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OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF BP'S DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL APRIL 2011

Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership between Tulane University, Terra Resources LLC, and Gulf Restoration Network

April 19, 2011

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF BP'S DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL APRIL 2011

Final Report Prepared by Margo Moss, M.S. margomoss@tierraresourcesllc.com and Jordian Karubian, Ph.D.* jk@tulane.edu Susan Longest, Ph.D. * Sarah Mack, Ph.D. Matt Rota

Tierra Resources LLC, 1310 Saint Andrew St. Suite 1, New Orleans, LA 70130 *

Tulane University, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118

Gulf Restoration Network, 338 Baronne St. Suite 200, New Orleans, LA 70112

April 19, 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 6 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 10 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 11 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS.............................................................................................................. 12 NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT................................................................................................... 12 OIL IMPACTS ON WILDLIFE ................................................................................................................................. 14 Acute Effects............................................................................................................................................................15 Chronic Effects .......................................................................................................................................................15 Indirect Effects .......................................................................................................................................................16 EXTENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS........................................................................................................ 18 Magnitude of Exposure ......................................................................................................................................18 Pathway of Exposure ..........................................................................................................................................18 Life Stage of Animal ............................................................................................................................................19 Remediation Efforts ............................................................................................................................................19 ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES................................................................................. 19 WILDLIFE IMPACT ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................................. 19 ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 22 Endangered and Threatened Species Research .....................................................................................24 COASTAL & NEARSHORE HABITATS .............................................................................................. 26 SENSITIVE SPECIES ............................................................................................................................................... 29 Case Study: Sea Turtles ......................................................................................................................................31 Case Study: Birds ..................................................................................................................................................33 ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES ............................................................................................................... 37 Finfish Fisheries.....................................................................................................................................................38 Shrimp .......................................................................................................................................................................41 Blue crab...................................................................................................................................................................41 OFFSHORE HABITATS ......................................................................................................................... 42 SENSITIVE SPECIES ............................................................................................................................................... 42 Case Study: Marine Mammals ........................................................................................................................43 SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................ 46 BARRIERS AND OBSTACLES .............................................................................................................. 47 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................................... 48 GAPS IN THE RESEARCH ....................................................................................................................................... 48 FUNDING SOURCES................................................................................................................................................ 49 DATA LIMITATIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 49 FUTURE DIRECTION .............................................................................................................................................. 49

CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 50 LITERATURE CITED ............................................................................................................................. 52 APPENDICES ........................................................................................................................................... 55 APPENDIX A ................................................................................................................. MAXIMUM LAND OILING .................................................................................................................................................................................. 56 APPENDIX B ........................................................................................DARRP IN MISSISSIPPI AND ALABAMA .................................................................................................................................................................................. 58 APPENDIX C ..................................................................................................................... DARRP IN LOUISIANA .................................................................................................................................................................................. 60 APPENDIX D........................................................................................................................ DARRP IN FLORIDA .................................................................................................................................................................................. 62 APPENDIX E ............................................................................................................................ DARRP IN TEXAS .................................................................................................................................................................................. 64 APPENDIX F .................................................... CONSOLIDATED FISH AND WILDLIFE COLLECTION REPORT .................................................................................................................................................................................. 66 APPENDIX G .................................. THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES PROXIMATE TO THE SPILL ...................................................................................................................... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. APPENDIX H.................... RESEARCH ACTIVITIES CONCERNING FEDERALLY LISTED SENSITIVE SPECIES .................................................................................................................................................................................. 75 APPENDIX I ......................................................... COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................................................................................. 82 APPENDIX J ...................................................................................... CRITICAL HABITAT: FLORIDA MANATEE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 215 APPENDIX K ..................................................................................... CRITICAL HABITAT: GREEN SEA TURTLE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 217 APPENDIX L ............................................................................ CRITICAL HABITAT: HAWKSBILL SEA TURTLE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 219 APPENDIX M ............................................................................. CRITICAL HABITAT: SMALLTOOTH SAWFISH ............................................................................................................................................................................... 221 APPENDIX N.......................................................................................... CRITICAL HABITAT: GULF STURGEON ............................................................................................................................................................................... 223 APPENDIX O.......................................................... CRITICAL HABITAT: ELKHORN AND STAGHORN CORALS ............................................................................................................................................................................... 225 APPENDIX P ............................................................................................ CRITICAL HABITAT: PIPING PLOVER ............................................................................................................................................................................... 227 APPENDIX Q...................................................................................... CRITICAL HABITAT: WHOOPING CRANE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 229 APPENDIX R ........................................................................................ CUMULATIVE ANIMAL OBSERVATIONS ............................................................................................................................................................................... 231

4 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX S ......................................................................................................................... BIRD IMPACT DATA ............................................................................................................................................................................... 234 APPENDIX T ................................................................................................. HABITAT RANGE: SPERM WHALE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 239 APPENDIX U ........................................................................... HABITAT RANGE: LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE ............................................................................................................................................................................... 241 APPENDIX V ............................................................................................... HABITAT RANGE: ATLANTIC TUNA ............................................................................................................................................................................... 243 APPENDIX W ....................................................................................... HABITAT RANGE: WARSAW GROUPER ............................................................................................................................................................................... 245

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 5 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Current and Long-Term Research on the effects of the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report represents a collaborative effort between Gulf Restoration Network (GRN), Tulane University Center for Public Service and Tierra Resources LLC to document the research response to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. The data and analysis provided by this assessment are intended to provide a framework to help guide environmental advocacy and assist in future allocation of funds and efforts to target at-risk species. Our specific goals are as follows: Identification of sensitive Gulf species and habitats likely to be affected by the spill. Creation of an inventory of ongoing and long-term protection, monitoring, and rehabilitation research, with a particular focus on coastal and nearshore habitats. Assess the need for and presence of research, monitoring, and rehabilitation activities.

To accomplish these objectives, we engaged in the following activities: Analyzed data collection activities to identify gaps in research activities. Synthesized preliminary data from the Gulf and environmental impacts from previous oil spills and research. Identified at-risk species based on current population health, knowledge attained from previous oil spills and research, and preliminary research results from the Gulf and Gulf Coast Recommended how research should be allocated to better encompass sensitive species Results and Conclusions In summary, oil is currently and will continue to affect the species of the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast into the future. Acute mortality has been observed across species groups and in coastal wetland areas due to smothering. Indirect and chronic effects, such as changes in community dynamics and sub-lethal toxicity, will likely impact higher 6 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

trophic organisms such as predatory fish, birds, sea turtles and marine mammals. Of the studies on sensitive species, more research is needed to investigate the long term and indirect effects of oil, in order to more fully assess the ramifications of the spill. Knowledge of deep water environments and the effect of oil is insufficient and needs to be more fully addressed by future research. Based on the research analyzed, the greatest impact due to oil will be observed on species reliant on coastal and nearshore environments due to one or more of the following; The already degraded state of the environment will result in diminished resiliency; additionally continued wetland loss exacerbated by oil smothering is cause for concern. The fact that numerous species are reliant on coastal and nearshore habitats will result in broader impacts among distinctive species groups. What is especially concerning is that many species, which utilize coastal areas, do so during critical stages of development, when toxic effects of oil are most pronounced. Coastal and nearshore areas are more readily accessible than offshore habitats, resulting in a larger number of studies conducted in coastal areas and therefore a deeper understanding of the environment and resulting oil impacts.

In addition, our research suggests that the research response to the spill has been slow to develop, and as a consequence data collection during two critical time windows (during/immediately following the spill and the first breeding season following the spill) has been severely limited. Although substantial investment in research in upcoming months and years is expected, rigorously identifying the consequences of the spill may be challenging for two reasons: (1) the lack of data during ecologically sensitive periods following the spill when signatures of the spill would be most evident; and, (2) the widespread lack of baseline data with which to compare post-spill data.

Barriers and Obstacles The Tierra/Tulane assessment team experienced significant challenges locating information about data collection and research activities. These barriers include: Lack of a central repository or inventory for oil related Gulf research Lengthy peer review process

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 7 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Legal barriers impeding the public release of data collected through the NRDA process for as many as 7 10 years An embargo on the publication of corporate funded research Limited funding and timeline available to assess research activities

Recommendations Research Gaps: The following areas in the research were underrepresented, and should be addressed: Long-term studies on sensitive species o Research into sensitive species, especially those whose populations continue to decline (such as sea turtles), since more rigorous long term studies may elucidate reasons for declining populations not apparent from monitoring efforts relying on correlative parameters. Predictive modeling o Projects making model-based predictions need to have a follow up component, to allow better use of models, as well as understanding of the ecosystem and population dynamics. Also, fine tuned models can help policy makers by working as a paradigm in the future for similar manmade or natural disasters Impacts on different life stages & community dynamics and shifts o With many species impacted at critical life stages of development, long term impacts and the potential for reconfiguration of community structure (i.e. fisheries) are unclear. Deep water environments o There is an overall lack in knowledge of deep-water environments, and how they respond to oil. There is a need to strengthen and address deep-water risks. The toxic effects of oil and/or dispersants o Conflicting results reported on the toxic effects of oil and/or dispersants on wildlife. Studies designed to mimic exposure in situ would provide the most relevant findings. 8 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Funding Sources: In addition to aforementioned research gaps, numerous funding limitations were encountered. To ensure immediate research needs as met, BP should be pressured to release research funds in a timely manner. For longstanding projects, the availability of long-term funding hinders studies as most projects can be implemented for only 1-2 years. We propose the establishment of a long-term (15 20 year) fund, financed by BP fines, to provide revenue stream in perpetuity for oil spill restoration activities and research. To guarantee the best remediation technologies are available in the event of another spill, we recommend the establishment of an oil spill research center in the gulf managed as a consortium by the gulf universities.). Data: Most data being collected is done so under the direction of the NRDA process, and thus subject to legal restrictions on sharing data in an ongoing liability suit. More direct assessment of the quality of NRDA research by a panel of scientific experts is recommended to independently assess methodology and practices without compromising legal barriers. For independent data and research not regulated under NRDA, increased data sharing via a central data repository would foster transparency and dialogue among Gulf researchers. Funding by BP and federal agencies could be contingent on inclusion in aforementioned Gulf research database. A comprehensive list of relevant research within academia would allow greater flow of ideas and interdisciplinary cooperation. Future Direction: Due to limited funding the scope of this assessment was focused towards near-shore impacts. This assessment was further limited as many research activities are not complete and have not published results at this time. Recommendations include: (1) further analysis in 12-18 months when data and findings are published (2) expand scope to address offshore impacts, and (3) develop a publically accessible research activity repository to disseminate important research findings and facilitate partnerships to leverage available funding and resources.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 9 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

