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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong

Kong

Optimized Energy Exchange


in Primary Distribution Networks with
DC Links

Joerg Flottemesch, Marcus Rother

Introduction
Intelligent load-flow control allows efficiency-maximized and cost-optimized operation o f a
power distribution network. Networks with differing parameters can be linked, and voltage
stability and power quality are influenced positively. The scope of new applications using
power converter technology is presented, and specific applications are explained below.

New challenges
Liberalization'of the energy market means that power network operators are being subjected
to ever stronger cost pressure; this may result in a reduction in supply quality. The future on
rapidly changing worldwide power distribution markets lies in the organization of network
operation. Switching high currents and coping with short circuits remain the main tasks. High-
speed switches and HVDC transmission based on power electronics help to solve these
problems.

This talk shows what scope is offered by innovative power supply systems for enhancing
supply conditions and cutting costs. DC long-distance transmission and back-to-back links
are nothing new in the high-voltage sector. The advances made in power electronics mean
that such systems are also of interest for medium voltage. With SIPLINK (Siemens
Multifunctional Power Link), Siemens has developed a system for medium voltage which cuts
investment costs, system costs and lifecycle costs - depending on the particular application
and configuration of the existing network. SIPLINK controls load flow in power transmission
and optimizes voltage stability by provision of reactive power.

Advances in (thefield of self-commutated power electronics, above all IGBT technology, thus
allow power providers and industrial plants alike to improve efficiency in both existing and
new networks.

Power converters in network operation


State-of-the-art power electronics provide efficient, low-cost options for optimizing
transmission and distribution networks. Such applications are increasing in importance,
particularly in view of the growing pressure on costs resulting from deregulation of the energy
market. SIPLINK (Siemens Multifunction Power Link) provides a technology based on self-
commutated IGBT pulse-controlled converters (IGBT = Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor),
allowing power systems to be linked without appreciably increasing the short-circuit loading
on the linked subnetworks. In this case, the linked networks may have differing voltage
levels, neutral-point connections, frequency and phase angle. In addition, extensive,
inductively earthed networks can be linked with SIPLINK, power bottlenecks are prevented

0-7803-8237-4/04/$17.0002004IEEE
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2004 E E E International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DFWT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

and the risk of inadmissible circulating currents involving overshoot of the extinction limit of
the arc suppression coil is avoided.

Linking networks by SIPLINK provides network operators with the option of cutting
investment and operating costs. Increasing the load in an existing network avoids the need
for costly network expansion, or postpones such by creating a link to a neighboring network
with SIPLINK. In addition, supply reliability is enhanced since, in the event of infeed failure,
operation of a part of the network can be continued via SIPLINK. Linking distribution systems
makes it possible to precisely adjust the energy exchanged between the two networks by
active power control. This allows power import costs to be optimized.

There are basically two application scenarios: linking “distribution networks” by having
existing generators create a three-phase network, and infeed to an “insular network” without
voltage source, i.e. SIPLINK generates the network parameters.

Q2
D L

IGBT- IGBT-

T
=
Fig. 1: Galvanic insulated Networks: Connected via SIPLINK

System design
SIPLINK is based on IGBT pulse-controlled converters, which form a so-called back-to-back
connection in the DC link. Since the DC voltage on SlPLlNK is restricted to about 1,000 V,
long-distance power transmission is not possible.

Connecting distribution networks with SIPLINK makes it possible to precisely set the energy
exchange between the networks, using for instance active power control. In addition,
SIPLINK is able to feed an insular network from a distribution network. This is practical, in
particular, if the insular network features network parameters which differ from those of the
distribution network, such as when supplying a 60 Hz insular network from a 50 Hz national
grid. Since SIPLINK is integrated by means of transformers, the linked networks are
galvanically isolated.

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2004 E E E International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

SIPLINK does not transfer any power network voltage distortions between the linked
networks. Subdivision into subnetworks thus provides the option of isolating areas with an
increased harmonic generator load share and minimizing their impact on the network. The
pulse-controlled power converters are operated with a frequency of 3 kHz. In order to ensure
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), the converters are connected (via passive operating
frequency filters and transformers) to the networks to be linked. The pulse-controlled power
converters form the link between the DC circuit and the three-phase networks.

The converters are available in individual design ratings up to 1.2 MVA. In order to achieve
higher power ratings for a SIPLINK system, it is possible to form what is called a multi-
parallel connection of power converters. The limit is around 5 MVA for such a multi-parallel
circuit. In order to further-increase the design rating, it is then possible to connect several
SIPLINK systems in parallel. A practical maximum power rating of around 30 MVA can be
assumed in primary distribution networks.

