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EXPERIMENT 5 ACID-BASE TITRATION

Programme Code Group Date of experiment Prepared by Member 1 Member 2 Date of report submission Lectures name Lectures signature Marks

EC 110 EC 110 1B

14 JULY 2011 SHARIFAH SHAHIRAH BINTI AZHAM NORSHAHIRAH BINTI YAAKOB RUWAIHAN BINTI RAMLEE 28 JULY 2011 SIR MUHD. IZWARIE BIN RAMLI

REPORT SHEETS

5.0 EXPERIMENT OBJECTIVE

Write the objective of the experiment: Determine the value of x in hydrated sodium carbonate, Na2CO3.xH2O

5.1 DATA AND ANALYSIS

Fill in the data obtained in the following tables:

Table 5.1: Titration Data for HCl Burette readings End (cm3) Initial (cm3) Volume of HCl used (cm3) Trial 30.0 0 30.0 1 25.0 0 25.0 2 25.0 0 25.0

Average volume of acid used: 30.0 cm3 + 25.0 cm3 + 25.0 cm3 3 3 = 26.7 cm

5.2 DISCUSSION Briefly discuss the errors that occur in the above titration. The error is misreading the volume. This error happens when someone reads the volume at the wrong angle (parallax error). Therefore, make sure the eye is perpendicular to the scale. Besides that, there are many possible random errors that cant be adjusted for. Misjudging the colour of the indicator near the end point is one of the errors. This is probably the most common one. Not only colour change is sometimes very delicate and slow, but different people have different sensitivity to colours. This is not the same as being colour blind, although these things are related. Other random error is using contaminated solutions. For example when two different solutions are transferred using the same pipette and pipette is not rinsed with distilled water in between. Besides, random error can occur when using diluted titrant and diluted titrated solution. If the burette and pipette was not rinsed with transferred solution after being rinsed with distilled water, in effect titrant (or titrated substance) is slightly diluted. Rinsing burette and pipette with wrong solution. If the burette or pipette is not dry before use, it has to be rinsed with the solution that will be transferred. Using just distilled water for rinsing will mean transferred solution is slightly diluted. Obviously it is important only when transferring sample, titrant or stoichiometric reagents used for back titration. Small errors in amounts of other substances (buffers, acids used to lower pH in redox titrations, solutions masking presence of interfering substances and so on) are not that important.

4.3 QUESTIONS 1. Calculate the molarity of HCl used.


Na2CO3.xH2O + 2HCl -----> 2NaCl + CO2 + (x+1)H2O

Concentration = molarity x molar mass 7.0 g dm-3 = molarity x (1 + 35.5) molarity = 0.19 mol dm-3 2. With reference to equation (i) and (ii), calculate the molarity of Na2CO3.xH2O MaVa = a MbVb b (0.19) (26.7) = 2 Mb (20) 1 40 Mb = 5.073 Mb = 0.13 mol dm-3

3. Using equation (iii) calculate the relative molecular mass of Na2CO3.xH2O and finally the value of x in the formula Concentration = molarity x molar mass 34.0 g dm-3 = 0.13 mol dm-3 x molar mass molar mass = 261.54 2(23) + 12 + 3(16) + x(2 + 16) = 261.54 18x + 106 = 261.54 18x = 155.54 x= 9

3.4 CONCLUSION With these experiments, we know that acid substances and basic substances react with each other, producing salts, water and carbon dioxide. To measure the acidbasic degree of a substance, you can use pH papers like litmus paper, indicators like phenolphthalein, and electronic pH meters. We can see the equivalent point when the colour of acid change.

3.5 REFFERENCE http://www.titrations.info/ http://homepages.ius.edu/dspurloc/c121/week11.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acidbase_titration