INTRODUCTION
The April 20th failure of the Deepwater Horizon resulted in an unprecedented release of approximately 4.4 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Crone et al., 2010; NOAA, 2010), which will likely affect Gulf Coast life, ecosystems and livelihoods for years, if not decades. The oil released from the Deepwater well is classified as Louisiana light crude. It is moderately volatile and leaves a film on intertidal resources, having the potential to cause long-term contamination (USFWS, 2010). Oil removed from the Gulf was recovered, burned, naturally dispersed, evaporated or dissolved by bacteria, chemically dispersed, or skimmed. As of August, the government estimates 1,253,839 barrels of oil remain in the Gulf (NOAA, 2010). Figure 1 illustrates the observed ground oiling to date as well as the location of the Deepwater Horizon Wellhead.
Figure 1. Oil Spill Landfall Source: New York Times

At the time of writing this report (April 2011), sensitive coastal areas which continue to remain oiled include: Biloxi State Wildlife Management Area, Isles Dernieres Barrier Island Refuge, East Timbalier Island National Wildlife Refuge, Barataria Bay, Pass A Loutre State Wildlife Management Area, areas in the Chandeleur Sound, Brenton National Wildlife Refuge, Fort Pickens State Park Aquatic Preserve, Gulf Islands National Seashore (Appendix A). Some of the most heavily oiled areas are barrier islands and coastal habitats that provide critical bird 10 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

nesting habitats. For instance, the barrier islands provide a crucial stopover spot for migrating birds coming from South America. Gulf Coast habits provide stopover habitat for an estimated 75 percent of the waterfowl migrating along the Central Flyway (Environmental Health Center, 1998). These habitats also allow for the required life-cycle migration of some fish and invertebrate species. The salt marshes and seagrasses serve as critical habitat and nursery areas for aquatic species, birds and other wildlife. The undisturbed sandy beaches provide nesting habitat for several endangered birds and sea turtle species, as well as some or a number of commercially and recreationally important species. In addition to ground oiling, a continuous plume of oil was formed in the marine environment of more than 35 kilometers in length (Camilli et al., 2010). Two EPA approved dispersants, Corexit 9500 and 9527A, have been used extensively in the Gulf to break down oil slicks more rapidly. The use of dispersants can lessen wildlife exposure by reducing residence time of oil in the environment, via accelerated microbial decomposition. While dispersants are relatively nontoxic alone, mixing with a toxic substance has the potential to make that substance more bioavailable (Dye et al., 1980; Gulec, 1997). However, there is disagreement in the literature on the extent to which this is true (Perkins et al., 1973; Fuller et al., 2004), and the toxic effects of dispersants vary greatly depending on type of dispersant, method of application, mixture with oil, duration of exposure, type of organism and other variables. The combination of dispersants and crude oil can be more toxic than either alone, since they contain many ingredients that target the same organs in the body. In addition, dispersants facilitate the entry of oil into the bodys cells, which can result in damage to every organ system (NRC, 2005; Nalco, 2010; Burns & Harbut, 2010).

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH ANALYSIS


To assess research to date, we divided studies according to thematic areas, (Table 1). Additionally, environmental effects of oil were examined in relation to which species and habitats were most at risk. Species were divided spatially into Coastal & Nearshore and Offshore Habitats, with a focus on nearshore environments. Coastal and nearshore habitats include areas up to 3 nautical miles (nm) from the coast, all areas beyond 3 nm are considered offshore habitats (Unified Area Command, 2010; Figure 2). Sensitive species were analyzed more closely to determine specific threats and proposed research activities. Recommendations were made based on findings OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 11 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Table 1. Oil Research Types

Research Activities
Research Restoration Monitoring

Research Themes
Food webs Community Structure Dispersants Toxicology Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Ecosystem health & indicators Oil spill modeling & tracking Hypoxia

Figure 2. Space Elements Source: Unified Area Command Adapted from Horizon MC 252 Response: Strategic plan for sub-sea and sub-surface oil and dispersant detection, sampling and monitoring

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
12 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

The Gulf of Mexico and its coastal areas provide essential ecosystem services including wildlife habitat, storm buffer and carbon storage (Table 2). After an oil spill or hazardous substance release, federal trustees conduct studies to identify the extent of resource injuries, the best methods for restoring those resources, and the type and amount of restoration required (Appendix B; Appendix C; Appendix D; Appendix E). Currently, environmental data are being collected by the several state and federal agencies. Ecosystem Services considered for the National Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) are divided according to anthropogenic use (Table 2).
Table 2. Damage assessment, remediation, and restoration program (DARRP). Source: Reid et al. 2005

Supporting Services Provisioning Services

Processes that provide the foundation for all ecosystem services, such as nutrient cycling and primary production Direct material benefits that humans receive from the products of ecosystems, such as food (fisheries), timber, and genetic resources. Indirect benefits provided by natural systems, such as retaining and purifying of water in wetlands or mitigation of natural hazards (e.g., storms) by coastal marshes and mangrove forests. A broad category that includes the general values humans place on natural areas. Benefits may be gained through direct use, such as recreational activities (recreational fishing and swimming), or through the value placed by the public on the continued existence of natural resources, including aesthetic values, bequest or generational values, and community and spiritual connections to natural resources.

Regulating Services

Cultural Services

Less tangible ecosystem services such as biodiversity protection, while recognized, are difficult to quantify. Environmental degradation and pollution resulting from the Deepwater Horizon spill have the potential to reduce the capacity and efficiency of all ecosystem services. However, the extent of harm and liability will be officially determined upon completion of the NRDA process (NOAA 2010; Figure 3), and will likely be contested.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 13 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Figure 3. Damage assessment, remediation, and restoration program (DARRP). Source: NOAA Adapted from Oil Spill NRDA Process and Deepwater Horizon Incident
Oil Spill Liability

Public Concerns

Private Concerns

Environmental Issues

Penalties & Fines

Loss of Revenue, property impacts, etc.

Response & Clean-up

Compensation for Natural Resources Injuries (NRDA)

Perhaps the most extensive spill-related research conducted to date has been done under the auspices of the NRDA process. The federal government has subcontracted independent companies (e.g., Biodiversity Research Institute based in Maine) and state agencies (e.g., Louisiana Department of Fisheries and Wildlife) to implement NRDA-related studies. These groups typically seek collaboration with experts within academia to assist with project design and interpretation of results. We are aware of major research efforts currently in progress under the NRDA process to document effects of the spill on waterbirds, amphibians and reptiles. Unfortunately, data collected through the NRDA process is considered evidence for impending litigation between BP and the U.S. government, and as such these results are not expected to become publically available for as many as 7 10 years. Somewhat ironically, the most intensive database on effects of the spill on sensitive vertebrate species will not become available to guide mitigation, rehabilitation and conservation efforts during the critical years following the spill when these activities would be most effective.

OIL IMPACTS ON WILDLIFE


14 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Four major environmental stressors have resulted from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: physical oiling, PAHs, volatile organic compounds, and remediation efforts (including dispersants). Oil can impact wildlife through direct exposure with toxins, or indirectly via changes in food webs, community structure, behavior and other synergistic interactions (Table 3). Oil spills can directly affect wildlife through three primary pathways: ingestion, absorption and inhalation. Animals may absorb oil directly through the skin after exposure. Ingestion occurs when animals swallow oil particles, or consume prey that has been exposed to oil. Additionally, animals may inhale volatile organics released from oil and dispersants. Oil may cause immediate mortality, known as acute effects. Alternatively, chronic detrimental consequences lead to delayed mortality or reduced fitness.

ACUTE EFFECTS
Exposure to dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from crude oil has many direct and acute effects on plant and animal populations. PAHs are particularly toxic during the early life stages of fish (Schein et al., 2009; Carls, Rice & Hose, 2009). These compounds delay embryonic development and cause mortality, edema, and anemia in aquatic organisms (Carls & Thedinga, 2010). Even low levels of PAH exposure causes plants to experience high mortality via direct contact of photosynthetic surfaces to the PAHs, as well as penetration of the plants substrate by these compounds (Mendelssohn et al., 1990). The direct effects of dispersants in combination with PAH exposure is poorly understood; however, it is known that dispersion of oil increases the bioavailability and toxicity of PAHs to aquatic organisms (Schein et al., 2009).

CHRONIC EFFECTS
PAH exposure can also result in chronic and delayed effects among different organisms (Short et al., 2003). Though much attention focuses on quantifying acute mortality levels following oil spills, recent findings suggest that mortality due to chronic exposure to residual oil may be even more extensive (Iverson & Esler, 2010). Some organisms, such as harlequin ducks, take multiple decades to recover from the chronic effects of the oil spill on fecundity and survival rates (Esler & Iverson, 2010; Iverson & Esler, 2010). With oil persisting for decades after a spill (Xia & Boufadel, 2010), our understanding of the resultant effects and the strength of their influence on the population in question is still only in the beginning stages. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 15 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

INDIRECT EFFECTS
F OOD W EBS

Food webs are an important indicator of oil-spill effects in revealing the contamination of organisms by toxic PAHs, and the effects of consumption of these organisms by predators at multiple trophic levels. Many invertebrates are important indicators of environmental pollution due to their accumulation of PAHs as a result of filter-feeding (Rey-Salgueiro et al., 2009), which enables them to reveal how PAHs progress across trophic levels. For example, predators that consumed mussels contaminated with PAHs experienced measurable levels of DNA damage (Lemiere et al., 2005). A similar scenario applies to species reliant on contaminated fish stocks. Furthermore, the loss of organisms at lower trophic levels from the acute effects of oil exposure results in the loss of food sources for consumers at higher trophic levels (McCay & Rowe 2003). Thus, oil exposure affects food webs, and thus entire community assemblages, via both acute effects, e.g. loss of organisms at different trophic levels, and chronic effects, e.g. DNA damage due to consumption of contaminated organisms.
C OMMUNITY D YNAMICS AND S TRUCTURE

An environmental trauma such as the release of several million gallons of oil has the potential to reconfigure ecological communities. Major shifts may occur in species composition as some groups are dramatically reduced (i.e., species with larval stages in the water during the spill, such as the blue crab) and other groups may dramatically increase (e.g., oil-consuming bacteria). Given the trophic interconnectivity covered in the preceding paragraph, this community reconfiguration is likely to have cascading effects through various trophic levels which may further compound the effects of the spill.
B EHAVIOR

Oil exposure can have great impacts on the breeding biology, reproductive success, and dispersal of organisms. Beyond the initial mortality due to direct contact with oil, lower fecundity and survival, and thus lower reproductive success, is common during the breeding season following the oil spill (Esler & Iverson 2010). During subsequent breeding seasons, surviving de-oiled organisms often rejoin the breeding population. However, there may be survival and fecundity differences with non-oiled individuals, in that de-oiled individuals may abstain from breeding and experience lower survival when breeding (Wolfaardt et al., 2008). Thus, the costs of 16 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

reproduction may be higher for de-oiled individuals when compared with non-oiled individuals.
Table 3. Oil Impacts on Wildlife

Acute Direct PAHs can cause direct mortality to plants and animals through smothering, physical contact, ingestion, absorption and inhalation (toxicity) Juvenile and larval stages most susceptible Effects of dispersants in combination with PAHs poorly understood

