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OFFSHORE STANDARD

DET NORSKE VERITAS


DNV-OS-E301
POSITION MOORING
OCTOBER 2010
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FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life,
property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and
consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and
carries out research in relation to these functions.
DNV service documents consist of amongst other the following types of documents:
Service Specifications. Procedual requirements.
Standards. Technical requirements.
Recommended Practices. Guidance.
The Standards and Recommended Practices are offered within the following areas:
A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology
B) Materials Technology
C) Structures
D) Systems
E) Special Facilities
F) Pipelines and Risers
G) Asset Operation
H) Marine Operations
J) Cleaner Energy
O) Subsea Systems
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Changes Page 3
General
This document supersedes DNV-OS-E301, October 2008.
Main changes in October 2010:
Ch.2 Sec.1
B306: Included a definition of extreme value for mooring line tensions during a squall event.
B700: Adjusted the required drag coefficients for steel wire ropes.
Ch.2 Sec.2
B101: Added fibre rope degradation method.
B110 (previous item B106): updated guidance regarding e-modules of studless chain based on information
from VICINAY.
E201: Updated Table E1 with respect to in-service assessment.
F800: Requirements to investigate the possibility of VIM on steel wire and fibre ropes included. If VIM is
a possible load effect, the effect shall be included in fatigue assessment.
Ch.2 Sec.4
Sub-section J, Added 103 and 200: design criteria for fibre ropes and yarn for fibre ropes.
Q105: Added requirement to measuring ranges for tension measuring equipment.
R403: Added design requirement to element between MLBE and mooring line.
Ch.2 Sec.5
A100: Added requirements for anchor shackles for mobile mooring that are not of R-quality.
Ch.3 Sec.1
B100: Added that temporary mooring is not a class requirement for DP units with DYNPOS-AUTR or
AUTRO notations. Towing arrangements for ship shaped units shall be according to DNV Rules for
Classification of Ships.
D602: It is emphasized that it is the technical part of the standard that could be replaced by e.g. API RP2SK
and ISO 19901-7, and that equipment and material shall be certified by DNV.
Ch.3 Sec.2
A200: Chain qualities R4S and R5 are included in the standard.
G200: Requirements added regarding in-service condition assessment for fibre ropes.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 4 Contents
CONTENTS
CH. 1 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 9
Sec. 1 General .............................................................................................................................................. 10
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 10
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 10
A 200 Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................... 10
A 300 Scope and application ......................................................................................................................................... 10
B. Normative References................................................................................................................................................... 10
B 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 10
C. Informative References ................................................................................................................................................. 11
C 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 11
D. Definitions..................................................................................................................................................................... 11
D 100 Verbal forms ....................................................................................................................................................... 11
D 200 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 12
E. Abbreviations and Symbols .......................................................................................................................................... 13
E 100 Abbreviations...................................................................................................................................................... 13
E 200 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
F. Documentation.............................................................................................................................................................. 16
F 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 16
CH. 2 TECHNICAL PROVISIONS.......................................................................................................... 17
Sec. 1 Environmental Conditions and Loads............................................................................................ 18
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 18
A 100 Objective............................................................................................................................................................. 18
A 200 Application.......................................................................................................................................................... 18
B. Environmental Conditions ............................................................................................................................................ 18
B 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 18
B 200 Waves.................................................................................................................................................................. 19
B 300 Wind.................................................................................................................................................................... 23
B 400 Current ................................................................................................................................................................ 25
B 500 Direction of wind, waves and current relative to the unit................................................................................... 26
B 600 Soil condition...................................................................................................................................................... 27
B 700 Drag coefficients for mooring components without marine growth................................................................... 27
B 800 Marine growth..................................................................................................................................................... 28
C. Environmental Loads .................................................................................................................................................... 29
C 100 Wind loads .......................................................................................................................................................... 29
C 200 Current loads....................................................................................................................................................... 29
C 300 Wave loads.......................................................................................................................................................... 29
C 400 Wave drift forces................................................................................................................................................. 29
C 500 Wave frequency motions .................................................................................................................................... 30
C 600 Low frequency motions ...................................................................................................................................... 30
D. Vortex Induced Motion (VIM) ..................................................................................................................................... 31
D 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 31
D 200 Conditions for VIM to occur .............................................................................................................................. 31
D 300 VIM analysis....................................................................................................................................................... 32
D 400 ULS and ALS...................................................................................................................................................... 33
D 500 FLS...................................................................................................................................................................... 33
E. References..................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Sec. 2 Mooring System Analysis ................................................................................................................ 35
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
A 100 Objective............................................................................................................................................................. 35
A 200 Application.......................................................................................................................................................... 35
B. Method .......................................................................................................................................................................... 35
B 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 35
B 200 General system response analysis....................................................................................................................... 38
B 300 Floating platform response analysis ................................................................................................................... 40
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Contents Page 5
B 400 Mooring line response analysis........................................................................................................................... 41
B 500 Characteristic line tension for the ULS............................................................................................................... 42
B 600 Characteristic line tension for the ALS............................................................................................................... 43
C. Characteristic Capacity ................................................................................................................................................. 44
C 100 Characteristic capacity for the ULS and ALS..................................................................................................... 44
C 200 Main body of mooring line ................................................................................................................................. 44
C 300 Connecting links and terminations ..................................................................................................................... 45
C 400 Soft yoke connection arms.................................................................................................................................. 45
D. Partial Safety Factors and Premises .............................................................................................................................. 45
D 100 Consequence classes ........................................................................................................................................... 45
D 200 Partial safety factors for the ULS........................................................................................................................ 45
D 300 Partial safety factors for the ALS........................................................................................................................ 45
D 400 Partial safety factors for the connection between buoyancy element and mooring line..................................... 46
D 500 Typical operations covered by consequence class 1........................................................................................... 46
D 600 Typical operations covered by consequence class 2........................................................................................... 46
D 700 Permissible horizontal offset .............................................................................................................................. 48
D 800 Permissible line length........................................................................................................................................ 49
D 900 Clearance............................................................................................................................................................. 49
E. Additional Requirements for Long Term Mooring....................................................................................................... 49
E 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 49
E 200 Corrosion allowance ........................................................................................................................................... 49
F. Fatigue Limit State (FLS) ............................................................................................................................................. 50
F 100 Accumulated fatigue damage.............................................................................................................................. 50
F 200 Fatigue properties ............................................................................................................................................... 51
F 300 Fatigue analysis................................................................................................................................................... 52
F 400 Design equation format....................................................................................................................................... 54
F 500 Effect of number of fatigue tests on design curve .............................................................................................. 55
F 600 Fatigue limit state (FLS) for fibre ropes ............................................................................................................. 55
F 700 Design equation format for fibre ropes............................................................................................................... 56
F 800 Vortex Induced Motions (VIM).......................................................................................................................... 56
G. Reliability Analysis....................................................................................................................................................... 57
G 100 Target annual probabilities ................................................................................................................................. 57
H. References..................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Sec. 3 Thruster Assisted Mooring.............................................................................................................. 58
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 58
A 100 Objective............................................................................................................................................................. 58
A 200 Application.......................................................................................................................................................... 58
A 300 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 59
B. Available Thrust............................................................................................................................................................ 59
B 100 Determination of available thrust capacity ......................................................................................................... 59
C. Method .......................................................................................................................................................................... 59
C 100 Mean load reduction ........................................................................................................................................... 59
C 200 System dynamic analysis .................................................................................................................................... 60
D. System Requirements.................................................................................................................................................... 60
D 100 Thruster systems ................................................................................................................................................. 60
D 200 Power system ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
D 300 Control systems................................................................................................................................................... 60
D 400 Manual thruster control....................................................................................................................................... 61
D 500 Remote thrust control, joystick system............................................................................................................... 61
D 600 Automatic thruster control .................................................................................................................................. 61
D 700 Automatic control ............................................................................................................................................... 61
D 800 Monitoring .......................................................................................................................................................... 62
D 900 Consequence analysis Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)................................................................... 63
D 1000 Simulation........................................................................................................................................................... 63
D 1100 Logging............................................................................................................................................................... 63
D 1200 Self-monitoring................................................................................................................................................... 63
E. System Response to Major Failures.............................................................................................................................. 63
E 100 Line failure.......................................................................................................................................................... 63
E 200 Blackout prevention............................................................................................................................................ 63
E 300 Thruster to full power ......................................................................................................................................... 64
E 400 Gyro compass drift.............................................................................................................................................. 64
E 500 Position reference fault ....................................................................................................................................... 64
E 600 Other major failures ............................................................................................................................................ 64
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 6 Contents
F. Thrusters........................................................................................................................................................................ 64
F 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 64
Sec. 4 Mooring Equipment ......................................................................................................................... 65
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 65
A 100 Objective............................................................................................................................................................. 65
A 200 Anchor types ....................................................................................................................................................... 65
B. Structural Design and Materials for Anchors ............................................................................................................... 65
B 100 Structural strength............................................................................................................................................... 65
B 200 Materials for fluke anchors ................................................................................................................................. 65
B 300 Design of anchor pad eye.................................................................................................................................... 65
B 400 Anchor shackle.................................................................................................................................................... 65
B 500 Pile, gravity and suction anchors ........................................................................................................................ 66
C. Fluke Anchors ............................................................................................................................................................... 66
C 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 66
C 200 Fluke anchor components ................................................................................................................................... 66
C 300 Definition of fluke anchor resistance.................................................................................................................. 67
C 400 Verification of anchor resistance - mobile mooring ........................................................................................... 67
C 500 Verification of fluke anchor resistance long term mooring................................................................................ 68
D. Plate Anchors ................................................................................................................................................................ 68
D 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 68
D 200 Drag-in plate anchors.......................................................................................................................................... 68
D 300 Other types of plate anchors ............................................................................................................................... 68
D 400 Installation depth................................................................................................................................................. 69
E. Anchor Piles.................................................................................................................................................................. 69
E 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 69
F. Suction Anchors............................................................................................................................................................ 69
F 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 69
G. Gravity Anchors............................................................................................................................................................ 69
G 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 69
H. Mooring Chain and Accessories ................................................................................................................................... 69
H 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 69
I. Steel Wire Ropes........................................................................................................................................................... 73
I 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 73
J. Synthetic Fibre Ropes ................................................................................................................................................... 73
J 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 73
J 200 Documentation requirements.............................................................................................................................. 73
K. Windlasses, Winches and Chain Stoppers .................................................................................................................... 74
K 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 74
K 200 Windlasses for Temporary Mooring................................................................................................................... 74
K 300 Winches for Temporary Mooring....................................................................................................................... 75
K 400 Materials ............................................................................................................................................................. 75
K 500 Capacity and system requirements applicable for windlasses and winches used in position mooring .............. 76
K 600 Stoppers .............................................................................................................................................................. 77
K 700 Strength and design load..................................................................................................................................... 77
K 800 Other type of winches ......................................................................................................................................... 77
L. Gear for windlass or winch ........................................................................................................................................... 78
L 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 78
L 200 Load Distribution................................................................................................................................................ 78
L 300 Acceptance Criteria............................................................................................................................................. 78
M. Fairleads ........................................................................................................................................................................ 78
M 100 General design .................................................................................................................................................... 78
M 200 Materials ............................................................................................................................................................. 79
M 300 Strength and design load..................................................................................................................................... 79
N. Steel Wire Rope End Attachment ................................................................................................................................. 80
N 100 Structural strength............................................................................................................................................... 80
O. Structural Arrangement for Mooring Equipment for Mobile Mooring ........................................................................ 80
O 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 80
P. Arrangement and Devices for Towing of Mobile Units ............................................................................................... 81
P 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 81
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Contents Page 7
P 200 Material ............................................................................................................................................................... 81
P 300 Strength analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 82
Q. Tension Measuring Equipment ..................................................................................................................................... 82
Q 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 82
R. Mooring Line Buoyancy Elements ............................................................................................................................... 83
R 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 83
R 200 Permanent mooring............................................................................................................................................. 83
R 300 Materials for MLBE............................................................................................................................................ 83
R 400 Design of elements between mooring line and MLBE....................................................................................... 83
Sec. 5 Tests ................................................................................................................................................... 84
A. Testing of Mooring Chain and Accessories.................................................................................................................. 84
A 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 84
B. Test of Steel Wire Ropes .............................................................................................................................................. 84
B 100 Tests of finished wire ropes ................................................................................................................................ 84
C. Test of Windlass and Winch and Chain Stoppers......................................................................................................... 84
C 100 Tests of windlass and winch ............................................................................................................................... 84
C 200 Test of chain stopper........................................................................................................................................... 85
D. Test of Manual and Automatic Remote Thruster Systems ........................................................................................... 85
D 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 85
E. Testing of Synthetic Fibre Ropes.................................................................................................................................. 85
E 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 85
F. Testing of Mooring Line Buoyancy Element .............................................................................................................. 85
F 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 85
CH. 3 CERTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION.............................................................................. 86
Sec. 1 Certification and Classification....................................................................................................... 87
A. General .......................................................................................................................................................................... 87
A 100 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................... 87
B. Main Class for Offshore Units (1A1) ........................................................................................................................... 87
B 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 87
B 200 Documentation requirements.............................................................................................................................. 88
C. Main Class for Offshore Installations (OI) ................................................................................................................... 88
C 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 88
D. Class Notation POSMOOR......................................................................................................................................... 88
D 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 88
D 200 Documentation required for the POSMOOR class notation - Mobile offshore units ....................................... 88
D 300 Requirements regarding maintaining the POSMOOR class notation in service............................................... 89
D 400 Documentation required for the POSMOOR class notation - Long Term Mooring......................................... 89
D 500 Scope and application ......................................................................................................................................... 89
D 600 Use of alternative recognised standards.............................................................................................................. 89
D 700 Basic assumptions............................................................................................................................................... 90
D 800 Documentation requirements.............................................................................................................................. 90
D 900 Survey of towing and mooring equipment ......................................................................................................... 90
Sec. 2 Equipment Selection and Certification .......................................................................................... 91
A. Specification of Equipment........................................................................................................................................... 91
A 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 91
A 200 Equipment number.............................................................................................................................................. 91
B. Certification of Equipment............................................................................................................................................ 92
B 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 92
B 200 Categorisation of equipment ............................................................................................................................... 92
B 300 Certification of material ...................................................................................................................................... 92
C. Classification Requirements for Anchors ..................................................................................................................... 93
C 100 Fluke anchors for temporary moorings............................................................................................................... 93
C 200 Additional requirements for HHP (High Holding Power) anchors for temporary mooring............................... 94
C 300 Identification marking for anchors for temporary and mobile mooring............................................................. 95
C 400 Requirements for anchors used in mobile mooring............................................................................................ 95
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 8 Contents
D. Classification Requirements for anchors used in long term mooring system............................................................... 95
D 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 95
E. Classification Requirements for Mooring Chain .......................................................................................................... 95
E 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 95
E 200 Temporary mooring ............................................................................................................................................ 95
E 300 Position mooring................................................................................................................................................. 95
F. Classification Requirements for Steel Wire Ropes....................................................................................................... 96
F 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 96
F 200 Temporary mooring ............................................................................................................................................ 96
F 300 Position mooring................................................................................................................................................. 96
G. Classification Requirements for Synthetic Fibre Ropes ............................................................................................... 96
G 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 96
G 200 In-service condition assessment.......................................................................................................................... 96
H. Classification Requirements for Windlass, Winches and Chain Stoppers.................................................................... 96
H 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 96
I. Classification Requirements for Fairleads .................................................................................................................... 97
I 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
J. Classification Requirements for Mooring Line Buoyancy Element ............................................................................. 97
J 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
K. Classification Requirements for Arrangement and Devices for Towing...................................................................... 97
K 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
L. Classification Requirements for Tension Measuring Equipment ................................................................................. 97
L 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
M. Classification Requirements for Thrusters and Thruster Systems ................................................................................ 97
M 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
N. Survey during Installation............................................................................................................................................. 97
N 100 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 97
App. A Required Documentation................................................................................................................. 98
A. Required Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 98
A 100 General Design documentation........................................................................................................................... 98
A 200 Metocean data ..................................................................................................................................................... 98
A 300 Design Documentation - details.......................................................................................................................... 98
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OFFSHORE STANDARD
DNV-OS-E301
POSITION MOORING
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
CONTENTS PAGE
Sec. 1 General ............................................................................................................................... 10
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 10 Ch.1 Sec.1
SECTION 1
GENERAL
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 This offshore standard contains criteria, technical requirements and guidelines on design and
construction of position mooring systems.
102 The standard is applicable for and limited to column-stabilised units, ship-shaped units single point
moorings, loading buoys and deep draught floaters (DDF) or other floating bodies relying on catenary mooring,
semi-taut and taut leg mooring system. The standard is also applicable for soft yoke systems.
A 200 Objectives
201 The objective of this standard shall give a uniform level of safety for mooring systems, consisting of
chain, steel wire ropes and fibre ropes.
202 The standard has been written in order to:
give a uniform level of safety for mooring systems
serve as a reference document in contractual matters between purchaser and contractor
serve as a guideline for designers, purchasers and contractors
specify procedures and requirements for mooring systems subject to DNV certification and classification
services.
A 300 Scope and application
301 The standard is applicable to all types of floating offshore units, including loading buoys, and covers the
following mooring system components:
stud chain
studless chain
Kenter shackles, D-shackles with dimension according to ISO 1704
LTM shackles
suction-friction components
purpose built connection elements
buoyancy and weight elements
steel wire ropes
fibre ropes
windlass, winch and stopper
fairleads
anchors.
B. Normative References
B 100 General
101 The standards in Table B1 include provisions, which through reference in this text constitute provisions
of this standard.
Table B1 DNV offshore service specifications, offshore standards and rules
Reference Title
DNV-OSS-101 Rules for Classification of Offshore Drilling and Support Units
DNV-OSS-102 Rules for Classification of Floating Production, Storage and Loading Units
DNV-OS-B101 Metallic Materials
DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures, General (LRFD method)
DNV-OS-C201 Structural Design of Offshore Units (WSD Method)
DNV-OS-D101 Marine and Machinery Systems and Equipment
DNV-OS-C401 Fabrication and Testing of Offshore Structures
DNV-OS-D201 Electrical Installations
DNV-OS-D202 Instrumentation and Telecommunication Systems
DNV-OS-E302 Offshore Mooring Chain
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 11
C. Informative References
C 100 General
101 The documents in Table C1 and Table C2 include acceptable methods for fulfilling the requirements in
the standard. Other recognised codes and standards may be applied provided it is shown that they meet or
exceed the level of safety of the actual standard.
D. Definitions
D 100 Verbal forms
101 Shall: Indicates a mandatory requirement to be followed for fulfilment or compliance with the present
standard. Deviations are not permitted unless formally and rigorously justified, and accepted by all relevant
contracting parties.
102 Should: Indicates a recommendation that a certain course of action is preferred or particularly suitable.
Alternative courses of action are allowable under the standard where agreed between contracting parties, but
shall be justified and documented.
103 May: Indicates a permission, or an opinion, which is permitted as a part of conformance with the standard.
104 Can: Requirements with can are conditional and indicate a possibility to the user of the standard.
DNV-OS-E303 Offshore Mooring Fibre Ropes
DNV-OS-E304 Offshore Mooring Steel Wire Ropes
Rules for Classification of Ships
Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations, Part 2: Operation Specific Requirements
Table C1 DNV Recommended Practices and Classification Notes
Reference Title
DNV-RP-A201 Plan Approval Documentation Types Definitions
DNV-RP-C103 Column Stabilised Units
DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel Structures
DNV-RP-E301 Design and Installation of Fluke Anchors in Clay
DNV-RP-E302 Design and Installation of Plate Anchors in Clay
DNV-RP-E303 Geotechnical Design and Installation of Suction Anchors in Clay
DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads
DNV-RP-F205 Global Performance Analysis of Deepwater Floating Structures
DNV Classification Note 41.2 Calculation of gear rating for marine transmissions, May 2003
Table C2 Other References
Reference Title
API RP 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Construction of Fixed Offshore
Platforms
API RP 2SK Recommended Practice for Design and Analysis of Station-keeping Systems for
Floating Structures,
API RP 2SM Recommended Practice for Design, Analysis, and Testing of Synthetic Fibre Ropes in
Offshore Applications
API RP 95F Interim Guidance for Gulf of Mexico MODU Mooring Practice - 2007 Hurricane
Season, 2
nd
edition
ISO 1704 Shipbuilding Stud link anchor chains
ISO 19901-1 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements for offshore structures -
Part 1: Meteocean design and operating considerations
ISO 19901-7 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Specific requirements for offshore structures -
Part 7 Station keeping systems for floating offshore structures and mobile
NORSOK M-001 Material selection
NORSOK N-003 Actions and Action Effects
OCIMF Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs. 2
nd
Edition 1994
Table B1 DNV offshore service specifications, offshore standards and rules (Continued)
Reference Title
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 12 Ch.1 Sec.1
D 200 Terms
201 ALS: An accidental limit state to ensure that the mooring system has adequate capacity to withstand the
failure of one mooring line or one thruster or thruster system failure for unknown reasons.
202 CALM Buoy: Catenary anchor leg mooring. The CALM system consists of a buoy that supports a number
of catenary chain legs.
203 Classification note (CN): The classification notes cover proven technology and solutions which are
found to represent good practice by DNV, and which represent one alternative for satisfying the requirements
stipulated in DNV rules or other codes and standards cited by DNV. The classification notes will in the same
manner be applicable for fulfilling the requirements in the DNV offshore standards.
204 Collinear environment: Wind, waves and current are acting from the same direction.
205 Creep: Change in length due to stretching of the polymer in a fibre rope.
206 Design brief: An agreed document where owners requirements in excess of this standard should be
given.
207 Dynamic stiffness: Is defined as the maximum stiffness of the mooring lines, which is predicted when
the mooring system is subject to a maximum design storm.
208 FLS: A fatigue limit state to ensure that the individual mooring lines have adequate capacity to withstand
cyclic loading.
209 HMPE: High-modulus polyethylene.
210 Horizontal low frequency motion: Horizontal resonant oscillatory motion of a moored unit induced by
oscillatory wind and second order wave loads. Low frequency motion may also be non-resonant and other
hydrodynamic forces (viscous) and non-linearities (restoring force may contribute to excitation.
211 Long term mooring: Mooring of a unit at the same location for more than 5 years.
212 Marine growth: Caused by soft (bacteria, algae, sponges, sea quirts and hydroids) and hard fouling
(goose, barnacles, mussels and tubeworms).
213 Mobile mooring: Anchoring at a specific location for a period less than 5 years. Includes long term and
mobile mooring.
214 Net thrust capacity: Thrust capacity after all types of loss in thrust capacity are considered.
215 Offshore Service Specification (OSS): Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification,
certification, verification and consultancy services.
216 Offshore standard (OS): The DNV offshore standards are documents which present the principles and
technical requirements for design of offshore structures. The standards are offered as DNVs interpretation of
engineering practice for general use by the offshore industry for achieving safe structures.
217 Operation condition: Conditions when drilling/production risers or gangway are connected, and/or
production of hydrocarbons are in progress
218 Plate anchor: Anchors that are intended to resist applied loads by orientating the plate approximately
normal to the load after having been embedded.
219 Position mooring: Mooring of a unit at an offshore location.
220 Post installation stiffness: Resulting static stiffness that may be used in analysis for the case where the
maximum design storm occurs immediately after installation.
221 Pristine curve: the force versus elongation plot as determined by direct loading to break, of a new
previously unloaded rope.
222 Recommended practice (RP): The recommended practice publications cover proven technology and
solutions which have been found by DNV to represent good practice, and which represent one alternative to
satisfy the requirements stipulated in the DNV offshore standards or other codes and standards cited by DNV.
223 Redundancy: The ability of a component or system to maintain its function when one failure has
occurred. Redundancy can be achieved, for instance, by installation of multiple components, systems or
alternative means of performing a function.
224 Spiral rope: Assembly of at least two layers of wires laid helically over a centre round wire, built-up
strand or parallel-lay strand, with at least one layer of wires being laid in the opposite direction, i.e. contra-lay,
to that of the outer layer(s) e.g. spiral strand, half locked coil, full locked coil.
225 Splash zone: The extension of the splash zone is from 4 m below still water level to 5 m above still water
level.
226 Static stiffness: Ratio of change in force to change in length when tension is either increased or reduced
227 Stranded rope: Assembly of several strands laid helically in one (single layer rope) or more (rotation-
resistant or parallel-closed rope) layers around a core or centre e.g. 6x19, 6x36, 6x61.
228 Temporary mooring: Anchoring in sheltered waters or harbours exposed to moderate environmental loads.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 13
229 ULS: An ultimate limit state to ensure that the individual mooring lines have adequate strength to
withstand the load effects imposed by extreme environmental actions.
230 Unit: is a general term for an offshore installation such as ship-shaped, column-stabilised, self-elevating,
tension leg or deep draught floater.
231 Wave frequency motion: This motion is induced by first order wave loads in the frequency range of the
incoming waves.
E. Abbreviations and Symbols
E 100 Abbreviations
101 Abbreviations as shown in Table E1 are used in this standard.
E 200 Symbols
201 Latin characters
Table E1 Abbreviations
Abbreviations In full
API American Petroleum Institute
ALS accidental limit state
BS British Standards
CI The Cordage Institute
DFF Design Fatigue Factor
DIA Vertical design inlet angle
DNV Det Norske Veritas
DWR design working rank
FLS fatigue limit state
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
IMO International Maritime Organization
ISO International Organisation for Standardisation
IWRC Independent wire rope core
JONSWAP Joint North Sea Wave Project
MBL Minimum Breaking Load
MLBE Mooring Line Buoyancy Element
MPM Most Probable Maximum
NDE/NDT Non destructive examination/testing
NMD Norwegian Maritime Directorate
NPD Norwegian Petroleum Directorate
OCIMF Oil Companies International Marine Forum
PSA Petroleum Safety Authority Norway
RAO Response Amplitude Operators
SCF Stress Concentration Factor
STL Submerged Turret Loading
STP Submerged Turret Production
ULS ultimate limit state
a
D
Intercept parameter of the S-N curve
C
D
Drag coefficient.
C
D0
The initial hull drag coefficient, including strakes, but without VIM
D Cylinder diameter
d
c
Characteristic accumulated fatigue damage during the design life
d
CSi
The fatigue damage in one environmental state calculated by the combined spectrum method
d
d
Winch drum diameter
d
DNBi
The fatigue damage in one environmental state calculated by the dual narrow-banded approach
d
F
Accumulated fatigue damage ratio between the lesser and more heavily loaded of two adjacent
lines
d
i
Fatigue damage in one environmental state
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 14 Ch.1 Sec.1
d
NBi
Fatigue damage in one environmental state, based on a narrow banded assumption
D
nom
Nominal chain or wire diameter
d
p
Diameter of the anchor shackle pin
d
s
The diameter of the anchor shackle
d
w
Nominal wire diameter
E[S
i
m
] Expected value of the nominal stress range raised to the power of m in environmental state i
FC Fibre core
f Average breaking load of one wire in kN
f
1
Material factor
F
D
Towing design load
f
m
Method factor
f
n
Natural frequency of the transverse rigid body mode
f
s
Vortex shedding frequency
f
Si
(s) The probability density of nominal stress ranges of magnitude s in environmental state i
F
T
Towing force
f
tow
Towing design load factor
F
X
Mean environmental surge load
F
Y
Mean environmental sway load
h Water depth
h
g
Depth of fairlead groove
H
s
Significant wave height
H(e) Transfer function
k Restoring force coefficient (N/m)
k
1
Amplification factor for transverse VIM
k
l
Lay factor of steel wire ropes
k
p
(l) Correction factor evaluated for fatigue test set with l test specimens
K1 Stud links chain cable for bow anchors according to IACS, see DNV Rules for Classification of
Ships Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 E. Anchor chain cables
K2 Stud links chain cable for bow anchors according to IACS, see DNV Rules for Classification of
Ships Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 E. Anchor chain cables
K3 Stud links chain cable for bow anchors according to IACS, see DNV Rules for Classification of
Ships Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 E. Anchor chain cables
l Number of fatigue test results
l
p
Free length of anchor shackle pin
L
oa
The length overall of a ship shaped unit
LTM D-shackles where the locking device normally consists of a nut and a locking pin through the bolt
M The units mass included added mass
m Slope parameter of the S-N curve
M
E
Maximum yaw motion between the target and the equilibrium heading
M
T
Yaw moment that can be generated by the thrusters
M
Z
Mean environmental yaw moment
n The number of tests, not less than 5
n
i
Number of stress cycles in one environmental state
n
c
(s) Number of stress ranges of magnitude s that would lead to failure of the component
N
LF
Number of low frequency oscillations during the duration of a sea state
N
WF
Number of wave frequency oscillations during the duration of a sea state
P Pitch diameter
P
i
Probability of occurrence of environmental state i
r
g
Radius of fairlead groove
R The ratio of tension range to characteristic strength
R3 Chain quality according to IACS, see DNV-OS-E302
R3S Chain quality according to IACS, see DNV-OS-E302
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.1 Sec.1 Page 15
202 Greek characters
R4 Chain quality according to IACS, see DNV-OS-E302
R4S Chain quality according to IACS, see DNV-OS-E302
R5 Chain quality according to IACS, see DNV-OS-E302
s Stress range (double amplitude)
S(e) Wave spectrum
S
R
(e) Response spectrum
S
C
Characteristic strength of the mooring line segment
S*
C
Reduced characteristic strength
S
mbs
Minimum breaking strength of a new component
S
t
Strouhal number
t Total number of wires
T
C-mean
Characteristic mean line tension, due to pretension and mean environmental actions in the
environmental state
T
C-dyn
Characteristic dynamic line tension induced by low-frequency and wave-frequency loads in the
environmental state
T
D
Design life time of mooring line component in seconds
T
Design-L
Total design tension calculated in the operational limiting environment
T
Design-100
Total design tension in an environmental condition with a return period of 100 year
T
i
Duration of the environmental state
T
X
Thrust component in surge
T
Y
Thrust component in sway
T
p
Peak wave period
T
z
Zero up-crossing wave period
T
WF-max
Maximum wave frequency tension
T
QS
(.) Quasi-static line tension function
U
1 hour, 10m
Mean wind speed over a 1 hour period 10 m above sea level
V Current speed
V
C
Surface current speed
Wind generated current speed
V
r
Reduced velocity
X
LF-sig
Horizontal significant low frequency motion
X
LF-max
Maximum horizontal low frequency motion
X
mean
Horizontal excursion caused by the mean environmental loads relative to the still water location
of the unit
X
V
The horizontal distance between the unit and an installation
X
WF-sig
Horizontal significant wave frequency motion
X
WF-max
Maximum horizontal wave frequency motion
o
s
The coefficient of variation of the breaking strength of the component
o
w
Bandwidth parameter
AT
growth
Marine growth surface thickness
Arc of support of a steel wire rope in a fairlead

p
Peak shape parameter

F
Fatigue safety factor

L
Additional safety factor for operational states

mean
Partial safety factor on mean tension

dyn
Partial safety factor on dynamic tension

L
,
W
Normalised variances of the low and wave frequency stress process
k Correction for 3-D effects
Factor used to calculate marine growth. 2.0 for chain, 1.0 for wire rope
V
C
Wind
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 16 Ch.1 Sec.1
F. Documentation
F 100 General
101 When preparing documentation in accordance with this standard a design brief document shall be
prepared and used as basis for the design documentation, stating all project specification, standards and
functional requirements.
102 The design documentation shall include drawings and calculations for the limit states. Documentation
requirements shall be in accordance with the NPS DocReq (DNV Nauticus Production System for
documentation requirements) and DNV-RP-A201. Details are found in Appendix A.