Range of SIPLINK applications


e SIPLINK can be used to easily link networks with differing neutral-point connection. The
reason is that SIPLINK is linked via a transformer to both networks.

e The short-circuit loading is increased only minimally by SIPLINK (approximately 3 times


the SIPLINK rated power). This allows power transmission without appreciably
influencing the short-circuit loading in both networks.

d The frequency, voltage and phase angle in the linked networks may differ. The SIPLINK
terminals adapt flexibly and precisely to the relevant power system frequency.

e The active and reactive power are mutually isolated at each network end within the
bounds of the power limits of the system, so as to allow local generation of reactive
power. This serves to enhance voltage stability in the two networks. The high clock pulse
frequency of the inverters of 3 kHz allows highly dynamic load-flow control.

c3 SIPLINK fully isolates AC power systems from each other in terms of existing
malfunctions (power system faults) and voltage fluctuations or distortions.

d Since the SIPLINK pulse-controlled power converters are able to supply around 1.4
times the rated current only briefly (for approximately 60 seconds), and then need to
operate for a while with reduced output current (at approximately 89 %) for the purpose
of cooling, SIPLINK does not appreciably contribute towards selective disconnection of
fau Its.

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2004 IEEE Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

t
Qi -
P +
Q2
Network Network

40 I="o-"$
IGBT- IG BT-

I input of Rated Values I

Fig. 2: SIPLINK-Control: Active power transfer according to demand, high dynamic


. reactive power supply to network 1 and 2 for voltage stability

SIPLINK control
SIPLINK is able both to transmit power between two networks directionally and to generate
reactive power at each network end. In this case, power converter 1 which controls the DC
voltage must be connected to a distribution network. Power converter 2 can either be
connected to a distribution network or may feed an insular network. The reactive power of
the two SIPLINK ends can be generated independently. This allows the reactive power in
network operation to be used at both ends to control the power system voltage. Stationary
deviations in power system voltages can be compensated for by power system voltage
regulation. The recovery time is in the range of seconds. The particular power system
voltage deviations which can be compensated for will depend on the available reactive power
of the converters and on the network impedance.

SIPLINK has the following operating modes for its various tasks:

* Insular network mode


The power system voltage is generated by SIPLINK at one network end. Load flow
adapts to the active and reactive power demand in the subnetwork, within the framework
of the system's power limit.

* Interconnected svstem mode


In interconnected system mode, SIPLINK creates no AC power system, but shifts the
power between the two networks.

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2004 E E E Intemational Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Monitoring and control


Monitoring and control of the system are designed in line with the MMI’) principles according
to IEC 60447, i.e. subdivided on the basis of process level, system level and control level
(MMI pyramid). Normally, control is carried out from the control level using a PC terminal.
Control from the system level is possible, e.g. via an operating panel or via the SIPROTEC
protective relay. From the process level, control must be performed via the switching devices
or via the parameterization devices in the converters. This lowest control level, also referred
to as local control, chiefly relates to servicing or faults in the communication devices.

The system is controlled and the system states are displayed graphically from the control
level. The switching states are distinguished by means of different colors. The reference
values are set using the control mask. This is done by clicking on the “Setpoint Input” button;
the corresponding window is opened and the required value can be preset using a slider.
The entry must be confirmed and it is then accepted.

The switching and interlocking logic is implemented by means of software in a SIMATIC S7


programmable logic controller. This is the central interface to the converter control, measured
value acquisition and the operator terminals. Each power converter has its own control
module for converter-oriented protection and control function. Various control, monitoring and
logging masks must be programmed system-specifically. The switching actions and status
messages are logged and archived in an event or alarm list.

SIPLlNK versions
Various versions of SIPLINK are available.

2 x 100 kVA SIPLINK for switchqear plant in Frankfurt am Main (pilot svstem)
The system consists of 2 single converters, each with a rating of 100 kVA, and these can be
operated either individually or in parallel. Both SIPLINK lines have the same structure.
SIPLINK 1 shifts power between two plant networks, and SIPLINK 2 generates an insular
network at one end for the 60 Hz switchgear test bay. Optionally, the single lines SlPLlNK 1
and SlPLlNK 2 may be connected in parallel.

1 MVA SIPLINK for Flender-Werft shipvard, Lubeck


The system consists of a single converter with a rating of 1 MVA. Flender-Wetft uses
SlPLlNK to supply vessels under construction with power from the 50 Hz shipyard network,
to test the marine generators and to feed power into the shipyard network when the marine
generators are in operation, i.e. controlled exchange of active power in both directions.
SIPLINK enhances stability and optimizes load flow for both shipyard network and on-board
network.

d On-board network
A passive on-board network is available, i.e. no generator loads act on board the ship. In
this case, the on-board network is fed solely via SIPLINK from the shipyard network. The
on-board network voltage is controlled by SIPLINK so that load flow corresponds to the
demand on board.
Alternatively, parallel supply of the passive on-board network is possible, together with
the rotating converters (60 Hz on-board network frequency) or a low-voltage outgoing

’) MMI = Man-Machine Interface

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

feeder (50 Hz on-board network frequency). An additional control system modulates


SIPLINK so that the load on parallel infeed is substantially reduced within the framework
of the SIPLINK power limits. The on-board network voltage is preset by the rotating
converters or the shipyard network.

Shinvard- Shiovard- Shh a r d -


3150Hz:
. I

Reacti

+
+
8 111

3/50Hz;
3/60Hz.