Chronic Histological, biochemical, behavioral, reproductive, and developmental effects Sublethal amounts force a trade-off between functions related to exposure response (e.g., cleaning and damaged tissue regeneration) and normal energy expenditures (e.g., growth and reproduction). Sublethal effects such as: DNA damage, liver disease, cancer, and reproductive, developmental, and immune system impairment, stress response

Indirect (Combined acute and chronic)

FOOD WEBS Contaminated food sources and passage of toxins to higher trophic levels. PAHs can accumulate in invertebrates, which may be unable to efficiently metabolize the compounds. Reduced food sources for consumers COMMUNTIY STRUCTURE Trophic cascades (change in number or behavior of interconnected organisms) Loss of key food source of predatory species and effects on community structure BEHAVIOR Breeding performance Migratory & dispersal behavior Increased foraging time OTHER Feedback effects / interaction with hypoxia

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 17 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Habitat loss/ reduced carrying capacity of the environment Changes in foraging location Disruption to natural lifecycle

EXTENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS


As explained below, the degree of harm caused to wildlife by oil spills varies according to the following factors:

MAGNITUDE OF EXPOSURE
The amount and duration of exposure, together termed magnitude, influences the degree of harm caused to the organism. Examples include the amount of time the skin is in direct contact with oil, or the amount of toxic material ingested or inhaled. An extensive spill increases the likelihood that organisms will come in contact with oil particles, which increases the magnitude of exposure. Wave action, prevailing winds and dispersants can accelerate the rate of oil from the surface mixing into the water column, reducing exposure to species that spend time at or near the surface, while increasing exposure of organisms in the water column and ocean bottom (benthic) to smaller particles. In the Deepwater Horizon incident, sub-surface oil was extensively present though difficult to assess accurately (Camilli et al., 2010). Additionally, considerable dispersant use redirected oil from the surface to the waters below.

PATHWAY OF EXPOSURE
The route by which an animal is exposed to oil (ingestion, absorption, or inhalation) can also influence the rate and toxicity of the effects. Sedentary animals, such as oysters, will have high rates of exposure through ingestion due to their limited ability to escape the extent of the spill. Mobile animals with varied diets, such as sea turtles, may have fairly limited contact with oil through the ingestion route, yet may absorb oil from environmental contamination such as beach nesting sites (NOAA, 2010).

18 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

LIFE STAGE OF ANIMAL


The age, reproductive state, and overall health of an animal may influence the degree of harm caused by exposure to an oil spill. In general, eggs, larvae, and early juvenile life stages are more susceptible to oil and to chemical dispersants than adult animals of most species. Mortality on larvae caused by the oil spill will result in declines in recruitment in future age classes. This will negatively impact the rebuilding plans for these species, as well as short- and potentially long-term economic impacts on commercial and recreational fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico (NOAA, 2010). Also, individuals of lower fitness are likely to be impacted to the greatest extent by the additional stresses imposed by an oil spill.

REMEDIATION EFFORTS
The types of synthetic materials used by response teams to clean up or disperse oil can influence the magnitude of harmful effects felt by wildlife (NRC, 2005). The use of dispersants can lessen wildlife exposure by reducing residence time of oil in the environment via accelerated biodegradation by bacteria. However, before completely degraded, dispersed particles are transported throughout the water column where the oil may cause harmful effects through broader and more diffuse contact with species. For vulnerable species such as seagrasses, corals, plankton, shrimp, crabs, and small fish, acute effects have the potential to be lethal, particularly during the spring spawning season (Fisher et al., 1993; Gulec et al., 1997; Rhoton et al., 1998; Barron et al., 2003; Bhattacharyya et al., 2003; Ramachandran et al., 2004; Couillard et al., 2005; Chapman et al., 2007; Ibemesim et al, 2008; Anderson et al., 2009). Dispersants are also used to dissipate an oil slick before it reaches shorelines, minimizing impacts to critical habitats and species by reducing concentration and exposure time (NRC, 2005).

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES


WILDLIFE IMPACT ANALYSIS
The Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast regions boast high biodiversity and important wildlife habitat (Felder & Camp, 2009). The area directly impacted by the Deepwater Horizon spill is estimated to contain 8332 species of plants and animals. In the proximate region of the spill, the number of species impacted includes 1461 mollusks, 604 polychaetes, 1503 crustaceans, 1270 fishes, 4 sea turtles, 218 birds OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 19 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

and 29 marine mammals (Shirley et al., 2010). To date, hundreds of resident oiled birds, turtles, and marine mammals have been collected (Unified Area Command, 2010; Appendix F). Indirect impacts are currently unknown, and likely to be widespread.

Figure 4. Marine Biodiversity in the Gulf Source: Shirley et al. 2010

The vulnerability of various species of wildlife to an off-shore oil spill changes with time as the spill increases (Krebs & Burns, 1977; Gilfillan & Vandermeulen, 1978; Sanders et al, 1980; Teal & Howarth, 1984; Peterson et al. 2003). Species that spend time at the surface of the water will be impacted most during the early stages of the spill. Once the oil begins to wash ashore, species that utilize the shoreline are affected with increasing regularity. Finally, influence on species inhabiting the pelagic and benthic zones begins once the oil particles leave the surface and become mixed throughout the water column (Teal & Howarth, 1984; Ober, 2010). Further 20 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

downstream, contaminants ingested by these benthic species can work their way through the food chain to affect top predators such as mammals and seabirds. Plants are affected by direct oil exposure to leaves or roots, but may also be indirectly affected if numbers or behaviors of herbivores or seed or pollen dispersal agents are themselves affected by oil. Marine and marsh plants are also susceptible to smothering by oil (USFWS, 2010). This could lead to critical habitat loss for sensitive species and increased coastal erosion. As oil weathers, it breaks down into less harmful components via microbial action, but it also becomes increasingly sticky, resulting in a higher risk of acute mortality. Juvenile and larval stages are often more susceptible to acute toxicity. A particular concern is that the release of oil from the Deepwater Horizon rig coincided with spawning season for many fish and invertebrates in the Gulf of Mexico, including bluefin tuna, snapper, grouper, spiny lobsters, blue crabs, and brown and white shrimp. Oil suspended in the ocean forms massive plumes in the water. As the eggs and juveniles of these and other species drift in plankton communities, they are at a very high risk of direct oil exposure resulting in increased mortality. While the effects of oil on marine and coastal ecosystems are relatively well documented, the literature offers conflicting effects of dispersants. Given the fact that 43,900 gallons of dispersant were used to break up the oil as it gushed from the broken wellhead (NOAA, 2010), the physiological and ecological consequences of dispersant are of key importance when considering the effects of the spill on the Gulf. This is a major area of research need that will help to guide responses if and when the next major oil spill occurs. In addition to short-term impacts, there is robust evidence that ecosystems continue to suffer long-term population and community level impacts for decades after oil spills. For example, decreases in diversity, density, and species numbers, and higher stressed populations, have been noted following the Arrow, Amoco Cadiz, and Exxon Valdez oil spills in Canada, France, and the Unites States respectively (Krebs & Burns, 1977; Gilfillan & Vandermeulen, 1978; Sanders et al., 1980; Teal & Howarth, 1984; Peterson et al., 2003). Although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, oil can potentially continue to disrupt communities through incorporation in habitats, and food chains (Teal & Howarth, 1984; NRC, 2003; USFW, 2010). In the Gulf of Mexico, oil carbon from the Deepwater Spill has already been shown to be incorporated into the plankton food web (Graham et al., 2010). In the future, OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 21 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

chronic effects may begin to be seen across all groups of marine life (USFW, 2010). Oil exposure has the potential to inflict a myriad of external and internal damage. While damage may not be fatal to adults, younger life stages are often more susceptible to toxic effects. Animals can suffer from physiological stress of oil (i.e. immune response), as well as stress relating to oil avoidance and removal (i.e. excessive preening in birds). Long-term chronic effects often cause not only decreased survival but also lowered reproductive success (fecundity). Oil contamination that does not result in immediate death may be passed along to offspring, resulting in defects of future generations or increased juvenile mortality through various mechanisms. Therefore, oil spill effects may not be seen for several years past the immediate mortality seen from acute exposure. In this way, chronic exposure to oil can slowly poison communities directly through persistence of hydrocarbons in the environment, or via ingestion of contaminated prey and accumulative poisoning. Compounding reductions of prey species populations, which higher trophic organisms rely on, may further decrease community resilience (Teal & Howarth, 1984; Peterson et al., 2003; NRC, 2003; USFWS, 2010).

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES ANALYSIS


Within the potential scope of the spill there are 52 endangered or threatened species (USFWS, 2011; Appendix G). In particular, 38 federally listed species protected under the Endangered Species Act are especially sensitive to the oil spill (USFWS, 2011). It is also worth pointing out that the brown pelican, although not included in the table below, was de-listed only months before the spill and should be considered among these species of highest concern. The table below lists federally protected species of special concern (Table 4).
Table 4. Federally Listed Wildlife and Plants Threatened by the Gulf Oil Spill Adapted from USFWS 2010

Mammals
West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) Florida salt marsh vole

Alabama

Florida

State Louisiana

Mississippi

Texas

22 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

(Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli) Choctawhatchee beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) St. Andrew beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis) Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola) Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli) Florida panther* (Puma concolor coryi) Louisiana black bear* (Ursus americanus luteolus) Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

US Gulf Coast Waters State Louisiana

Birds
Piping plover (Charadrius melodus) Wood stork (Mycteria americana) Whooping crane (Grus americana) Roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) Everglades snail kite* (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) Cape Sable seaside sparrow* (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) Mississippi sandhill crane* (Grus canadensis pulla) Interior least tern* (Sterna antillarum athalassos)

Alabama

Florida

Mississippi

Texas

State Louisiana

Reptiles
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) Kemps Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)

Alabama

Florida

Mississippi

Texas

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 23 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Alabama red belly turtle (Pseudemys alabamensis) Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) Ringed map turtle* (Graptemys oculifera) Yellow blotched map turtle* (Graptemys flavimaculata)

State Louisiana State Louisiana

Fishes
Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus)

Alabama

Florida

Mississippi Mississippi

Texas Texas

Snails Alabama
Stock Island tree snail* (Orthalicus reses)

Florida

Insects Alabama
Schaus swallowtail butterfly* (Papilio aristodemus ponceanus)

Florida

State Louisiana

Mississippi

Texas

Plants Alabama
Beach jacquemontia (Jacquemontia reclinata) Florida perforate cladonia (Cladonia perforata) Garbers spurge (Chamaesyce garberi) Key tree cactus* (Pilosocereus robinii) Beautiful pawpaw* (Deeringothamnus pulchellus)

Florida

State Louisiana

Mississippi

Texas

Bold font denotes endangered species. Other species are listed as threatened *Denotes species where impacts may occur in extreme conditions such as Hurricane force winds

