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(Invited Paper)
AbstractIt is our great pleasures to present this project entitle, MICROCONTROLLER BASED HEART RATE METER. In todays world, electronics plays a very important role in all elds. For example medical, industry, security etc. The Microcontroller based heart rate meter is a biomedical instrument used to measure heart beats of human being. The heart receives impure blood from various parts of body and then after purication pumps back to the dierent parts of the body. Index Terms

II. BUILDING BLOCKS AND EXPLAINATION Sensor Section: The setup uses a 6V electric bulb for light illumination of esh on the thumb behind the nail and the LDR as detector of change in the light intensity due to ow of blood. The change in the intensity of light is detected by the LDR and the change in the resistance determines the change in the intensity of light and is given to the Op-amp and comparator for further processing. Operational Amplier and Comparator: The circuit designs uses recently introduced Quad Operational Ampliers. This dual operational ampliers have following features: 1) low power drain 2) a common mode input voltage range extending to ground/VEE 3) single supply or split supply operation 4) pin outs compatible with the popular MC1558 dual operational amplier. The LM158 series is equivalent to one-half of an LM124. LM 358 is an Op-amp as well as a comparator. First the signal is amplied and then compared with the reference value. Depending upon the comparison the comparator output is generated which is given to micro controller.

I. Introduction Heart rate meter is basically a meter used to measure the heart rate in real time. Heart rate can be measured either by ECG waveform or by the blood ow into the nger (pulse method). The pulse method is simple and convenient. Heart rate is a physiological parameter that is measured in a wide variety of situations, for example to determine the health status and tness of a person or animal. It can be used, for example, to give a measure of energy expenditure of an individual and a number of devices exist for doing this by converting heart rate to calories used. When blood ows during the systolic stroke of the heart into the body parts, the nger gets its blood via the radial artery on the arm ,the blood ow into the nger can be sensed photo electrically. To count the heart beats, here we use a small light source on one side of the nger (thumb) and observe the change in light intensity on the other side. The blood ow causes variation in light intensity reaching the light dependent resistor (LDR), which results in change in signal strength due to change in the resistance of LDR. Basically, a microcontroller Intels 8951 family is used as a processor. The value or calculated heart rate is displayed on the LCD screen of 16 x 2. Also the pulses are displayed on the LCD screen. The basic range of the heart rate is between 60 to 80 pulses per minute. This project aims at making availability Heart Rate Meter to the common man for measuring his pulse rate without specially visiting to the doctor at his home itself. This Saves time at a great extent and is very useful in emergency i.e. in military war elds. It can also be used in cardiology, sleep medicine, diabetes, obesity, eating disorders, psychiatric disorders etc. It can also be used in monitoring the tness levels of individuals and as a means for assessing their energy expenditure. This may be done for a variety of reasons, such as weight loss, rehabilitation, encouragement to exercise etc.

Intels 89s51 Microcontroller: The AT89S51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Phillipss high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. This processor is basically programmed to do certain calculations and then provide the output to the LCD display, buzzer, and parallel port of PC. Parallel Port: Parallel port is a simple and inexpensive tool for building computer controlled devices and projects. The simplicity and ease of programming makes parallel port popular in electronics hobbyist world. The parallel port is often used in Computer controlled robots, Atmel/PIC programmers, home automation, etc. Here, the parallel port is connected to the PC parallel port through which the pulses are given to the VB6 application where the waveform is displayed using VB6 source code.


LCD Display: It is an output device which has a built in controller. It is use to display the Heart rate of a particular person. Liquid crystal Display (LCD) displays heart rate of the person, which is calculated by the microcontroller. CMOS technology makes the device ideal for application in hand held, portable and other battery instruction with low power consumption. III. Operating Principle In this circuit the nger is kept between the infrared LED and LDR. The light of the infrared LED falls on the nger tip and get reected back to the LDR. And thus depending upon the light falling on the LDR, the resistance of LDR changes. As mentioned above the blood ow is pulsating in nature. Therefore when there is more blood at the tip of the nger then less light reects from the nger. Thus light falling on the LDR is less and therefore LDR resistance is high. On the other hand when the tip of the nger has the less blood, the infrared light reect in more amount and thus light falling in LDR is more, Therefore LDR resistance decreases. Thus, for every heart beat the resistance of LDR changes high value to low value. This change in resistance is then converted into voltage with the help of amplier. The output of amplier is given to Comparator which in turn generates square wave pulse. Thus the number of the pulses produced at the output of comparator is equal to the heart beat. Then it is given to the microcontroller for further processing and then displayed on LCD panel. Basic: The phototransistor detects the infrared light but the signal is not usable for our application since the signal is DC biased, noisy and very weak. The signal must be ltered and amplied even more in order to accurately display the heart beat signal. A typical op amp is used to amplify the signal to a usable voltage level. We then use a comparator to generate a digital signal when the pulse is equal to or greater than a preset reference voltage, we get a square pulse output which is fed to microcontroller for further calculations. A function called PULSIN is then be used to count how many pulses are detected over a certain period of time. For example the numbers of pulses are detected over a period of 5 seconds. That number is then taken and multiplied by 12 to get beats per minute. This information is then given to the micro controller 89S51.The controller here basically performs the multiplication function and then gives it to the 16 x 2 LCD display which displays the value of beats. Microcontroller also connects output to the PC using a Parallel port. This parallel port is used to send the data from the comparator to the computer for displaying the waveform in VB6. The micro controller is programmed Atmel ash programmer software. The output is displayed on the computer screen with its waveforms i.e. pulses using VB 6. Programming is done in VB 6 for generating pulses depending upon the

