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Oxygen compounds When naming ionic compounds that contain oxygen the basic rule is similar.

If the compound contains hydrogen and an oxygen anion (oxyanion) and does not contain water, then hydrogen comes first, followed by the element name with the suffix 'ate'. hydrogen + element, suffix 'ate' E.g. HCO3: hydrogen followed by carbon with the suffix 'ate' = hydrogen carbonate The 'ate' rule is used for the most common or the only compound made with an oxyanion. Some compounds, however, form more than one type of compound with oxygen and the amount of oxygen will affect the prefixes and suffixes used. This occurs for all oxyanions, with or without hydrogen involved. Table 1.1: Naming more than one type of oxygen compound Oxygen level A little oxygen Some oxygen More oxygen A lot of oxygen perhypoElement Prefix -ite -ite -ate -ate Suffix

E.g. Chlorine forms four different oxyanions named: ClO = hypochlorite ClO2 = chlorite ClO3 = chlorate ClO4 = perchlorate The oxygen level corresponds with the relative amounts in different compounds and not necessarily the specific numbers of oxygen atoms. If an element forms just two types of oxyanion compounds, then the suffixes 'ite' and 'ate' will suffice. If the hydrogen oxyanion compound is dissolved in water, it forms an acid using similar rules, only the 'ite' suffix changes to 'ous' and the 'ate' suffix changes to 'ic', followed by the word 'acid'. Table 1.2: Naming more than one type of hydrogen oxyanion acid Oxygen level A little oxygen Some oxygen More oxygen A lot of oxygen perPrefix hypoElement -ous -ous -ic -ic Acid Suffix

E.g. The above example with chlorine and oxygen plus hydrogen: HClO = hypochlorous acid HClO2 = chlorous acid HClO3 = chloric acid HClO4 = perchloric acid Covalent compounds If a compound contains two non-metals in a covalent bond, then: the least electronegative element is named first if the compound contains hydrogen, hydrogen is named first the number of atoms of each element is indicated by a prefix if the first element only has one atom the prefix is not used the name of the element has the suffix 'ide' least electronegative + number prefix, most electronegative element, suffix 'ide' The prefixes used to number the atoms come from Greek and are as follows: 1 = mono- or mon2 = di6 = hexa7 = hepta-

3 = tri4 = tetra5 = penta-

8 = octa9 = nona10 = deca-

E.g. CO: carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix 'mon' to indicate one atom of oxygen, the most electronegative atom, with the suffix 'ide' = carbon monoxide CO2 carbon, the least electronegative atom, first, followed by the prefix 'di' to indicate two atoms of oxygen, the most electronegative atom, with the suffix 'ide' = carbon dioxide H2O the prefix 'di' to indicate two atoms of hydrogen, which has naming priority, followed by 'mon' to indicate one atom of oxygen = dihydrogen monoxide Common names There are a number of common names that chemists like to use instead of the proper scientific names. Most common names and formulae are well-known. It is recommended that common names and formulae be written down as they are encountered so they can be memorised later. Here are a few examples: Common name water baking soda table salt limestone quartz Proper name dihydrogen monoxide sodium hydrogen carbonate sodium chloride calcium carbonate silicon dioxide Chemical formula H2O NaHCO3 NaCl CaCO3 SiO2