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED SPECIES RESEARCH


While the Gulf Coast supports 38 threatened and endangered species identified as sensitive to the oil spill (Table 4), only nine species are represented in current 24 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

research efforts that we could identify (Table 5). In other words, we found evidence that only one in five species determined to be at risk by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service is currently being studied by independent researchers. Additionally, two or fewer studies are dedicated to each species, mostly as part of a larger impact assessment, or to determine a baseline (Appendix H). For a complete listing of all research activities that we were able to determine see Appendix I. As discussed below, it is important to note that there may be additional research in progress or due to begin shortly that we were not able to include in this study because it is not posted in a visible and public venue.
Table 5. Federally Listed Wildlife and Plants Represented in Research Activities Represented in Research Mammals Yes No West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) Alabama beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus ammobates) Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) Florida salt marsh vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus dukecampbelli) Choctawhatchee beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) St. Andrew beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus peninsularis) Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola) Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli) Florida panther* (Puma concolor coryi) Louisiana black bear* (Ursus americanus luteolus) Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Represented in Research Birds Yes No Piping plover (Charadrius melodus) Wood stork (Mycteria americana) Whooping crane (Grus americana) Roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) Everglades snail kite* (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 25 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Cape Sable seaside sparrow* (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) Mississippi sandhill crane* (Grus canadensis pulla) Interior least tern* (Sterna antillarum athalassos)

Represented in Research Yes No

Reptiles
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) Kemps Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Alabama red belly turtle (Pseudemys alabamensis) Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) Ringed map turtle* (Graptemys oculifera) Yellow blotched map turtle* (Graptemys flavimaculata)

Represented in Research Fishes Yes No Gulf sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Represented in Research Snails Yes No Stock Island tree snail* (Orthalicus reses) Represented in Research Insects Yes No Schaus swallowtail butterfly* (Papilio aristodemus ponceanus) Represented in Research Plants Yes No Beach jacquemontia (Jacquemontia reclinata) Florida perforate cladonia (Cladonia perforata) Garbers spurge (Chamaesyce garberi) Key tree cactus* (Pilosocereus robinii) Beautiful pawpaw* (Deeringothamnus pulchellus) Bold font denotes endangered species. Other species are listed as threatened *Denotes species where impacts may occur in extreme conditions such as Hurricane force winds For a complete listing of research activities see appendix x

COASTAL & NEARSHORE HABITATS


The Gulf of Mexico coastal areas more than half of the coastal wetlands within the lower 48 states. The Gulf of Mexico contains essential habitat types on which many organisms depend on including several Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC) for marine organisms (Figure 5). These sensitive, rare, stressed and/or ecologically important areas include "live-bottom" habitats, coral reefs, "pinnacle trends," submerged banks, seagrass beds, deep-water chemosynthetic communities, and 26 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

protected species (Avent & Rogers, 1994). The Gulf is also an important spawning ground for many species of fish, crustaceans, and other economically important wildlife.

Figure 5. Gulf of Mexico Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPCs) Source: NOAA

Gulf coastal habitats are furthermore essential to the annual cycles of many species of breeding, wintering and migrating waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds and songbirds. The U.S. Gulf Coast is of particular significance to beach-nesting birds, species that breed on beaches, flats, dunes, bars, barrier islands and similar nearshore habitats (Figure 6), many of which were oiled (Figure 7). For example Brenton National Wildlife Refuge, which is one of the most heavily oiled sites, is home to the brown pelican, least turn and piping plover. The northern Gulf Coast, supports a disproportionately high number of beach-nesting bird species (USFWS, 2010).

Figure 6. Coastal Bird Habitats Source: NOAA

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 27 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Bird Habitat Seabird Nesting Colonies

Figure 7. Oiled Shorebird Breeding sites and essential habitats Source:

http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?hl=en&ie=UTF8&source=embed&msa=0&msid=212777347110565686547.000486d0b 5567ae65b7e1&t=h&ll=27.332735,-89.25293&spn=11.618991,22.148438&z=6

Oil Contamination None or Un-survyed Light or Moderate Deepwater Horizon Well

28 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Coastal and nearshore habitats will likely experience the greatest documented impacts from the oil spill. The direct effects of oil in environments are likely to be compounded by some combination of the following factors: 1) the already degraded state of the environment prior to the spill may result in less resiliency; 2) the diverse spectrum of species reliant on affected coastal and nearshore habitats at some point in their life cycle provides more opportunity for adverse effects. Also, the easier access to coastal and nearshore areas is likely to result in a larger number of studies conducted in these areas, a higher number of documented effects and thus a deeper understanding in the environment. Although coastal areas are vital for various species and protection of human life and property ashore, the Gulf of Mexico has been experiencing very high rates of erosion over the last 50 years. The effect of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on coastal erosion will be determined by the exposure and duration to habitats. High levels of oil resting on vegetated coastal shorelines could cause the vegetation to become stressed and die; this could cause the roots to die, weakening marsh soils. Weakened marsh soils would then be at risk of accelerated erosion from waves and storms. It has been estimated that a twenty percent additional loss could be experienced due to oil landfall from the Deepwater Horizon Incident (Michael Blum, pers comm.). The loss from oiling is expected to be a maximum of 14 km2, a significant amount when compared to yearly wetland losses of 21 70km2/yr (Coleman et al. 2008; Alex Kolker, per. Comm.).

SENSITIVE SPECIES
Many species rely on coastal environments at some point in their life cycle, and many of these environments are at risk from the spill. Mechanisms dictating impacts are discussed above. The following species were identified as particularly sensitive to the oil spill in the Gulf (Table 6). Sensitive species are emphasized to provide Gulf Restoration Network with a focal group of species, most likely to be at risk. Sensitive species were identified based on range of criteria such as threatened or endangered status, vulnerability, population size and trends, habitat extent, habitat degradation, baseline knowledge, and lessons learned from previous spills. Additionally, selected species were analyzed as case studies to further elucidate impacts, threats, gaps and needs.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 29 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Table 6. Coastal and Nearshore Sensitive Species Adapted from IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2010) and NOAA Office of Protected Resources (2010)

Species Name

Federal Status Endangered

IUCN Status

Population Trend Declining

West Indian Trichechus Manatee manatus Loggerhead Caretta sea turtle caretta Green sea turtle Kemps ridley sea turtle Hawksbill sea turtle Smalltooth sawfish Gulf sturgeon

Vulnerable

Designated Additional Critical Information Habitat Yes Appendix J

Chelonia mydas Lepidochely Endangered s kempii Eretmochel Endangered ys imbricata Pristis Endangered pectinata Threatened

Threatened Proposed endangered Endangered

Endangered

Declining

No

Endangered Critically endangered Critically endangered Critically endangered Near threatened

Declining Increasing

Yes No

Appendix K

Declining Declining

Yes Yes

Appendix L Appendix M

Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Elkhorn Acropora coral palmata Staghorn Acropora coral cervicornis Wood stork Mycteria americana Brown Pelecanus pelican occidentalis Piping plover Whooping crane Nassau grouper Charadrius melodus Grus americana Epinephelus striatus

Increasing

Yes

Appendix N

Threatened Threatened Endangered Delisted

Critically Stable endangered Critically Stable endangered Least concern Insufficient Data Least concern Increasing

Yes Yes No No

Appendix 0 Appendix O

Threatened Endangered Species of concern

Near threatened Endangered Endangered

Increasing Increasing Declining

Yes Yes No

Appendix P Appendix Q

30 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Alabama shad Largetooth sawfish

Species of concern Species of concern Proposed endangered Saltmarsh Fundulus Species of topminnow jenkinsi concern Opossum Microphis Species of pipefish brachyurus concern lineatus

Alosa alabamae Pristis perotteti

Insufficient Date Critically endangered

Declining Declining

No No

Not evaluated Not evaluated

Insufficient Data Insufficient Data

No No

CASE STUDY: SEA TURTLES


Impacts and Response: The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), Kemps ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii), and hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) are all highly sensitive to the toxic effects of oil at all life stages (NOAA 2010). Several aspects of sea turtle biology and behavior place them at particular risk, including a lack of avoidance behavior, indiscriminate feeding in convergence zones, and large predive inhalations. Oil effects on turtles include increased egg mortality and developmental defects, direct mortality due to oiling in hatchlings, juveniles, and adults; and negative impacts to the skin, blood, digestive and immune systems, and salt glands (NOAA, 2010). Sea turtle adults are most susceptible to oil spills through inhalation when they surface to breathe, or through ingestion of soiled plant materials, while eggs and hatchlings are susceptible through absorption. Three of the five species of sea turtles occurring in the Gulf of Mexico are endangered (Kemps ridley, leatherback, and green), whereas the other two are threatened (loggerhead, hawksbill). Many sensitive sea turtles have been recovered from the Gulf (Table 7), and possibly impacted by the presence of oil in the Gulf (Appendix R). Totals include individuals that have been collected as strandings, and via direct capture offshore. It is important to note that mortality of recovered individuals may be unrelated to the oil spill. Alternatively, some individuals experiencing mortality and toxic effects from the spill may remain unrecovered (i.e. sinking into the ocean).
Table 7. Recovered Turtles Documented By Species Through February 15th 2011 Source: NOAA

Turtle Species Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) Kemp's ridley turtle (Lepidochelys

Alive 172 16 328

Dead 29 0 481

Total 201 16 809

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 31 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

kempii) Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) 21 Unknown turtle species 0 TOTAL 537

67 32 609

88 32 1146

See appendix R for information on amount of direct oiling. Note all data is preliminary

Nesting season for sea turtles begins in the spring, coinciding with the oil spill, which means that eggs and hatchlings may experience high risk of exposure to oil spills if coastal habitats become contaminated. To minimize oil exposure to turtle hatchlings, eggs were translocated from the Gulf of Mexico to the East Coast of Florida through August 9th, 2010 (Table 8).
Table 8. Number of Turtle Nests Relocated and Hatchlings Released Through February 15th 2011 Source: NOAA

Species

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) Kemp's ridley turtle 4 (Lepidochelys kempii) Loggerhead turtle 271 (Caretta caretta)
Note all data is preliminary

Translocated Hatchlings released Nests 3 316 125 14,235

Research, Gaps and Needs: Two research activities investigating the sea turtles response to the oil spill have been identified (Table 9). The first is solely restoration of oiled turtles, which, while necessary, provides little predictive and long-term results. In the latter, sea turtles are a small component of a much larger oil spill impact study which began June 23rd, 2010. No information was available on expected duration or anticipated end date. However, in large-scale assessments, the long timeline required often presents a significant barrier to quickly implementing results. Additionally, both studies focus on a narrow spatial scope of work, Louisiana and Florida respectively, and may not represent the full extent of impacts. To establish the full extent of impact, calculating accurate mortality is also of great importance, since the turtles washed ashore are likely to represent a fraction of total dead. Another recognized area of concern is sea turtle mortality and population collapse. Since 1998, sea turtle populations have been experiencing collapse, though little is known about the underlying causes due to a lack of robust monitoring and data (Bjorndal et al., 2011). More research is needed addressing not 32 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

only immediate impacts, but more importantly, hatchling survivorship and success. Without a scientifically based recovery plan, populations, which were already declining, may have difficulty recovering (Bjorndal et al., 2011).