s
The mean value of breaking strength of the component
v
i
The mean up-crossing rate (hertz) of the stress process in environmental state i
v
yi
The mean-up-crossing rate (hertz) for the combined stress process in environmental state i
o
b
Specified minimum tensile strength of the material
o
e
Nominal equivalent stress
o
f
Specified minimum upper yield strength of the material

growth
Density of marine growth

i
Correction factor based on the two frequency bands that are present in the tension process

seawater
Density of seawater
o
Li
Standard deviation of low frequency stress range in one environmental state
o
Si
Standard deviation of the stress process
o
X-LF
The standard deviation of horizontal, low frequency motion of the upper terminal point in the
mean mooring line direction
o
X-WF
The standard deviation of horizontal, wave frequency motion of the upper terminal point in the
mean mooring line direction
o
T-WF
The standard deviation of the wave-frequency component of line tension
o
yi
Standard deviation of the stress process including both wave and low frequency components
o
Wi
Standard deviation of wave frequency stress range in one environmental state
e wave frequency
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Hvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11
OFFSHORE STANDARD
DNV-OS-E301
POSITION MOORING
CHAPTER 2
TECHNICAL PROVISIONS
CONTENTS PAGE
Sec. 1 Environmental Conditions and Loads................................................................................ 18
Sec. 2 Mooring System Analysis.................................................................................................. 35
Sec. 3 Thruster Assisted Mooring ................................................................................................ 59
Sec. 4 Mooring Equipment ........................................................................................................... 66
Sec. 5 Tests ................................................................................................................................... 85
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 18 Ch.2 Sec.1
SECTION 1
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND LOADS
A. General
A 100 Objective
101 This section describes the environmental data to be used in the mooring system analyses.
A 200 Application
201 The following environmental effects shall be taken into account, as appropriate for the location of the
mooring:
waves
wind
current
marine growth
tide and storm surge
earthquake
temperature
snow and ice.
Other effects may conceivably be relevant in special locations
202 Detailed metocean criteria should be developed for long term moorings. Less detailed criteria may be
acceptable for mobile moorings that are expected to be in consequence class 1 during extreme environmental
conditions. The documentation of the metocean criteria shall be made available for information during the
assessment of mooring designs.
203 10 000-year wave will be considered for the restoring force to be taken by the turret or STP/STL-buoy
and transformed in the ALS condition.
204 The environmental effects to be applied in mooring line response calculations for the ULS and the ALS
shall include the most unfavourable combination of wind, wave and current with a return period of no less than
100 years for the combination. Unfavourable conditions are those conditions leading to higher mooring loads.
Both the intensities and the directions of the environmental effects are significant. Conservative conditions
shall be applied when detailed information is lacking. Note that the absence of a minor effect may sometimes
lead to higher line tensions than a moderate intensity of that effect; e.g. through a reduction in damping of
platform motions.
205 In Norwegian waters and some other extra-tropical locations, a combination employing both wind and
waves with 100-year return periods together with current with a 10-year return period is usually acceptable.
This combination becomes less acceptable as load-effects arising from current become more important.
206 In locations with more complex combinations of environmental effects, it is advantageous to consider a
few likely candidates for the dominant effect. A 100-year return period is applied to each candidate in turn and
fairly realistic, unfavourable levels are applied to the other effects that act simultaneously; e.g.
a) Dominant squall winds with a 100-year return, with wind seas arising from the squall, in association with;
(i) other effects with 1-year return periods, (ii) in the absence of some or all other effects.
b) Dominant current with a 100-year return period, in association with; (i) other effects with a 5% probability
of exceedance, (ii) other effects with 95% probability of exceedance.
It should be demonstrated that the range of potentially critical cases has been covered, usually by a combination
of reasoning, calculation and relevant experience.
207 Reliability analysis can be applied as a more precise alternative, if sufficient environmental data is
available to develop joint probability distributions for the environmental loads.
208 For the fatigue analysis of long term moorings, a set of environmental states shall be specified, to cover
the range of conditions that are encountered and allow the calculation of fatigue damage with adequate
accuracy.
B. Environmental Conditions
B 100 General
101 The load effects are based on the predicted tensions in the mooring lines, normally obtained by
calculations. The analysis of the line tensions shall take into account the motion of the floating unit induced by
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 19
environmental loads, and the response of the mooring lines to these motions. The characteristic load effects are
obtained for stationary, environmental states. Each stationary environmental state may be specified in terms of:
significant wave height (H
s
)
peak wave period (T
p
)
wave spectrum (JONSWAP or double-peaked).
In the North Sea and North Atlantic the Torsethaugen double peak spectrum can be applied. This spectrum
has been developed based on measured spectra for Norwegian waters (Haltenbanken and Statfjord), ref.
DNV-RP-C205.
For other locations the Ochi-Hubble spectrum is an alternative. The Ochi-Hubble spectrum is a sum of two
Gamma distributions, each with three parameters for each wave system with respect to significant wave
height, peak period and a shape factors. The parameters should be determined numerically to best fit the
observed spectra, ref. DNV-RP-C205 and ISO 19901-1.
In e.g. West Africa and other areas where wind-waves and swell waves are not collinear the use of double
peaked spectrum shall not be applied.
wave energy spreading function (long crested waves or a cosine to the power of 4)
main wave direction
mean wind speed, over a 1 hour averaging period 10 m above sea level (U
1 hour, 10 m
)
wind spectrum function
wind direction
surface current speed (V
C
)
current profile over depth
current direction.
The same environmental conditions should be considered for the ULS and ALS, while a wider range of
environmental conditions must be considered for the FLS.
B 200 Waves
201 Sea states with return periods of 100 years shall normally be used, see A200. The wave conditions shall
include a set of combinations of significant wave height and peak period along the 100-year contour, as defined
by inverse FORM technique, /1/. The joint probability distribution of significant wave height and peak wave
periods at the mooring system site is necessary to establish the contour line.
202 If this joint distribution is not available, then the range of combinations may be based on a contour line
for the North Atlantic, see 204.
203 It is important to perform calculations for several sea states along the 100-year contour line to make sure
that the mooring system is properly designed. Ship-shaped units are sensitive to low frequency motion, and
consequently a sea state with a short peak period can be critical. How to choose sea states along the contour
line is indicated in Fig.1. The same values for wind and current shall be applied together with all the sea states
chosen along the 100-year contour.
204 If it is not possible to develop a contour line due to limited environmental data for a location a sensitivity
analysis with respect to the peak period for the 100 year sea state shall be carried out. The range of wave
steepness criteria defined in DNV-RP-C205 can be applied to indicate a suitable range of peak wave periods
to be considered in the sensitivity analysis.
Figure 1
Selections of sea states along a 100-year contour line
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 20 Ch.2 Sec.1
205 For mobile offshore units intended for world wide operations a 100-year contour line for the North
Atlantic may be applied in the design of the mooring system. This wave data should represent reasonable
conservative wave conditions compared with locations elsewhere. The contour line is given in the Guidance
Note below. The contour line is based on the scatter diagram for the North Atlantic given in DNV-RP-C205.
Typical sea states with a 100-year return period for different locations around the world is also given in the
Guidance Note applicable for preliminary designs when detailed metocean data is not available.
Guidance note:
Typical sea states at different locations with a return period of 100 years are given below. Each sea state (3-hour
duration) is characterised by maximum significant wave height and wave period (T
p
or T
z
):
Norwegian Sea (Haltenbanken) H
s
= 16.5 m
T
p
= 17.0 -19.0 s
Northern North Sea (Troll field) H
s
= 15.0 m
T
p
= 15.5 17.5 s
North Sea (Greater Ekofisk area) H
s
= 14.0 m
T
p
= 15.0 17.0 s
Mediterranean
- Libya (shallow water) H
s
= 8.5 m
T
p
= 14.0 s
- Egypt H
s
= 12.1 m
T
p
= 14.4 s
Gulf of Mexico
Hurricane H
s
= 15.8 m
T
p
= 13.9 - 16.9 s
Winter storm H
s
= 7.3 m
T
p
= 10.8 -12.8 s
West Africa
- Nigeria (swell) H
s
= 3.6 m
T
p
= 15.9 s
- Nigeria (squalls) H
s
= 2.7 m
T
p
= 7.6 s
- Gabon (wind generated) H
s
= 2.0 m
T
p
= 7.0 s
- Gabon (swell) H
s
= 3.7 m
T
p
= 15.5 s
- Ivory Coast (swell): H
s
= 6.0 m
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 21
Additional information can be found in ISO19901-1 and API RP 95F.
The zero up crossing wave period T
Z
and the mean wave period T
1
may be related to the peak period by the following
approximate relations (1 s < 7), applicable to the JONSWAP spectrum.
For
p
= 3.3; Tp = 1.2859 T
z
and T
1
= 1.0734 T
Z
For
p
= 1.0 (PM spectrum); Tp = 1.4049 T
z
and T
1
= 1.0867 T
Z
If no particular peakedness parameter
p
, the following value may be applied:
where T
p
is in seconds and H
s
in metres.
See also DNV-RP-C205, Ch.3.5.5.
If better data is not available the following can be applied:
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
T
p
= 13.0 s
- Angola (swell, shallow water) H
s
= 4.1 m
T
p
= 16.0 s
South America
- Brazil (Campos Basin) H
s
= 8.0 m
T
p
= 13.0 s
Timor Sea
- Non typhoon H
s
= 4.8 m
T
p
= 11.5 s
T
z
= 8.3 s
- Typhoon H
s
= 5.5 m
T
p
= 10.1 s
T
z
= 7.4 s
South China Sea
- Non typhoon H
s
= 7.3 m
T
p
= 11.1 s
- Typhoon H
s
= 13.6 m
T
p
= 15.1 s
North Sea or North Atlantic:
p
= 3.3
West Africa:
p
= 1.5 0.5
Gulf of Mexico:
p
= 1 for H
s
s 6.5 m

p
= 2 for H
s
> 6.5 m.
3 2
0003341 . 0 006230 . 0 05037 . 0 6673 . 0
p p p
p
Z
T
T
+ + =
3
2
1
0003610 . 0 006556 . 0 04936 . 0 7303 . 0
p p p
p
T
T
+ + =

p
5 for
T
p
H
s
---------- 3.6 s =

p
e
5.75 - 1.15
T
p
H
s
----------
for 3.6
T
p
H
s
---------- 5 < s =

p
1.0 for 5
T
p
H
s
---------- s =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 22 Ch.2 Sec.1
206 Examples of contour lines for different areas are given in the guidance note below.
Guidance note:
100-year contour line Angola (swell)
100-year contour Ekofisk (North Sea)
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 23
100-year contour Haltenbanken (North Atlantic)
100-year contour Vring (North Atlantic)
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
B 300 Wind
301 A mean wind speed 10 m above the water surface with a 100-year return period should normally be used,
see A200, and be based on the marginal distribution of wind speeds at the specific locations.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 24 Ch.2 Sec.1
302 Wind load shall be treated as a steady component in combination with a time varying component known
as the gust, which generates low frequency motion. The time varying wind is described by a wind gust
spectrum.
303 The NPD/ISO wind spectrum shall be applied for all locations. The formulation is given in NORSOK
N-003 and in ISO 19901-1.
Guidance note:
The NPD/ISO wind spectrum as published in ISO 19901-1 is valid for 0.00167 Hz < f < 0.5 Hz, i.e. 600 s > 1/f > 2 s.
However, in DNV-RP-C205 it is stated that this spectrum is valid up to 2400 s rather than 600 s. It should be noted that
the NPD/ISO wind spectrum is uncertain for very long periods (> 600 to 2400 s).
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
304 The steady component of the wind speed is represented by a 1-hour average mean wind 10 m above sea
level.
Guidance note:
Some typical 1 hour mean wind speeds with a return period of 100 years at different locations:
Additional information can be found in ISO19901-1 and API RP 95F.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
305 The definition of wind speed as a function of time and height above sea level is given in DNV-RP-C205.
306 The Squall events should normally be analysed in the time domain using the time histories of squalls.
The time series shall include variation in both wind speed and direction. The duration of squalls is
approximately one hour. The squall wind speed shall be scaled to represent a return period of 100 year. Scaling
of the time axis to preserve the rate of increase wind speed may be considered. The squall shall be assumed to
approach from any direction if it is not documented that squall always approach from specified directions. The
extreme value of the mooring line tension and offset shall be taken as the maximum value for the time series
of the actual responses. The 100 year squall wind speed shall be combined with waves and current according
to A205. An example of a squall time series with respect to wind speed and direction is given in the guidance
note. The squalls directions may vary more than the Fig.3 in the guidance note indicate. Site specific data shall
always be applied.
Norwegian Sea (Haltenbanken) 37.0 m/s
North Sea (Troll field) 40.5 m/s
North Sea (Greater Ekofisk area) 34.0 m/s
Mediterranean
- Libya 25.3 m/s
- Egypt 25.1 m/s
Gulf of Mexico
Hurricane 48.0 m/s
Winter storm 23.9 m/s
West Africa
- Nigeria (combined with swell) 16.0 m/s
- Gabon (combined with swell) 16.6 m/s
- Gabon (squall) 24.1 m/s
- Ivory Coast (combined with swell) 16.0 m/s
- Ivory Coast (squall) 29.5 m/s
- Angola (squall) 21.8 m/s
South America
- Brazil (Campos Basin) 35.0 m/s
Timor Sea
- Non typhoon 16.6 m/s
- Typhoon 23.2 m/s
South China Sea
- Non typhoon 28.6 m/s
- Typhoon 56.3 m/s
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 25
Guidance note:
Figure 2
Squall time series with respect to wind speed
Figure 3
Squall time series with respect to direction
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
307 If squall time series are not available the squall can be represented by a one minute average constant wind
speed with a return period of 100 year. Wind Spectrum shall not be applied.
B 400 Current
401 A surface current speed with a 10-year return period should normally be used, see A200, and be based
on the marginal distribution of current speeds at the location.
402 The most common categories are:
tidal currents (associated with astronomical tides)
circulational currents (associated with oceanic circulation patterns)
wind generated currents
loop and eddy currents
soliton currents.
The vector sum of these currents is the total current, and the speed and direction of the current at specified
depths are represented by a current profile. In certain geographical areas, current loads can be the governing
design loads.
403 In areas where the current speed is high, and the sea states are represented with small wave heights e.g.
West Africa, it is important to have detailed metocean data in order to establish conservative design condition,
see A200.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Time (s)
W
i
n
d

S
p
e
e
d

(
m
/
s
)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500
Time (s)
D
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
d
e
g
.
)
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 26 Ch.2 Sec.1
404 In open areas wind generated current velocities at the still water level may be taken as follows, if
statistical data is not available:
Guidance note:
Some typical surface current speeds with a return period of 10 years at different location:
Additional information can be found in ISO19901-1 and API RP 95F.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
405 The currents influence on the wave drift forces shall be taken into account.
B 500 Direction of wind, waves and current relative to the unit
501 For column-stabilised units and ships, which are directionally fixed, the loads from wind, waves and
current are assumed acting in the same direction.
502 For units with symmetrical anchor pattern, at least head, quartering and beam load directions should be
analysed in addition to the case where wind, current and waves are acting in the direction of an anchoring line.
503 A directional distribution of wind, waves and current may be applied if available.
504 For offset calculation use the direction that is intermediate to two neighbour lines in addition to the
directions specified in 501.
505 For units with non-symmetrical anchor pattern all directions from 0 to 360 with a maximum spacing
of 30 should be investigated. At least one case where the wind, current and waves are acting in the direction
of an anchoring line shall be included. A directional distribution of wind, waves and current may be applied if
available.
506 For weather-vaneing units such as turret moored production or storage vessels dependant on heading
control, site specific data regarding the direction spread of wind, waves and current shall be applied.
507 If site specific data is not available the following two combinations of wind, wave and current shall be
applied:
Collinear environment:
wind, waves and current acting in the same direction. The direction shall be 15 relative to the units bow.
Norwegian Sea (Haltenbanken) 0.90 m/s
North Sea (Troll) 1.50 m/s
North Sea (Greater Ekofisk area) 0.55 m/s
Mediterranean
- Libya 1.00 m/s
- Egypt 0.78 m/s
Gulf of Mexico
Hurricane 1.8 m/s
Winter storm 1.08 m/s
Loop current - 100 year 2.37 m/s
West Africa
- Nigeria 1.1 m/s
- Gabon 0.91 m/s
- Ivory Coast 0.90 m/s
1)
- Angola 1.85 m/s
2)
South America
- Brazil (Campos Basin) 1.60 m/s
Timor Sea
- Non typhoon 1.10 m/s
- Typhoon 1.90 m/s
South China Sea
- Non typhoon 0.85 m/s
- Typhoon 2.05 m/s
1) Ocean current going to east
2) Ocean current going to 347.5 approximately parallel to
the coast
V
C
Wind
0.015 U
1hour, 10m
=
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 27
Non-Collinear environment:
wave towards the units bow (0)
wind 30 relative to the waves
current 45 relative to the waves.
Wind and current shall approach the unit from the same side, see Fig.4.
Figure 4
Non-collinear Directions of wind, waves and current
508 The environmental directions in 507 are also applicable for freely weather-vaneing units, which will
rotate to an equilibrium position where the environmental directions have changed relative to the bow.
509 Directional distribution of wind wave and current may be applied if available.
510 The directionality shall be considered for units in regions where the directions of wind, waves and current
are not correlated. Typical directionality for West Africa (offshore Nigeria) is shown in Fig.5.
Figure 5
The directional sectors of swell, sea, current and squalls offshore Nigeria
B 600 Soil condition
601 For long term mooring, sea bed soil conditions shall be determined for the intended site to provide data
for the anchor design. Soil data should be based on soil borings at location to a depth representative of anchor
penetration.
B 700 Drag coefficients for mooring components without marine growth
701 The drag force per unit length applied to D can be written as
v v D C f
D
=
2
1
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 28 Ch.2 Sec.1
where C
D
is the drag coefficient according to the table below. D is the nominal diameter of the chain or wire
rope and v is the corresponding velocity component, either transverse or longitudinal.
702 Other drag coefficients can be accepted provided they are properly documented.
B 800 Marine growth
801 Marine growth on the mooring lines shall be included in the analysis of long term mooring systems for
production and storage vessels. The thickness of the marine growth shall be in accordance with the
specification for the actual location. The marine growth is accounted for by increasing the weight of the line
segments, and increasing the drag coefficients.
Guidance note:
Marine growth is dependent on the location. If no data is available the following data from NORSOK N-003 shall be
used:
The density of marine growth may be set to 1325 kg/m
3
Mass of marine growth:
Submerged weight of marine growth:
Increasing the drag coefficient due to margine growth:
Other methods for determining the increased drag coefficients due to marine growth may be accepted.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
Transverse Longitudinal
Stud chain 2.6 1.4
Stud less chain 2.4 1.15
Stranded rope 1.8 *
Spiral rope without plastic sheathing 1.6 *
Spiral rope with plastic sheathing 1.2 *
Fibre rope 1.6 *
(*) Longitudinal forces can often be neglected in these cases or the expressions from DNV-RP-C205 can be applied.
56 -59 N 59 - 72 N
Water depth
(m)
Thickness
(mm)
Thickness
(mm)
+2 to -40 100 60
below -40 50 30

growth
= density of marine growth

seawater
= density of sea water
D
nom
= nominal chain or wire rope diameter
AT
growth
= marine growth surface thickness
= 2.0 for chain, 1.0 for wire rope.
C
D
= stud chain: 2.6
studless chain: 2.4 with respect to chain diameter
C
D
= stranded rope: 1.8
spiral rope without sheathing: 1.6
spiral rope with sheathing: 1.2.
M
growth
t
4
--- D
nom
2AT
growth
+ ( )
2
D
nom
2

