the wave which
was measured at step 4 of procedure.

2. I calculated the rms value of the voltage and current from the oscilloscope.

Amplitude at Channel#1 : 1.6 X 2 volt = 3.2 volt


Amplitude at Channel#2 : 2.2 X 2 volt = 4.4 volt

We find that the voltage measured in channel 1 is equal to the voltage measured at
step 5 of procedure.
3.17 volt ≅ 3.2 volt

3. The time period is more when the frequency of the wave is decreased and the
time period is less when the frequency of the wave is increased.

4
4. I calculated the magnitude and phase angle of the impedance from the readings
taken in step 5 and 6 of above procedure.
V∠θ 3.17∠0 0 volt
Impedance, Z = = = 146.08 Ω ∠ –-32.40
I∠θ 21.7∠32.4 mA 0

Voltage is leading current by 32.40

PRECAUTION.
1. Power supply must be switched on after ensuring that all the connections have
been done accurately & has been checked by teacher.

2. Each reading must be taken with care.

3. Precautions must be taken with bare circuits when in energized condition.

4. We should take care so that the current flow does not exceed the current limit
specified in the rheostat and capacitor.

5. Oscilloscope must be calibrated before starting the test.