Table 9. Research activities pertaining to sensitive turtles by activity Through March 28th 2011 Species Classification Research Work Title of Activity Impacted of Activity Location Location Abstract Oiled sea turtle Loggerhead Restoration Coastal and Louisiana Intermittent personnel support (veterinarians, veterinary technicians) to on rehabilitation turtle nearshore site sea turtle rehabilitation facilities habitats Kemps engaged in cleaning and treating oiled sea turtles. Assisting with collection of forensic Ridley turtle samples and clinically applied data. Green turtle Hawksbill turtle Researchers from the College of Marine University of Loggerhead Research, Coastal and Florida Science/USF, the Florida Department of Southern turtle Monitoring nearshore state Environmental Protection, and the Florida Florida: habitats, waters Kemps Fish and Wildlife Research Institute will Deepwater Offshore assess the impact of oil on Florida marine Ridley turtle ecosystems by comparing non-impacted Horizon Oil Spill Green turtle habitats west Florida shelf and impacted north Impact and Florida shelf sites. A suite of optical and Hawksbill Ecosystem acoustic sensors will be used to detect turtle Assessment subsurface oil. Surface tar balls and Leatherback hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column and sediments will be investigated turtle
in relation to the abundance, distribution, species composition, and condition of benthic, microbial, phytoplankton, and zooplankton communities. Marine mammals and turtles also will be surveyed. In addition, drifters will be released to document currents and water column hydrocarbon measurements will help validate OCG model subsurface oil trajectory projections.

CASE STUDY: BIRDS


Impacts and Response: Birds are primarily affected through thermoregulatory challenges caused by oiling of plumage and through ingestion. Oil reduces the ability of bird feathers to provide insulation, which increases their exposure to extreme temperatures. Rate of heat loss is much higher in the water than in air, so oiled plumage is particularly problematic for birds that must find food in the water, such as seabirds, cormorants, and grebes. Oil is most commonly ingested by birds while preening their contaminated feathers or while feeding on contaminated prey (USFWS, 2010). The acute toxic effects of oil and dispersants are the primary cause OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 33 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

of current wildlife mortality. To date, 4,342 individual birds have been found oiled, 3,827 have been found dead without any visible signs of oiling (Figure 8, Table 10, Appendix F). The vast majority of these birds have been recovered in Louisiana. Similarly to sea turtles and marine mammals, true mortality may be significantly higher due to difficulty discerning the number of bird carcasses never recovered.
Table 10. Collection Report: Birds Through January 25th 2011 Source: USFWS

State

Alive

Dead

Total

Visibly No Pending Visibly No Pending Visibly No Pending Oiled visible Oiled visible Oiled visible Oil Oil Oil

Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas On-Water TOTAL

155 254 1551 125 0 0 2079

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

193 238 1508 344 0 0 2328

541 715 1919 652 0 0 3827

1 0 0 13 0 0 14

348 492 3059 469 0 0 4342

542 715 1919 652 0 0 3872

1 0 0 13 0 0 14

See appendix S for information by species

34 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Figure 8. Dead Bird Recovery Locations Through December 14th 2010 Source: USFWS

Research, Gaps and Needs: Two research activities concerning sensitive coastal bird species, both funded by the NSF RAPID process, were identified (Table 11). Baseline Assessment of bird populations in Mississippi coastal marshes is an assessment effort aiming to set a benchmark for Mississippi coastal bird density and diversity. While independent verification is valuable in ensuring proper allocation of NRDA funds, the projects usefulness is limited by its restricted research location. The second activity Impacts on migratory shorebirds and carry-over effects, is representative of a robust population study aiming to assess and model chronic impacts. Additional projects on brown pelicans, terns and skimmers are also likely to proceed this summer. By far the most intensive study of the effects of the spill on birds is the NRDA process for waterbirds, headed by Biodiversity Research Institute. This group has focused on egrets, brown pelicans, and skimmers and had a relatively large research team on the ground by June 2010. They have collected blood and tissue samples for contaminant analysis and have placed satellite PTT tracking units on brown pelicans to assess movement and mortality. Unfortunately, OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 35 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

the results of this work are likely to remain confidential for many years due to confidentiality clauses associated with the NRDA process.
Table 11. Research activities pertaining to sensitive birds by activity Through March 28th 2011 Sensitive Title of Species Classification Research Activity Impacted of Activity Location Duration Abstract Baseline Research, Piping Coastal Unknown Secretive marsh birds and marsh passerines were surveyed along pre-determined routes within the Grand Bay National Assessment plover Monitoring and Estuarine Research Reserve (GBNERR) and Pascagoula of bird Cape nearshore River marshes in Jackson County, Mississippi. During 13 populations Sable minute point counts, call-playback surveys were utilized to habitats illicit responses from territorial, breeding birds. All in seaside individuals and distances were counted and recorded. Mississippi sparrow Shorebirds were surveyed at the Grand Battures (GBNERR). coastal All birds were identified to species and counted. marshes The aim of this project is to assess both the direct impacts of Deepwater Piping Research Coastal 1 year the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on migrating shorebirds as Horizon oil plover and well as the carry-over effects of the spill on distant spill: nearshore ecosystems where these birds breed during summer months. Impacts on Carry-over effects on breeding success resulting from the habitats degradation of winter habitat have been documented in migratory several avian species and are important not only to shorebird shorebirds populations but also to the entire ecosystems in which the and carryshorebirds breed. The investigators will compare oilover effects exposed versus unaffected control sites with respect to the
toxicological status of individual birds, contamination levels in the environment, food availability, survival, correlates of subsequent breeding success, and other indicators of fitness for four small wintering shorebirds. The outcome will be to determine how individual toxicological status and environmental status contribute to variation in measures of fitness and correlates of breeding success. This work will provide a foundation for the development of population models and further studies aimed at documenting the effects of the oil spill on the distant, Arctic ecosystems where these birds breed. This work will highlight the importance of Gulf of Mexico habitats as wintering grounds for migrating shorebirds, providing baseline information for the conservation of threatened coastal habitats and bird species and demonstrating the multiple ways in which a major environment disaster can affect ecosystems on a global scale. Part of this project will be to develop a novel assay for measuring oil ingestion using fecal samples of birds.

Lessons Learned: Currently there are insufficient research and data to fully assess impacts to sensitive bird species. However, we can expect to see chronic impacts playing a role in the regions recovery (Krebs & Burns, 1977; Gilfillan & Vandermeulen, 1978; Sanders et al, 1980; Teal & Howarth, 1984; Peterson et al. 2003; Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, 2010). The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is a demonstrative example of a sensitive species that is susceptible to trophic effects (i.e. food web). The accumulation of pesticides such as DDT and endrin in fish consumed by brown pelicans led to decreased reproductive success in the pelican population along the Gulf. DDT reduced shell thickness of eggs, which 36 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

resulted in loss of eggs during incubation by adults (King et al., 1977). Pesticides also affected egg hatching, post-hatching survival, and behavior of the young (Blus, 1982). Due to these effects on reproductive success, brown pelicans were completely extirpated from Louisiana by 1963 (King et al., 1977). From 1968 to 1980, the LDWF and Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission introduced over 1200 brown pelicans to Louisiana from Florida populations (McNease et al., 1984). Due to the success of the recovery efforts, brown pelicans were removed from the Endangered Species Act in 2009 (FWS, 2009). In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected the populations along the Gulf through direct oiling, as well as indirect effects, such as potential consumption of fish that may have been contaminated by oil and dispersant. Close monitoring of the population is necessary to determine both the short- and long-term effects of the oil spill and the future of this species in the Gulf. As of December 14th 2010, 377 individuals have been visibly oiled, and 556 have been found dead (FWS 2010; Appendix S). Fortunately, brown pelicans are one of the few species with baseline behavioral data available from before the oil spill through research efforts at the University of Louisiana-Lafayette in collaboration with the LDWF. These data will prove crucial in studying the effects of the spill on the population biology of brown pelicans along the Gulf in terms of breeding biology and dispersal.

ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT SPECIES


Immediate economic injuries of the oil spill have been incurred by the Gulf fishing industry. As of May 25th, 2010 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration had closed 54,096 square miles (Figure 9) to commercial and recreational fishing. This is approximately 22% of the federally managed waters of the Gulf Exclusive Economic Zone (NOAA, 2010).

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 37 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Figure 9. Fishery Closure May 20th 2010 Source: NOAA

FINFISH FISHERIES
Fish can be impacted directly through uptake by the gills, ingestion of oil or oiled prey, effects on eggs and larval survival, or changes in the ecosystem that support them. Adult fish may experience reduced growth, enlarged livers, changes in heart and respiration rates, fin erosion, and reproductive impairment when exposed to oil. Oil has the potential to impact spawning success as eggs and larvae of many fish species are highly sensitive to oil toxins (FWS, 2010). There is a wide variety of commercial and recreational fish species in the Gulf of Mexico (Table 12; Table 13). Ninety-seven percent (by weight) of the commercial fish and shellfish landings from the Gulf of Mexico are species that depend on estuaries and their wetlands; additionally, many fish species rely on coastal and nearshore habitats as nurseries. In federal waters, the surface-oriented species will be most impacted by the early stages of the oil spill. As the crude oil sinks, the 38 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

bottom-oriented fish community may be impacted to a greater extent. The major impacts will be on nearshore species or species that are exposed to oil while spawning.

Table 12. Common Fishery Species Source: NOAA Common fishery species near shore (State Waters) Sharks Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas Blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus Spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna Silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis Atlantic sharpnose Rhizoprionodon shark terraenovae Finfish Red snapper Lutjanus campechanu Mullet Mugilidae spp. Lane snapper Lutjanus synagris Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus Gray snapper Lutjanus griseus Vermillion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens King and Spanish Scomberomorus mackerel spp. Gag grouper Mycteroperca microlepis Spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus Cobia Rachycentron canadum Greater amberjack Seriola dumerili

Table 13. Common Fishery Species Source: NOAA Common fishery species offshore (Federal Waters) Sharks (Surface-Oriented) Whale sharks Rhincodon typus Hammerhead sharks Sphyrna spp. Tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier Silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis Mako sharks Isurus spp. Rays (Surface-Oriented) Manta rays Manta birostris Eagle rays Aetobatus narinari Cownose rays Rhinoptera bonasus Finfish (Surface-Oriented) Bluefin tunas Thunnus thynnus Billfish Various spp Molas Mola spp. Finfish (Bottom-Oriented) Gray Triggerfish and Balistes spp. Jack Greater and Lesser Seriola spp. Amberjack Groupers Serranidae spp. Rock Hind Yellowfin Scamp Red Hind Goliath Nassau Red Gag Yellowedge Snowy Snappers Lutjanidae spp. Mutton Blackfin Red

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 39 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Tilefish

Gray Lane Silk Yellowtail Vermillion Malacanthidae spp. Blackline Anchor Blueline Golden Goldface

Mortality of larvae caused by the oil spill will result in declines in recruitment in future age classes. This may cause a collapse or reconfiguration of species, as well as short- and potentially long-term economic impacts on commercial and recreational fisheries in the Gulf of Mexico. Postlarvae and juvenile menhaden and mullets may be affected by the oil spill, and depending on current Loop Current dynamics Atlantic bluefin tuna may as well. Atlantic bluefin tuna larvae may also be present in the region of the oil slick (Figure 10) however their presence is quite dependent on and related to the Loop Current eddies and fronts. Another consideration is the number and extent that Sargassum mats, which are a nursery habitat for gray triggerfish and the amberjacks, may intersect with the oil (NOAA, 2010).