status of pins of micro controller and also to display the output value of heart rate of micro controller on LCD panel with warning. The pulses are shown on the PC monitor. Then the printout of the value displayed on the PC of the pulse rate is taken if required on paper.

IV. Sofwtare code storedinside it using a MC program.

V. Circuit Details Relavent Literature: 8051: An embedded microcontroller is a chip which has a computer processor with all its support functions (clock reset), memory (both program and data), and I/O (including bus interface) built into the device. These built in functions minimize the need for external circuits and devices to be designed in the nal application. The main function of the micro controller unit is to recognize the data coming from the transmitter section and to process that signal and to execute the program related to that data and to guide the motor driver and other unit to perform the intended task and control their complete functioning the unit will send appropriate data to each and every unit requested by the user. The micro controller unit is the most important unit of the circuit. This unit will provide the input to various sections and it receives data from the decoder and try to implement many simpler tasks. The unit is composed of IC 89S51, which is 40 pin DIP. The AT89S51 is a low-power, highperformance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Phillipss high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Phillips AT89S51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-exible and cost-eective solution to many embedded control applications. The AT89S51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two Software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next Hardware reset.


LCD display: Before applying an electric eld, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic device (still the most common liquid crystal device), the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears grey. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are almost completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be mainly polarized perpendicular to the second lter, and thus be blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts thus constituting dierent levels of gray. This electric eld also controls (reduces) the double refraction properties of the liquid crystal Parallel port: Parallel port is a simple and inexpensive tool for building computer controlled devices and projects. The simplicity and ease of programming makes parallel port popular in electronics hobbyist world. The parallel port is often used in Computer controlled robots, Atmel/PIC programmers, home automation etc. The primary use of parallel port is to connect printers to computer and is specically designed for this purpose. Thus it is often called as printer Port or Centronics port (this name came from a popular printer manufacturing company Centronics who devised some standards for parallel port). The parallel port connector is at the rear panel of PC. It is a 25 pin female (DB25) connector (to which printer is connected). On almost all the PCs only one parallel port is present, but you can add more by buying and inserting ISA/PCI parallel port cards. Parallel port modes The IEEE 1284 Standard which has been published in 1994 denes ve modes of data transfer for parallel port. They are, 1) Compatibility Mode 2) Nibble Mode 3) Byte Mode 4) EPP 5) ECP

Parallel port registers The Data, Control and status lines are connected to there corresponding registers inside the computer. So by manipulating these registers in program , one can easily read or write to parallel port with programming languages like C and VB . The registers found in standard parallel port are : 1) data register 2) Status register 3) Control register As the names species, Data register is connected to Data lines, Control register is connected to control lines and Status register is connected to Status lines. (Here the word connection does not mean that there is some physical connection between data/control/status lines. The registers are virtually connected to the corresponding lines.). So what ever you write to these registers, will appear in corresponding lines as voltages, Of course, you can measure it with a multimeter. And whatever you give to Parallel port as voltages can be read from these registers (with some restrictions). For example, if we write 1 to Data register, the line Data0 will be driven to +5v. Just like this, we can programmatically turn on and o any of the data lines and Control lines.

LDR: A photo resistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulde (CdS) cell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. It can also be referred to as a photoconductor photo resistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its whole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. This component basically is used to sense the light intensity from the LED and depending upon the change in light intensities its resistance is varied which is used to generate pulses and are applied to c. Opamp: The circuit designs uses recently introduced Quad Operational Ampliers. This dual operational ampliers have following features: 1) low power drain 2) a common mode input voltage range extending to ground/VEE 3) single supply or split supply operation 4) pin outs compatible with the popular MC1558 dual operational amplier. The LM158 series is equivalent to one-half of an LM124. These ampliers have several distinct advantages over standard operational amplier types in single supply applications. They can operate at supply


voltages as low as 3.0 V or as high as 32 V, with quiescent currents about one-fth of those associated with the MC1741 (on a per amplier basis). The common mode input range includes the negative supply, thereby eliminating the necessity for external biasing components in many applications. The output voltage range also includes the negative power supply voltage. o Short Circuit Protected Outputs o True Dierential Input Stage o Single Supply Operation: 3.0 V to 32 V o Low Input Bias Currents o Internally Compensated o Single and Split Supply Operation Voltage regulator: voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. With the exception of shunt regulators, all voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal xed reference voltage. Any dierence is amplied and used to control the regulation element. This forms a negative feedback servo control loop. If the output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher voltage. If the output voltage is too high, the regulation element is commanded to produce a lower voltage. In this way, the output voltage is held roughly constant. The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several xed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid-state electronic equipment. Although designed primarily as xed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The LM7805 is a particular voltage regulator used here which provides a constant regulated output voltage of 5V for the Micro controller. Schematic: Proteus is software for microprocessor simulation, schematic capture, and xilinx) design. It is developed by Labcenter Electronics.