growth
kg m ( ) =
W
growth
M
growth
1

seawater

growth
---------------------------
9.81
1000
----------- - kN m ( ) =
C
Dgrowth
C
D
D
nom
2 AT
growth
+
D
nom
--------------------------------------------------- =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 29
C. Environmental Loads
C 100 Wind loads
101 The wind load may be determined by using wind tunnel tests, model basin tests or calculations according
to recognised standards, such as:
DNV-RP-C205 Section 5
OCIMF Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs, 2
nd
Edition 1994
API RP 2SK.
102 Mean wind force may be calculated using a drag force formulation, with drag coefficients from model
tests, or numerical flow analysis.
103 Mean wind forces described with a wind profile, and oscillatory wind forces due to wind gusts shall both
be included. Wind profile according to DNV-RP-C205 and ISO19901-1 shall be applied.
104 Model test data may be used to predict wind loads for mooring system analyses provided that a
representative model of the unit is tested. The condition of the model in the tests, such as draught and deck
arrangement should closely match the expected conditions that the unit will see in service. Care should also be
taken to ensure that the character of the flow in the model tests is the same as the character of the flow for the
full scale unit.
105 Documentation of the load analysis method shall be available. The accuracy of numerical models should
be quantified by comparison with full scale or model tests. The accuracy of model test results applied in the
design shall also be quantified.
C 200 Current loads
201 The current load may be determined from wind tunnel tests, model basin tests or calculations according
to recognised theories, such as:
DNV-RP-C205 Section 6
OCIMF Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs, 2
nd
Edition 1994.
202 Mean current force may be calculated using a drag force formulation, with drag coefficients from model
tests, or numerical flow analysis.
203 If the water depth is less than three times the draught of a ship, the current drag coefficients will increase.
Current coefficients for ships given in the OCIMF guideline referred above include shallow water effects.
204 Current profiles shall be used. The current profile described in DNV-RP-C205 can be applied.
205 Site specific current profiles have to be developed for regions where loop or solition current is dominant.
206 The current loads on multiple riser systems have to be included. Current load is normally neglected for
a riser system consisting of a single drilling riser.
207 Current loads on mooring lines are normally neglected. However, in regions where current is dominating
(see A202 and B403) current loads on the anchor lines have to be included.
208 Model test data may be used to predict current loads for mooring system analyses provided that a
representative model of the under water hull of the unit is tested. The draughts of the model in the tests have to
match the expected conditions that the unit will see in service.
209 Documentation of the load analysis method shall be available. The accuracy of numerical models should
be quantified by comparison with full scale or model tests. The accuracy of model test results applied in the
design shall also be quantified.
C 300 Wave loads
301 Interaction between waves and a floating unit results in loads of three categories:
a) Steady component of the second order loads known as mean wave drift loads.
b) First order wave loads inducing first order motions known as wave frequency motions.
c) Second order wave loads that act together with oscillatory wind loads to induce low frequency motions.
302 Documentation of the load analysis method shall be available. The accuracy of numerical models should
be quantified by comparison with full scale or model tests. The accuracy of model test results applied in the
design shall also be quantified.
C 400 Wave drift forces
401 The mean wave drift load is induced by the steady component of the second order wave loads. The
determination of mean drift load requires motion analysis e.g. radiation or diffraction theory or model testing
results.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 30 Ch.2 Sec.1
402 The wave drift force coefficients calculated by potential theory do not include viscous forces. Effects
from wave/current interaction have to be included together with viscous effects if relevant.
C 500 Wave frequency motions
501 Wave frequency motions shall be calculated according to recognised theory or based on model testing.
The following calculation methods are recommended:
a) Wave frequency motions of large volume structures shall be calculated by diffraction theory. For slender
structures, strip theory may be applied.
b) Wave diffraction solutions do not include viscous effects. When body members are relatively slender or
have sharp edges, viscous effects may be important and viscous effects should be added to the diffraction
forces. For slender bodies such as ships viscous damping in roll has to be included.
c) Wave frequency motions of column-stabilised units, which consist of large volume parts and slender
members should be calculated by using a combination of wave diffraction theory and Morisonss equation.
502 The JONSWAP spectrum shall normally be used to describe wind induced extreme sea states. The
formulation of the JONSWAP spectrum is given in DNV-RP-C205. If no particular peakedness parameter is
given, the relation between the significant wave height, peak period and the peakedness parameter given in
Sec.1 B204 should be applied.
503 Extreme wind generated waves may be considered to be long crested or the short crestedness may be
described by cosine to the power of 4.
504 Consideration of swell should be included if relevant. Sea states comprising collinear wind generated
waves and swell may be represented by a recognised doubled-peaked spectrum according to B101. The
formulation of both Torsethaugen and Ochi-Hubble doubled peak spectra can be found in DNV-RP-C205.
Swell shall be considered long crested.
505 The most probable largest wave frequency motion amplitude may be calculated assuming that the
maxima of the motion response fit a Rayleigh distribution according to Sec.2 B405.
506 When anchoring takes place in shallow water, the following shall be included in the calculation of wave
frequency motion:
a) The effect on wave frequency motion caused by restoring forces due to the mooring system and risers shall
be investigated when the water depth is below 70 m. The effect shall be taken into account if the wave
frequency motions are significantly affected.
b) When the water depth is less than 100 m, the finite depth effect shall be included in the wave frequency
motions (RAOs). Calculations shall be carried out for the actual water depth at the location according to
C501. RAOs calculated for a water depth within a deviation of 10 m will be accepted.
507 For taut leg mooring systems the stiffness of the mooring system and risers shall be included in the
calculation of wave frequency motions regardless of water depth if the wave frequency motions are
significantly affected.
C 600 Low frequency motions
601 Environmental actions due to wind, waves and current shall be taken into account in the analysis of the
mean and low frequency motion response of the vessel. Only horizontal modes of motion (surge, sway, yaw)
are usually considered for ships and semisubmersibles, while vertical modes need to be included for deep
draught floaters /4/.
602 Mean wind and current forces may be calculated using a drag force formulation, with drag coefficients
from model tests, or numerical flow analysis. The drag coefficients are dependent on the angular orientation of
the vessel relative to the incoming fluid flow direction.
603 Mean wave forces may contain components due to both potential and viscous effects. Potential effects
may be based on the results of a prior first-order analysis, which provides mean drift force coefficients for each
mode of motion, as a function of wave frequency, current speed, and angular orientation of the vessel. Linear
superposition may be applied to obtain the mean forces in irregular, long-crested waves, by combination of the
mean drift force coefficients with a wave spectrum. Viscous effects on the mean force due to waves are usually
omitted in practice.
604 The mean position of the vessel in an environmental state is computed by finding the position where
equilibrium is established between the mean environmental loads and the restoring forces from the positioning
system. The nonlinear characteristic of a catenary mooring should be taken accurately into account in
establishing the mean offset. If the vessel is free to rotate, then the effect of any rotation should be taken into
account in computing the magnitude of the mean environmental forces. A stable equilibrium position should
be sought.
605 Low-frequency wind forces may be based on a drag force formulation, with wind speed as the sum of
the mean wind speed and an unsteady wind speed, from a wind spectrum. Expansion of the quadratic term in
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 31
wind speed yields:
the mean force, already considered above
a force proportional to the unsteady wind spectrum, scaled by the mean speed
a quadratic term in the unsteady speed, which is neglected.
606 The low-frequency wave forces may contain components due to both potential and viscous effects. In
this case, it may be necessary to take the viscous effects into account for column-stabilised units, but they may
be neglected for ships. Potential effects may still be based on first-order analysis, using the mean drift force
coefficients, mentioned above. The spectral density of exciting forces in irregular waves may then be obtained
as described in /5/.
607 It is more difficult to incorporate viscous contributions to the low-frequency excitation in a frequency
domain analysis. Hence a time domain analysis may be needed for semisubmersibles.
608 Low-frequency motion response to the exciting forces may be calculated in the frequency domain or the
time domain. Linearisation of the restoring forces from the mooring system is necessary in frequency domain
analysis. The linearisation should be applied around the mean vessel offset for the environmental state being
considered, using stochastic linearisation, or assuming a realistic response amplitude.
609 Low frequency wave induced motion may be based on model testing in stead of, or in addition to
numerical calculations.
610 The test or simulation duration time shall be sufficient to provide adequate statistics, and shall not be
taken less than three hours.
611 The most probable largest low frequency motion amplitude may be calculated assuming that the maxima
of the motion response fit a Rayleigh distribution. See Sec.2 B405.
612 The effect of the current velocity on the low frequency damping shall be considered. Comparison with
relevant model test data is recommended.
Guidance note:
Low frequency motion of a moored unit is dominated by the resonance at the natural frequency of the moored unit.
The motion amplitude is highly dependent on the stiffness of the mooring system, and on the system damping. A good
estimate of damping is critical in computing low frequency motions. There are four main sources of damping:
- viscous damping of the unit
- wave drift damping
- mooring and riser system damping
- thruster damping (only applicable for thruster assisted mooring)
The wave drift damping and the mooring or riser system damping are often the most important contributors to the total
damping.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
D. Vortex Induced Motion (VIM)
D 100 General
101 Moored platforms constructed from large circular cylinders, such as Spars and some other deep draught
floaters, may experience vortex-induced motions (VIM) when exposed to a steady current. VIM should be
considered in the design of mooring systems for such floaters, because it may induce additional loads on the
mooring system.
102 Vortex-induced motions occur transversely to the current direction, and in line with the current. These
motions contribute to the offset away from the still water position. The occurrence of VIM also increases the
mean drag force in the current direction, making a further contribution to offset. Increased offset implies
increased mooring line tensions, to be checked against the line strength in the ULS and ALS. VIM also causes
oscillations in the line tension, which may contribute to fatigue damage, to be checked in the FLS.
103 The present guidance is largely based on general principles, and will need to be refined when more full
scale experience with VIM of moored platforms has been accumulated.
D 200 Conditions for VIM to occur
201 Significant VIM is only expected to occur if a natural frequency of the moored system lies in the vicinity
of the vortex shedding frequency of a major cylindrical component of the platform. Natural frequencies for
rigid body modes transverse to the current direction (e.g. sway and roll) should be considered. They may be
compared to the vortex shedding frequency given by
D
V
S f
t S
=
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 32 Ch.2 Sec.1
where V is the current speed, D is the cylinder diameter, and St is the Strouhal number. The Strouhal number
is dependent on Reynolds number. The Reynolds number tends to be > 10
7
for the large cylinder diameters
used in these platforms. Hence, it should be appropriate to consider a Strouhal number in such cases.
Only the maximum current speed needs to be considered when checking for occurrence of VIM i.e. the current
speed with 100-years return period. If the natural frequencies are appreciably greater than the vortex shedding
frequency for this current speed, then VIM is not expected to occur. Otherwise, VIM may occur at this speed
or at lower speeds.
202 It is most convenient if significant VIM can be ruled out. In some cases, it may be possible to increase
the stiffness of the mooring system, such that the natural frequencies lie above the vortex shedding range.
However, an increase in the stiffness of the mooring system usually implies higher mooring line tensions,
increased wear in the lines and increased mooring loads on the platform. A highly nonlinear restoring force
from the mooring system will also tend to suppress VIM.
D 300 VIM analysis
301 VIM should be analysed when it cannot be ruled out. This can require considerable effort, and is likely
to depend on careful model testing. DNV-RP-C205 provides further guidance and some data that can be used
in a preliminary, rough assessment of VIM response. The objective of the VIM analysis is primarily to obtain:
a) the amplitude of the transverse VIM, under varying current speeds
b) the magnitude of the mean drag coefficient, dependent on the amplitude of VIM
c) the amplitude of the variation in the drag force, at twice the vortex shedding frequency.
302 It is usually convenient to present results in a non-dimensional form, giving the ratio of transverse VIM
amplitude to cylinder diameter A/D as a function of the reduced velocity
where f
n
is the natural frequency of the transverse rigid body mode. Some random variation of the VIM
amplitude will normally be found in test results for a given velocity. The mean amplitude is appropriate for use
in the FLS, while the USL should take account of the random variation.
303 It should be acceptable to assume that the oscillation frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the
transverse oscillation mode, for lightly damped systems, although there is some tendency for the oscillation
frequency to increase with V
r
. The drag coefficient is given as a function of the amplitude ratio A/D. The
following functional form is sometimes used:
where k is a correction for 3-D effects, C
D0
is the initial hull drag coefficient, including strakes, but without
VIM, and k
1
is an amplification factor for transverse VIM.
It should be noted that these results are dependent on:
mass (or inertia) ratio of the cylinder to the displaced fluid
any system damping in addition to direct fluid effects on the cylinder
Reynolds number
surface roughness of the cylinder
turbulence or shear in the incoming velocity field
any VIM suppression devices, such as strakes.
304 Hence, scale effects should be considered carefully when utilising model test results. When Froude
scaling is applied and the viscosity is about the same at both scales, then the Reynolds number falls by the scale
factor raised to the power 3/2 in the model tests. It is important to check the effect of this change on VIM. A
roughened model can be useful to compensate for a low Reynolds number; i.e. to provide the correct flow
regime in the model tests.
Additional considerations for model tests include:
accurate representation of the actual underwater hull with cut-outs, terminations, etc.
sufficient heading angles are tested to cover all aspects of asymmetry in the hull
sufficient simulation/towing length in the basin such that vortex shedding can be fully developed
an adequate range of reduced velocity is covered.
305 Platform VIM response may include both translational and rotational modes (e.g. sway and roll),
especially when these two modes have fairly similar natural frequencies. However, it is more convenient to
only consider a single translational mode of freedom in VIM model tests. Care should be exercised when
applying such model test results to evaluate the actual platform response. The frequency extent of lock-in, and
22 . 0 ~
t
S
n
r
Df
V
V =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
D
A
k C C
D D 1 0
1 k
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.1 Page 33
the magnitude of the forces are known to be dependent on the motion amplitude; i.e. they may vary over the
length of a cylinder vibrating in a rotational mode. Hence, a strip method, that takes account of amplitude
variation over the cylinder length, might possibly be useful in some cases.
306 VIM analysis concentrates on the effect of current. The frequencies of incoming waves are unlikely to
cause vortex shedding loads in the vicinity of the low natural frequencies for sway and roll. If wind and waves
are present at the same time as currents causing VIM, then they will certainly affect the system response. It
seems plausible that the wave-induced fluid velocities will tend to disorganise the combined velocity field, as
compared to a pure current field, and be more likely to reduce the mean amplitude of the lift force due to vortex
shedding, than to increase it. Hence, it should be conservative to superimpose the forces calculated separately
due to waves and vortex shedding. The nonlinearity of the mooring system stiffness normally needs to be taken
into account in the response analysis; i.e. it is not generally acceptable to calculate separately the line tensions
due to coincident wind, waves and current, and then superimpose these results. However, this may be
acceptable for a nearly linear system stiffness, as might be the case with a taut mooring system.
D 400 ULS and ALS
401 Appropriate combinations of wind, wave, and current-induced load-effects need to be considered, such
that these environmental combinations each have a joint annual probability of exceedence of 10
-2
; i.e. a 100-
year return period. Relevant directions of the separate environmental effects also have to be considered. The
usual combination of 100-year return period for wind and waves with 10-year return period for current, from
A205, is not necessarily adequate in cases with significant VIM.
402 A time domain mooring system analysis is advisable to include the effects of VIM on mooring line
tensions. The drag coefficient should be adjusted for the effect of VIM in this analysis. This may be achieved
by initially assuming a VIM amplitude, and subsequently iterating on that amplitude. Mean environmental
loads are then applied to determine the mean platform offset. The natural frequencies of sway and roll are
determined for that mean position. The VIM amplitude is extracted from the VIM analysis, and a sinusoidal
force (or force and moment) is found which will result in the same amplitude of transverse platform
displacement relative to the mean position. This transverse sinusoidal force and an in-line drag force variation
at twice the frequency are then imposed, together with the other wind, wave and current loads. The vortex
shedding loads should be modelled as independent of the oscillatory wind and wave loads. The resulting time
histories of mooring line tensions are analysed in the usual way to obtain the characteristic line tensions. The
VIM effects contribute primarily to the mean and low-frequency components of line tension. Care should be
taken to ensure that the length of the realisations is adequate to avoid significant statistical uncertainty.
403 A strip model for variation of vortex shedding loads along the cylinder length would introduce more
complexity into this mooring system analysis, and possibly require additional model test results for vortex
shedding forces on a cylinder undergoing forced vibrations.
404 The distribution of the maxima of the low-frequency tension component should be checked to ensure that
it does not seriously deviate from the usual distribution type (between exponential and Rayleigh distributions),
not in a conservative direction.
405 It is assumed that the safety factors already defined for the ULS and ALS may be applied in cases when
VIM contributes significantly to the dynamic line tension. To ensure that this assumption is permissible, the
following should be observed:
a) bias in the analysis of VIM effects should be avoided, and any unavoidable bias should be conservative
with respect to line tension
b) VIM effects should imply a coefficient of variation less than 10% for the estimation of the standard
deviation of low-frequency tension, under specified environmental conditions
c) model uncertainty in the estimation of VIM effects should imply a coefficient of variation less than 5% for
the estimation of the mean tension, under specified environmental conditions.
Additional conservatism should be applied to compensate, if conditions (b) and (c) are not fulfilled.
D 500 FLS
501 VIM may contribute appreciably to the accumulation of fatigue damage if sufficiently severe VIM events
are expected to occur, with an appreciable duration. If this appears to be the case, then detailed analysis of VIM
is required for the FLS. The joint environment must be made discrete in enough detail to allow a reasonably
accurate estimate of the total fatigue damage. This can require consideration of an extensive set of
environmental states. If VIM events coincide with line tension due to wind and/or wave effects, then it is
essential to consider the effects together, because of the nonlinear nature of the Miner-Palmgren hypothesis for
fatigue damage accumulation.
502 The same analysis technique as described for the ULS and ALS may be applied to determine the tension
time history in an environmental state. It seems likely that the VIM effects will contribute to the low-frequency
tension, without significantly increasing the bandwidth of this tension component. Hence, combined spectrum
or dual narrow-banded approaches described in Sec.2 F300 may be applicable to calculation of the fatigue
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 34 Ch.2 Sec.1
damage. It may be advisable to check a few cases by rainflow counting. If VIM events occur in the absence of
wind and waves, then the fatigue damage calculation may possibly be simplified, by assuming constant
amplitude for the tension oscillations.
The accuracy and computational expense of time domain analysis may be somewhat excessive for the fatigue
analysis. Somewhat more uncertainty is normally tolerable for an individual environmental state, since the total
fatigue damage is the sum of damages from many states. Hence, it may well be possible to develop an
acceptable frequency domain analysis for this purpose.
503 It is assumed that the safety factors already defined for the FLS be applied in cases when VIM contributes
significantly to the fatigue damage, provided the bounds on the model uncertainty are observed.
E. References
/1/ Winterstein, S., Ude, T.C., Cornell, C.A., Bjerager, P. Haver, S.; (1994) Environmental Parameters for
Extreme Response: Inverse FORM with Omission Sensitivity, Structural and Reliability, pp. 551-557,
Balkema, Rotterdam.
/2/ A M.K. Ochi, A Y.S. Shin, T.: Wind Turbulent Spectra for Design Consideration of Offshore Structures.
20th Offshore Technology Conference, OTC 5736, page 461-467,Houston 1988.
/3/ Torsethaugen, K.: Model for a Double-peaked Spectrum, SINTEF, STF22A96204, SINTEF,
Trondheim.
/4/ Faltinsen, O.M.: Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures, Cambridge U.P (1990).
/5/ Pinkster,J.A.: Low-frequency phenomena associated with vessels moored at sea, Soc. Petroleum
Engineers Journal, Dec., pp. 487-94.(1975).
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 35
SECTION 2
MOORING SYSTEM ANALYSIS
A. General
A 100 Objective
101 This section provides a structural design procedure for the mooring lines and soft yoke systems of
floating offshore units, in a partial safety factor format.
102 Single point mooring system includes a soft yoke for mooring a ship directly to a fixed tower. A
turntable is fastened on the tower with a bearing to allow the vessel to freely weather-vane about the tower. A
yoke arm is connected to the turntable with pitch and roll joints to allow the vessel to pitch and to roll. The yoke
includes a large ballast tank to provide the necessary restoring force to minimize vessel motions. The yoke arm
is connected to the offloading vessel via a pendulum or chain/rope system. Product is transferred from the tower
across swivels located on the turntable and through hoses from the turntable to the vessel.
A 200 Application
201 The design criteria are formulated in terms of three limit states ULS, ALS and FLS. Definitions are given
in B101.
202 The safety factors for the limit states have been calibrated against more detailed calculations using the
methods of structural reliability analysis. Turret moored ships and semi- submersibles in water depths from 70
m to 2000 m, and environmental conditions for the Norwegian continental shelf and for the Gulf of Mexico
were included in the calibration.
203 The safety factors are also applicable to deep draught platforms (such as SPAR), provided that additional
attention is applied to current loads and current directions. Possible effects of low frequency excitation on
vertical plane motions shall be considered.
204 The design procedure is intended to be applicable for floating units with position mooring systems
consisting of chain links, steel wire ropes, synthetic fibre ropes and a combination of these mooring line
components. The design procedure is also applicable for soft yoke system with respect to establishing the loads
caused by the floating unit into the yoke's mooring arms.
205 The design procedure should be applicable to other geographical locations where the environmental
conditions are more or less severe than considered in the calibration.
206 The design procedure is intended to be equally applicable to mobile drilling units, floating production
units, loading buoys and floating accommodation units. Distinction between the possible consequences of a
mooring system failure for different types of units is included in the ULS and ALS.
B. Method
B 100 General
101 The mooring system shall be analysed according to design criteria formulated in terms of three limit state
equations:
a) An ultimate limit state (ULS) to ensure that the individual mooring lines have adequate strength to
withstand the load effects imposed by extreme environmental actions.
b) An accidental limit state (ALS) to ensure that the mooring system has adequate capacity to withstand the
failure of one mooring line, failure of one thruster or one failure in the thrusters' control or power systems
for unknown reasons. A single failure in the control or power systems may cause that several thrusters are
not working.
c) A fatigue limit state (FLS) to ensure that the individual mooring lines have adequate capacity to withstand
cyclic loading.
102 FLS is mainly of concern for steel components where fatigue endurance may be limiting the design. For
fibre-rope segments, the time-dependent strength may be limiting the design, thus stress rupture or creep failure
should be incorporated in the checks for ULS and ALS as appropriate.
Guidance note:
Elevated tension and stress rupture
The ability of a polymeric fibre to sustain prolonged, elevated tension depends on the magnitude of tension and the
preceding time under elevated tension. Failure under sustained, elevated tension is referred to as stress rupture. This
is measured in time-to-rupture tests, and the results are plotted with tension on the y-axis and log time on the x-axis.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 36 Ch.2 Sec.2
This way, a design curve for stress rupture under constant tension can be established analogue to what is used for
fatigue under cyclic tension.
Figure 1
Typical stress rupture curve
Creep and Creep Failure
In polyester and para-aramid fibres the rate of creep (i.e. length increase under sustained tension) decreases
logarithmically over time. For HMPE fibre the rate of stage-II creep is constant under sustained tension.
Creep takes place in three phases, where the transition between phases II and III is referred to as creep failure. At this
point, the creep accelerates and the remaining time to break is short. In a creep test the changes in strain (i.e. creep)
is measured as a function of time under constant tension. The results are plotted with strain on the y-axis and time on
the x-axis. A typical curve for HMPE is given in Fig.1.
Although HMPE fibres exhibit more creep than polyester and para-aramid, the rate and extent of creep is predictable.
These will depend on the particular HMPE yarn, temperature, tension level and duration. The time-based safety
margin against creep failure of HMPE-based ropes should be taken as 3 for mobile moorings.
Figure 2
Typical HMPE creep curve. /9/
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
103 If a mooring line in a material that exhibits stress rupture needs to be subjected to tensions exceeding
70% SC - for example due to strong loop-current events with another line damaged - then the safety margin
towards stress rupture should be established for that particular loading scenario and mooring line.
104 For long-term moorings the design should accommodate expected loop-current events for the design life.
For mobile moorings, the design may be based on a single event, after which the mooring system should be
replaced. The time-based safety margin against stress rupture in polyester, polyamide, para-aramid or LCAP
ropes should be taken between 5 - 8 for long-term moorings and 3 for mobile moorings.
105 If a mooring rope has been replaced due to prolonged, elevated tension then it should be recertified, with
a potentially reduced SC. Alternatively, it should be discarded.
106 Each limit state is formulated as a design equation or inequality in the form:
Design capacity Design load effect > 0
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 37
Where typically:
Design load-effect = Characteristic load-effect Partial safety factor on load-effect.
The characteristic values are computed according to a recipe in the procedure. The anchor line design for long
term mooring must satisfy all the limit states.
107 The environmental condition and loads shall be in accordance with Sec.1.
108 Unless otherwise documented a friction coefficient of 1.0 between the mooring line (chain) and the sea
bottom can be applied. For steel wire rope a friction coefficients of 0.5 can be applied. Further guidance
regarding friction coefficients for mooring lines resting on clay bottom are provided in DNV-RP-E301 and
DNV-RP-E302.
109 The stiffness characteristics of the mooring system shall be determined from recognised theory taking
account of both line elasticity and weight.
110 The effective elastic modulus shall be obtained from the manufacturer of the mooring line component.
Guidance note:
For preliminary design the effective elastic modulus applied in the mooring analysis may be taken as:
- Stud chain R3/R4/R5: Not less than 5.6 10
10
N/m
2
- Studless chain R3: (5.40-0.0040 d) 10
10
N/m
2
- Studless chain R4: (5.45-0.0025 d) 10
10
N/m
2
- Studless chain R5: (6.00-0.0033 d) 10
10
N/m
2
Where d is the chain diameter in mm. Vicinay has provided the elastic modulus for studless chain.
- Stranded rope:
7.0 10
10
N/m
2
corresponding to nominal
diameter of the steel wire rope.
- Spiral rope:
1.13 10
11
N/m
2
corresponding to nominal
diameter of the steel wire rope.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
111 Synthetic fibre ropes are made of visco-elastic materials, so their stiffness characteristics are not constant
and vary with the duration of load application, the load magnitude and number of cycles. In general, synthetic
mooring lines become stiffer after a long service time. The following stiffness models should be applied in the
analysis:
a) An exhaustive non-linear force elongation model, which fully represents the change-in-length behaviour of
the fibre rope.
If such exhaustive model for the complete change-in-length performance is not available, then the
procedure in b), c) and d) should be applied.
b) To establish the units excursion and demonstrate that it does not exceed the excursion capability of risers
or other offset constraints. This analysis is carried out using the post-installation stiffness in ULS and ALS.
c) To establish characteristic line tension in ULS and ALS the dynamic stiffness should be applied.
Alternatively, a model consisting of two parts can be applied: (i) the static stiffness for calculation of
characteristic tension due to mean loads and low frequency motions, and (ii) a dynamic stiffness for the
characteristic tension due to wave frequency motions.
Guidance note:
In order to avoid potential over conservatism for tensions it is advisable to apply the pristine force vs. elongation curve
for new fibre rope.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
d) The fatigue (FLS) shall be performed using the same procedure as for ULS and ALS in c).
e) The intended operations of the mooring system shall be verified to be within the operational boundary
demonstrated for the yarn.
112 The change-in-length behaviour of synthetic fibre ropes has to be verified by testing in connection with
certification of the fibre-rope assemblies.
113 In order to ensure against excessive offset in high tension and sea bed contact in low tension and during
hook up of mooring system with fibre rope segments, the following should be calculated based on test results
from the actual mooring system:
capacity on factor safety Partial
capacity tic s Characteri
capacity Design =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 38 Ch.2 Sec.2
The total length of the mooring line as result of ULS tension with associated duration.
The total length of the mooring line as a result of the installation tensions, with associated duration.
Guidance note:
For ULS tension the associated duration shall be taken as wave period or loop current duration as appropriate.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
114 The maximum allowable azimuth deviation between the design and as laid anchor pattern for long term
pre laid mooring system is 1.5 for each anchor line. The maximum allowable deviation is 5 for mobile
units, typically drilling units and accommodation units.
115 In the design of long term mooring systems the anchor positions shall be given with tolerances. Typical
radial tolerance for suction and pile anchors is 5 m. After the installation has been completed the as laid
mooring system shall be documented.
B 200 General system response analysis
201 Mooring analyses can be performed by applying a frequency domain or a time domain method.
202 The frequency domain method is well suited for systems exposed to stationary random loads, since the
response spectrum can be computed directly from the transfer function and the wave spectrum in the following
way:
e = Wave frequency (=2t /T)
H(e) = Transfer function of the response in question (e.g. platform heave motion)
S(e) = Wave spectrum
S
R
(e) = Response spectrum (resulting platform motions due to environmental loads)
Method limitations:
requires linear equations of motion
Linearity implies some inaccuracy in effects like drag loads, time varying geometry, variable surface
elevation and horizontal restoring forces. However, in many cases these non-linearities can be satisfactorily
linearised.
Frequency domain analysis is used extensively for analysis of floating units, including analysis of both motions
and forces. It is usually applied in fatigue analyses, and analyses of more moderate environmental conditions
where linearised analysis gives satisfactory results.
203 In the time domain analysis the equations of motion are solved by direct numerical integration.
Due to the direct integration approach effects may be included involving non-linear functions of the wave and
motion variables. Typical effects are:
drag forces
finite motion amplitude effects
finite wave amplitude effects
non-linear positioning or mooring systems.
204 The following apply for time domain simulations of mooring line tension:
The basis for extreme value statistics is: the maximum response between two successive mean-up-
crossings is termed a global maximum (see Fig.3)
Global maxima are assumed to be independent stochastic variables.
Figure 3
Time series of mooring line tension
) ( ) ( ) (
2
e e e S H S
R
=
T
mean
Sample of global maxima
T
LF
T
TOT
T
mean
Sample of global maxima
T
LF
T
TOT
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 39
Guidance note:
A 3 parameter Weibull distribution is commonly adopted as a model for the global maxima.
The Weibull distribution of global maxima may be written
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
205 The duration of an environmental state is normally taken as 3 hours.
In time domain analyses the required simulation length shall be sufficient to provide adequate statistics (e.g. 3
hour extreme value). The required simulation length is governed by the number of maxima per unit time of the
combined WF/LF process. Please note that when WF tension variations are significantly dependent of the LF
offsets this will increase the required simulation length.
206 The required extreme value shall be estimated as the MPM value of the extreme value distribution for
the line tension.
Figure 4
Statistical distributions
Guidance note:
The extreme value distribution will for increasing number of maxima approach a Gumbel distribution. The MPM
value of the Gumbel distributions corresponds to the 37% percentile (i.e. 63% probability of exceedance).
According to DNV's current understanding API RP-2SK applies the expected 3-hour extreme for time domain
analysis. This corresponds to the 57% percentile (43% probability of exceedance) while ISO 19901-7 apply the MPM
value.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
207 For time domain analyses an alternative to one long simulation, to which an extreme value distribution
can be fitted, could be to:
simulate several (10-20) realisations of duration 3 hours
establish extreme sample as maximum from each simulation
establish an extreme value distribution to the extreme sample.
Guidance note:
As an alternative to establish an extreme value distribution, the mean of the individual extremes from the set of simulation
can be applied. This will be conservative since this mean value will correspond to the expected maximum in the extreme
value distribution.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
208 The analysis of the mooring system behaviour may be based on quasi-static or dynamic approaches. For
water depth exceeding 100 m a dynamic analysis according to B507 and B508 has to be carried out (see also
B300).