40 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Figure 10. Bluefin Tuna Essential Fish Habitat and the Gulf Oil Spill Source: FWS

SHRIMP
The economic impact of the oil spill on shrimp could be extensive. The Gulf region landings of shrimp are the nations largest with 188.3 million pounds or seventythree percent of the national total (Fisheries of the US, 2008). Louisiana led all Gulf states in landings with eighty-nine million pounds with a dockside value of $130.6 million in 2008, followed by Texas (63.8 million pounds, dockside value of $157.2 million), Alabama (17.0 million pounds, dockside value of $38.4 million), Floridas west coast (9.9 million pounds, dockside value of $23.3 million), and Mississippi (8.6 million pounds, dockside value of $17.1 million) (NOAA, 2010). Shrimp species will be impacted due to mortality of adults and postlarvae. During the spring, young shrimp, or postlarvae, migrate from coastal areas contaminated with oil. In particular brown shrimp postlarvae, which migrate out of inshore waters from February to April, while white shrimp will begin migration in May and continue through November, will be affected. The spill could have impacts not only on shrimp catches this year, but also next year if postlarvae mortality is high.

BLUE CRAB
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 41 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

The most economically valuable crab species in the region occurs almost exclusively in state waters with peak spawning occurring between August and September. Eggs and larvae develop and settle in estuaries until crabs reach harvestable size from April to May. Louisiana lands approximately twenty-six percent of the total blue crabs in the nation, or 41.6 million pounds in 2008, with a dockside value of $32 million. Landings and dockside values for other Gulf states were: West Florida, 2.7 million pounds, $3.3 million, Texas, 2.6 million pounds, $2.3 million, Alabama, 1.8 million pounds, $1.5 million, Mississippi, 450,000 pounds, $447,000 (NOAA, 2010). Chronic poisoning will proportionally increase as visible oil is removed, disperses or disintegrates via microbial action. These tiny oil droplets, some with dispersant attached, may be consumed by prey species, thus indirectly harming predatory birds and marine wildlife. For example orange droplets appearing to be related to the oil spill have been found in blue crab larvae (Dr. Caroline Taylor, pers. comm.). While preliminary findings suggest that dispersants used during the Deepwater Horizon incident are not likely to have a great effect on the Gulf of Mexico blue crab fisheries due to the low concentrations found (Anderson, unpublished data), there is some concern over trophic interactions to consumer species resulting from contaminated prey. Although final analysis is pending, research suggests that oil has easily entered the food chain. Therefore while some species are not sensitive per se (crabs, shrimp, plankton), their numbers and levels of contamination should be closely monitored to better predict outcomes for species most at risk. For instance, blue crabs are a preferred food of the endangered Atlantic Ridley sea turtle. Only long-term monitoring studies will be able to assess chronic toxic effects on organisms.

OFFSHORE HABITATS
SENSITIVE SPECIES
While an integral habitat to many marine animals, analysis into offshore environments was limited by an overall lack of baseline data and oil spill related research. Wildlife inhabiting offshore waters often has extensive ranges and difficult to access habitats, resulting in relatively few comprehensive studies. For species such as marine mammals and deep-sea fish, population size is generally

42 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

extrapolated from sightings and reported catch respectively, resulting in a higher range of uncertainty.
Table 14. Offshore Sensitive Species Adapted from IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2010) and NOAA Office of Protected Resources (2010)

Species Name

Federal IUCN Status Population Status Trend Sperm Physeter Endangered Vulnerable Likely whale macrocephalus Increasing Leatherback Dermochelys Endangered Critically Declining sea turtle coriacea endangered Bluefin tuna Thunnus Candidate Critically Declining thynnus for ESA Endangered listing Dusky shark Carcharhinus Species of Vulnerable Declining obscurus concern Night shark Carcharhinus Species of Vulnerable Declining signatus concern Warsaw Epinephelus Species of Critically Insufficient grouper nigritus concern endangered Data Speckled hind Epinephelus dr Species of ummondhayi concern Critically Likely endangered decreasing

Critical Habitat No Yes No

Additional Information Appendix T Appendix U Appendix V

No No No Appendix W

No

CASE STUDY: MARINE MAMMALS


Impacts and Response: Mammals are susceptible to harm from oil spills through a variety of means. Whales, manatees, and dolphins found in the Gulf of Mexico may be exposed to inhalation of volatile compounds and direct contact when surfacing to breathe. In general, larger organisms are more likely affected by chronic than acute toxicity due to greater body mass. Even so several species have been found stranded on the Gulf coast (Table 15) including the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia sp.), sperm whale (Physter macrocephalus), spotted dolphin (Stenella sp.), and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) (NOAA, 2011; Appendix R).
Table 15. Collection Report Marine Mammals Through January 25th, 2011 Source: FWS

State

Alive

Dead

Total

Visibly No Pending Visibly No Pending Visibly No Pending Oiled visible Oiled visible Oiled visible

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 43 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Oil

Oil

Oil

Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas On-Water TOTAL

0 1 1 0 0 0 2

1 3 2 0 0 1 7

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 3 1 0 0 4

8 3 58 26 0 1 96

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 4 1 0 0 6

9 6 60 26 0 2 103

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

See appendix R for information by species

Research, Gaps and Needs: Two research activities unique to marine mammals have been identified (Modeling of Short-Term and Long-Term Marine Mammal Trends & Impacts of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Estuarine Bottlenose Dolphin Populations). While weaknesses previously discussed, including unknown timeline and confined geographic scope, of the project titled Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Assessment are especially pertinent to marine mammals. Additionally, this project is mainly designed to retroactively determine impacts. Conversely, the other two studies identified (Modeling of Short-Term and Long-Term Marine Mammal Trends & Impacts of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Estuarine Bottlenose Dolphin Populations) aim to not only establish baseline, but also to provide predictive modeling that can assist in future disaster response. As seen below, the dolphin study is geographically limited to the West Florida panhandle. The most exciting of the research proposals is the first listed (Table 16), determining whale population trends based on passive acoustic cues. Traditionally, whales are underrepresented in the research owing to the physical challenges presented by their extensive ranges, their highly migratory behavior and the difficulty to access offshore habitats. Methods developed in this study are expected to assist future researchers by increasing the ease and accuracy of measuring whale populations, including allowing for population estimates not inferred solely on sightings. The results of this study will use novel data and methods to achieve the vital goals of comparing traditional baseline values to those achieved by the newly established data, assessing the impacts from this oil spill, and making long-term predictions.
Table 16. Research Activities Pertaining to Marine Mammals

44 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Title of Activity Modeling of ShortTerm and Long-Term Marine Mammal Population Trends in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring Cues

Species Impacted Sperm whale beaked whale

Classification of Activity Research, Monitoring

Work Duration Abstract Location This is a RAPID proposal to assess the immediate Offshore 1 year impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on near-by habitats

Impacts of Bottlenose the 2010 dolphin Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Estuarine Bottlenose Dolphin population s in the West Florida Panhandle

Monitoring, Research

Florida state waters

1 year

resident populations of endangered whale species and prediction of the long-term effects of the disaster on their population dynamics using statistical and mathematical modeling. This project is one of a kind to assess the adverse impact of the BP oil-spill on the marine ecosystem in general, and marine mammal populations of specific species in particular, in and around the oil-impacted area of the Gulf of Mexico. Therefore, the newly collected data will be unique as we will be able to compare them to the previous data, which will provide base-line estimates of the marine mammal population density. Successful project implementation will provide not only environmental impact assessment of a large-scale oil spill on several species of marine mammals, but also the foundation for development of a new systematic methodology of population estimation and dynamics based on acoustic cues; this is in contrast with the traditional methodology which is based on visual observations. The collected data, which will be useful for ecologists in the future, and the theoretical research associated with the project, will shed light on the debate concerning how the Gulf of Mexico has been affected by the oil-spill. The proposed research, with a strong theoretical component, will complement other existing and ongoing research on the BP oil-spill. This project will assess population size and genetic discreteness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) communities in the oil-impacted western Florida panhandle, collect critical baseline information to ultimately determine pre-spill feeding habits of bottlenose dolphins in those areas and ultimately to examine the relationship between feeding habits and the potential impacts of oil/dispersants. As apex predators, bottlenose dolphins serve as key sentinel species for monitoring ocean and human health. Their roles in oceanic and coastal ecosystems emphasize their relevance for monitoring the potential impacts of oil and oil dispersants on these fragile systems over both the short term and long term. We propose to initiate a comprehensive assessment of the current status of bottlenose dolphin communities in Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound and Choctawhatchee Bay and to begin to assess the immediate impact of oil and dispersants on their distribution, habitat use, and feeding habits. Ultimately these baseline data and samples will be critical in the long-term assessment of their health and survival. Specifically we will conduct photographic identification (photo-ID) determinations of population size and distribution as well as direct assessments of genetic relatedness and feeding ecology. In addition, putative prey species will be collected from these same bay systems. Skin/blubber samples collected using biopsy sampling of free-swimming dolphins will allow us to combine standard toxicological and enzyme marker assays of blubber, with genetic analysis, stable isotope analysis of skin (to assess feeding ecology and habitat utilization), and fatty acid signature analysis of blubber (feeding ecology) to

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 45 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

USF: Marine Deepwater mammals Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Assessment

Research, Monitoring

Florida state waters

Unkown

better understand oil exposure both from direct contact as well as through their food chain. We are also uniquely positioned to respond to both live and dead stranded cetaceans through our involvement with the local marine mammal stranding program. This latter access will allow for full biological sampling and assessment of cause of death or health problems. Pre- and post-spill knowledge of the spatial and temporal scales of the movements of these animals, population structure, specific habitat utilization and feeding preferences is critical to the eventual interpretation of toxicological and medical data. Data from these multiple approaches will enable resource managers to develop predictive models that evaluate response strategies and to integrate the impacts of stressors at all levels of the ecosystem. Researchers from the College of Marine Science/USF, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute will assess the impact of oil on Florida marine ecosystems by comparing non-impacted west Florida shelf and impacted north Florida shelf sites. A suite of optical and acoustic sensors will be used to detect subsurface oil. Surface tar balls and hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column and sediments will be investigated in relation to the abundance, distribution, species composition, and condition of benthic, microbial, phytoplankton, and zooplankton communities. Marine mammals and turtles also will be surveyed. In addition, drifters will be released to document currents and water column hydrocarbon measurements will help validate OCG model subsurface oil trajectory projections.