Optional in operation
rot. Converter I shipyard-

on board- on board- on board-

Isolated on board-network
1. SIPLINK and rot. Converter f60Hzl
2. SIPLINK and shiovard-network f50Hz
(with closed 1000
Fig. 3: Power supply into the 50/60Hz; 440V- on board-network from the 50Hz; 400V
shipyard-network; Revempower supply from the 50/60Hz; 440V on board network into
the 50Hz; 400V shipyard-network.

6 Generator trials
A marine generator which is to be loaded with specified, differing power values is located
on board. SIPLINK takes the place of the liquid resistor in this case and supplies the
electrical power back to the shipyard network. Instead of the energy “being wasted” in
the liquid resistor, it is utilized and, at the same time, reduces the required power import
from the public utility. Trials of the marine generators with varying loads are performed in
accordance with the regulations of the classification societies.

Fig. 4: ,.,ASTER-SLAVE OPER TlON up to \.

. I
Several converters are interconnected in a multi-
Qt cla
parallel circuit for powers greater than
MVA. The limit is about 5 MVA for this multi-
1.2

parallel circuit.

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

2 MVA SIPLINK for Karlsruhe MuniciPal Utilities


A system with a power rating of 2 MVA was installed in Karlsruhe-Stupferich for practical
trials, within the context of the EDlSon master project sponsored by the German Federal
Ministry of Economics and Technology. The system consists of two converters, each with a
rating of 1,200 kVA, in a multi-parallel arrangement. SIPLINK replaces an isolating point in
the Karlsruhe Municipal Utilities network and has the task of performing controlled power
transfer between two subnetworks. The aim is to avoid overload of the cable run from a
substation to a district. Moreover, reactive power is output at both link points in order to
optimize the voltage level. SIPLINK is able to assume supply to the affected subnetwork as
an insular system in the event of failure of the one of the two infeed points for the “Stupferich”
network area.

Fig. 5: “MVA system at Karlsruhe, Germany: SIPLINK replaces an isolating point in


the Karlsruhe Municipal Utilities network and has the task of performing controlled
power transfer between two subnetworks.

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

Extended inductively earthed systems exceeding the


permissible capacitive earth fault current:
SIPLINK offer the solution for load transfer !

Load curve Voltage curve at different control


with & with out SIPLINK modes

16,O 102,o
14,O
100,o
12,o
P, 10,o s 98,O P Controlled
...M 890 2 96,O ~

P, Q Controlle
6,O
4,O 940 a***.' Set values
(P,Q Control)
2,o
0,o Minimum
90,o
00 Oa)406081012 1416182022
0O:OO 02:45 05:30 OM5 11:OO 13:45 16:30 19:15 22:OO
:o :o:o :o :o :o :o :o :o :o :o :o
t, t, h

Fig. 6:
The left-hand diagram shows how SlPLlNK As the diagram on the right shows, the power
reduces power import from the higher-levelhigh- system voltage can be maintained very
voltage network and thus avoids overload of precisely at its reference value by exchange of
cables in the primary distribution network at reactive power. Exchange of active power is
peak load performed analogously with SIPLINK.

2 MVA SIPLINK for Stadtwerke Ulm Eneraie GmbH: Germanv


At the end of October 2003 Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution (PTD) of Erlangen
handed over a SIPLINK to SWU Energy GmbH, so completing a project lasting just six
months. This technology allows power to be transferred between the separate networks
supplying the municipalities of Ulm and Neu-Ulm, Germany at times of peak demand. It will

reduce the amount of costly regulating energy that has to be bought in and will further
optimize grid utilization when either network has spare capacity. The two networks - both
designed as bus systems - come together in the medium-voltage switching station of the
Bofinger Halde hydropower plant on the banks of the river Danube. SIPLINK connects the
two networks and allows for the controlled transfer of power. SIPLINK is designed to balance
out peak loads up to the system rating of 2 MW, so that costly regulating energy no longer
has to be bought in. The link has an interface to the existing control and monitoring system
so that it can be operated from the network control center.

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2004 IEEE International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation, Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT2004) April 2004 Hong Kong

6 x 5 MVA SIPLINK for Saudi Arabia


An existing insular network with in-plant generation (gas turbines) is supplemented by a
supply connection to the local utility network. SlPLlNK is used as a frequency converter in
this case, so as to be able to feed the electrical voltage of 33 kV / 60 Hz (provided by the
local utility) into the plant network of 10.5 kV / 50 Hz.
The system consists of six 5 MVA multi-parallel units. The total power of the system is
therefore 30 MVA. The system can be operated in two modes:

+ SlPLlNK generates a 50 Hz insular network and supplies the total load of the process.

d SIPLINK and generators operate in parallel and, together, feed the loads. Active power
splitting is preset by means of a programmable droop characteristic. Primary control of
the generator voltage regulation is not influenced in this case, i.e. the droop of the
generators is not changed.

The scope of delivery of the system also includes transformers, medium-voltage swtichgear,
the building air-conditioning system and all civil works.

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