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
o
x
x F exp 1 ) (
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Distribution of largest 3 hour maximum
Distribution of global
response maxima
Response
MPM Expected
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
Distribution of largest 3 hour maximum
Distribution of global
response maxima
Response
MPM Expected
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 40 Ch.2 Sec.2
Guidance note:
Catenary moorings without buoyancy elements or clump weights will have a quasi static behaviour in shallow water
(water depths < 100 m).
Simplified line dynamic models should be used with care in shallow water since such models may give erroneous
results. The applicability of these simplified methods may also be questionable for lines equipped with buoyancy
elements or clump weights regardless of water depth.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
209 For floating production, storage units and CALM buoys analysis including effect from anchor line
dynamics shall be carried out regardless of water depth.
210 For weather-vaning units such as turret mooring, soft yoke systems and tanker connected to buoys with
hawsers time domain analysis shall always be carried out.
211 The floater motions in shallow water are to a large extent excited and damped by fluid forces on the
floater itself. As the water depth increases the interaction/coupling between the slender structures and the large
volume floater becomes more important. In this case, a coupled analysis is required to capture the interaction
between the two in order to accurately predict the individual responses of floater, risers and mooring. Coupled
analysis is now being used by the industry in the design of deepwater floating systems.
Detailed information is given in DNV-RP-F205.
212 In a coupled analysis the complete system of equations accounting for the rigid body model of the floater
as well as the slender body model for the risers and mooring lines are solved simultaneously using a non-linear
time domain approach for dynamic analyses. Dynamic equilibrium is obtained at each time step ensuring
consistent treatment of the floater/slender structure coupling effects. The coupling effects are automatically
included in the analysis scheme.
213 The coupling effects from slender structure restoring, damping and inertia forces are governed by the
following force contributions:
Restoring:
1) Static restoring force from the mooring and riser system as a function of floater offset
2) Current loading and its effects on the restoring force of the mooring and riser system
3) Seafloor friction (if mooring lines and/or risers have bottom contact)
Damping:
4) Damping from mooring and riser system due to dynamics, current, etc.
5) Friction forces due to hull/riser contact.
Inertia:
6) Additional inertia forces due to the mooring and riser system.
In a traditional mooring analysis, item 1) can be accurately accounted for. Items 2), 4) and 6) may be
approximated. Generally, items 3) and 5) cannot be accounted for. A coupled analysis can include consistent
treatment of all these effects.
B 300 Floating platform response analysis
301 The response of the floating platform in a stationary, short-term, environmental state may conveniently
be split into four components:
1) Mean displacement due to mean environmental loads.
2) Low frequency displacements, in the frequency range of the natural periods of the moored platform in
surge, sway and yaw modes of motion, due to low-frequency wind loads and second-order wave loads.
(Low frequency response for other modes such as pitch and roll can be important for some platform types,
such as deep draught floating platforms).
3) Oscillations in the frequency range of the incoming waves, due to first-order wave loads.
4) Vortex induced motion shall be considered for deep draught floating platforms.
302 The analysis must take due account of all these elements of excitation and response. Forces due to the
mooring lines and risers must also be taken into account, but some simplification is usually appropriate with
mooring lines in a catenary configuration:
1) The restoring forces due to the mooring lines must be taken into account in the mean displacement. The
non-linear restoring force function due to the mooring system should be applied directly.
2) The restoring force and damping effect due to mooring lines must be taken into account in the low-
frequency response. The effects may be linearised, but the linearisation should be centred on the mean
position applicable in the environmental state.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 41
3) The effects of mooring lines on the wave-frequency response can be neglected when the displacement of
the floater is large compared to the weight of the mooring system, see Sec.1 C506.
4) The effects of a single riser are usually negligible in comparison with the effects of the mooring lines, but
the effects of multiple risers may need to be included. Risers may cause restoring forces, damping and
excitation forces, which have to be taken into account.
303 The damping of the low-frequency motions is a critical parameter, which may be difficult to quantify. It
is dependent on water depth, the number of mooring lines and risers in addition to the actual sea state and
current profile. If model tests are available, then they can provide a basis to quantify the damping. The basis
for the damping should always be clearly documented by relevant model tests for units designed for production
and/or storage of hydrocarbons. If an adequate basis is lacking, then a conservative estimate should be made.
Guidance note:
Some examples of total damping levels for mooring systems:
For a ship in 150 m water depth, with 12 mooring lines and no risers:
- the surge damping coefficient was 5 to 10% of critical damping
- the sway damping coefficient was 15 to 20% of critical damping.
For a twin-pontoon drilling semi-submersible in 450 m water depth, with 8 mooring lines and no risers:
- the surge damping was 10% of critical damping
- the sway damping was 15% of critical damping.
These values must be used with care taking into consideration:
- The damping force for a given system is strongly dependent on sea state (wave frequency motion) and on mean
line tension
- The relative damping, for a given damping force, depends on natural period of the LF motion (water depth, mean
force).
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
304 Critical damping is given by
Where k is the restoring coefficient at the mean platform position and M is the platform mass including added
mass.
305 Documentation of the units response analysis methods must be available. The accuracy of computer
programs for response analysis must be quantified by comparison with relevant model test results. The
accuracy of model test results applied in the design must be quantified.
B 400 Mooring line response analysis
401 Quasi-static analysis is usually appropriate to determine the mooring line response to mean and low-
frequency platform displacements, while dynamic mooring line analysis is usually appropriate for mooring line
response to wave-frequency displacements of the platform. The quasi-static mooring line response analysis
must take account of:
the displacement of the upper terminal point of the mooring line or yoke arms due to the unit's motions
the weight and buoyancy of the mooring line components
the elasticity of the mooring line components
reaction and friction forces from the seabed.
402 In addition, dynamic mooring line response analysis must also take account of:
hydrodynamic drag forces acting on the mooring line components
inertia forces acting on the mooring line components, including any buoyancy elements.
403 The dynamic analysis may be linearised, but the linearisation point should take account of the line
configuration at the instantaneous platform position in the environmental state, due to mean displacement and
low-frequency motion.
404 The anchor position is assumed fixed in the mooring line analysis. Hydrodynamic excitation forces on
mooring line components are normally negligible in comparison with the other forces, but may need
consideration for buoyancy modules. The bending stiffness of the mooring line is normally negligible.
405 Documentation of the method applied in anchor line response analysis shall be available. The accuracy
of computer programs for mooring line response must be checked by comparison with other methods, for
instance model tests.
406 The relevant pretension shall be applied for the operating state that is considered. It is not allowed to take
into account in the mooring analysis adjustment of pretension in the various lines by running the winches.
407 Adjustment of line tension caused by change of position or draught and shift of consequence class should
2 k M
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 42 Ch.2 Sec.2
be taken into account:
a) An accommodation unit with gangway connection to another installation, which is lifting the gangway and
is running the winches to move to a standby position due to bad weather.
b) Units operating with continuously changing position e.g. pipe laying units.
c) A production unit, which is running the winches to increase the distance to a well head platform due to bad
weather.
d) Shift from consequence class 2 to consequence class 1, prior to severe weather by e.g. changing to survival
draught.
B 500 Characteristic line tension for the ULS
501 All mooring lines in the system are considered to be intact in the analysis of the ULS. Two components
of characteristic line tension are considered:
a) T
Cmean
the characteristic mean line tension, due to pretension and mean environmental loads. The mean
environmental loads are caused by static wind, current and mean wave drift forces.
b) T
Cdyn
the characteristic dynamic line tension induced by low-frequency and wave-frequency motions.
502 The following response statistics are determined in each environmental state considered:
X
mean
is the mean horizontal distance of the upper terminal point of the mooring line from the anchor
o
XLF
is the standard deviation of horizontal, low-frequency motion of the upper terminal point in the mean
mooring line direction.
For dynamic analysis of wave-frequency tension:
o
TWF
[X] is the standard deviation of the wave-frequency component of line tension, which is dependent
on the mean excursion X applied in the analysis, computed for one location, with excursion X = X
C
X
WF
max
, where X
C
, X
WF max
are defined in 505 and 506.
For quasi-static analysis of wave frequency tension:
o
X WF
is the standard deviation of horizontal, wave-frequency motion of the upper terminal point in the
mean mooring line direction.
503 If all lines are identical, then the statistics are only needed for the most heavily loaded line. If the lines
are different, then the statistics are needed for each line. The line tension results are primarily needed at the
most heavily loaded location along the line, usually close to the top, or to a buoyancy module. If different
strengths of mooring line components are applied along the length of the line, then the line tension results can
be applied for the most heavily loaded location of each component type.
504 Quasi-static mooring line response analysis provides the line tension T at a point in the line as a function
of the horizontal distance between lower and upper terminal points of the line X, as can be represented by the
function:
T
QS
[X] Quasi static tension calculated with the upper terminal point in position X
Thus, the characteristic mean tension is given by
T
Cmean
= T
QS
[X
mean
] Quasi static tension calculated with the upper terminal point in position X
mean
Note that this mean tension includes the pretension of the line, which would occur at the mooring system
equilibrium position, in the absence of environmental effects.
505 A Gaussian process model is applied in the development of the characteristic tension from the statistics
listed in 502. This Gaussian model is adopted as a compromise between simplicity and accuracy in this design
procedure. The inaccuracy of the Gaussian process model has been taken into account in the calibration of the
design procedure. On this basis, significant and maximum low-frequency excursion are defined as
X
LFsig
= 2o
XLF
X
LFmax
= o
XLF

Where N
LF
is the number of low-frequency platform oscillations during the duration of the environmental state,
which is normally taken as 3 hours. Similarly, significant and maximum wave-frequency excursion are defined
as
X
WFsig
= 2o
XWF
X
WFmax
= o
XWF

Where N
WF
is the number of wave-frequency platform oscillations during the duration of the environmental
state.
2 N
LF
ln
2 N
WF
ln
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 43
506 The characteristic offset X
C
is taken as the larger of:
X
C1
= X
mean
+ X
LFmax
+ X
WFsig
X
C2
= X
mean
+ X
LFsig
+ X
WFmax
507 When dynamic mooring line analysis is applied, the maximum wave frequency tension is defined by:
T
WFmax
= o
TWF
[X
C
X
WFmax
]
where the notation is intended to provide a reminder that the standard deviation of wave frequency tension is
a function of the excursion about which wave frequency motion takes place.
508 When dynamic mooring line analysis is applied, the characteristic dynamic tension T
Cdyn
is defined by:
T
C-dyn
= T
QS
[X
C
X
WFmax
] T
Cmean
+ T
WFmax
T
QS
[X
C
- X
WF-max
] = Quasi static tension calculated with the upper terminal point in position X
C
- X
WF-max
.
509 When the quasi-static mooring line analysis is applied, then the characteristic dynamic tension T
Cdyn
is
defined by
T
Cdyn
= T
QS
[X
C
] T
Cmean
T
QS
[X
C
] = Quasi static tension calculated with the upper terminal point in position X
C
.
510 For time domain analyses the following apply:
T
C-mean
= mean tension of the time series
T
C-dyn
= T
MPM
- T
C-mean
T
MPM
= most probable max of the time series, see B206
It should be noted that the mean tension (T
C-mean
) from frequency domain analysis and time domain analysis
can be different if the dynamics in the time series are non-symmetrical. However, it is assumed that the
discrepancy in T
C-mean
caused by this effect is minor, and that the design equation format (see D200) can also
be applied for time domain analyses.
511 The relationship between the tension components and excursion positions needed in order to calculate
the design equation can be illustrated by Fig.5 (the 1
st
case from 506 is shown):
Figure 5
Illustration of relationship between different excursion and tension components needed in the design equation.
B 600 Characteristic line tension for the ALS
601 One mooring line is assumed to have failed, and is removed in the analysis of the ALS.
a) When all mooring lines are identical, several lines shall be removed one at a time in order to identify the
line failure leading to the largest tension in an adjacent line.
b) If the mooring lines are not identical, then it may be necessary to consider a number of cases with different
missing lines, to check the highest resulting tension in each type of mooring line.
c) If the mooring lines are equipped with buoyancy elements (MLBE) or clump weights the loss of a buoy or
a clump weight due to failure of the connection to the mooring line shall be included as single failure event.
2 N
WF
ln
X
mean
X
WF,SIGN
X
LF,MAX
X
C
T
C-mean
T
C-dyn
2) Dynamic mooring analysis:
X
WF,MAX
X
C
-X
WF,MAX
T
QS
[X
C
-X
WF,MAX
]
T
WF,MAX
1) Quasistatic analysis
Motion of upper terminal point of the mooring line:
Corresponding tension components:
T
QS
[X
C
]

mean

dyn
X
mean
X
WF,SIGN
X
LF,MAX
X
C
T
C-mean
T
C-dyn
2) Dynamic mooring analysis:
X
WF,MAX
X
C
-X
WF,MAX
T
QS
[X
C
-X
WF,MAX
]
T
WF,MAX
1) Quasistatic analysis
Motion of upper terminal point of the mooring line:
Corresponding tension components:
T
QS
[X
C
]

mean

dyn
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 44 Ch.2 Sec.2
If the MLBE is dived into compartments the consequence of one compartment damage should be checked.
602 The ALS addresses the situation where the initial line failure occurs in severe weather, and considers the
stationary mooring system response to the same environmental conditions. Hence, no adjustment of line
pretension after the initial line failure shall be considered in the analysis. For convenience, the same
environmental conditions are applied as for the ULS, and the calibration of the safety factors has taken account
of the low probability of occurrence of so severe weather together with a random initial failure.
603 The transient response immediately after the initial failure might be expected to lead to higher line
tensions. This has been found to be very unlikely in the presence of severe environmental conditions, with
considerable oscillatory excitation forces. If unusually high line tensions are required for some special
operations in relatively calm weather, then it is advisable to also consider the transient case, but this is not
covered here.
604 The platform response and mooring line response analysis is carried out exactly as for the ULS, but with
one line missing. The characteristic tension components are computed as for the ULS.
C. Characteristic Capacity
C 100 Characteristic capacity for the ULS and ALS
101 The mooring line components should be manufactured with a high standard of quality control, according
to recognised standards, such as, DNV-OS-E302, DNV-OS-E303 and DNV-OS-E304.
102 Careful control of all aspects of handling, transport, storage, installation, and retrieval of the mooring
lines is also imperative to ensure that the capacity of the mooring lines is not reduced. The characteristic
capacity is defined on this basis.
C 200 Main body of mooring line
201 A mooring line is usually assembled from a large number of identical components of a few types,
together with a few connecting links, line terminations, etc. A chain line obviously contains a large number of
chain links. A long steel wire rope or a synthetic fibre rope may also be conceptually treated as a large number
of wire rope segments. It is well known that the strength of a long line is expected to be less than the average
strength of the components that make up the line. This effect is taken into account in the present definition of
the characteristic capacity.
202 The following statistics are required for the strength of the components that make up the main body of
the mooring line:

s
the mean value of the breaking strength of the component
o
s
the coefficient of variation of the breaking strength of the component.
Then the characteristic strength of the body of the mooring line constructed from this component is defined by:
This formulation is applicable for components consisting of chain, steel wire ropes and synthetic fibre rope.
203 When statistics of the breaking strength of a component are not available, then the characteristic strength
may be obtained from the minimum breaking strength S
mbs
of new components, as
204 The statistical basis for the characteristic strength can also be applied to used components if breaking
strength statistics are obtained for the used components by carrying out break load tests. However, the
alternative basis using the minimum breaking strength should not be applied to used components without
changing the reduction factor.
Guidance note:
To avoid a reduction in minimum breaking strength of 5%, the breaking tests of the mooring line segments can be
performed to a load 5% higher than the specified minimum breaking strength. Number of tests shall be as required in
DNV-OS-E302, DNV-OS-E303 and DNV-OS-E304.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
205 When the strength distribution is based on test statistics, the statistical uncertainty in the results depends
on the number of tests performed. The uncertainty in the characteristic line strength has been simulated for
different test sizes and for different coefficients of variation of the individual line component strength.
Simplified reliability analyses, using a typical load distribution, have then been performed in order to quantify
a reduction in the characteristic strength that is necessary in order to maintain the target reliability. A simple
S
c

s
1 o
s
3 6o
s
( ) | | o
s
0.10 < , =
S
C
0.95 S
mbs
=
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 45
expression has been fitted to these results, and the reduced characteristic strength S*
c
can be expressed as:
o
s
is the coefficient of variation of the breaking strength of the component
n is the number of tests, not less than 5.
C 300 Connecting links and terminations
301 Other components in the mooring line such as connecting links and terminations should be designed to
have strength exceeding the characteristic strength of the main body of the mooring line, with a very high level
of confidence.
C 400 Soft yoke connection arms
401 The yoke arm is connected to the offloading vessel via pendulums, which may consist of a combination
of chains and steel structure or steel beams/pipes instead of chains. The loads from the response analysis
multiplied with the safety factors in D200 are the design load which shall be applied in dimension the yoke
system.
D. Partial Safety Factors and Premises
D 100 Consequence classes
101 Two consequence classes are introduced in the ULS and ALS, defined as:
Class 1, where mooring system failure is unlikely to lead to unacceptable consequences such as loss of life,
collision with an adjacent platform, uncontrolled outflow of oil or gas, capsize or sinking.
Class 2, where mooring system failure may well lead to unacceptable consequences of these types.
102 The partial safety factors given in 200 and 300 are applicable to chain, steel wire ropes and synthetic fibre
ropes.
D 200 Partial safety factors for the ULS
201 The design equation for the ULS is given by
where the characteristic quantities are defined above, a partial safety factor of unity on the capacity is implicit,
and the remaining partial safety factors are given in Table D1.
202 If the characteristic mean tension exceeds 2/3 of the characteristic dynamic tension, when applying a
dynamic analysis in consequence class 1, then a common value of 1.3 shall be applied instead of the separate
static and dynamic safety factors given in Table D1. This is intended to ensure adequate safety in cases
dominated by the mean tension component.
203 For several types of single point mooring systems the system is designed without redundancy and
consequently ALS is not an applicable design condition. These systems may be accepted provided that the
safety factors given in Table D1 are increased by a factor of 1.2 and further that the loss of the mooring system
will not result in a major pollution or major damage to the unit. Emergency disconnection systems for risers
and mooring will be required. Further, the main propulsion of the unit shall be in operation.
D 300 Partial safety factors for the ALS
301 The design equation for the ALS is identical to the ULS, but the partial safety factors are given in Table
Table D1 Partial Safety Factors for ULS
Consequence
Class
Type of analysis of wave
frequency tension
Partial Safety factor
on mean tension

mean
Partial Safety factor
on dynamic tension

dyn
1 Dynamic 1.10 1.50
2 Dynamic 1.40 2.10
1 Quasi-static 1.70
2 Quasi-static 2.50
S
*
C
S
c
1 2.0
o
s
n
-----
\ .
| |
=
S
C
T
C mean

mean
T
C dyn

dyn
0 >
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 46 Ch.2 Sec.2
D2.
302 The combination of an accidental line failure with characteristic loads based on a 100-year return period
is, in itself, relatively conservative. Hence, the partial safety factors in table D2 are relatively small; i.e. close
to unity. These factors should be adequate even when the loading is dominated by the mean tension, provided
that 100-year environmental conditions give rise to a significant portion of the mean tension.
D 400 Partial safety factors for the connection between buoyancy element and mooring line
401 For mooring calculations where mooring line buoyancy elements (MLBE) are modelled completely with
buoyancy, inertia and drag forces (e.g. in a FEM program) the safety factor for the load in the connection
between mooring line and buoyancy element shall be 1.5.
For programs with less accurate modelling possibilities the MBL of the connection shall as a minimum equal
5 times the buoyancy force of the buoyancy element.
D 500 Typical operations covered by consequence class 1
501 Safety factors for consequence class 1 are applicable for the operations in 502 to 505:
502 Column-stabilised drilling units with the riser disconnected, when the unit is located at least a distance
X
V
(m) from other units or installations defined as follows:
h = water depth in meter
For ship-shaped units the distance (X
V
) shall be as follows:
L
oa
= overall length
See Fig.6.
503 Column stabilised accommodation units positioned 300 m away from another unit or fixed installation.
However, column stabilised accommodation units in stand by position at least 150 m away from a fixed
installation can be designed according to Consequence Class 1 provided it is documented that loss of all lines
at one column will not cause collision with the fixed installation and the safety factor in the remaining lines is
not less than 1.0.
504 Units designed for production and/or storage and/or injection of oil, water or gas through a system of
flexible risers and an associated well control umbilicals. The unit shall be located at least a distance X
V
away
from another structure and the production shall be terminated. An emergency disconnection system of risers
and umbilicals must be available. The environmental condition in terms of return period shall be established
for termination of the production. Watch circles with respect to offset and/or line tension shall be available in
order to prepare for disconnection.
Guidance note:
Production is to be terminated when the consequence class 2 limits for the environmental conditions are exceeded.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
505 Offshore loading buoys with no tanker moored.
506 Drilling units with drilling riser disconnected.
D 600 Typical operations covered by consequence class 2
601 Drilling units with the riser connected.
602 Drilling, support and accommodation units operating at a distance less than 50 m from other units or
installations. See Fig.7.
Table D2 Partial Safety Factors for ALS
Consequence
Class
Type of analysis of wave
frequency tension
Partial Safety factor
on mean tension

mean
Partial Safety factor
on dynamic tension

dyn
1 Dynamic 1.00 1.10
2 Dynamic 1.00 1.25
1 Quasi-static 1.10
2 Quasi-static 1.35
X
v
300m h 300m
X
v
1.5 h 300 ( ) 300 (m) h 300m > + =
s =
X
v
2L
oa
(m) h 300 m
X
v
2.0 h 300 ( ) 2L
oa
(m) h 300 m > + =
s =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 47
603 Units designed for production and/or storage and/or injection of oil, water and or gas through a system
of flexible, steel catenary or rigid risers, and associated umbilicals shall be designed according to consequence
class 2, when the unit is not designed for emergency disconnection.
604 When a column stabilised accommodation unit is positioned a distance between 50 m and X
V
m from
another unit or installation, the mooring lines pointing away from the installation have to be designed according
to consequence class 2, while the mooring lines pointing towards the installation may be designed according
to consequence class 1. See Fig.8.
605 Offshore loading buoys with a tanker moored. The buoys distance from another installation shall be
large enough to give sufficient space for manoeuvring of a tanker.
606 Production of hydrocarbons may take place after a line failure or a failure in thruster assisted systems
provided the design equation for ULS and ALS given in 201 meets the requirements for consequence class 2
for all the remaining anchor lines. The limiting environmental condition for termination of the production has
to be established.
Figure 6
The position of a unit at least a distance X
v
away from an installation
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 48 Ch.2 Sec.2
Figure 7
The position of a unit within 50 m of another installation
Figure 8
The position of a unit between 50 m and a distance X
v
away from an installation
D 700 Permissible horizontal offset
701 The horizontal offset from a given reference point shall be within the operational service limitation,
including offsets:
for the intact mooring system
after any single failure of a line or in the thruster system.
702 When the unit is connected to a rigid or vertical riser (e.g. drilling riser), the maximum horizontal offset
is limited by the maximum allowable riser angle at the BOP flex joint. A safety margin of 2.5% of the water
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 49
depth shall be included.
703 Maximum horizontal offset of flexible and steel catenary risers shall not exceed the manufacture
specification.
704 Maximum environmental conditions for drilling operation are also to take the heave compensating
capacity into consideration.
705 When the unit is connected by a gangway to another structure, the positioning system and the gangway
structure shall meet the following criteria:
a) The distance between the unit and the installations shall not be less than 10 m at any point.
b) During normal operation an excursion reserve of 1.5 m of the specified maximum excursion of the gangway
shall be included.
c) The gangway shall be equipped with alarm in the control room, which shall be activated when the
maximum excursion is exceeded.
d) The gangway shall be positioned so that it will not collide with any other structure after a single failure.
D 800 Permissible line length
801 For anchors not designed to take uplift forces, the following applies:
the mooring lines shall have enough length to avoid uplift at anchors for all relevant design conditions in
the ULS
vertical forces on the anchors can be accepted in the ALS, if it is documented that these vertical forces will
not significantly reduce the characteristic resistance of the anchors.
802 Anchors designed to withstand vertical forces will be accepted in both ULS and ALS conditions, see
Sec.4.
803 Unrealistic line lengths to meet the requirements in 801 shall not be used in the mooring analyses.
Guidance note:
The maximum deployed line length allowed to be taken into account in the calculations is limited to the suspended
length at a line tension equal to the breaking strength of the line plus 500 m.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
D 900 Clearance
901 Sufficient clearance shall be ensured at all times between the unit and adjacent structures, between
anchor lines during cross anchoring and between anchor lines and fixed structures or other floating units.
Environmental conditions, motions and consequence of breakage of one anchor line during the operation shall
be considered in order to establish sufficient clearance. Detailed information is given in DNV Rules for
Planning and Execution of Marine Operations Pt.2 Ch.7 4.3, Table 4.1.
902 Contact between a fibre rope mooring line and sub-sea equipment can be accepted if contact will not
cause damage to the fibre rope and the equipment.
E. Additional Requirements for Long Term Mooring
E 100 General
101 These requirements are applicable to all type of floating units equipped with a mooring system, which
are positioned at the same location for 5 years or more.
102 Fatigue calculations shall be carried out for mooring lines and connection elements by using site specific
environmental data.
103 It is recommended that fatigue calculations are carried out for units positioned at a location for less than 5
years, when the in service experience has shown anchor line fatigue damage.
104 Fatigue calculation of long term mooring (LTM) D-shackles dimension according to ISO 1704 may be
omitted. These shackles are oversized compared to the common chain links, therefore the fatigue life of a LTM
shackle is higher than the fatigue life of the chain.
E 200 Corrosion allowance
201 Corrosion allowance for chain, including wear and tear of chain and connection elements to be included in
design. The minimum corrosion allowance given in Table E1 shall be used if corrosion allowance data is not
available for the actual location.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 50 Ch.2 Sec.2
202 The characteristic capacity of the anchor lines which forms the basis for the mooring calculations shall
be adjusted for the reduction in capacity due to corrosion, wear and tear according to the corrosion allowance
given in Table E1.
203 The lifetime of a steel wire rope is dependent on the construction and degree of protection. Guidance for
choice of steel wire rope construction depending on the wanted design is given in Table E2.
204 Buoy pennant lines, clump weights and their fasteners attached to mooring lines shall be dimensioned
with corrosion allowance according to Table E1 if no detailed data for the location is available.
F. Fatigue Limit State (FLS)
F 100 Accumulated fatigue damage
101 The characteristic fatigue damage, accumulated in a mooring line component as a result of cyclic
loading, is summed up from the fatigue damage arising in a set of environmental states chosen to discretise the
long term environment that the mooring system is subject to:
where d
i
is the fatigue damage to the component arising in state i and the discretisation into i=1,,n states is
sufficiently detailed to avoid any significant error in the total. Each environmental state is defined in terms of
the heading angles, wind, wave and current parameters required to compute the stationary mooring system
response in that state. The probability of occurrence P
i
is required for each environmental state.
102 When the effects of mean tension can be neglected, the fatigue damage accumulated in an individual state
Table E1 Corrosion allowance for chain
Part of mooring line
Corrosion allowance referred to the chain diameter
Regular inspection
1)
(mm/year)
Regular inspection
2)
(mm/year)
Requirements for the Norwegian
continental shelf
Splash zone
4)
0.4 0.2 0.8
3)
Catenary
5)
0.3 0.2 0.2
Bottom
6)
0.4 0.3 0.2
7)
1) Recommended minimum corrosion allowance when the regular inspection is carried out by ROV according to DNV-OSS-102
Ch.3 Sec.6 B800 or according to operators own inspection program approved by the National Authorities if necessary. The
mooring lines have to be replaced when the diameter of the chain with the allowable breaking strength used in design of the
mooring system, taking into account corrosion allowance, is reduced by 2%.
2) Recommended minimum corrosion allowance when the regular inspection is carried out according to DNV-OSS-102 Ch.3 Sec.6
B700 or according to operators own inspection program approved by the National Authorities if necessary. The mooring lines
have to be replaced when the diameter of the chain with the allowable breaking strength used in design of the mooring system is
reduced by 2%.
3) The increased corrosion allowance in the splash zone is required by NORSOK M-001 and is required for compliance with PSA,
see DNV-OSS-201.
4) Splash Zone is defined as 5 m above the still water level and 4 m below the still water level.
5) Suspended length of the mooring line below the splash zone and always above the touch down point.
6) The corrosion allowance given in the table is given as guidance, significant larger corrosion allowance should be considered if
bacterial corrosion is suspected.
7) Investigation of the soil condition shall be carried out in order to document that bacterial corrosion is not taking place.
Table E2 Choice of steel wire rope construction
Field design life
(years)
Possibilities for replacement of
wire rope segments
Yes No
< 8 A/B/C A/B/C
8 15 A/B/C A/B
> 15 A/B A
A) Half locked coil/full locked coil/spiral rope with plastic sheathing.
B) Half locked coil/full locked coil/spiral rope without plastic sheathing.
C) Stranded rope.
d
c
d
i
i 1 =
i n =

=
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 51
may be computed as:
where n
i
is the number of stress cycles encountered in state i during the design life of the mooring line
component, f
Si
(s) is the probability density of the nominal magnitudes (peak-to-trough) of the stress cycles
applied to the component in state i, and n
c
(s) is the number of stress cycles of magnitude s that would lead to
failure of the component. The nominal magnitudes of the stress cycles are computed by dividing the
magnitudes of the corresponding tension cycles by the nominal cross-sectional area of the component; i.e.
for chain, and for steel wire rope, where d is the
component diameter.
103 The number of stress cycles in each state can usually be determined as:
where v
i
is the mean-up-crossing rate (frequency in hertz) of the stress process (i.e. the mean up-crossing rate
through the mean stress level) in state i, P
i
indicates the probability of occurrence of state i, and T
D
is the design
lifetime of the mooring line component in seconds. In practice the integral in 102 is usually replaced by the
cycle counting algorithm in 300.
F 200 Fatigue properties
201 The following equation can be used for the component capacity against tension fatigue:
This equation can be linearised by taking logarithms to give:
The parameters a
D
and m are given in Table F1 and the S-N curves are shown in Fig.6.
202 The fatigue life of long term mooring (LTM) shackles can be calculated using the B1 curve parameter
according to DNV-RP-C203 and appropriate stress concentration factors (SCF) obtained by a finite element
method. S-N curves for kenter shackles are not included since these shackles shall not be used in long term
mooring systems. Other type of connection elements shall not be used in long term mooring if not the fatigue
life is properly documented, ref. 204.
n
c
(s) = the number of stress ranges (number of cycles)
s = the stress range (double amplitude) in MPa
a
D
= the intercept parameter of the S-N curve
m = the slope of the S-N curve
Table F1 S-N Fatigue Curve Parameters
a
D
m
Stud chain 1.210
11
3.0
Studless chain (open link) 6.010
10
3.0
Stranded rope 3.410
14
4.0
Spiral rope 1.710
17
4.8
d
i
n
i

f
Si
s ( )
n
c
s ( )
-------------- s d
0

}
=
2td
2
4
------------
td
2
4
---------
n
i
v
i
P
i
T
D
=
n
c
s ( ) a
D
s
m
=
n
c
s ( ) ( ) log a
D
( ) m s ( ) log log =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 52 Ch.2 Sec.2
Figure 9
Design S-N curves
203 The S-N curves for chain given Table F1 and Fig.9 are intended to be applicable in sea water, while the
S-N curves for steel wire ropes assume that the rope is protected from the corrosive effect of sea water.
204 It is permissible to use test data for a specific type of mooring line component in design. A linear
regression analysis shall then be used to establish the S-N curve with the design curve located a little more than
two standard deviations below the mean line, with the use of the procedure given in F500. In the case of chain
tests in air, the effect of sea water shall be accounted for by a reduction of the fatigue life by 2 for stud-link
chain, and by a factor of 5 for studless chain.
205 It should be noted that the recommended reduction factor for stud chain is only applicable when the stud
is perfectly fitted in the chain link. The fatigue life of a stud chain link is highly sensitive to variations
depending on the tightening of the stud. When the stud gets loose, the scenario of stress distribution changes
totally and this may lead to a significant reduction in fatigue life. These problems are avoided by using studless
chain.
206 The S-N curves presented in Table F1 and Fig.9 include only tension-tension fatigue. In addition fatigue
caused by out of plane bending (OPB) shall be considered. Tension fatigue is due to cyclic range of tension
variations loading the chain. OPB fatigue is due to range of interlink rotation under a certain tension and occurs
predominantly in the first link after a link that is constrained against free rotational movement. OPB shall be
considered in connection with the following conditions:
chain links that are frequently located on a chain wheel (fairlead) with 7 pockets will have a SCF of 1.15
due to out of plane bending /8/
wire rope that is passed over sheaths, pulleys or fairleads.
Chain passing over bending shoes and chain link constraint provided by chain hawse or chain stopper.
207 The contribution to fatigue due to OPB can be established by theoretical calculations or testing. In
connection with chain hawse, chain pipe and connecting rod it is important to establish the friction in the
bearings, which will have significant impact on the OPB.
F 300 Fatigue analysis
301 The long term environment can be represented by a number of discrete conditions. Each condition
consists of a reference direction and a reference sea state characterised by a significant wave height, peak
period, current velocity and wind velocity. The probability of occurrence of these conditions must be specified.
In general 8 to 12 reference directions provide a good representation of the directional distribution of a long-
term environment. The required number of reference sea states can be in the range of 10 to 50. Fatigue damage
prediction can be sensitive to the number of sea states, and sensitivity studies can be necessary.
302 In the fatigue analysis 50% of the chains corrosion allowance can be taken into account.
303 Provided the equation given in 201 is applicable to the fatigue properties, the fatigue damage in
environmental state i can be computed as:
Where E[S
i

m
] is the expected value of the nominal stress ranges raised to the power m in state i. The nominal
stress ranges should be computed taking into account the effects of pretension and the effects of the
d
i
n
i
a
D
------ E S
i

m
| | =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 53
environmental loads due to wind, waves and current, as described for the ULS. Although the cumulative effect
of the stress cycles is required in the FLS, rather than the extreme tension required in the ULS, it is still
necessary to take care to compute the dynamic response of the mooring line to wave-frequency loads at a
representative offset for each environmental state. The method given in the guidance note can be used.
Guidance note:
Determine all loads and motions (low and wave frequency) as described for ULS, see B500.
Compute mooring system responses under mean loading using quasi-static analysis. Then impose wave frequency
motions and calculate the standard deviation of the wave frequency tension from dynamic analysis.
Add the standard deviation of the low frequency motion to the mean position and calculate the corresponding tension.
The standard deviation of the low frequency tension is the calculated tension minus the tension in the mean position.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
304 The computed tension range divided by the nominal cross-sectional area of the chain link or the wire rope
component gives the nominal stress range, The cross sectional areas are defined in 102.
305 If the low-frequency content of the stress process is negligible, then a narrow-banded assumption may
be applied to give:
where o
Si
is the standard deviation of the stress process and I(.) is the gamma function. In this case, the number
of tension cycles is computed from the mean-up-crossing rate in hertz of the tension process v
0i
and the
duration of the environmental state T
i
= P
i
T
D
.
306 If there are both significant wave-frequency and low-frequency components in the tension process, then
the expression for a narrow-banded process is no longer appropriate. There is fairly general consensus that the
rain-flow counting technique provides the most accurate estimate for the probability density of the tension
ranges, but this requires relatively time-consuming analysis. Therefore the following alternatives are
recommended:
combined spectrum approach
dual narrow-band approach.
307 The combined spectrum approach provides a simple, conservative approach, which may be used in
computing the characteristic damage. The fatigue damage for one sea state is denoted by d
CSi
:
The standard deviation of the stress process is including both wave-frequency o
Wi
and low-frequency
components o
Li
.
The mean-up-crossing rate v
yi
in hertz for one sea state is computed from the moments of the combined
spectrum:
and
w
are defined in 310.
308 The number cycles in the combined spectrum, per sea state in the lifetime is:
309 The dual narrow-banded approach takes the result of the combined spectrum approach and multiplies it
by a correction factor , based on the two frequency bands that are present in the tension process.
The correction factor is given by
Where subscript Y refers to the combined stress process, subscript P refers to the envelope of the combined
stress process, subscript L refers to the low-frequency part of the stress process, and subscript W refers to the
wave-frequency part of the stress process.
d
NBi
v
0i
T
i
a
D
------------ 2 2o
Si
( )
m
I
m
2
---- 1 +
\ .
| |
=
d
CSi
v
yi
T
i
a
D
------------ 2 2o
Yi
( )
m
I
m
2
---- 1 +
\ .
| |
=
o
Yi
o
Li
2
o
Wi
2
+ =
v
yi