SUMMARY
In summary, oil is affecting the species of the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast but the true impact of the spill will not be known for several years. Acute effects from smothering have been documented across species groups and in coastal wetlands. Indirect and chronic effects, such as changes in community dynamics and sub-lethal toxicity, will likely impact higher trophic organisms such as predatory fish, birds, sea turtles and marine mammals. To establish the full extent of impact, studies are needed to determine true mortality across species groups, since a fraction of dead individuals will never be recovered. Based on the research analyzed the greatest impact due to oil will be observed on species reliant on coastal and nearshore environments due to one or more of the following; The already degraded state of the environment will result in diminished resiliency. If near the critical threshold, oil contamination may surpass the tipping point for coastal environments, creating major restoration issues. 46 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

While complete devastation is unlikely in the short term, continued wetland loss exacerbated by oil smothering is cause for concern. Numerous species reliant on coastal and nearshore habitats will result in broader impacts among distinctive species groups. Beyond resident species, a large diversity of species relies on coastal areas at various stages in their life cycles including migrating birds and juvenile fishes. What is especially concerning is that many species, which utilize coastal areas, do so during critical stages of development, when toxic effects of oil are most pronounced. Coastal and nearshore areas are more accessible, resulting in a larger number of studies conducted in coastal and thus, a deeper understanding in the environment. In other words greater impacts will be found because more researchers are looking for them. Comparatively, oil exploration technology has outpaced our knowledge base in deep water environments, preventing accurate assessments and predictions.

Of the studies on sensitive species, more proposals should outline long term and indirect effect of oil, in order to more fully assess the ramifications of the spill. Of greatest concern are endangered sea turtles, some of which are critically threatened. Well-designed research activities will help predict long term population trends, and provide guidance in the event of a future spill.

BARRIERS AND OBSTACLES


The Tierra/Tulane assessment team experienced significant challenges locating information about data collection and research activities. These include: Lack of a central repository or inventory for oil related Gulf research. Lengthy peer review process makes public use of academic findings for response efforts unrealistic. Legal barriers impeding the public release of data collected through the NRDA process for as many as 7 10 years. Data sharing and proprietary information limits amount of raw data released. Concerns over releasing data due to lawsuits.

Embargo on the publication of corporate funded research. OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 47 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Limited funding and timeline available to assess research activities.

RECOMMENDATIONS
GAPS IN THE RESEARCH
The following areas in the research were underrepresented, and should be addressed: Long-term studies on sensitive species o Research into sensitive species, especially those whose populations continue to decline (such as sea turtles), since more rigorous long term studies may elucidate reasons for declining populations not apparent from monitoring efforts that rely on correlative parameters. Predictive modeling o Projects making model-based predictions need to have a follow-up component to allow better use of models, understanding of the ecosystem and population dynamics. Also, fine-tuned models can help the policy makers by working as a paradigm in the future for similar manmade or natural disasters. Impacts on different life stages & community dynamics and shifts o With many species impacted at critical life stages of development, long term impacts and the potential for reconfiguration of community structure (i.e. fisheries) are unclear. Community dynamics and shifts Deep water environments o There is an overall lack in knowledge of deep-water environments, and how they respond to oil. There is a need to strengthen and address deep-water risks. The toxic effects of oil and/or dispersants o Conflicting results reported on the toxic effects of oil and/or dispersants on wildlife. Studies designed to mimic exposure in situ would provide the most relevant findings. Alternative remediation strategies

48 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

o The development of alternative remediation strategies and studies researching their effectiveness would allow for rapid, efficient remediation in the future.

FUNDING SOURCES
In addition to numerous research gaps mentioned above, numerous funding limitations were encountered. To ensure immediate research needs as met, BP should release research funds in a timely manner. For longstanding projects, the availability of long-term funding hinders studies as most projects can be implemented for only 1-2 years. We propose the establishment of a Gulf Ecosystem Monitoring (GEM) fund, as a long-term (15 20 year) fund financed by BP fines. This would provide a revenue stream in perpetuity for oil spill restoration activities and research that the state and federal government is unable to provide. To guarantee the best remediation technologies are available in the event of another spill, we recommend the establishment of an oil spill research center in the Gulf, funded in part by DOI, and managed by the Gulf universities or as a consortium. The remaining capital could possibly be raised through a tax on Gulf oil similar to the tax levied by the Oil Protection Act (1990).

DATA LIMITATIONS
Most data being collected is done so under the direction of the NRDA process, and thus subject to legal restrictions on sharing data on an ongoing liability suit. More direct assessment of the quality of NRDA research by a panel of scientific experts is recommended to independently assess methodology and practices without compromising legal barriers. For independent data and research not regulated under NRDA, increased data sharing via a central data repository would foster transparency and dialogue among Gulf researchers. Universities participating in the data sharing agreement would gain access to a central data repository, thereby fostering transparency and dialog among Gulf researchers. Funding by BP and federal agencies could be contingent on inclusion in aforementioned Gulf research database. A comprehensive list of relevant research within academia would allow greater flow of ideas and interdisciplinary cooperation.

FUTURE DIRECTION
OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 49 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Due to limited funding the scope of this assessment was focused towards near-shore impacts. This assessment was further limited as many research activities are in preliminary stages and have not published results at this time. In the future, work completed to date could be leveraged to acquire grant funding for continued collaboration with the GRN. Furtherance of the analysis and intermitted updates to research activities would be extremely helpful. This would be especially informative in 12-18 months, as identified research activities will be completed, allowing for integration of the first round of research findings, and a subsequent round of federal funding to finance successive activities. Species could be assessed more in depth and gaps in offshore environments could be further clarified. For future collaboration, the development of a publically accessible research activity repository will disseminate important research findings and facilitate partnerships to leverage available funding and resources. This research inventory could be linked to the a public website, and updated periodically to ensure the most accurate, up to date information.

CONCLUSIONS
Our analyses indicate that the effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill are likely to be complex and difficult to rigorously identify. Although the immediate impact of the spill in terms of mortality via direct contact or ingestion with oil was substantial, the chronic, sub-lethal effects of the spill are likely to have a much greater impact in the long run. Unfortunately, these sub-lethal effects are much more difficult to quantify because they are by definition more subtle. Compounding the challenges associated with documenting long term effects of the spill, there are very few prespill data sets that might provide a baseline against which to compare post-spill parameters such as physiological condition, breeding performance, movement, survival, etc. One important exception to this is economically important species such as fish or crabs for which annual take data are available. Thus, a major challenge facing spill-related research in upcoming years is to distinguish the effects of the spill per se versus normal background biotic patterns. For research related to the sensitive species referenced above, a major impediment to achieving this goal has been the failure of BP to disburse $450 million dollars in promised research funds in a timely manner. Indeed, at the time of preparing this report approximately one year after the spill, a RFP (Request For Proposals) has yet to be issued by BP. Given the time it will take to prepare, submit and evaluate proposals and to disburse funds, it is highly unlikely that any research using these 50 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

funds will take place before September 2011. This is significant because most species in the Gulf reproduce in the Spring and Summer (March July), and one year of critical data collection will be lost. This will seriously hinder efforts to assess the consequences of the spill on reproduction, physiological condition, and behavior. On a related note, it should be emphasized that this report contains only a small percentage of the research that will eventually be conducted on the effects of the oil spill for two reasons. The first being that, because of slow release of funds by BP and other funding sources, many projects that are expected to happen have not yet been initiated. Because of this funding scenario, research to date has been dominated by a handful of researchers receiving RAPID awards from the National Science Foundation and by the NRDA process. Second, there are sure to be many projects in a preliminary or non-publicized stage that are not included because the authors of this report were not aware of them. It would be accurate to consider the research included in the current report as the proverbial tip of the iceberg of research that will eventually be conducted in response to the spill. Another report conducted in one year or eighteen months would likely find significantly more projects underway. In summary, this research suggests that the research response to the spill has been slow to develop, and that as a consequence data collection during two critical time windows (during/immediately following the spill and the first breeding season following the spill) has been severely limited. Although substantial investment in research in upcoming months and years is expected, rigorously identifying the consequences of the spill may be challenging for two reasons: (1) the aforementioned lack of data during ecologically sensitive periods following the spill when signatures of the spill would be most evident; and, (2) the widespread lack of baseline data with which to compare post-spill data.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 51 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

LITERATURE CITED
Anderson, B.S., Arenella-Parkerson, D., Phillips, B.M., Tjeerdema, R.S., Crane, D., 2009. Preliminary investigation of the effects of dispersed Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil on developing topsmelt embryos, Atherinops affinis. Environmental Pollution 157, 10581061. Avent, R.M., Rogers, R.M. (1994). Sensitive Biological Habitats and Resources in the Gulf of Mexico: Environment Issues and Concerns for the Regulation of the Petroleum Industry. Minerals Management Service. SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, 15-18 February 1994, Dallas, Texas Babcock, M.M. et al. 1996. Persistence of oiling in mussel beds three and four years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, pp. 286-297, Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium, American Fisheries Society Symposium 18. Barron, M.G., Carls, M.G., Short, J.W., Rice, S.D., 2003. Photoenhanced toxicity of aqueous phase and chemically dispersed weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil to Pacific herring eggs and larvae. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22, 650-660. Bhattacharyya, S., Klerks, P.L., Nyman, J.A., 2003. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms. Environmental Pollution 122, , 205-215 Bjorndal, K.A., Bowen, B.W., Chaloupka, M., Crowder, L.B., Heppell, S.S., Jones, C.M., Lutcavage, M.E., Policansky, D., Solow, A.R., and B. E. Witherington (2011). Better Science Needed for Restoration in the Gulf of Mexico. Science: 4 February 2011: 537-538 British Petroleum, 2010. Deepwater Horizon Containment and Response. http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9034880&contentId=7064840 . Accessed online: 10/3/10. Camilli, R, Reddy, CM, Yoerger1, DR, Van Mooy, BAS, Jakub, MV, Kinsey1, JC, Cameron McIntyre, P, Sylva, SP, and JV. Maloney (2010). Tracking Hydrocarbon Plume Transport and Biodegradation at Deepwater Horizon. Science 330(6001): 201-204. Chapman, H., Purnell, K., Law, R.J., Kirby, M.F., 2007. The use of chemical dispersants to combat oil spills at sea: A review of practice and research needs in Europe. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54, 827-838. Couillard, C.M., Lee, K., Lgar, B., King, T.L., 2005. Effect of dispersant on the composition of the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil and its toxicity to larval marine fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24, 1496-1504. Crone, J.T. and M Tolstoy (2010). Magnitude of the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil leak. Science 330 (6004): 634. Dye, C.W., Frydenborg, R.B., 1980. Oil dispersants and the environmental consequences of their usage: A literature review. Technical Series. State of Florida - Department of Environmental Regulation. Environmental Health Center. 1998. Coastal Challenges: A Guide to Coastal and Marine Issues. National Safety Council, Washington, DC. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. January 2010. Update on Injured Resources. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/recovery/status.cfm. Accessed online: 10/3/2010. Felder, D.L. and D. K. Camp [Editors]. 2009. Gulf of Mexico Origin, Waters and Biota. Volume 1, Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, 1393 pages).