VI. PCB making Designing layout P.C.B. is printed circuit board which is of insulating base with layer of thin copper-foil. The circuit diagram is then drawn on the P. C. B. with permanent marker and then it is dipped in the solution of ferric chloride so that unwanted copper is removed from the P.C.B., thus leaving components interconnection on the board. The specication of the base material is not important to know in most of the application, but it is important to know something about copper foil which is drawn through a thin slip. The resistance of copper foil will have an aect on the circuit operation. Base material is made of lamination layer of suitable insulating material such as treated paper, fabric; or glass bers and binding them with resin. Most commonly used base materials are formed paper bonded with epoxy resin. It is possible to obtain a range of thickness between 0.5 mm to 3 mm. Thickness is the important factor in determining mechanical strength particularly when the commonly used base material is Formea from paper assembly. Physical properties should be self supporting these are surface resistivity, heat dissipation, dielectric, constant, dielectric strength. Another important factor is the ability to withstand high temperature. While designing a layout, it must be noted that size of the board should be as small as possible. Before starting, all components should be placed properly so that an accurate measurement of space can be made. The component should not be mounted very close to each other or far away from one another and neither one should ignore the fact that some component reed ventilation, which considerely the dimension of the relay and transformer in view of arrangement, the bolting arrangement is also considered. The layout is rst drawn on paper then traced on copper plate which is nalized with the pen or permanent marker which is ecient and clean with etching. The resistivity also depends on the purity of copper, which is highest for low purity of copper. The high resistance paths are always undesired for soldered connections. The most dicult part of making an original printed circuit is the conversion from, theoretical circuit diagram into wiring layout. Without introducing cross over and undesirable eect. Although it is dicult operation, it provides greatest amount of satisfaction because it is carried out with more care and skill. The board used for project has copper foil thickness in the range of 25 40 75 microns. The soldering quality requires 99.99 It is necessary to design copper path extra large. There are two main reasons for this, i) The copper may be required to carry an extra large overall current:ii) It acts like a kind of screen or ground plane to minimize the eect of interaction. The rst function is to connect the components together in their


right sequence with minimum need for interlinking i.e. the jumpers with wire connections. It must be noted, that when layout is done, then it should be dipped in the solution and board is move continuously right and left after etching perfectly the board is cleaned with water and is drilled. After that holes are drilled with 1 mm or 0.8 mm drill. Now the marker on the P. C. B. is removed and now PCB is ready for mounting the component. Soldering For soldering of any joints rst the terminal to be soldered are cleaned to remove oxide lm or dirt on it. If required ux is applied on the points to be soldered. Now the joint to be soldered is heated with the help of soldering iron. Heat applied should be such that when solder wire is touched to joint, it must melt quickly. The joint and the soldering iron is held such that molten solder should ow smoothly over the joint. When joint is completely covered with molten solder, the soldering iron is removed. The joint is allowed to cool, without any movement. The bright shining solder indicates good soldering. In case of dry solder joint, an air gap remains in between the solder material and the joint. It means that soldering is improper. This is removed and again soldering is done. Thus in this way all the components are soldered on P. C. B. VII. Applications Used in cardiology, obesity, eating disorders, psychiatric disorders etc i.e. in Hospitals. Used in monitoring the tness levels of individuals and as a means for assessing their energy expenditure i.e. in Gymnasiums. Used in Battle Fields for Soldiers injured i.e. in Military applications. VIII. Troubleshooting Thus we understood various troubleshooting technique,various sofwtare were learnt and harware simulation technique were also learnt. IX. Conclusion Hence nally a project on stopwatch simultaion was made by us.Various troubleshooting methods were learnt. A Heart rate meter is used to measure the heart rate in real time. Now-a-days, with the help of developed technology using dierent biological sensors. This device used BioSense algorithms to analyze the persons electrocardiogram, ECG, real time and calculate heart rate. This device can be used for remote patient monitoring, looking after soldiers and re ghters in harms way and professional athletes who required more than just heart rate to determine tness and fatigue using multiple physiological and biomechanical sensors. Bluetooth technology or GSM module can be used if there is an urgency i.e. unstable heart rate. Message can be directly sent to a

doctor or a hospital. X. References BOOKS: 8051 Electronics for you. Linear integrated circuit and its applications MAGAZINES: Electronics for you. Digit. Projects demystied. Electronics projects (EPE MAG). WEBSITES: www.electronics.co.in www.epanorama.com www.electronics-tutorials.com www.wikipedia.org www.electronicprojects.com www.alldatasheets.com XI. Appendix The relating datasheets of the components used in our project are as follows:8051 BAASCOM Electronics projects 8051