Li
v
Li
2

Wi
v
Wi
2
+ =
n
i
v
yi
T
i
v
yi
P
i
T
D
= =
d
DNBi

i
d
CSi
=
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 54 Ch.2 Sec.2
310 The symbol represents the normalised variance of the corresponding stress component
Where o
L
is the standard deviation of the low-frequency part of the stress process, and o
W
is the standard
deviation of the wave-frequency part of the stress process. The symbol v represents the up-crossing rate
through the mean value, as computed from the second and zero order moments of the corresponding part of the
stress spectrum, for subscripts Y, L, and W. For the envelope of the stress process, the mean-up-crossing rate
is given by
Where o
W
is the bandwidth parameter for the wave-frequency part of the stress process, but is here set equal
to 0.1.
311 A subscript i could have been attached to all the short-term statistics in equations in 310 to indicate
dependency on the environmental state, but it has been omitted for clarity.
312 Values of the gamma function to be used in the equations given in 307 and 308 for different values of m
are given in Table F2
313 Results from other approaches may be accepted provided they are conservative in comparison to the dual
narrow-banded approach, or to the rainfall counting approach, for the mooring system under consideration.
F 400 Design equation format
401 The fatigue limit state is intended to ensure that each type of component in an individual mooring line
has a suitable resistance to fatigue failure. The design equation for FLS is:
d
c
= the characteristic fatigue damage accumulated as a result of cyclic loading during the design life time.
The combined spectrum approach or the dual narrow band shall be applied as the cycle counting
algorithms. See 307 and 308.

F
= the single safety factor for the fatigue limit state.
402 The fatigue safety factor
F
shall cover a range of uncertainties in the fatigue analysis. The following
values shall be used for mooring lines which are not regularly inspected ashore:
Where d
F
is the adjacent fatigue damage ratio, which is the ratio between the characteristic fatigue damage d
c
in two adjacent lines taken as the lesser damage divided by the greater damage. d
F
cannot be larger than one.
403 A single line failure in fatigue is taken to be without substantial consequences, while near-
Table F2 Gamma Functions
m 3.0 4.0 4.8
1.3293 2.0000 2.9812
1.0000 1.3293 1.8274

v
P
v
Y
------
L
( )
m
2
---- 2 +
1

W

L
--------
\ .
|
| |
t
L

W

mI
1 m +
2
--------------
\ .
| |
I
2 m +
2
--------------
\ .
| |
---------------------------- +
v
w
v
y
------
W
( )
m 2
+
=

L
o
L
2
o
L
2
o
W
2
+
--------------------------,
W
o
W
2
o
L
2
o
W
2
+
-------------------------- = =
v
P

L
2
v
L
2

W
v
W
2
o
W
2
+ =
I
m
2
---- 1 +
I
1 m +
2
--------------
1 d
c

F
0 >

F
5 when d
F
0.8 s =

F
5 3 +
d
F
0.8
0.2
-------------------
\ .
| |
when d
F
0.8 > =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 55
simultaneous fatigue failure of two or more lines is taken to have substantial consequences. Analysis has
shown that nominally identical mooring lines will have very nearly the same fatigue capacity, and that the
recent practice of grouping mooring lines leads to very nearly the same loads in lines within a group. Hence,
this practice may lead to an increase in the occurrence of multiple fatigue failures. The safety factors defined
above are intended to allow the use of grouped lines while retaining a suitable level of safety.
404 If the mooring line is regularly inspected ashore, which is common for mobile offshore units such as
drilling units, then a safety factor of 3 should be applicable.
405 For long term mooring systems stress concentration factors (SCF) due to bending of the chain links in
the fairleads, bending shoes, guide tubes and chocks shall all be considered in the fatigue analysis.
F 500 Effect of number of fatigue tests on design curve
501 It is usual practice to offset the design value of the a-parameter of the S-N curve by two standard
deviations relative to the mean value
502 With a normal distribution assumption, this implies that the realised value of the a-parameter for a
mooring line component is likely to exceed the design value with probability:
503 This holds true when the underlying distribution values of a,o are applied, but not when estimates of
these parameters are applied. It may be expected that this probability is very nearly achieved from estimates
based on a large number of fatigue tests, and deviates more when the number of tests is small. The effect of the
number of test data may be included by introducing a correction factor k
p
(l) into the expression for the design
value of the a-parameter
The value of the correction factor k
p
(l) can be evaluated for any test set size l, by making a large number of
simulations of A and a
D
, and iterating the value of the correction factor until the relative frequency of 0.9772
is obtained for realisations of A exceeding realisations of
D
. Naturally, the normal distribution assumption has
to be retained to make these simulations feasible.
504 Such simulations have been carried out for a range of values of test set size l. A million realisations were
found sufficient to make the variability in the results for the correction factor negligible, and were applied in
the simulations. A simple algebraic function has also been fitted to these results, and is given by
It is suggested that this correction factor should be applied when establishing fatigue design curves for mooring
line components from relatively small numbers of fatigue tests.
F 600 Fatigue limit state (FLS) for fibre ropes
601 Tension - tension fatigue life of fibre ropes can be calculated according to the procedure given in F.
However, the fatigue capacity is related to the relative tension R rather than the stress. The fatigue should be
calculated using the R-N curve given in 201.
602 Tension - compression fatigue is not considered a problem for polyester. However, for other fibres
sensitive to compression such as Aramid, the tension - compression fatigue life shall be documented by testing.
603 The manufacturer shall propose the procedure for tension compression testing and the company
responsible for the certification shall approve the procedure.
604 The fatigue curve shown in Fig.7 is developed for polyester ropes /7/.
605 The following equation described in F201 can be used for the component capacity against tension
fatigue:
Where R is the ratio of tension range to characteristic strength defined in C202.
The parameters a
D
and m are given in Table F3.
Table F3 T-N Fatigue Curve Parameters
a
D
m
Polyester rope 0.259 13.46
a
D
( ) log a ( ) 2o log =
P A a
D
> | | 0.9772 =
a

D
( ) log a

( ) 2 k
p
l ( ) + ( )o

log =
k
p
l ( )
3.3
l
-------
11.2
l
2
----------, 6 l < 200 < + =
n
c
R ( ) ( ) log a
D
( ) m R ( ) log log =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 56 Ch.2 Sec.2
Figure 10
Polyester rope fatigue data and design curve
F 700 Design equation format for fibre ropes
701 The fatigue limit state is intended to ensure that each type of component in an individual mooring line
has a suitable resistance to fatigue failure. The design equation for FLS is:
d
c
= is the characteristic fatigue damage accumulated as a result of cyclic loading during the design life time.
The combined spectrum approach or the dual narrow band shall be applied as the cycle counting
algorithms. See F307 and F309.

F
= is the single safety factor for the fatigue limit state.
702 The fatigue safety factor
F
is 60 for polyester ropes and shall cover a range of uncertainties in the fatigue
analysis.
Guidance note:
The fatigue safety factor specified for polyester rope is unusually large compared to values in the range from 1 to 10
typically applicable to steel components. This is partly due to the larger variability in the fatigue test result around the
fitted RN curve. Secondly, it is a consequence of the large exponent m = 13.46 of the polyester R-N curve, compared
to m = 3 to 4 for typical steel components. The safety factor of 60 on the fatigue lifetime together with m =13.46
correspond to a safety factor of 1.36 on the line tension. The same safety factor on the line tension would also
correspond to a safety factor of 2.5 on the design lifetime if the exponent were m = 3.
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703 Alternatively the fatigue life can be qualified against the design curve for spiral rope. For long term
mooring the ratio between calculated fatigue life and design life shall be 5 - 8 (ref. F400), when replacement
of the fibre rope segments is not included as a possibility in the operation and inspection plans. If the fibre rope
segment will be replaced a fatigue life factor of 3 can be accepted.
F 800 Vortex Induced Motions (VIM)
801 Semi-taut and taut mooring systems with steel wire rope or fibre robe segments can be exposed to VIM
which can contribute to the fatigue damage. VIM is caused by vortices shed alternatively from upper and lower
side of a cylinder giving rise to oscillatory forces in the transverse direction to the incoming flow as well as in
the in-line direction.
802 The main effect of VIM on the mooring line forces is an increase in the effective drag coefficient CD.
For a VIM amplitude on the order of the diameter, the effective CD can be increased by a factor 2 (ref. DNV-
RP-C205). This increase in CD will have an effect on the wave induced dynamic tension in the mooring line,
not on the static (mean) tension. It is assumed that chain is not affected by VIM.
803 The possibility of VIM should be checked and the effect on the dynamic tension shall be included in the
fatigue evaluation.
1 d
c

F
0 >
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.2 Page 57
G. Reliability Analysis
G 100 Target annual probabilities
101 A mooring system may be designed by direct application of structural reliability analysis, as an
alternative to the simplified design calculation presented in B, C, D and G.
102 Such an analysis should be at least as refined as the reliability analysis used to calibrate the present design
procedure /4/, /5/, /6/, and must be checked against the results of the calibration, for at least one relevant test
case.
103 The probability levels given in Table H1 have been applied in the calibration, and should also be
applicable in a comparable reliability analysis:
H. References
/1/ Stansberg, C.T., (1992), A Simple Method for Estimation of Extreme Values of Non-Gaussian Slow-Drift
Responses, Proc. 1
st
Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conf., Edinburgh.
/2/ Stansberg, C.T., (1992), Basic Statistical Uncertainties in Predicting Extreme Second Order Slow Drift
Motion, Proc. 2
nd
Int. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conf., San Francisco.
/3/ Lie, H., Sdahl, N., (1993), Simplified Dynamic Model for Estimation of Extreme Anchorline Tension,
Offshore Australia, Melbourne.
/4/ Mathisen, J., Hrte, T., Larsen, K., Sogstad, B., (1998), DEEPMOOR - Design Methods for Deep Water
Mooring Systems, Calibration of an Ultimate Limit State, DNV report no. 96-3583, rev. 03, Hvik.
/5/ Mathisen, J., Hrte, T., Lie, H., Sogstad, B., (1999), DEEPMOOR - Design Methods for Deep Water
Mooring Systems, Calibration of a Progressive Collapse Limit State, DNV report no. 97-3581, rev. 02, Hvik.
/6/ Mathisen, J., Hrte, T., Moe, V., Lian, W., (1999), DEEPMOOR - Design Methods for Deep Water Mooring
Systems, Calibration of a Fatigue Limit State, DNV report no. 98-3110, rev. 03, Hvik.
/7/ Banfield, B., Versavel, T., Snell, R.O., Ahilan, R.V. (2000), Fatigue Curves for Polyester Moorings - A
State-of-the Art Review OTC 12175.
/8/ Vargas, P., Hsu, T.M., Lee, W.K.,: Stress Concentration Factors for Stud-less Mooring
Chain Links in Fairleads, 23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering June
20-25, 2004, Vancouver, Canada.
/9/ Vlasblom, M.P; Bosman, R.L.M; Predicting the Creep Lifetime of HMPE Mooring Rope Applications,
IEEE 2006.
Table H1 Probability levels
Limit state Consequence class
1)
Target annual
probability of failure
ULS 1 10
-4
2 10
-5
ALS 1 10
-4
2 10
-5
FLS Single line 10
-3
Multiple lines 10
-5
1) Consequence Classes are not considered for FLS
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 58 Ch.2 Sec.3
SECTION 3
THRUSTER ASSISTED MOORING
A. General
A 100 Objective
101 This section provides recommendations and methods for the design of thruster assisted moorings.
A 200 Application
201 For units equipped with thrusters, a part of or full net thrust effect may be taken into account in all design
conditions.
202 The effect of thruster assistance may be included in the computation of the characteristic tension for the
ULS.
203 The ALS analysis shall be carried out for:
loss of one mooring line
loss of thruster assistance defined as loss of a single thruster or a single failure in the power or control
system causing the most severe loss of thrusters. Detailed description of control systems and failure
scenarios are given in DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6 Ch.7 Sec.3.
204 If the thruster system includes redundant power systems, the reliability and availability of the system
shall be documented by a failure mode and effect analysis.
205 The effect of thruster assistance is depending on the layout of the thrust control system and the design
conditions. The permissible use of thrusters and the effects are given in Table A1.
206 Thrusters may be used to assist the mooring system by reducing the mean environmental forces, heading
control and damping of low frequency motions or a combination of these functions.
207 The net thrust referred to in Table A1 shall be based on the following conditions:
fixed propellers can be considered only if thrust produced contributes to the force or moment balance
azimuthing thrusters can be considered to provide thrust in all direction, unless specific restrictions are
defined
thruster induced moment shall be taken into account when thruster assistance is analysed.
208 When thrusters are used, failures leading to stop of thrusters shall be considered equivalent to line failure
as defined in Sec.2 B101, and the corresponding safety factors will apply. See Sec.2 D.
Guidance note:
Based on experience from DNV surveyors it is not common practice to utilize 100% of the power capacity.
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209 The maximum effect of single failure shall not cause a design load effect higher than the characteristic
capacity. See Sec.2 A202 and D202.
210 Blackout is one typical maximum effect of a single failure. If blackout leads to that the sum of line
tensions multiplied with the relevant safety factors is higher than the characteristic capacity than permitted in
ALS (see Sec.2 D300), the power and control systems have to be arranged with redundancy.
211 Manual thruster control is intended only for limited time periods, and the arrangement assumes
continuous attention of an operator.
212 Turret moored units, which are not naturally weather-vaneing, and hence dependent on heading control
shall be equipped with an automatic remote control system. Blackout has to be considered as a single failure if
an emergency shut down is causing stop of all thrusters.
Table A1 Permissible use of thrust effect in thruster assisted mooring systems
Consequence
class
Limit state
Manual
remote control
Automatic
remote control
1
ULS 70% of net thrust effect from all thrusters 100% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
ALS 70% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
1)
100% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
1)
2
ULS 70% of net thrust effect from all thrusters 100% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
ALS 70% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
1)
100% of net thrust effect from all thrusters
1)
1) A failure leading to stop of thrusters shall be considered equivalent to a line failure. Redundancy in the thruster systems is not
required if blackout is considered as a single failure, and the design equation given in Sec.2 D201 fulfilled.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.3 Page 59
A 300 Definitions
301 The thruster assisted mooring system which is dependent on a manual remote thruster system, signifies
a system comprising:
thruster system
power system
control system
reference system.
302 The remote thrust control system is a semi-automatic control system, which enables the operator to give
a defined thrust (force and direction) and/or a turning moment to the unit.
303 The thruster assisted mooring system, which is dependent on an automatic remote thruster control
system, signifies a system similar to a manual remote system with the addition of an automatic control mode.
304 The thruster system comprises the thruster units, included gear drives and control hardware for control
of thruster speed/pitch and azimuth.
B. Available Thrust
B 100 Determination of available thrust capacity
101 The available thrust (net thrust) shall be documented by the manufacturer and verified by sea trials. In
an early design stage the net thrust capacity may be estimated by calculation.
Guidance note:
To determine the available trust capacity the propeller thrust at bollard pull has to be calculated first by using the
following conversion factor for nozzle propellers:
0.158 kN/kW.
For open propellers the following factor shall be used:
0.105 kN/kW.
This thrust has to be corrected by applying thrust reduction factors. These factors are depending on the following:
- propeller/thruster installation geometry and arrangement
- inflow velocity into the propeller
- propeller sense of rotation (ahead or reverse).
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102 Determination of reduction factors can be carried out according to ISO/TR 13637 or API RP 2SK. These
standards contain guidelines which apply to the following:
open and nozzled propellers installed in the stern of a ship-shaped unit i.e. conventional main propulsion
arrangement
azimuthing or direction fixed nozzled thrusters installed under the bottom of a hull
tunnel thrusters installed in a transverse tunnel in the hull.
C. Method
C 100 Mean load reduction
101 This is a simplified approach where the thrusters are assumed to counteract only the mean environmental
actions in surge, sway and yaw direction. Available thrust from thrusters shall be evaluated according to Table
A1. The mooring lines are assumed to counteract the remaining mean loads; i.e. the total mean loads minus the
thruster forces.
102 For spread mooring systems where the yaw moment has insignificant effect on the mooring (column-
stabilised units), the force balance in the yaw direction can be neglected. In this case the surge and sway
components of the allowable thrust can be subtracted from the mean surge and sway environmental loads.
103 For vessels equipped with a single point mooring system where the vessels heading is controlled by
thrusters, the balance of yaw moment about the turret must be taken into consideration. A procedure to
determine the mean load reduction is given in the guidance note below.
Guidance note:
1) Determine the mean environmental yaw moment as a function of the units heading, typically in the range of -90
to +90, and locate the equilibrium heading at which the yaw moment is zero.
2) Determine a target heading, which is the desired heading to maintain based on operation requirements and the
consideration of minimising the units loads and motions. For collinear environments, the target heading is
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 60 Ch.2 Sec.3
normally 0 to the environment. For non-collinear environments the target heading could be the wave direction.
3) Search for the maximum yaw moment (M
E
) between the target and the equilibrium heading.
4) Determine the maximum yaw moment that can be generated by the thrusters (M
T
) under the damaged condition.
5) If M
T
is less than M
E
, thruster assist should be neglected, and the mooring system should be analysed without
thruster assistance. If M
T
is equal or greater than M
E
go to step 6.
6) Determine the mean environmental loads in surge (F
X
), sway (F
Y
) and yaw (M
Z
) at the target heading plus or
minus an angle o, whichever is more critical where o = 10 for collinear environment and 15 for non-collinear
environment.
7) Determine the surge (T
X
) and sway (T
Y
) thrust components from the thruster system that can be used to
counteract the environmental load. T
X
and T
Y
can be determined as follows:
- Thrust from the whole system is the vector sum of the thrust from each thruster.
- Output from each thruster shall satisfy the available thrust according to the thruster control system.
- The moment generated by T
X
and T
Y
shall balance M
Z
.
- The thrust generated by an individual thruster shall not exceed the allowable thrust.
8) Combine T
X
and T
Y
with F
X
and F
Y
to obtain reduced mean surge and sway loads.
9) Perform analysis to obtain mooring system response under reduced mean load.
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C 200 System dynamic analysis
201 A system dynamic analysis is normally performed using a three-axis (surge, sway and yaw) time domain
simulator. This simulator generates the mean offset and low frequency vessel motions and thruster responses
corresponding to specific environmental force during time records. In this analysis, constant wind, current,
mean wave drift forces and low frequency wind and wave forces are included. Wave frequency forces, which
are not countered by the thruster system, can be excluded in the simulation.
D. System Requirements
D 100 Thruster systems
101 The thruster configuration may consist of both fixed and rotating thrusters. Variable pitch and variable
speed can e.g. control thrust output. The thruster configuration has to be evaluated on the basis of the mooring
system.
D 200 Power system
201 An automatic power management system shall be provided which will ensure adequate running
generator capacity relative to power demand, i.e. available power reserve.
202 The automatic power management system shall be able to execute immediate limitations in power
consumption to prevent blackout due to overload caused by sudden shortage of available power.
203 The capacity of the power system shall be evaluated on the principle that a single failure in the power
system shall be considered equivalent to an anchor line failure. The limiting requirements for tensions and
motions for the type of operation shall be applied.
204 Detailed requirements to power systems are given in the Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6 Ch.7
Sec.5.
205 If the design capacity is dependent on certain thrusters to remain intact after failure as in 203, the power
system shall be designed with redundancy to ensure operation of these thrusters.
Guidance note:
The following can be used as guidance:
The Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6 Ch.7 shall be used as reference.
NMD: Regulations of 4 September 1987 No. 857 concerning anchoring/positioning systems on mobile offshore units
and Guideline No. 28 to the NMD regulations and Appendix B to Guideline No. 28.
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206 The definition of design capacity is given in Sec.2 B102.
D 300 Control systems
301 Manual remote thrust control system shall include:
manual control of each thruster
remote thrust control, joystick system.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.3 Page 61
302 Automatic remote thrust control system shall include:
manual control of each thruster
automatic control of all thrusters.
303 A mode selector shall be arranged in the thruster assistance control area to enable switching between
remote thrust control, or automatic control and manual control.
304 Detailed requirements for control systems are given in the Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6 Ch.7
Sec.3.
D 400 Manual thruster control
401 Manual operation of each thruster, start, stop, azimuth and pitch or speed controls shall be arranged.
Displays shall be provided for all information necessary for safe and practical operation.
402 Individual stop (emergency stop) of each thruster shall be possible from thruster assistance control area.
403 The location of the thruster assistance control stand shall be chosen with consideration of the operation.
Units operating at a safe distance from other stationary structures can have the control stand in a control room
with no direct view of the units surroundings. Units operating in the vicinity of other structures, see Sec.2
D500 and D600 shall have a control stand from where there is a good view of the units surroundings.
404 The thruster assistance control stand shall be equipped with displays for line tensions and line length
measurements.
D 500 Remote thrust control, joystick system
501 The remote thrust control system shall be located in the control area together with the manual thruster
controls and with the same access to thruster and mooring displays.
502 The remote thrust control system shall be a joystick system with integrated control of all thrusters.
Automatic heading control shall be included.
503 At least one gyrocompass shall be interfaced to the joystick system.
D 600 Automatic thruster control
601 The automatic control mode shall include the following main functions:
1) Automatic control for optimal use of available thrust in co-operation with the mooring system forces, and
automatic compensation of the effects of anchor line failure, thruster failure and thruster power failure.
Detailed requirements are given in 700.
2) Monitoring of position and mooring line tension and alarms for excursion limits. Detailed requirements are
given in 800.
3) Consequence analysis consisting of prediction of line tensions and the units position in the event of a
single anchor line failure or thruster failure under the prevailing environmental conditions. Detailed
requirements are given in 900.
4) Simulation of motions and anchor line tensions during manoeuvres, changing of anchor patterns, effect of
changing weather conditions, and failures in thrusters and anchor lines. Detailed requirements are given in
1000.
5) Logging of relevant parameters for display or hard copy on operators request. Detailed requirements are
given in 1100.
6) Self-diagnostics with alarms for faults within the automatic control system or in data received from
interfaced equipment. Detailed requirements are given in 1200.
7) System response to major failures. Information is given in E.
602 The automatic control system shall be powered from a non-interruptible power source, UPS. The battery
power reserve in the UPS shall be sufficient for 15 minutes operation.
603 Redundant automatic thruster control is required when the mooring analysis is based on thruster
assistance to the required design capacity in ALS.
D 700 Automatic control
701 The thrusters automatic control system shall be designed to cover one or combination of the following
functions:
heading control
counteracting the static environmental forces
reducing the low frequency motions.
Turret moored units, which are not freely weather-vaneing have to be designed with an automatic heading
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 62 Ch.2 Sec.3
control system.
702 When the thruster shall be controlled to produce thrust to counteract the static environmental forces, the
thrust shall be proportionate to the magnitude of anchor line tension and position offset. Thrusters can be
deactivated when anchor line tension and position offset are within acceptable limits.
703 The thrusters shall be controlled to produce thrust to compensate for the effect of anchor line failure if
necessary.
704 The thruster control system shall able to reallocate thrust when failure of a thruster is detected, or the
operator deselects a thruster.
705 When the power demand for use of thrusters exceeds available power, the control system shall use the
available power in an optimal manner and introduce thrust limitations to avoid overloads and blackout
situations. The method of thrust limitation shall be quick enough to avoid blackout due to a sudden overload
caused by stop of one or more generators.
D 800 Monitoring
801 Continuous monitoring shall be provided of all important parameters, which at least shall include:
position
heading
anchor line tension, see Sec.4 Q
available electrical power.
802 Deviations from the specified position and heading shall be compared with at least two adjustable limits.
An alarm shall be released when passing both limits. When passing the first limit, the alarm can be considered
as a warning and shall be distinguishable from the other alarms realised at a more severe limit.
803 Anchor line tensions shall be monitored and compared to both high and low limits.
804 Low anchor line tension alarms can be interpreted as an anchor line failure if the anchor line tension
measurement system has self check facilities, and these have not detected a measurement failure. Otherwise,
the low tension alarm shall not be interpreted as anchor line failure and used for thruster control unless one
more parameter e.g. position or heading indicates anchor line failure.
805 Monitoring of position shall be based on position measurements from at least one position reference
system. If redundancy is required at least two independent position reference systems are required. Typical
position reference systems are:
hydro acoustic
taut wire
microwave (ARTEMIS. MINIRANGER)
radio wave (SYLEDIS)
riser angle sensors
satellite (DGPS)
gangway sensor.
806 The position being calculated from mooring system data can be used to check the direct position
measurement, and can be used in the event of failure of the position reference systems.
807 The position measurements shall have an accuracy of 2% of the water depth, obtained either directly by
one source of reference, or by pooling the results of several.
808 The position reference systems shall provide new position data with a refresh rate and accuracy suitable
for the intended operation.
Guidance note:
The accuracy of the position reference data is generally to be
within a radius of 2% of water depth for bottom-based systems, and within a radius of 3 m for surface-based systems.
For satellite based systems, interface and necessary equipment for receiving differential correction signals is required
installed.
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809 The position measurements shall be transformed to represent the position of any critical point on the unit
as determined by its application.
810 The automatic remote thrust control panel shall be equipped with alarm display for thrusters, which can
be relayed from the thruster alarm panel or general alarm system.
811 There shall be alarm displays for failure of external devices interfaced to the automatic remote thrust
control system, e.g. gyrocompass, wind sensor and UPS.
812 All alarms shall be acknowledged by the operator at the automatic remote thrust control panel. For alarms
relayed from general alarm systems or other common source, the acknowledgement shall have only local effect.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.3 Page 63
D 900 Consequence analysis Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
901 Concurrent with control and monitoring, there shall be performed an analysis of the consequences of
certain defined failures under prevailing operation conditions. The consequences are defined as anchor line
tensions and position deviations in excess of accepted limits.
902 The failures to be considered shall include failure of any anchor line, failure of any single thruster, or
stop of thrusters which will occur in the event of the most serious failure in the power system. If there is no
redundancy in power supply or control systems, the most serious event is blackout.
903 The consequence analysis shall check the consequence criteria against all defined faults in sequence, and
the repetition rate shall not be less than once per 5 minutes.
904 All computed consequences shall release an alarm or a warning. The consequence and reason shall be
suitably identified. The warning or alarm shall be acknowledged.
905 The software or hardware used for preparing the consequence analysis is exempted from the redundancy
requirements for automatic control system, see 603.
906 If the consequence analysis function is carried out by non-redundant equipment, failure of this shall
cause alarm.
Guidance note:
Some additional information regarding the FMEA analysis is given in DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6
Ch.7 Sec.1 D700.
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D 1000 Simulation
1001 The simulation function can be executed in an off-line computer system with access to process data. If
the control system is used for simulation, the priority shall be next to control, monitoring and consequence
analysis.
1002 The simulation facility can use the display system of the control system, but shall not obstruct the
presentation of alarms.
1003 The simulation facility should at least provide for:
mooring conditions on input of proposed anchor pattern and anchor line tensions
effects of changing weather conditions
anchor line tensions, low frequency motions, wave frequency motions and final position caused by anchor
line failure. The effects shall be displayed in true time scale
relevant functions both with and without thruster assistance.
D 1100 Logging
1101 Automatic logging shall be carried out of important parameters. This will at least include all anchor
lines tensions, position and heading deviations, power consumption, thrust resultant in magnitude and
direction, wind speed and direction.
1102 The data shall be recorded with a sampling interval of 1 s and stored on a hard disk.
1103 The data shall be presented in graphical form covering at least 24 hours back in time.
D 1200 Self-monitoring
1201 There shall be automatic self-monitoring of automatic control system, which shall detect computer stop,
software hang-ups, power failures, and false operation of interfaced equipment as far as this can be determined
from the central system.
E. System Response to Major Failures
E 100 Line failure
101 For both manual and automatic thruster systems there shall be no need to consider the use of thrusters to
compensate for line failure at the time of failure or immediately after. Any compensation should be the results
of considering the new mooring pattern i.e. with one line missing, and making adjustments to the required
heading and position as appropriate.
102 Line failure during offtake operations should be considered and the effect on the shuttle tanker shown to
be without serious consequences.
E 200 Blackout prevention
201 In situations where thruster assist is not essential a blackout prevent system or a system whereby thrusters
have power priority is also not essential provided it can be shown that the sudden loss of thrusters or control
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 64 Ch.2 Sec.3
system cannot cause an unmanageable problem. This includes times when a shuttle tanker is engaged in
loading.
202 Both systems to give thrusters priority for power and a blackout prevention system shall be installed on
units where heading control is essential and where heading control and mooring load reduction by thrusters are
required.
E 300 Thruster to full power
301 Thruster faults should not result in unwanted power being applied, or power applied in the wrong
direction.
302 If this fault is possible then the duration of the unwanted thrust should be so short that it does not risk a
heading excursion larger than 15 or a line tension to increase greater than accepted from the worst failure case.
This means that these faults shall be detected and alarmed so that the thruster can be correctly stopped either
by the operator or automatically.
E 400 Gyro compass drift
401 If the drift of one gyro compass can cause a change of heading there shall be a method of fault detection
and alarm that enables the system and the operator to reject the gyro data and restore the correct heading before
an excursion of 15 is reached. Alternatively there shall be adequate redundancy of heading references.
E 500 Position reference fault
501 If the drift or jump of one position reference or two references of the same type can cause unnecessary
thrust then the detection and rejection of false data shall be fast enough to prevent an increase in mooring line
tensions greater than what will occur from a single line failure. Alternatively there must be adequate
redundancy of position references.
E 600 Other major failures
601 The major faults described shall illustrate the principles involved and are not an exhaustive list of major
failure modes that have to be considered by designers and operators.
F. Thrusters
F 100 General
101 Thrusters shall comply with DNV-OS-D101 Marine and Machinery System Equipment.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 65
SECTION 4
MOORING EQUIPMENT
A. General
A 100 Objective
101 This section contains requirements regarding equipment and installation for temporary mooring, position
mooring and towing.
A 200 Anchor types
201 The anchors are normally to be of fluke, plate, pile, suction or gravity type. Other anchor types can be
accepted on a case to case basis.
202 For mobile offshore units (drilling, accommodation etc.) the anchors of embedment type shall be
designed in such a way that additional anchors can be attached (piggyback).
B. Structural Design and Materials for Anchors
B 100 Structural strength
101 The structural strength of anchors for long term mooring is to be designed for a design load equal to the
characteristic breaking strength of the anchor line. The nominal equivalent linearised primary membrane and
bending stress o
e
shall not exceed 0.9 o
f
, e.g. local peak stresses may exceed yield ref. DNV-OS-C101 Sec.5
A400.
102 Alternatively the anchor may be design based on the characteristic loads calculated according to Sec.2
and principles given in DNV-OS-C101 with a material factor of 1.1.
103 Structural strength of fluke anchors for mobile mooring e.g. drilling and accommodation units may be
designed according to Ch.3 Sec.2 C.
104 Strength may also be documented by non-linear analysis using recognised programmes and procedures.
Material factor of 1.1 to be taken into account in the analysis. Max allowable plastic strain is not to exceed 5%.
B 200 Materials for fluke anchors
201 For fluke anchors and drag-in plate anchors the connection point to the anchor shackle is denoted the
anchor head.
202 Anchor heads may be cast, forged or fabricated from plate materials. Shank or shackles may be cast or
forged.
203 Cast or forged material for anchor heads, shank, flukes and shackles are to be manufactured and tested
in accordance with relevant requirements of DNV-OS-B101 Ch.2 Sec.4 Steel Castings and Ch.2 Sec.3 Steel
Forgings.
204 Plate material used for fabricated anchor heads and flukes is to comply with relevant requirements of
DNV-OS-B101 Ch.2 Sec.1 Rolled Steel for Structural Applications.
The structural category shall be primary, see DNV-OS-C101 Sec.4 Structural categorisation, material
selection and inspection principles.
205 Fabrication and inspection of anchor heads, shanks and flukes shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-
C401.
B 300 Design of anchor pad eye
301 For other types of anchors than fluke anchors and plate anchors the connection point to the anchor
shackle is denoted the anchor pad eye.
302 The mooring connection is to be designed for a design load equal the characteristic breaking strength of
the anchor line. The nominal equivalent linearised primary membrane and bending stress o
e
in the pad eye and
the supporting structure is not to exceed 0,9 o
f
, e.g. local stresses may exceed yield. Ref. DNV-OS-C101 Sec.5
A400.
303 Alternatively the pad eye and the supporting structure may be design based on the design loads calculated
according to Sec.2 and principles given in DNV-OS-C101 with a material factor of 1.1.
304 Installation tolerances are to be accounted for.
B 400 Anchor shackle
401 The diameter of the shackle leg is normally not to be less than:
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 66 Ch.2 Sec.4
D
nom
is the applied chain diameter with tensile strength equal to the shackle material. For long term mooring
the material of the anchor shackle shall be R3, R3S, R4, R4S or R5. For mobile mooring systems the tensile
strength for the shackle may differ from the chain material, and consequently D
nom
has to be corrected
correspondingly, see guidance note below.
Guidance note:
For shackle material with minimum tensile strength different from that of the steel grades R3, R3S, R4, R4S and R5,
linear interpolation between table values of D
nom
will normally be accepted, see DNV-OS-E302 Sec.2.
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402 The diameter of the shackle pin is normally not to be less than the greater of:
D
nom
is given in Ch.3 Sec.2 A100 unless the design is documented otherwise.
l
p
= free length of pin. It is assumed that materials of the same tensile strength are used in shackle body and
pin. For different materials d
p
. will be specially considered.
403 Anchor shackles to be applied in long term mooring system shall be of quality R3, R3S, R4, R4S or R5
and they shall be manufactured and tested according to DNV-OS-E302.
404 Anchor shackles to be applied in mobile mooring systems and which are not according to DNV-OS-E302
shall be proof load tested with the anchor, see Ch.3 Sec.2 C500.
B 500 Pile, gravity and suction anchors
501 The load bearing part of the anchors shall be primary structural category, while the pad eye and the part
of the structure distributing the load to the load bearing part shall be special structural category, see DNV-OS-
C101 Sec.4.
502 The material shall be according to the requirements given in DNV-OS-B101, and fabrication and testing
shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-C401.
C. Fluke Anchors
C 100 General
Conventional fluke anchors are also known as drag embedment anchors. A further development of this anchor
type is the so-called drag-in plate anchor, which is installed as a fluke anchor, but functions as an embedded
plate anchor in its operational mode. Plate anchors are treated in D.
Further information about design and installation of fluke anchors is found in DNV-RP-E301.
C 200 Fluke anchor components
201 The main components of a fluke anchor (see Fig.1) are:
the shank
the fluke
the shackle
the forerunner.
nom s
D d = 4 . 1
nom p
D d = 5 . 1
p p
l d = 7 . 0
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 67
Figure 1
Fluke anchor
202 The fluke angle is the angle arbitrarily defined by the fluke plane and a line passing through the rear of
the fluke and the anchor shackle. It is important to have a clear definition (although arbitrary) of how the fluke
angle is being measured.
203 Normally the fluke angle is fixed within the range 30 to 50, the lower angle used for sand and hard or
stiff clay, the higher for soft normally consolidated clays. Intermediate angles may be more appropriate for
certain soil conditions (layered soils, e.g. stiff clay above softer clay). The advantage of using the larger angle
in soft normally consolidated clay is that the anchor penetrates deeper, where the soil strength and the normal
component on the fluke is higher, giving an increased resistance.
204 The forerunner is the line segment attached to the anchor shackle, which will embed together with the
anchor during installation. The anchor penetration path and the ultimate depth or resistance of the anchor are
significantly affected by the type (wire or chain) and size of the forerunner, see Fig.1.
205 The inverse catenary of the anchor line is the curvature of the embedded part of the anchor line between
the anchor padeye or shackle and the dip-down point at the seabed.
C 300 Definition of fluke anchor resistance
301 The characteristic resistance of a fluke anchor is the sum of the installation anchor resistance and the
predicted post-installation effects of consolidation and cyclic loading. To this resistance in the dip-down point
is added the possible seabed friction up to the line touch-down point.
302 The design anchor resistance at the line touchdown point, calculated according to the principles in DNV-
RP-E301, shall be at least equal to the design line tension at the same point, calculated according to the
principles laid down in this document.
303 The installation line tension applied shall account for any differences between the seabed line friction
(length on the seabed) during installation and operation of the anchors. This tension shall be maintained during
the specified holding time, normally 15 to 30 minutes.
C 400 Verification of anchor resistance - mobile mooring
401 For mobile moorings such as drilling units with drilling riser disconnected and accommodation units in
standby condition, when the consequence of anchor dragging during extreme environmental conditions is not
critical, the anchor resistance shall be verified by applying an anchor installation tension at the dip-down point
not less than the maximum line tension caused by an environment load corresponding to the maximum
operation condition, intact mooring. The consequence of anchor dragging during a 100 year storm shall be
investigated and documented with respect to length of dragging and the line tensions in the adjacent lines.
402 When determining the required anchor installation tension at the dip-down point the friction between the
mooring line and the sea bed and in the fairlead shall be considered
Guidance note:
If the friction in the fairlead can not be documented the friction can be assumed to be 10% of the tension. Before the
important anchor installations the calibration of tension measuring system shall always be checked and when
necessary recuperated, since the friction loss may sometimes be as great as 40% of the applied tension
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403 For mobile moorings where the consequence of anchor dragging during maximum characteristic
environmental condition (100 year return period) is critical to adjacent installations, subsea structures, human
life or the environment, the anchor resistance shall be verified by applying an anchor installation tension, which
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 68 Ch.2 Sec.4
satisfies the safety requirements for the governing limit state (ULS and ALS).
404 If the required installation tension according to 403 is not possible to achieve, the potential anchor drag
during a 100 year storm shall be investigated. The additional drag distance can be predicted using e.g. the DNV
software DIGIN and it shall be verified that this distance is tolerable for the actual environment and adjacent
installations. For anchors in layered, hard or dense soil, when the penetration depth is small, the prediction of
additional drag during a storm is subject to more uncertainties than in clay soil, In such soil conditions, when
the consequences of anchor drag may be serious, the anchor installation tension may have to be set high enough
to provide the required safety factor without anchor drag.
405 Design charts published e.g. by the anchor manufacturers and in API RP2SK shall be used with caution,
particularly in layered, hard and dense soil when the anchor penetration is small, see also discussion in DNV-
RP-E301.
406 If the specified anchor installation tension is too high to be achieved it may be required to pre-set the
anchors to obtain the specified anchor installation resistance.
407 Acceptance of an uplift angle of the mooring line in the dip-down point can be given on a case to case
basis, see DNV-RP-E301 for assessment of acceptable uplift angle.
C 500 Verification of fluke anchor resistance long term mooring
501 The required resistance of fluke anchors to be applied in long term mooring, shall be assessed and verified
by theoretical calculations as described in DNV-RP-E301, which also provides the basis for assessment of the
minimum anchor installation tension. For assessment of applicable consequence class reference is made to
present document Sec.2 D500 and D600.
502 The anchor installation loads tension shall be equal to the extreme line tension based on an environment
with a 100 year return period. Both ULS and ALS shall be considered. The installation load tension and
required anchor resistance shall be according to DNV-RP-E301, which also provides general requirements to
soil investigation for design and installation of fluke anchors.
503 The basis for assessment of the long-term anchor resistance and the required anchor installation tension
shall be documented with reference to the recommendations given in DNV-RP-E301.
D. Plate Anchors
D 100 General
101 Plate anchors are anchors that are intended to resist the applied loads by orienting the plate approximately
normal to the load after having been embedded. The embedment of the plate anchor may be by dragging (like
a fluke anchor), by pushing, by driving or by use of suction.
102 For drag-in plate anchors a design and installation procedure has been developed, see DNV-RP-E302,
which may be adopted as a tentative guidance for design also of other types of plate anchors. However, due
consideration will have to be given to the differences in installation method and how this may affect the final
pull-out resistance of the plate.
D 200 Drag-in plate anchors
201 Drag-in plate anchors are designed to take uplift or vertical loads in a taut mooring system. They are best
described as a further development of the fluke anchor concept, with the added feature that the fluke (plate)
after installation can be oriented normal to the applied load.
202 This triggering of the anchor leads to a significant (two-fold or more) increase of the anchor resistance
expressed by the performance ratio, which gives the ratio between the pullout resistance and the installation
resistance.
203 This principle is utilised also in the development of other plate anchor concepts.
204 According to the design procedure recommended by DNV the anchor pullout resistance is split into a
static component and a cyclic component.
205 The design anchor resistance, which is obtained by multiplying the characteristic value of the respective
component by a material coefficient, shall be at least equal to the design line tension at the dip-down point
(seabed), as explained in more detail in DNV-RP-E302.
D 300 Other types of plate anchors
301 Results from instrumented tests in clay with different push-in types of plate anchors indicate that the
principles outlined in DNV RP-E302 for calculation of the pullout resistance of drag-in plate anchors can be
adopted also for other types of plate anchors.
302 In the design of other types of plate anchors, like push-in plate anchors, drive-in plate anchors and suction
embedment plate anchors, consideration shall be given to the special characteristics of the respective anchor
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 69
type, particularly how the resistance of the plate in its operational mode is affected by the anchor installation.
303 In the assessment of the pullout resistance of plate anchors the extent and quality of the soil investigation
shall be accounted for such that adequate conservatism is used in quantification of the governing design
parameters.
D 400 Installation depth
401 The target installation depth and required long term anchor resistance shall be determined according to
DNV-RP-E302, which also provides general requirements to soil investigation for design and installation of
plate anchors.
E. Anchor Piles
E 100 General
101 Anchor piles shall account for pile bending stresses as well as ultimate lateral pile capacity. Pile
embedment is also to be sufficient to develop the axial capacity to resist vertical loads with an appropriate
factor of safety. The design shall be based on recognised codes and standards. Pile fatigue during installation
shall be considered as relevant.
102 Design criteria for foundation of anchor piles may be taken according to DNV-OS-C101 Sec.11.
Guidance note:
An analysis method capable of determining the bending stresses shall model the pile as a beam column on an inelastic
foundation. The inelastic foundation can be modelled using a soil resistance-deflection (p-y) curve, which is described
for various soils in API RP 2A.
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F. Suction Anchors
F 100 General
101 The foundation of suction anchors shall be designed according to relevant requirements given in DNV-
OS-C101 Sec.11.
102 An important load case for suction anchors is buckling during installation due to the difference between
outside and inside pressure. Design to be performed according to DNV-OS-C101.
G. Gravity Anchors
G 100 General
101 The foundation of gravity anchors shall be designed according to relevant requirements given in DNV-
OS-C101 Sec.11.
102 The capacity against uplift shall not be taken higher than the submerged weight. However, for anchors
supplied with skirts, the contribution from friction along the skirts may be included.
103 In certain cases gravity anchors with skirts may be able to resist cyclic uplift loads by the development
of temporary suction within their skirt compartments.
H. Mooring Chain and Accessories
H 100 General
101 The chain qualities K1, K2 and K3 intended for temporary mooring of ships shall not be used by offshore
units for position mooring.
102 Typical examples of stud chain links, studless chain links and accessories are shown in Fig.2 and Fig.3,
respectively. Deviations in accordance with ISO 1704 will normally be accepted for position mooring of
mobile offshore units, which are changing location frequently, and when the mooring lines are subject to
regular onshore inspection.
103 Requirements concerning materials, manufacture, testing, dimensions and tolerances, and other relevant
requirements for anchor chain cables and accessories are given in DNV-OS-E302.
104 Typically connection elements such as kenter shackles, D-shackles, C-links and swivels are shown in
Fig.2 and Fig.3. Kenter shackles, ordinary D-shackles, C-links and pear links are not permitted in long term
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 70 Ch.2 Sec.4
mooring systems due to their poor fatigue qualities. Fatigue life can not be calculated due to lack of fatigue data
for these connection elements, with exception of Kenter shackles. API RP 2SK contains information sufficient
for estimation of fatigue life for kenter shackles.
If non-conventional connectors are to be used in long term mooring systems these connectors are to be
documented and qualified for the intended application.
105 In mobile mooring systems, connection elements such as pear links and C-links should not be used.
Kenter shackles are accepted.
If non-conventional connectors are to be used in mobile mooring systems these connectors are to be
documented and qualified for the intended application.
106 Recommended connection elements in long term mooring systems are purpose made elements such as
triplates, see Fig.4, LTM D-shackles and H-shackles. New types of connection links may be accepted in long
term mooring systems, provided their fatigue life is documented by testing and/or analysis.
107 Swivels are not permitted in long term mooring systems if they are not qualified with respect to
functionality, structural strength and fatigue.
108 Twist of the chain links shall be avoided. Maximum allowable angle between each link is 5 degrees.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 71
Figure 2
Standard stud link chain cable and accessories
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 72 Ch.2 Sec.4
Figure 3
Standard studless link chain cable and accessories
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 73
Figure 4
Triplates
I. Steel Wire Ropes
I 100 General
101 Steel wire rope sections can be of various constructions. Requirements concerning materials,
manufacture, testing, dimensions and tolerances, and other relevant requirements for steel wire ropes are given
in DNV-OS-E304. Estimated life time of stranded ropes for mobile mooring is 5 years.
J. Synthetic Fibre Ropes
J 100 General
101 Requirements concerning materials, manufacture, testing, dimensions, tolerances, terminations, and
other relevant requirements for offshore mooring fibre ropes are given in DNV-OS-E303.
102 In mooring lines containing chain or torque-neutral wire rope, a torque-neutral fibre rope should be used.
In mooring lines containing 6-strand wire rope or similar, the fibre rope should be constructed with similar
torque/rotation characteristics as the remainder of the mooring line. The effect of rotation on the steel wire rope
shall be duly considered. Rotation can be caused by variation in torque response to tension between two types
of ropes.
103 The fibre rope shall be submerged at all time during operation. The load-bearing elements of the rope
shall not be exposed to sunlight. Transportation sheathing should be white in order to reflect heat from the sun.
J 200 Documentation requirements
201 The end user of the rope shall supply the rope manufacturer with the following documents:
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 74 Ch.2 Sec.4
User specification.
In-service condition assessment scheme.
202 The user specification shall contain all information about required strength capacity (MBS of the rope)
characteristic line tension in operation, required torque and rotation characteristics, design range, design
temperature, requirements to handling, length of segments etc. that is required for the rope manufacturer to
make the right rope for the application.
203 In addition, the user specification for long-term moorings shall as a minimum include the following
Requirements to length of fibre-rope assemblies as new and during the service life.
Service requirements and operational boundaries for the finalised mooring system. (pretension and
characteristic line tension for the installed mooring system, pre-stretching load and duration at installation)
Design life.
Highest and lowest occurring sea-water temperature
Minimum bending diameter during transport and installation.
Guidance note:
Service requirements and operational boundaries comprise installation sequence, pretension, loading scenario
including the maximal occurring cyclic loading.
Mixing torque-generating steel-wire rope with torque neutral fibre rope is mainly a concern for the fatigue life of the
steel-wire rope. Consequently, the torque and rotation characteristics of the fibre ropes should match those of the
connecting lines.
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204 The in-service condition assessment scheme shall completely describe the methods and techniques for
assessing the condition of the fibre-rope assemblies during service. If applicable, examinations and tests to be
performed on inserts shall be described, together with plan for retrieval and evaluation criteria. Instructions for
ROV checking of the termination areas shall include dimensional verification of the eyes and splices, their
seating and alignment on the termination hardware and checks for potential chafing.
205 The procedure for handling and installation shall contain the necessary instructions and limitations set to
protect the integrity of the fibre-rope assemblies between manufacture and installed condition.
206 Restrictions with respect to sea-bed contact shall be conspicuously stated.
Guidance note:
Ingress of particles:
Strength loss in fibre ropes can be attributed to internal abrasion due to water-borne particles such as sand. The fibre
rope assembly should not be used in areas of high content of particles in the water.
During deployment, fibre rope contact with the seabed is not permissible unless specifically qualified for such
handling. Fibre rope assemblies can be designed for such handling, see DNV-OS-E303.
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K. Windlasses, Winches and Chain Stoppers
K 100 General
101 The windlass or winch shall normally have:
one cable lifter or drum for each anchor
coupling for release of each cable lifter or drum from the driving shaft
static brakes for each cable lifter or drum
dynamic braking device
quick release system
gear
hydraulic or electrical motors.
K 200 Windlasses for Temporary Mooring
201 The anchors are normally to be operated by a specially designed windlass.
202 The windlass shall have one cable lifter for each stowed anchor. The cable lifter is normally to be
connected to the driving shaft by release coupling and provided with brake. The number of pockets in the cable
lifter shall not be less than 5. The pockets, including the groove width etc., shall be designed for the joining
shackles with due attention to dimensional tolerances.
203 For each chain cable there is normally to be a chain stopper device, see 214.
204 Electrically driven windlasses shall have a torque-limiting device. Electric motors shall comply with the
requirements of DNV-OS-D201.
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Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 75
205 The windlass with prime mover shall be able to exert the pull specified by Table K1 directly on the cable
lifter. For double windlasses the requirements apply to one side at a time.
206 Attention shall be paid to stress concentrations in keyways and other stress raisers and also to dynamic
effects due to sudden starting or stopping of the prime mover or anchor chain.
207 The capacity of the windlass brake shall be sufficient for safe stopping of anchor and chain cable when
paying out.
208 The windlass with brakes engaged and release coupling disengaged shall be able to withstand a static
pull of 45% of the chain cable minimum breaking strength, without any permanent deformation of the stressed
parts and without brake slip.
209 If a chain stopper is not fitted, the windlass shall be able to withstand a static pull equal to the 80% of the
minimum breaking strength of the chain cable, without any permanent deformation of the stressed parts and
without brake slip.
210 Calculations indicating compliance with the lifting power requirements in 205 and requirements for
windlass brake capacity may be dispensed with when complete shop test verification is carried out.
211 The chain stoppers and their attachments shall be able to withstand the 80% of the minimum breaking
strength of the chain cable, without any permanent deformation of the stressed parts. The chain stoppers shall
be so designed that additional bending of the individual link does not occur and the links are evenly supported.
K 300 Winches for Temporary Mooring
301 When steel wire ropes are used as mooring lines winches are to be installed.
302 As far as practicable and suitable for the arrangement, drums are to be designed with a length sufficient
to reel up the rope in not more than 7 layers. If the number of layers exceeds 7, special considerations and
approval is required.
The ratio between winch drum diameter and wire diameter is normally to be in accordance with the
recommendations of the wire manufacturer. However, the ratio should as a minimum satisfy the following
requirement:
d
d
= winch drum diameter
d
w
= nominal wire diameter
303 When all rope is reeled on the drum, the distance between top layer of the wire rope and the outer edge
of the drum flange is to be at least 1.5 times the diameter of the wire rope. Except in the cases where wire rope
guards are fitted to prevent overspilling of the wire.
Guidance note:
It is advised that the drums have grooves to accept the rope. Where a grooved rope drum is used the drum diameter is
to be measured to the bottom of the rope groove. To avoid climbing of the rope on the grooves the fleet angle is not
to exceed 4.
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304 The strength of the drums is to be calculated, with the maximum rope tension acting in the most
unfavourable position. The effects of support forces, overall bending, shear, torsion as well as hoop stresses in
the barrel are to be considered.
305 The drum barrel is to be designed to withstand the surface pressure acting on it due to maximum number
of windings, the rope is assumed to be spooled under maximum uniform rope tension.
K 400 Materials
401 Windlass and winch components shall be made from materials as stated in Table K2.
Table K1 Lifting power
Lifting force and speed
Grade of chain
R3/K3 R3S R4/R5
Normal lifting force for 30 minutes in N
46.6 D
nom
2
49.5 D
nom
2
52.8 D
nom
2
Mean hoisting speed for windlass
dedicated to temporary mooring
> 9 m/minute
Maximum lift force for 2 minutes
(no speed requirement)
1.5 x normal lifting force
D
nom
= the diameter of chain (mm).
16
d
d
w
d
>
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Page 76 Ch.2 Sec.4
402 Windlasses, winches and chain stoppers may be cast or forged components or fabricated from plate
materials. The material in the cast components shall be cast steel or nodular cast iron with elongation not less
than 14%, and otherwise with material properties according to DNV-OS-B101 Ch.2 Sec.4. Steel grades with
higher yield strength the given in DNV-OS-B101 are to comply with the requirements of DNV-OS-E302. Plate
material in welded parts shall be in accordance with table D3 in DNV-OS-C101, Ch.1 Sec.4. The hardness of
the material in the pockets of the cable lifter shall be less than the hardness of the chain.
403 Drums are either to be fabricated from steel plates or to be cast.
404 Components fabricated from plate material shall be manufactured in accordance with DNV-OS-C401.
The components are categorised as primary structures according to DNV-OS-C101 Sec.4, while supporting
structure is special structural category.
K 500 Capacity and system requirements applicable for windlasses and winches used in position
mooring
501 The lifting force of the windlass or winch in stalling shall not be less than 40% of the minimum breaking
strength of the relevant anchor line. The windlass or winch shall be able to maintain the stalling condition until
the brakes are activated.
502 For windlasses or winches not fitted with stoppers, the braking system shall be separated into two
independent systems, each able to hold a minimum static load corresponding to 50% of the minimum breaking
strength of the anchor line. The brakes shall work directly on the wildcat drum.
503 For windlasses or winches not fitted with stoppers the brakes when engaged, shall not be affected by
failure in the normal power supply. In event of failure in the power supply, a remainder braking force of
minimum 50% of the windlasss or winchs braking force shall be instantly and automatically engaged. Means
are also to be provided for regaining maximum braking capacity in event of power failure.
504 Windlasses or winches fitted with a stopper device, the capacity of the stopper device shall not be less
than the minimum breaking strength of the anchor line. The windlasses or winches are also to be fitted with an
independent brake, with static braking capacity of minimum 50% of the breaking strength of the anchor line.
For winches the middle layer shall be used as reference.
505 The windlasses or winches are in addition to the static brakes also to be fitted with a dynamic brake. The
characteristics of speed or load to which the dynamic brake system can be exposed during setting of the anchor
without damaging overheating occurring, shall be documented and included in the operation manual. These
characteristics are also to be reported to the relevant verifying authority and shall be clearly documented, e.g.
in the Appendix to the classification certificate.
Unless otherwise documented the following capacity applies:
The dynamic brake is to be designed to control 1200 m of anchor line at a max load of 60 MT at a max
speed of 1.0 m/sec.
506 For preinstalled passive mooring system applicable for long term mooring, stalling capacity less than
40% of mooring line minimum breaking strength shall be considered on a case to case basis. Deviation with
respect to the braking capacity and hoisting speed are acceptable, provided acceptance from the national
authorities in question.
507 A manually operated back-up system for emergency lowering of the anchor line shall be provided in the
vicinity of the winch or stopper.
508 If a riser disconnect system is fitted then it is not possible to release the anchor lines while risers are
Table K2 Material requirements for windlasses and winches
Item Material requirements
Cable lifter and pawl wheel Cast steel
Cable lifter shaft Forged or rolled steel
Driving shaft Forged or rolled steel
Gear wheels
Forged or rolled steel
Cast steel
Nodular cast iron
Couplings
Forged steel
Cast steel
Wire drum, drum flanges
Cast steel
Rolled steel
Drum shaft Forged or rolled steel
Stopper, pawl stopper with shafts
Forged or rolled steel
Cast steel
Brake components
Forged or rolled steel
Cast steel
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Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 77
connected to the unit. A special safety system preventing this shall be provided. Emergency release is
nevertheless to be possible with risers connected after a manual cancellation of the above system.
509 It shall be possible to carry out a controlled lowering of the anchor lines in case of an emergency. The
lowering shall be carried out individually or in convenient groups.
510 It shall be possible to release the brakes or stoppers from a protected area close to the winch itself, and
from a manned control room or bridge. During the emergency release it shall be possible to apply the brakes
once at a load of 100 tonnes at a speed of 2.5 m per second in order to halt the lowering and thereafter releasing
them again.
511 No single error, including operators error, shall lead to release of more than one anchor line.
512 An audible alarm system shall be fitted by each windlass or winch in order to warn that remote operation
of the windlasses or winches shall take place.
513 At locations where remote operation of the windlasses or winches can be carried out, signboard shall
state that the alarm system shall be engaged prior to remote operation of the windlasses or winches.
514 The hoisting speed for windlasses applied for position mooring to be decided based on the operational
aspects.
515 For long term mooring with preinstalled passive mooring systems, deviations from the standard can be
acceptable, provided acceptance from the national authorities in question.
516 Requirements to gears are given in L.
K 600 Stoppers
601 The chain stoppers may be of two different types:
a) A stopper device fitted on the cable lifter or drum shaft preventing the cable lifter or drum to rotate (pawl
stopper).
b) A stopper preventing the anchor line to run out by direct contact between the stopper and the anchor line.
The latter type shall be of such design that the anchor line is not damaged at a load equivalent to the minimum
breaking strength of the anchor line.
602 The material requirements are given in 400.
K 700 Strength and design load
701 For the structural part of windlass or winch and stopper, the strength requirements are given in Table K3.
702 Chain stoppers and their supporting on offshore loading buoys (CALM) may be designed according to
K701 and DNV-RP-C103 Ch.2, or DNV-OS-C101 using the LRFD method.
K 800 Other type of winches
801 There are other types of winches available such as:
chain jack
linear winch
traction winch.
Table K3 Design load and strength requirements for winches or windlasses
Case
Load in anchor line
Maximum equivalent stress, o
e
to be
the smaller of the following values
Stopper engaged
S
mbs
0.73 o
b
or 0.9 o
f

in the stopper
Brakes engaged 0.5 S
mbs

for each brake
0.73 o
b
or 0.9 o
f
Pulling
0.4 S
mbs
0.5 o
b
or 0.6 o
f
Where o
1
and o
2
are normal stresses perpendicular to each other, and t is the shear stress
in the plane of o
1
and o
2
.
o
f
is the specified minimum upper yield stress of the material.
o
b
is the specified minimum tensile strength of the material.
S
mbs
is the minimum breaking strength of the anchor line.
o
e
o
1
2
o
2
2
o
1
o
2
3t
2
+ + =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 78 Ch.2 Sec.4
802 These winches shall be designed according to requirements for windlasses and winches as far as
applicable. Other design codes can be accepted.
L. Gear for windlass or winch
L 100 General
101 The windlass gear shall comply with DNVs classification note 41.2 Calculation of gear rating for
marine transmissions May 2003 with safety factors as specified in the table below. Other codes may be
accepted provided requirements according to classification note 41.2 are fulfilled.
L 200 Load Distribution
201 The gear life time shall as a minimum be 2400 hours (corresponding to a rig life time of 20 years, 5 rig
moves per year and 24 hours per rig move).
202 The 2400 hours shall be distributed as follows:
480 hours at maximum load (corresponding to stalling load, 40% of chain MBL).
1920 hours at 70% of maximum load (corresponding to 28% of chain MBL).
L 300 Acceptance Criteria
301 The gear shall have safety factors as shown in Table L1
M. Fairleads
M 100 General design
101 Fairleads are normally of roller type.
102 Normally the chain cable shall be directly conveyed from the lower fairlead to the cable lifter, without
interruption of an upper fairlead. An upper fairlead may be accepted only upon special consideration, taking
into account the fairlead diameter, number of fairlead pockets and the distance between fairlead and cable lifter.
103 The lower fairlead is normally to be provided with a swivel arrangement. For a chain cable fairlead on
mobile offshore units the number of pockets is normally not to be less than 5. The pockets shall be designed
for the joining shackles with due attention to dimensional tolerances.
104 Sharp edges at interface structures with anchor chain or steel wire rope to be avoided.
105 Increasing number of pockets in fairleads above 5 will lead to lower stress and reduced wear. For units
designed to stay at the same location for more than 5 years, it is recommended to have 9 pockets in the lower
fairlead at least not less than 7 pockets. Other constructions provided with similar or better supporting for chain
cable may be accepted.
106 For a steel cable fairlead the ratio between pitch diameter of fairlead wheel and nominal wire rope
diameter shall not be less than 16. This applies to all sheaves including combined wire rope or chain
arrangement of a mooring system. The groove in fairlead wheel is normally to satisfy the relations as indicated
in Fig.5.
107 Fairleads for combined chain or wire anchor line will be considered in each case.
Table L1 Safety factors for gear for windlasses
Type of stress Safety factor
Tooth root stresses 1.4
Contact stresses 1.0
Scuffing 1.0
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 79
Figure 5
Fairlead for steel wire rope, diameter or groove
M 200 Materials
201 Generally the material in the fairlead wheel shall be of cast steel according to DNV-OS-B101 Ch.2 Sec.4.
Steel grades with higher yield strength the given in DNV-OS-B101 are to comply with the requirements of
DNV-OS-E302. The hardness of the material is normally to be compatible but not exceeding that of the chain
or wire rope.
202 The selection of material grades for plates in the fairlead housing shall be based on the plate thickness
and the design temperature according to DNV-OS-C101 Sec.4. The parts, which shall be welded to the column
structure, shall be considered as special structure. Manufacturing shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-C401.
203 If the fairleads are not exposed to air in operation and survival conditions, a design temperature of 0
may be accepted on a case by case basis.
204 The material in the fairlead shafts shall be of forged or rolled steel, see DNV-OS-B101 Ch.2 Sec.3 or
Sec.1.
Highly stressed elements of the fairleads and their supporting structure are special structural category, see
DNV-OS-C101 Sec.4. The other parts of the fairleads and supporting structures are categorised as primary.
M 300 Strength and design load
301 In the structural part of the fairlead the nominal equivalent stress o
e
is normally not to exceed 0.9 o
f
when subjected to a load equal to the breaking strength of the anchor line. The strength analysis shall be made
for the most unfavourable direction of the anchor line. The horizontal design working range (DWR) and the
vertical design inlet angle (DIA) normally to be considered in the strength analysis are shown in Fig.6.
Figure 6
Horizontal DWR and vertical DIA
302 The skew load caused by bearing friction shall be included in the structural strength assessment.
303 Strength may also be documented by non-linear analysis using recognised programmes and procedures.
Material factor of 1.1 to be taken into account in the analysis. Max allowable plastic strain is not to exceed 5%.
304 Calculation of the characteristic fatigue damage in fairlead and fairlead attachment shall be carried out.
Load spectrum developed in accordance with Sec.2 F300 shall be applied. Stress concentration factors and S-
N curves can be found in DNV-RP-C203. A DFF of 3 applies.
S
mbs
S
mbs
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 80 Ch.2 Sec.4
The design fatigue life for the structural components should be based on the specific service life of the structure,
with service life minimum 20 years.
305 Fairlead support shall be calculated according to DNV-OS-C103.
N. Steel Wire Rope End Attachment
N 100 Structural strength
101 The strength of end connections and connecting links for combined chain, steel wire rope or fibre rope
systems shall have a strength which is at least is the same as for the mooring line.
102 Steel wire rope end attachments of the open or closed socket type are normally to be used, see Fig.7 and
Fig.8. Other end attachment types will be considered in each separate case.
Figure 7
Open socket
Figure 8
Closed socket
103 Requirements concerning materials, manufacture, testing, dimensions and tolerances, and other relevant
requirements for the sockets are given in DNV-OS-E304.
O. Structural Arrangement for Mooring Equipment for Mobile Mooring
O 100 General
101 The anchors shall be effectively stowed and secured in transit to prevent movement of anchor and chain
due to wave action. The arrangements shall provide an easy lead of the chain cable or wire rope from the
windlass or winch to the anchors. Upon release of the brake, the anchor is immediately to start falling by its
own weight.
102 If anchors are supported directly by the shell, the shell plating in way of the anchor stowage shall be
increased in thickness and the framing reinforced as necessary to ensure an effective supporting of the anchor.
103 Anchors bolsters shall be efficiently supported to the main structure. However, if the anchor bolsters are
damaged or torn off, the main structure shall not be significantly damaged.
104 The chain locker shall have adequate capacity and a suitable form to provide a proper stowage of the
chain cable, and an easy direct lead for the cable into the chain pipes, when the cable is fully stowed. The chain
locker boundaries and access openings shall be watertight. Provisions shall be made to minimise the probability
of chain locker being flooded in bad weather. Drainage facilities of the chain locker shall be adopted.
105 Under normal operation of the mooring line provisions shall be made for securing the inboard end. The
arrangement shall be such that the mooring line can be easily disconnected in case of emergency. A weak link
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 81
can be arranged at the inboard end to secure disconnection in case of emergency.
106 Mooring systems with all-wire rope or chain and wire rope anchor lines shall have provisions for
securing the inboard ends of the wire rope to the storage drum. This attachment shall be designed in such a way
that when including the frictional force being applied through the turns of rope always to remain on the drum
it is able to withstand a force of not less than the minimum wire rope breaking strength.
107 The fastening of the wire rope to the storage drum shall be made in such a way that in case of emergency
when the anchor and chain or wire rope have to be sacrificed, the wire rope can be readily made to slip from
an accessible position. The storage drum shall have adequate capacity to provide a proper stowage of the wire
rope.
108 Fairleads fitted between windlass or winch and anchor shall be of the roller type.
109 The windlass or winch, chain stopper and fairlead shall be efficiently supported to the main structure.
The nominal equivalent stress, o
e
in the supporting structures is normally not to exceed 0.8 o
f
when subjected
to a load equal to the breaking strength of the unit's anchor line. The strength analysis shall be made for the
most unfavourable direction of the anchor line, i.e. angle of attack to structure. Detailed information regarding
design of supporting structure is given in DNV-RP-C103.
110 Fatigue (FLS) shall be documented for winch/windlass foundation. Load spectrum developed according
to Sec.2 F300 shall be applied. Stress concentration factors and S-N curves can be found in DNV-RP-C203. A
DFF of 3 applies. The design fatigue life for the structural components shall be based on the specified service
life of the structure, with service life minimum 20 years.
P. Arrangement and Devices for Towing of Mobile Units
P 100 General
101 The unit shall have a permanent arrangement for towing. Bridle(s) and/or pennant(s) for towing shall
have clear way from the fastening devices to the fairlead. For column-stabilised units a bridle shall normally
be used.
102 Normally the towing arrangement shall be designed for use of a single tug of sufficient capacity. If the
size of the unit necessitates the use of two or more tugs pulling in the same direction, this can be allowed for
in the design as specified in 303.
103 There shall be arrangements for hang-off and retrieval of the unit's towing bridle(s) and towing
pennant(s).
104 In addition to the permanent towing arrangement, there shall be a possibility of using an emergency
arrangement of equivalent strength. Application of the unit's mooring arrangement may be considered for this
purpose.
105 The design load for the towing arrangement shall be clearly stated, e.g. for classed units, in the Appendix
to the classification certificate.
106 The permanent towing arrangement can be omitted for column stabilised units with DYNPOS AUTRO
notation provided the thrust capacity is able to maintain position during an environmental condition as
specified in 302. The emergency towing arrangement shall have the same capacity as a permanent towing
arrangement as required in 104 and 300.
107 The required towing design load as specified in 303 can be reduced for column stabilised units with the
class notions DYNPOS AUTR and AUTRO, when the main towing equipment is used in combination with
the available thrust capacity. The emergency towing arrangement shall have the same capacity as a permanent
towing arrangement as required in 104 and 300. A reduction in the towing design load is not accepted for this
system.
P 200 Material
201 Plate materials in towline fastening devices and their supporting structures shall be as given in Table D3
in DNV-OS-C101, Ch.1 Sec.4.
202 The termination of towing bridle(s) and/or pennant(s) where connected to the unit should be chain cable
of sufficient length to ensure that steel wire rope segments of the towing arrangement will not be subject to
chafing against the unit for towline pull sector between 90 port and 90starboard. Alternatively the full length
of bridle(s) and pennant(s) can be chain cable.
203 Chain cables and shackles to be used in the towing arrangement shall be of offshore quality (R3, R3S,R4,
R4S or R5) or ship chain quality K3. Green pin shackles of polar type may be accepted provided they are
certified by DNV.
204 Towing bridles and pennants of steel wire rope shall be in accordance with the requirements given in H
and I.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 82 Ch.2 Sec.4
205 All eyes in towing arrangement connections shall be fitted with hard thimbles or spelter sockets in
accordance with M.
P 300 Strength analysis
301 The design load for the towing arrangement shall be based on the force, F
T
, required for towing the unit
when floating in its normal transit condition. For the purpose of determining the required towing force, thrust
provided by the unit's own propulsion machinery should normally not be taken into account. The unit under
tow shall be able to maintain position against a specified sea state, wind and current velocity acting
simultaneously, without the static force in the towing arrangement exceeding its towing design load.
302 As a minimum the following weather conditions shall be used for calculation of environmental drift
forces, F
T
, for world-wide towing:
sustained wind velocity: U
1 min, 10
= 20 m/s (10 m above sea level)
current velocity: V
C
= 1 m/s
significant wave height: H
S
= 5 m
zero up-crossing wave period in second: 6 s T
z
s 9.
Guidance note:
Environmental forces may be calculated according to DNV-RP-C205.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
303 The towing design load, F
D
, to be used in the strength analysis for each towing bridle or pennant is a
function of the required towing force and the number of tugs comprised in the design and given by:
f
tow
= Design load factor
= 1.0, if N
TUG
= 1
= 1.5/N
TUG
, if N
TUG
> 1
N
TUG
= number of tugs comprised in the design of the towing arrangement.
Guidance note:
It is advised that the towing design load for each towing bridle or pennant not to be taken less than 1000 kN and that
the towing arrangement is designed for use of a single tug.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
304 The minimum breaking strength, S
mbs
of the unit's towing bridle(s) and/or towing pennant(s), shall not
be less than 3 times the towing design load, F
D
.
305 The nominal equivalent stress, o
e
in the flounder plate is normally not to exceed o
f
when subjected to
a load equal to the breaking strength of the unit's towline, S
mbs
. The strength analysis shall be made for the most
unfavourable direction of the towline.
306 Towing fastening devices, including fairleads, and their supporting structures shall be designed for a load
equal to the minimum breaking strength of the weakest link in the unit's towing bridle and/or towing pennants,
S
mbs
. Strength analyses shall be made for the most unfavourable direction of the towline pull, i.e. angle of
attack to device or structure. The nominal equivalent stress, o
e
, in the towing devices and their supporting
structures shall not exceed 0.9 o
f
and 0.8 o
f
, respectively.
Q. Tension Measuring Equipment
Q 100 General
101 Moored flotation units shall be equipped with a calibrated system for measuring mooring line tensions.
The line tensions shall be continuously displayed for each mooring line. A recorded of the line tension for the
last 24 hours shall be logged with a sampling interval of 1 s.
102 Winches and windlasses shall be equipped with two load cells. The accuracy of the load measurement
shall be verified against a certified reference. The accuracy shall be within 5%
103 Units with thruster assistance shall have monitoring, simulation and logging systems which comply with
Ch.2 Sec.3 D800, D1000 and D1100.
104 For tension measurement equipment the instrumentation shall comply with relevant standards such as
DNV-OS-D202 in addition to requirements in Sec.3 D800.
105 Measuring ranges shall be between 0 to 70% of MBL.
F
D
f
tow
F
T
kN ( ) =
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.4 Page 83
Guidance note:
For special applications e.g. loading buoys this can be replaced by angle measurements during installation to verify
the pretension, when continuous monitoring of anchor line tensions is not required.
Note that the use angle measurement instead of tension measurement poses a problem for polyester mooring where
the line lengths will change with loading condition.
Other mooring system such as submerged turret systems (buoys docked in a cone in a ship's hull) tension measuring
can be carried out by calculations. This requires that the position of the anchors and anchor line lengths are known
within acceptable tolerances, and the unit's position is known and continuously monitored.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
R. Mooring Line Buoyancy Elements
R 100 General
101 The function of a mooring line buoyancy element (MLBE) is to improve configuration of the mooring
line. Loss of MLBE shall not cause mooring line failure ref. Ch.2 Sec.2 B601. If loss occurs, buoy shall be
replaced within short time.
102 Structural strength of MLBE shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore steel
structures, General (LRFD method).
103 The MLBE shall be able to withstand the worst combination of partial pressure and loads from mooring
line. The MLBE shall be checked to withstand both ALS (line broken) and ULS condition. The MLBE shall
be checked for excessive yielding and buckling. The mooring loads shall be calculated according to Ch.2 Sec.2
D401.
104 If MLBE is consisting of several chambers, calculations shall be carried out to see that the MLBE have
enough buoyancy when one chamber is flooded.
Guidance note:
If MLBE is consisting of one chamber only, the maximum utilisation ratio shall not exceed 85% of permissible stress
and all welds securing water tightness of the MLBE shall be considered special structure.
Pressure test connections /nozzles are considered as weak points. Long weld neck type is recommended to decrease
probability of failure at these points.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
R 200 Permanent mooring
201 If MLBE is positioned in same location for more than 5 years fatigue calculations shall be carried out by
use of site specific environmental data. Fatigue calculations shall be carried out in accordance with DNV-RP-
C203, Fatigue design of offshore steel structures.
202 If no corrosion protection is provided for, corrosion allowance in accordance with Ch.2 Sec2 E204 shall
be applied to the structure.
R 300 Materials for MLBE
301 Plate material grade shall be chosen based on principles of DNV-OS-C101, Ch.1 Sec.4.
The structural category shall be taken as primary. The NDE shall be concentrated on welds were cracks can
cause loss of water tightness. The pad eye and load bearing parts shall be inspected according to inspection
category 1.
302 Fabrication and testing shall be according to DNV-OS-C401 Fabrication and testing of offshore
structures.
303 Forged and cast material for MLBE shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-B101 or equivalent.
R 400 Design of elements between mooring line and MLBE
401 Connection elements between the mooring line and the MLBE shall be in accordance with requirements
of Ch.2 Sec.4 H.
402 The mooring line shall be designed in such a way that rotation of the mooring line will not cause rotation
in neither MLBE nor connection elements.
403 The design of the connection elements shall ensure that out of plane bending due to friction between the
various elements are taken into account in the design.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 84 Ch.2 Sec.5
SECTION 5
TESTS
A. Testing of Mooring Chain and Accessories
A 100 General
101 All chain and accessories, except anchor shackles for mobile mooring which are not of R-quality, shall
be tested according to requirements given in DNV-OS-E302.
102 Anchor shackles for or mobile mooring which are not of R-quality shall be tested according to
requirements given in DNV-OS-E302 with the following exceptions:
break load test may be omitted
proof load test to 50% of MBL
mechanical testing on test coupons is accepted, provided that the results are representative.
B. Test of Steel Wire Ropes
B 100 Tests of finished wire ropes
101 Steel wire ropes shall be tested according to requirements given in DNV-OS-E304.
C. Test of Windlass and Winch and Chain Stoppers
C 100 Tests of windlass and winch
101 Before assembly the following parts shall be pressure tested:
housings with covers for hydraulic motors and pumps
hydraulic pipes
valves and fittings
pressure vessels.
The tests shall be carried out in accordance with relevant parts of DNV-OS-D101.
102 After completion, at least one windlass or winch of a delivery to one unit shall be shop tested. Testing
shall be performed according to Table C1.
103 After installation onboard, functional tests of the windlasses/winches are to carried out. The tests are to
demonstrate that the windlass with brakes etc. functions satisfactorily. For windlasses dedicated for emergency
mooring the mean speed on the chain cable when hoisting the anchor and cable is not to be less than 9 m/minute
and is to be measured over two shots (55 m) of chain cable during the trial. The trial should be commenced
with 3 shots (82.5 m) of chain cable fully submerged. Where the depth of water in trial areas is inadequate,
consideration will be given to acceptance of equivalent simulated conditions. The hoisting speed for windlasses
intended for position mooring shall be according to design ref. Table C1.
Table C1 Test requirements
Equipment Test type
Shop Test
Commissioni
ng
Sea Trial
Supplementary
documentation.
Component Equipment
Cable Lifter
Unit
Static Braking.
50% of MBL
applied to one
brake at a time.
(2 tests)
X**
FEM-analyses
Calculations
Transmission Function X
Stalling X** Calculations
Load Calibration
X
Calculations/Data
sheet
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.2 Sec.5 Page 85
104 For windlasses or winches designed for long term mooring systems where deviations from requirements
in Sec.4 K500. are accepted, deviations in the test requirements given in 103 can be accepted.
C 200 Test of chain stopper
After completion the chain stoppers shall be function tested.
D. Test of Manual and Automatic Remote Thruster Systems
D 100 General
101 Tests of thrusters assisted mooring shall be carried out in a realistic mooring situation.
102 All control, monitoring, alarm and simulation functions of thruster control system shall be tested.
103 In addition to 102, tests of simulated failures shall be carried out to verify redundant system (if required)
in thruster and power installations. Alternative means of demonstrating these functions can be accepted.
E. Testing of Synthetic Fibre Ropes
E 100 General
101 It is the rope manufacturers responsibility to take sufficient number of samples of the completed fibre
rope in order to complete the necessary test to document the fibre rope properties. Requirements regarding
testing are given in DNV-OS-E303.
The change in length testing of the fibre rope should be defined based on the actual requirements of the mooring
design such that accurate ULS and FLS may be determined.
F. Testing of Mooring Line Buoyancy Element
F 100 General
101 The tank shall be tested for tightness according to DNV-OS-C401, Ch.2 Sec.4 B: Testing of Tightness.
Hydraulic
Power Unit
Pressure
X
Calculations/Data
sheets
Function X X*
Control system Function
X
Data sheets
Interfaces including
field equipment may
be simulated
Mooring
System
Function
X
Stalling X** Calculations
Pulling speed X**
Haul in / pay out X**
Emergency rel. X**
Dynamic brake X**
X* = verification
X** = one unit only
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Veritasveien 1, NO-1322 Hvik, Norway Tel.: +47 67 57 99 00 Fax: +47 67 57 99 11
OFFSHORE STANDARD
DNV-OS-E301
POSITION MOORING
CHAPTER 3
CERTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
CONTENTS PAGE
Sec. 1 Certification and Classification.......................................................................................... 87
Sec. 2 Equipment Selection and Certification .............................................................................. 91
App. A Required Documentation ................................................................................................... 98
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 87
SECTION 1
CERTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
A. General
A 100 Introduction
101 As well as representing DNVs recommendations of safe engineering practice for general use by the
offshore industry, the offshore standards also provide the technical basis for DNV classification, certification
and verification services.
102 A complete description of principles, procedures, applicable class notations and technical basis for
offshore classification is given by the DNV offshore service specifications documents for classification, see
Table A1.
103 Mooring aspects subject to classification covered by this standard include:
temporary mooring
towing arrangements
mobile mooring
long term mooring.
104 For the purpose of temporary mooring the unit shall be equipped with at least two of each of the
following items:
anchors
chain cables
windlass (one winch may contain two cable lifters)
chain stoppers or static brakes
separate spaces in the chain lockers.
Details regarding structural arrangements are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 O. Specification of equipment is given in
Sec.2.
B. Main Class for Offshore Units (1A1)
B 100 General
101 Depending on type of unit, the main class (1A1) for offshore units covers requirements for:
temporary mooring
towing.
102 For units with the additional class notation POSMOOR, the requirements for temporary mooring are
normally covered.
103 For units with the additional class notations DYNPOS-AUTS, DYNPOS-AUT, the requirements for
temporary mooring shall be complied with.
104 For units with the additional class notations DYNPOS-AUTR, DYNPOS-AUTRO, temporary mooring
arrangement is not required as condition for classification.
105 If required by flag administrations, DNV can perform certification of the complete mooring equipment
according to the POSMOOR notation or the relevant national regulations.
106 Ship-shaped units shall have an arrangement for temporary mooring complying with the Rules for
Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.3.
107 For floating production and/or storage units with main class 1A1, the additional class notation
POSMOOR is mandatory. The POSMOOR class notation is optional for mobile offshore units.
108 Equipment for drilling barges will be considered in each case.
109 Column-stabilised units shall have an arrangement for temporary mooring complying with Sec.2 A,
except for units with the additional class notions DYNPOS-AUTR or DYNPOS-AUTRO, see 104.
Table A1 DNV offshore service specifications
No. Title
DNV-OSS-101 Rules for Classification of Offshore Drilling and Support Units
DNV-OSS-102 Rules for Classification of Floating Production, Storage and Loading Units
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 88 Ch.3 Sec.1
110 Self-elevating, tension-leg and deep-draught units are not required to have temporary mooring.
111 Column stabilised units shall have arrangement and devices for towing complying with Ch.2 Sec.4 P.
112 Ship-shaped units with propulsion shall have arrangement and devices for towing complying with DNV
Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5 C.
113 Ship shaped production and storage units, with or without propulsion, shall have arrangement and
devices for towing complying with DNV Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.5 Ch.3 Sec.2 C500.
114 When a unit is equipped with thruster assistance, the thrusters and thruster systems shall comply with
Ch.2 Sec.3.
B 200 Documentation requirements
201 Documentation requirements shall be in accordance with the NPS DocReq (DNV Nauticus Production
System for documentation requirements) and DNV-RP-A201, See Appendix A.
C. Main Class for Offshore Installations (OI)
C 100 General
101 Main class OI does not have requirements for temporary mooring.
102 For installations with main class OI, the additional class notation POSMOOR is mandatory.
103 Main class OI does not have requirements to a permanent towing arrangement. Towing operations are
subject to acceptance by a marine warranty surveyor on a case to case basis.
D. Class Notation POSMOOR
D 100 General
101 Units with mooring system and equipment complying with this standard may be assigned the class
notation POSMOOR or POSMOOR V.
102 The additional letter V refers to a mooring system, which is designed for positioning of a unit in vicinity
of other structures.
Guidance note:
For column-stabilised units with conventional mooring systems, the class notation POSMOOR V applies when the
distance between the unit and other structures is less than 300 m. The safety factors of the anchor lines are dependant
of the collision hazard and consequences of failure, see Ch.2 Sec.2 D.
For units with an unconventional anchoring system and for all types of moored ship-shape units, the limiting distance
between the unit and other structures to avoid collision hazard is given in Ch.2 Sec.2 D500.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
103 If the units mooring system is designed for thruster assistance, the system notation letters TA or ATA
can be added to the POSMOOR notation.
TA The unit is provided with thruster assisted mooring system which is dependent on a manual remote thrust
control system
ATA The unit is provided with thruster assisted mooring system which is dependent on an automatic remote
thrust control system.
Guidance note:
Classification according to TA and ATA does not imply specific requirements regarding number of thrusters or
capacity of these. The effect of thrusters will be determined and incorporated in the mooring analysis.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
D 200 Documentation required for the POSMOOR class notation - Mobile offshore units
201 The POSMOOR class notation shall prove that the unit has a mooring system which is documented to
be able to operate safely within a range of water depths and environmental conditions according to the
requirements in Ch.2 Sec.1 and Sec.2. DNV will not require new mooring analyses carried out as long as the
unit is operating within the limits which form the basis for the approval.
202 To be assigned the POSMOOR class notation a mooring analysis shall be submitted, which shall cover
a rage of water depths for given environmental conditions. Typically three water depths shall be included. Both
the water depths and the environmental conditions are to be decided by the operator. The analysis shall cover
both survival (Consequence Class 1) and operation conditions (Consequence Class 2). The documentation shall
included the following:
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.1 Page 89
Detailed description of the mooring system with mooring line type, quality, diameter, total length and
minimum breaking capacity
Anchor type and weight
Mooring pattern and line length from fairlead to anchor for each water depth
Pretension and/or /horizontal distance between fairlead and anchor for each water depth, both for survival
and operation condition
The environmental condition chosen for survival shall in principle represent a 100 year return period. For
operation condition the environmental condition shall represent the condition when riser or gangway is
connected
The analysis shall include both ULS (intact system) and ALS (single failure)
FLS (fatigue) shall be documented for fairleads and winch/windlass foundation
For units with the additional class notation TA or ATA the thruster capacity, and how this capacity is
utilized in the analyses, shall be documented.
203 Mooring lines, windlasses/winches and fairleads shall be certified by DNV
D 300 Requirements regarding maintaining the POSMOOR class notation in service
301 Site specific mooring analysis shall be submitted to DNV if the unit shall operate on a location where
one or several of the following items is not according to the documentation submitted when the POSMOOR
notation was granted:
Water depth outside the original range
Environmental condition is more severe
Different mooring pattern and pretension
New inserts in the mooring system and or change in mooring line length
Introduction of MLBE or clump weights
New inserts in the mooring system such as chain, steel wire rope and fibre ropes shall be certified by DNV
according to DNV-OS-E302, DNV-OS-E304 and DNV-OS-E303 respectively. The certificates shall be
submitted together with the mooring analysis
Wind and current coefficients, RAOs and wave drift coefficients to be updated if the unit has gone through
a major reconstruction.
D 400 Documentation required for the POSMOOR class notation - Long Term Mooring
401 The POSMOOR class notation shall prove that the unit has a mooring system which is documented to
be able to operate safely at a specific location.
402 The mooring system shall be designed according to the technical requirements given in this standard and
the mooring equipment shall be certified by DNV according to requirements given in Sec.2.
The design of the mooring system shall include ULS (intact system), ALS (single failure) and FLS (fatigue).
FLS shall be included for fairleads and winch/windlass foundation.
The environmental condition chosen for survival shall in principle represent a 100-year return period. For the
operational condition, the environmental condition shall represent a condition when a riser or a gangway is
connected. If mooring forces are transmitted from an off-loading vessel, then such operational conditions shall
also be considered.
403 Alternatively the mooring system can be designed according to other recognized standards, see D600.
However, the mooring equipment shall be certified by DNV according to requirements given in Sec.2 B.
D 500 Scope and application
501 Deviations from the requirements of this standard are only acceptable upon agreement with DNV.
D 600 Use of alternative recognised standards
601 For mobile offshore units like for instance drilling and accommodation units, POSMOOR notations
shall only be granted if the mooring system is designed and components certified according to this standard.
602 For floating production and/or storage units and installations, POSMOOR notations may be based on
that the technical part of this standard is replaced by for instance API RP2SK or ISO 19901-7 subject to
agreement between DNV and client. Regardless of the technical standard applied in designing of the mooring
system all the mooring equipment shall be certified by DNV according to requirements given in Sec.2.
Note that API RP2SK is not accepted by DNV as a recognised standard regarding requirements to design and
installation of fluke anchors.
603 A note will be included in the Appendix to the class certificate for floating production units or
installations with POSMOOR class notations, where the mooring system is designed according to another
recognised standard.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 90 Ch.3 Sec.1
D 700 Basic assumptions
701 For mobile offshore units it is the intension to prove that the unit has a mooring system which is
documented to be able to operate safely within a range of water depths and environmental conditions, see D200.
702 For long term moored units, site specific environmental data shall be applied.
703 The classification is based on the condition that an up to date anchor line record is kept available for
presentation to DNVs surveyor upon request.
D 800 Documentation requirements
801 Documentation requirements shall be in accordance with the NPS DocReq (DNV Nauticus Production
System for documentation requirements) and DNV-RP-A201.
D 900 Survey of towing and mooring equipment
901 Requirements regarding survey of towing, temporary and position mooring equipment for mobile
offshore units are given in DNV-OSS-101 Ch.3 Sec.4 L.
902 Requirements regarding survey of towing, temporary and position mooring equipment of floating
production and/or storage units are given in DNV-OSS-102 Ch.3 Sec.4 L and Ch.3 Sec.6.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 91
SECTION 2
EQUIPMENT SELECTION AND CERTIFICATION
A. Specification of Equipment
A 100 General
101 Equipment for temporary mooring shall in general be selected in accordance with the requirements given
in Table A1.
A 200 Equipment number
201 The equipment number is given by the formula:
A = Moulded displacement (t) in salt waters (density 1.025 t/m
3
) on maximum transit draught
A = projected area in m
2
of all the wind exposed surfaces above the unit's light transit draught, in an upright
condition, taken as the projection of the unit in a plane normal to the wind direction. The most
unfavourable orientation relative to the wind shall be used taking into account the arrangement of the
mooring system.
202 The shielding effect of members located behind each other shall normally not be taken into account.
However, upon special consideration a reduced exposed area of the leeward members may be accepted. The
shape of the wind-exposed members shall normally not be taken into account.
203 The solidification effect shall normally not be taken into account.
204 To each group of equipment numbers, as they appear in Table A1, there is associated an equipment letter
which will be entered in the Appendix to the classification certificate. If the unit is equipped with heavier
equipment than required by classification, the letter, which corresponds to the lowermost satisfied group of
equipment numbers, will replace the class requirement letter.
EN = A
2/3
+ A
Table A1 Equipment table
Equipment
number
Exceeding
not exceeding
Equipment
letter
Stockless anchors Chain cables
Number
Mass per
anchor
(kg)
Total
length
(m)
2)
Diameter and grade
NV R3 or
K3
1)
NV R3S NV R4 NV R4S NV R5
720 780
780 840
840 910
S
T
U
2
2
2
2 280
2 460
2 640
467.5
467.5
467.5
36
38
40
910 980
980 1 060
1 060 1 140
V
W
X
2
2
2
2 850
3 060
3 300
495
495
495
42
44
46
1 140 1 220
1 220 1 300
1 300 1 390
Y
Z
A
2
2
2
3 540
3 780
4 050
522.5
522.5
522.5
46
48
50
1 390 1 480
1 480 1 570
1 570 1 670
B
C
D
2
2
2
4 320
4 590
4 890
550
550
550
50
52
54
1 670 1 790
1 790 1 930
1 930 2 080
E
F
G
2
2
2
5 250
5 610
6 000
577.5
577.5
577.5
56
58
60
54
54
56
50
52
54
2 080 2 230
2 230 2 380
2 380 2 530
H
I
J
2
2
2
6 450
6 900
7 350
605
605
605
62
64
66
58
60
62
54
56
58
2 530 2 700
2 700 2 870
2 870 3 040
K
L
M
2
2
2
7 800
8 300
8 700
632.5
632.5
632.5
68
70
73
64
66
68
60
62
64
3 040 3 210
3 210 3 400
3 400 3 600
N
O
P
2
2
2
9 300
9 900
10 500
660
660
660
76
78
78
70
73
73
66
68
68
63
65
65
61
63
63
3 600 3 800
3 800 4 000
4 000 4 200
Q
R
S
2
2
2
11 100
11 700
12 300
687.5
687.5
687.5
81
84
87
76
78
81
70
73
76
67
69
72
65
67
70
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 92 Ch.3 Sec.2
B. Certification of Equipment
B 100 General
101 Equipment shall be certified consistent with its functions and importance for safety. The principles of
categorisation of equipment subject to certification are given in the respective offshore service specifications,
see Table B1.
B 200 Categorisation of equipment
201 Categorisation of equipment that is normally installed as part of the areas covered by this offshore
standard is given in Table B1.
B 300 Certification of material
301 For the items given in Table B2 the following material certificates are required:
4 200 4 400
4 400 4 600
4 600 4 800
T
U
V
2
2
2
12 900
13 500
14 100
715
715
715
87
90
92
81
84
87
76
78
81
72
74
77
70
72
75
4 800 5 000
5 000 5 200
5 200 5 500
W
X
Y
2
2
2
14 700
15 400
16 100
742.5
742.5
742.5
95
97
97
90
90
90
84
84
84
80
80
80
78
78
78
5 500 5 800
5 800 6 100
6 100 6 500
Z
A*
B*
2
2
2
16 900
17 800
18 800
742.5
742.5
742.5
100
102
107
92
95
100
87
90
95
82
85
90
80
83
88
6 500 6 900
6 900 7 400
7 400 7 900
C*
D*
E*
2
2
2
20 000
21 500
23 000
770
770
770
111
114
117
105
107
111
97
100
102
92
95
97
89
92
94
7 900 8 400
8 400 8 900
8 900 9 400
9 400 10 000
F*
G*
H*
I*
2
2
2
2
24 500
26 000
27 500
29 000
770
770
770
770
122
127
132
132
114
120
124
124
105
111
114
114
99
105
109
109
96
102
105
105
10 000 10 700
10 700 11 500
11 500 12 400
J*
K*
L*
2
2
2
31 000
33 000
35 500
770
770
770
137
142
147
130
132
137
120
124
127
114
117
120
110
114
117
12 400 13 400
13 400 14 600
14 600 16 000
M*
N*
O*
2
2
2
38 500
42 000
46 000
770
770
770
152
157
162
142
147
152
130
137
142
123
129
134
119
125
130
1) K3 can by applied for units where the temporary mooring is not a part of the position mooring system such as DP units
2) The total length of chain cable required shall be equally divided between the two anchors.
Table B1 Certification of equipment
Component Certificate
Anchor NV
Windlass or winch NV
Fairlead NV
Anchor chain cable and accessories NV
Steel wire rope NV
Fibre rope segments and termination hardware NV
Chain stopper NV
Towing equipment NV
Mooring Line Buoyancy Element (MLBE) NV
Table B2 Certificates for materials
Materials for:
Anchor NV
Mooring chain and accessories NV
Table A1 Equipment table (Continued)
Equipment
number
Exceeding
not exceeding
Equipment
letter
Stockless anchors Chain cables
Number
Mass per
anchor
(kg)
Total
length
(m)
2)
Diameter and grade
NV R3 or
K3
1)
NV R3S NV R4 NV R4S NV R5
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 93
C. Classification Requirements for Anchors
C 100 Fluke anchors for temporary moorings
101 Anchor types relevant for classification are:
ordinary stockless anchor
ordinary stocked anchor
HHP (High Holding Power) anchor.
102 The mass of ordinary stockless anchors shall not be less than given in A. The mass of individual anchors
may vary by 7% of the table value, provided that the total mass of anchors is not less than would have been
required for anchors of equal mass.
103 The mass of the head shall not to be less than 60% of the table value.
104 For anchors approved as HHP anchors, the mass shall not be less than 75% of the requirements given in
A. In such cases the letter r will be added to the equipment letter.
105 The total mass of the anchors corresponding to a certain equipment number may be divided between 3
or 4 instead of 2 anchors. The mass of one anchor will then be 1/3 or 1/4 respectively of the total mass required.
106 If steel wire rope is accepted instead of stud link chain cable, the mass of the anchors shall be at least
25% in excess of the requirement given in Table A1 and E203.
107 Ordinary anchors and H.H.P. anchors are to be subjected to proof testing in a machine specially approved
for this purpose.
108 The proof test loads are to be as given in Table C1 dependent on the mass of equivalent anchor, defined
as follows:
total mass of ordinary stockless anchors
mass of ordinary stocked anchors excluding the stock
4/3 of the total mass of H.H.P. anchors.
Steel wire Ropes NV
Steel wire rope end attachment NV
Fibre rope segments and termination hardware NV
Windlass cable lifter NV
Winch drum and drum flanges NV
Windlass/winch framework NV
Shafts for cable lifter and/or drum NV
Couplings NV
Gear shafts and gear wheels NV
Brake components (pawl wheel/stopper) NV
Chain stopper NV
Mooring Line Buoyancy Element (MLBE) NV
Fairlead (cable lifter/sheaves, shafts, housing and support) NV
Towing equipment (Shackles, flounder plate, steel wire rope and chain) NV
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 94 Ch.3 Sec.2
For intermediate values of mass the test load is to be determined by linear interpolation.
C 200 Additional requirements for HHP (High Holding Power) anchors for temporary mooring
201 Anchors shall be designed for effective hold irrespective of the angle or position at which they first settle
on the sea bed after dropping from the anchor's stowage. In case of doubt a demonstration of these abilities may
be required.
202 The design approval of HHP anchors is normally given as a type approval, and the anchors are listed in
the Register of Approved Manufacturers or Register of Type Approved Products.
203 HHP anchors for which approval is sought shall be tested on sea bed to show that they have a holding
power per unit of mass at least twice that of an ordinary stockless anchor.
204 If approval is sought for a range of anchor sizes, at least two sizes shall be tested. The mass of the larger
anchor to be tested shall not be less than 1/10 of that of the largest anchor for which approval is sought. The
smaller of the two anchors to be tested shall have a mass not less than 1/10 of that of the larger.
205 Each test shall comprise a comparison between at least two anchors, one ordinary stockless anchor and
one HHP anchor. The mass of the anchors shall be as equal as possible.
206 The tests shall be conducted on at least 3 different types of bottom, which normally shall be: soft mud or
silt, sand or gravel, and hard clay or similar compacted material.
207 The tests shall normally be carried out by means of a tug. The pull shall be measured by dynamometer
or determined from recently verified curves of the tug's bollard pull as function of propeller r.p.m. Provided the
pull is measured by verified curves of the tug's bollard pull the minimum water depth for the tests shall be 20 m.
208 The diameter of the chain cables connected to the anchors shall be as required for the equipment letter
in question. During the test the length of the chain cable on each anchor shall be sufficient to obtain an
approximately horizontal pull on the anchor. Normally, a horizontal distance between anchor and tug equal to
10 times the water depth will be sufficient.
Table C1 Proof test load for fluke anchors for temporary moorings
Mass of
anchor
(kg)
Proof test
load
(kN)
Mass of
anchor
(kg)
Proof test
load
(kN)
Mass of
anchor
(kg)
Proof test
load
(kN)
2 200
2 300
2 400
2 500
2 600
2 700
2 800
2 900
3 000
3 100
3 200
3 300
3 400
3 500
3 600
3 700
3 800
3 900
4 000
4 100
4 200
4 300
4 400
4 500
4 600
4 700
4 800
4 900
5 000
5 100
5 200
5 300
5 400
5 500
5 600
376
388
401
414
427
438
450
462
474
484
495
506
517
528
537
547
557
567
577
586
595
604
613
622
631
638
645
653
661
669
677
685
691
699
706
5 700
5 800
5 900
6 000
6 100
6 200
6 300
6 400
6 500
6 600
6 700
6 800
6 900
7 000
7 200
7 400
7 600
7 800
8 000
8 200
8 400
8 600
8 800
9 000
9 200
9 400
9 600
9 800
10 000
10 500
11 000
11 500
12 000
12 500
13 000
713
721
728
735
740
747
754
760
767
773
779
786
795
804
818
832
845
861
877
892
908
922
936
949
961
975
987
999
1 010
1 040
1 070
1 090
1 110
1 130
1 160
13 500
14 000
14 500
15 000
15 500
16 000
16 500
17 000
17 500
18 000
18 500
19 000
19 500
20 000
21 000
22 000
23 000
24 000
25 000
26 000
27 000
28 000
29 000
30 000
31 000
32 000
34 000
36 000
38 000
40 000
42 000
44 000
46 000
48 000
1 180
1 210
1 230
1 260
1 270
1 300
1 330
1 360
1 390
1 410
1 440
1 470
1 490
1 520
1 570
1 620
1 670
1 720
1 770
1 800
1 850
1 900
1 940
1 990
2 030
2 070
2 160
2 250
2 330
2 410
2 490
2 570
2 650
2 730
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 95
C 300 Identification marking for anchors for temporary and mobile mooring
301 The following marks shall be stamped on one side of the anchor:
a) mass of anchor (excluding possible stock)
b) HHP, when approved as high holding power anchor
c) certificate no.
d) date of test
e) DNV's stamp.
C 400 Requirements for anchors used in mobile mooring
401 Proof testing of anchor strength is only applicable for ordinary fluke anchors.
402 These anchors are to be subjected to proof testing in a machine specially designed for this purpose or the
structural strength of the anchor has to be documented by calculations, see 405.
403 The proof load of anchors to be used for mobile mooring is not to be less than 50% of the minimum
breaking strength of the anchor line.
404 The anchors are to withstand the specified proof load without showing signs of defects.
405 Proof load testing of anchors can be omitted if the capacity can be documented by calculations, ref. Ch.2
Sec.4, B100.
D. Classification Requirements for anchors used in long term mooring system
D 100 General
101 Anchors to be used in long term mooring system shall be designed according to requirements given in
Ch.2 Sec.4. Proof load testing is not required.
102 The Anchor design and the specified anchor installation tension shall be verified and subject to
independent analysis/assessment before approval.
E. Classification Requirements for Mooring Chain
E 100 General
101 Mooring chain and accessories shall be made by manufacturers approved by DNV for the pertinent type
of anchor chain, size and method of manufacture.
102 Chain links, shackles and accessories, except anchor shackles for mobile mooring, to be installed on
DNV classed units shall be designed, manufactured and tested according to DNV-OS-E302. Tailor made
connection elements shall be approved by DNV with respect to structural strength and fatigue.
103 The anchor shackles for mobile mooring of other qualities than R quality shall be proof load tested
together with the anchor. NDT shall be according to DNV-OS-E302. Shackle shall be included in the anchor
certificate.
E 200 Temporary mooring
201 The diameter and total length of stud link chain shall not be less than given in Table A1.
202 Upon special consideration by DNV steel wire ropes and an increased mass of anchor may substitute the
main part of the chain. A minimum length of chain towards the anchor is required. The length and strength of
the steel wire rope, chain and the mass of anchors shall be as given in F201 and C106.
203 If the total mass of anchors is divided between 3 or 4 instead of 2 anchor lines instead of 2, the reduced
diameter of the anchor chain shall be based on a mass corresponding to 1/3 or 1/4 respectively of the total mass
of the anchors required within Table A1 for the relevant equipment number of the unit.
204 The total length of such anchor chain shall be at least 50% or 100% respectively in excess of the
requirement given in Table A1 for the corresponding reduced diameter of the chain.
E 300 Position mooring
301 The chain cable anchor lines used in the position mooring system can be of stud or studless type. Chain
grades shall be NV R3, NV R3S, NV R4 or NV R5. The chain cable can be substituted partly or completely by
steel wire rope or by synthetic fibre rope.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 96 Ch.3 Sec.2
Guidance note:
For units with dynamic positioning system (DYNPOS) without a position mooring system installed the chain grade
K3 may be accepted for temporary mooring.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---
302 All chain and accessories shall meet the requirements for materials, design, manufacture and testing in
DNV-OS-E302.
303 The materials for mooring chain of grades NV R3, NV R3S, NV R4 and NV R5 shall be delivered with
DNV material certificates and the chain cable shall be certified by DNV according to DNV-OS-E302.
F. Classification Requirements for Steel Wire Ropes
F 100 General
101 Steel wire ropes shall be manufactured by works approved by DNV.
F 200 Temporary mooring
201 If steel wire rope is accepted instead of stud link chain cable.
The following shall be fulfilled:
The steel wire rope shall have at least the same breaking strength as the chain.
A length of chain cable shall be fitted between the anchor and the steel wire rope. The length shall be taken
as the smaller of 12.5 m and the distance between the anchor in stowed position and the winch.
The anchor weight shall be increased by 25%.
The length of the steel wire rope shall at least be 50% above the value for the chain cable given in Table A1.
202 Technical requirements for steel wire ropes are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 I and DNV-OS-E304.
F 300 Position mooring
301 Requirements concerning materials, manufacture and testing of steel wire ropes are given in DNV-OS-
E304. Steel wire ropes shall be certified by DNV according to DNV-OS-E304.
302 If steel wire rope is used in line with fibre ropes then rotation on the steel wire rope shall be duly
considered. Rotation can be caused by variation in torque response to tension between the two types of ropes.
G. Classification Requirements for Synthetic Fibre Ropes
G 100 General
101 Fibre ropes used in positioning systems shall be certified by DNV according to DNV-OS-E303.
102 Detail requirements are given in DNV-OS-E303.
It shall be ensured that the design loads submitted for design review of mooring analysis are commensurate for
those used or determined in the testing of response to maximum tension and cyclic loading for determination
of ULS and FLS of the whole mooring line including hardware.
G 200 In-service condition assessment
201 It is a requirement of this standard that the condition of the fibre-rope assemblies shall be assessed during
service, to ensure sufficient margin towards relevant failure modes. Reference is made to Ch.2 Sec.2
concerning stress rupture and creep failure.
202 The in-service condition assessment scheme shall state how this is done in practice.
203 Detailed requirements to In-service condition assessment programmes can be found in DNV-OS-E303.
H. Classification Requirements for Windlass, Winches and Chain Stoppers
H 100 General
101 Windlasses, winches and chain stoppers shall be certified by DNV.
102 Detailed requirements regarding design, material and testing are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 K and Ch.2 Sec.5 C.
103 Requirements for structural strength of supporting structure is given in Ch.2 Sec.4 O.
DET NORSKE VERITAS
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 Sec.2 Page 97
I. Classification Requirements for Fairleads
I 100 General
101 Fairleads shall be certified by DNV.
102 Requirements regarding design and material are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 M.
103 Requirements for structural strength of supporting structure is given in Ch.2 Sec.4 O.
J. Classification Requirements for Mooring Line Buoyancy Element
J 100 General
101 Mooring Line Buoyancy Elements shall be certified by DNV.
102 Requirements regarding design and material are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 R.
K. Classification Requirements for Arrangement and Devices for Towing
K 100 General
101 Bridle(s) or pennants for towing shall have clear way from the fastening devices to the fairlead.
102 There shall be an arrangement for retrieval of the unit's towline in case the connection to the towing
vessel should break.
103 In addition to the permanent towing arrangement, there shall be the possibility of using an emergency
arrangement of equivalent strength. Application of the unit's mooring arrangement may be considered for this
purpose.
104 The design load for the towing arrangement will be stated in the unit's Appendix to the classification
certificate.
105 Requirements regarding material and structural strength are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 P.
106 It will be stated in the Appendix to the class certificate that main towing arrangement is not installed
since the column stabilised unit with class notation DYNPOS AUTRO will use the DP system during transit,
ref. P106.
107 The reduction in the towing design load will be included in the Appendix to the class certificate when
Column stabilised units with DYNPOS AUTR or AUTRO class notation are using the DP system in
combination with the main towing arrangement, ref. P107.
L. Classification Requirements for Tension Measuring Equipment
L 100 General
101 Tension measuring equipment shall normally be installed on classed units.
102 Requirements regarding tension-measuring equipment are given in Ch.2 Sec.4 Q.
M. Classification Requirements for Thrusters and Thruster Systems
M 100 General
101 Manual and automatic installed thrusters and thruster systems shall comply with requirements in Ch.2
Sec.3 and the Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.6 Ch.7.
N. Survey during Installation
N 100 General
101 For floating production and/or storage units and CALM buoys a surveyor shall be present during
installation of anchors and during hook-up and pre-tensioning of the mooring lines.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 98 Ch.3 App.A
APPENDIX A
REQUIRED DOCUMENTATION
A. Required Documentation
A 100 General Design documentation
101 The following general design documentation of the mooring system is required:
a) number of lines
b) type of line segments
c) dimensions
d) material specifications
e) weight in air and seawater
f) line length from fairlead to anchor point of individual segments
g) additional line length kept onboard
h) characteristic strength
i) anchor pattern
j) anchor type
k) horizontal distance between fairleads and anchor point and/or initial pretensions
l) position of buoyancy elements, and net buoyancy
m) position of weight elements, and weight in air and seawater
n) position and type of connection elements, such as Kenter shackles, D-shackles, and triplates
o) windlass, winch and stopper design
p) anchor design including anchor size, weight and material specifications.
A 200 Metocean data
201 Environmental conditions used as basis for the design shall be according to Ch.2 Sec.1:
a) Combinations of significant wave heights and peak periods along the 100-year contour line for a specified
location. Directionality may be considered if sufficient data exist to develop contour lines for from 0 to
360 with a maximum spacing of 30.
b) 1 hour mean wind speed with a return period of 100 year, and wind gust spectrum Directionality may be
considered if sufficient data exist to develop wind speeds with 100 year return periods for directions from
0 to 360 with a maximum spacing of 30.
c) Surface and subsurface current speed with a return period of 10 years. Directionality may be considered if
sufficient data exist to develop current speeds with 10 year return periods for directions from 0 to 360,
with a maximum spacing of 30.
d) Current profile.
e) Water depths.
f) Soil conditions.
g) Marine growth, thickness and specific weight.
h) Wave spectrum.
i) Wave energy distribution: Long crested sea. Wind generated waves may be considered short crested
described by a cosine to the power 4 wave directionality function.
A 300 Design Documentation - details
301 The design documentation shall include the following:
a) Design Analyses, motion transfer functions and wavedrift coefficients.
b) External environment: Calculation report: wind and current coefficients.
c) Design analyses, ultimate, accidental and limit states.
d) Test procedure for quay and sea trial.
e) The accuracy of computer program applied for calculation of the unit's response shall be quantified by
comparison with relevant model test results.
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Ch.3 App.A Page 99
f) The accuracy of the model test results applied in the design shall be quantified.
g) Wind and current loads based on coefficients from wind tunnel tests, model basin tests or theoretical
calculations according to recognised theories, see Ch.2 Sec.1.
h) Transfer functions (RAOs) of motion in six degree of freedom.
i) Wave drift force coefficients, see Ch.2 Sec.1 C400. Viscous effect shall be considered together with the
current effect on the wave drift forces.
j) Wave frequency motions for selected sea states, see Ch.2 Sec.1 B.
k) Wind and wave induced low frequency motions, see Ch.2 Sec.2 B300.
l) Mean offset caused by wind, current and waves.
m) Mooring line tensions in ULS and ALS limit states, see Ch.2 Sec.2 B, C and D.
n) Fatigue calculations of mooring line segments and accessories, see Ch.2 Sec.2 F.
o) Mechanical component documentation for anchor chain.
p) Mechanical component documentation for buoyancy elements.
q) Mechanical component documentation for anchor joining shackle.
r) Windlass or Winch:
s) Windlass and winch lifting capacity, static and dynamic braking capacity, see Ch.2 Sec.4 K.
design criteria for anchor winch or windlass
assembly or arrangement drawing of winch or windlass
design analysis winch or windlass
non-destructive testing plan - winch or windlass
detail drawing of components for winch or windlass, such as break, clutch, frame, gear, hoisting device,
shaft
structural strength calculation and of main components of windlass or winch such as cable lifter or
drum, couplings, shafts, brakes, gears and frame bases.
t) Design criteria - anchor.
u) Detail drawings - anchor.
v) Design analysis of anchors except for type approved drag anchors.
w) Anchor resistance.
x) Necessary installation tension for drag embedment anchors.
y) Detail drawings and structural strength calculations of fairlead, see Ch.2 Sec.4 M.
302 Control systems
a) Control and monitoring system documentation for anchoring and monitoring systems.
b) Control and monitoring system documentation for main automatic dynamic positioning control system.
c) Test procedure for quay and sea trial for main automatic dynamic positioning control system.
d) Documentation for thruster assisted mooring control system.
e) Control system functional description, test procedure at manufacturer, test procedure for quay and sea trial
for thruster assisted mooring simulation system.
f) Control and monitoring system documentation for position reference system.
g) Control and monitoring system documentation for vertical reference system.
h) Control and monitoring system documentation for vertical reference measurement system.
i) Control system functional description and control and monitoring system documentation for thruster
control mode selection system.
j) Reliability and availability analysis for fuel oil system.
k) Reliability and availability analysis for lubrication oil system.
l) Reliability and availability analysis for seawater cooling arrangement.
m) Reliability and availability analysis for fresh water cooling arrangement.
303 Additional documentation required if fibre ropes are used in mooring systems:
a) User specification as detailed in DNV-OS-E303. It is the responsibility of the purchasing company to
define the operating conditions to which the rope performance shall be engineered.
b) Items of particular importance are:
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301, October 2010
Page 100 Ch.3 App.A
stress-rupture / creep-failure performance
change-in-length performance
torque and rotation behaviour with respect to connecting components.
304 Additional documentation required for thruster assisted mooring systems:
a) System schematics for remote thrust control system.
b) System schematics for automatic thrust control system.
c) Power distribution schematics for thrust system.
d) Test program for sea trials regarding thruster assistance.
e) Net available thrust output showing which effects have been considered to derive the net thrust relative to
nominal thrust output.
305 If the thruster assistance is subject to redundancy requirements, the redundancy is to be documented by
one of the following methods:
a) Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), covering all relevant sub-systems. Special attention should be
taken in case emergency shut down systems are installed.
b) A test program covering failure situations and thereby demonstrating redundancy. The test program has to
be carried out during thruster assistance sea trials.
306 Additional documentation required for long term mooring:
a) Fatigue calculation of mooring lines and connecting elements using site specific data.
b) Line tensions with and without marine growth shall be considered.
c) Corrosion allowance shall be included in design.
d) When fluke anchors or plate anchors are used calculations of anchor resistance for ULS and ALS, see
guidance in DNV-RP-E301 and DNV-RP-E302.

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