52 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Fisher, W.S., Foss, S.S., 1993. A simple test for toxicity of Number 2 fuel oil and oil dispersants to embryos of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26, 385-391. Fuller, C., Bonner, J., Page, C., Ernest, A., McDonald, T., and S. McDonald. 2004. Comparative toxicity of oil, dispersant, and oil plus dispersant to several marine species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23(12): 29412949. Gilfillan, E. S., and J. W. Vandermeulen. 1978. Alternations in growth and physiology of softshelled clams, Mya arenaria, chronically oiled with Bunker C from Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, 1970-1976. J. Rish. Res. Board Can. 35:630-636. Heintz, R.A., J.W. Short, and S.D. Rice, 1999. Sensitivity of pink salmon to weathered crude oil, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18(3). Ibemesim, R.I., Bamidele, J.F., 2008. Comparative toxicity of two oil types and two dispersants on the growth of a seashore grass, Paspalum vaginatum (swartz). International Oil Spill Conference - IOSC 2008, Proceedings, pp. 875-880. Irons, D.B., Kendall, S.J., Erickson, W.P., McDonald, L.L., and B.K. Lance. 2000. Nine years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Effects on marine bird populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The Condor 102(4): 723 737. Irvine, G.V., Mann, D.H., and J.W. Short. 2006. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches; The importance of boulder-armoring. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(9) 1011 1022. Irvine, G.V. , Mann, D.H., and J.W. Short. 1999. Multi-year persistence of oil mousse on high energy beaches distant from the Exxon Valdez spill origin, Marine Pollution Bulletin. 38(7): 572-584. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 April 2011. Krebs, C. T., and K. A. Burns. 1977. Long-term effects of an oil spill on populations of the saltmarsh crab Uca pugnax. Science 197:484-487. National Research Council. 2005. Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects. National Acedemic Press. National Research Council (NRC). 2003. Oil in the sea: inputs, fates and effects III. In: Council NR, editor. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NOAA. 2010. Fish Stocks in the Gulf of Mexico. Accessed online at NOAA. 2010. Oil and Sea Turtles: Biology, planning and response. Accessed online at http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/topic_subtopic_entry.php?RECORD_KEY%28entry _subtopic_topic%29=entry_id,subtopic_id,topic_id&entry_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=9& subtopic_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=13&topic_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=1 NOAA (2010). Deepwater Horizon MC252 Gulf Incident Oil Budget. Accessed online at http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2010/PDFs/DeepwaterHorizonOilBudget20100801.pdf NOAA. 2010. Oil Spill NRDA Process and Deepwater Horizon Incident. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/ocs/mafac/meetings/2010_06/docs/nrda_process_deepwat er_horizon_incident.pdf. Accessed online 4/6/2011. NOAA. 2011. Sea turtles and the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/health/oilspill/turtles.html. Access online on 4/4/2011. NOAA (2011). Deepwater Horizon MC252: Documented Marine Mammals in Northern Gulf of Mexico from 4/30/10 10/18/10. Accessed online at

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 53 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

http://gomex.erma.noaa.gov/layerfiles/12701/files/DWHMC252_MarineMammals2010 1019.pdf Perkins, E.J., Gribbon, E., and J.W.M. Logan. 1973. Oil dispersant toxicity. Marine Pollution Bulletin 4(6): 90-93. Peterson, C.H., Rice, S.D., Short, J.W., Esler, D., Bodkin, J.L., Ballachey, B.E., and D.B. Irons. 2003. Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science 302: 2082 2086. Ramachandran, S. D., Hodson, P.V. Khan, C.W. Lee, K. 2004. Oil dispersant increases PAH uptake by fish exposed to crude oil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 59(3), 300-308. Reichmann, O.J., Jones, M.B., and M.P. Schildhauer (2011). Challenges and opportunities of open data in ecology. Science: 703 705. Reid W., et al., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-being (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2005). Rhoton, S.L., Perkins, R.A., Richter, Z.D., Behr-Andres, C., Lindstrom, J.E., Braddock, J.F., 1998?. Toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to an Alaskan marine organism. International Oil Spill Conference, pp. 8485-8488 Sanders, H. L., J. F. Grassle, G. R. Hampson, L. S. Morse, S. Garner-Price, and C. C. Jones. 1980. Anatomy of an oil spill: long-term effects from the grounding of the barge Florida off West Falmouth, Massachusetts. j.. Mar. Res. 38:265-380. Scarlett, A., Galloway, T.S., Canty, M., Smith, E.L., Nilsson, J., Rowland, S.J., 2005. Comparative toxicity of two oil dispersants, Superdispersant-25 and Corexit 9527, to a range of coastal species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24, 1219- 1227 Teal, J.M. and R.W. Howarth. 1984. Oil spill studies: A review of ecological effects. Environmental Management 8(1): 27 44. Unified Area Command. 2010. Deepwater Horizon Response Consolidated Fish and Wildlife Collection Report. http://www.restorethegulf.gov/sites/default/files/Consolidated%20Wildlife%20Table%2 010022010_0.pdf. Accessed online: 10/2/2010. Unified Area Command. 2010. Deepwater Horizon MC 252 Response: Strategic plan for sub-sea and sub-surface oil and dispersant detection, sampling and monitoring. http://www.spyglassbio.com/environmental_news/wpcontent/uploads/2010/11/13_NOV_2010_SMU_Strategic_Plan.pdf. Accessed online 4/10/2011. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Effects of Oil on Wildlife and Habitat. http://www.fws.gov/home/dhoilspill/pdfs/DHJICFWSOilImpactsWildlifeFactSheet.pdf. Accessed online: 10/2/2010. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Federally Listed Wildlife and Plants Threatened by Gulf Oil Spill. http://www.fws.gov/home/dhoilspill/pdfs/FedListedBirdsGulf.pdf. Accessed online: 10/2/2010. Xia, YQ; Boufadel, MC. 2010. Lessons from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill disaster in Alaska DISASTER ADVANCES, 3 (4): 270-273

54 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDICES

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 55 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX A
MAXIMUM LAND OILING

56 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 57 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX B
DARRP IN MISSISSIPPI AND ALABAMA

58 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 59 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX C
DARRP IN LOUISIANA

60 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 61 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX D
DARRP IN FLORIDA

62 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 63 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX E
DARRP IN TEXAS

64 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 65 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX F
CONSOLIDATED FISH AND WILDLIFE COLLECTION REPORT

66 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

U NIFIED A REA C OMMAND , J ANUARY 25, 2011

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 67 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX G
THREATENED AND ENDANGERED SPECIES PROXIMATE TO THE GULF COAST

68 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Appendix G. Threatened and Endangered Species Proximate to the Gulf Coast Amphibians frosted flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) Threatened species info Final designated critical habitat Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Mississippi Gopher Frog (Rana capito sevosa) Population: Wherever found west of Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers in AL, MS, and LA Reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi)

Endangered

species info

Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

Endangered

species info

Final designated critical habitat

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Birds Mississippi Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) Endangered species info Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Red-Cockaded (Picoides borealis) woodpecker Endangered species info Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

Piping Plover melodus)

(Charadrius

Threatened

species info

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Population: except Great Lakes watershed

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 69 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Wood stork (Mycteria americana) Population: AL, FL, GA, SC Clams Alabama heelsplitter (Potamilus inflatus)

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Threatened

species info

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

Chipola slabshell chipolaensis)

(Elliptio

Threatened

species info

Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Fat three-ridge neislerii)

(Amblema

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Gulf moccasinshell (Medionidus penicillatus)

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Ochlockonee moccasinshell (Medionidus simpsonianus)

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Oval pigtoe pyriforme)

(Pleurobema

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Purple bankclimber (Elliptoideus sloatianus)

Threatened

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Shinyrayed pocketbook (Lampsilis subangulata)

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

70 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Conifers and Cycads Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) Endangered species info Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Ferns and Allies Louisiana quillwort louisianensis) (Isoetes Endangered species info Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Fishes Gulf sturgeon oxyrinchus desotoi) (Acipenser Threatened species info Final designated critical habitat Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Okaloosa darter okaloosae) (Etheostoma Endangered species info species info species info Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

Pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) Pearl darter (Percina aurora)

Endangered

Candidate

Flowering Plants American chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Apalachicola (Conradina glabra) rosemary Endangered species info species info species info species info species Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological

Endangered

Chapman rhododendron (Rhododendron chapmanii) Cooley's meadowrue (Thalictrum cooleyi) Florida skullcap (Scutellaria

Endangered

Endangered

Threatened

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 71 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

floridana) Gentian pinkroot gentianoides) (Spigelia Endangered

info species info species info species info species info species info species info species info

Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Godfrey's butterwort (Pinguicula ionantha) Harper's flava) beauty (Harperocallis

Threatened

Endangered

Miccosukee echinellum)

gooseberry

(Ribes

Threatened

Papery whitlow-wort (Paronychia chartacea) Telephus spurge telephioides) (Euphorbia

Threatened

Threatened

White birds-in-a-nest (Macbridea alba) Lichens Florida Perforate (Cladonia perforata) Mammals Choctawhatchee Beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus allophrys) cladonia

Threatened

Endangered

species info

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Endangered

species info

Final designated critical habitat

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

Endangered

species info species info Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical

Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Louisiana Black bear americanus luteolus)

(Ursus

Threatened

Perdido Key (Peromyscus trissyllepsis)

Beach mouse polionotus

Endangered

species info

72 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

habitat St. Andrew (Peromyscus peninsularis) Beach mouse polionotus Endangered species info Final designated critical habitat Final designated critical habitat Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

Endangered

species info

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

Reptiles Alabama Red-Belly (Pseudemys alabamensis) Black Pine snake melanoleucus lodingi) turtle Endangered species info species info species info species info Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Endangered species info Panama City Ecological Services Field Office

(Pituophis

Candidate

Eastern Indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi) Gopher tortoise polyphemus) (Gopherus

Threatened

Threatened

Population: W of Mobile/Tombigbee Rs.

of

Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Population: FL, Mexico nesting pops. Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) Population: endangered except where

Threatened

species info

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

Hawksbill sea (Eretmochelys imbricata)

turtle

Endangered

species info

Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 73 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Services Field Office Kemp's Ridley sea (Lepidochelys kempii) turtle Endangered species info Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Leatherback sea (Dermochelys coriacea) turtle Endangered species info Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) Threatened species info Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Panama City Ecological Services Field Office Ringed Map turtle (Graptemys oculifera) Threatened species info Louisiana Ecological Services Field Office Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office Yellow-Blotched Map (Graptemys flavimaculata) turtle Threatened species info Mississippi Ecological Services Field Office

74 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX H
RESEARCH ACTIVITIES CONCERNING FEDERALLY LISTED SENSITIVE SPECIES

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 75 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Research Activities Concerning Federally Listed Sensitive Species Research Activities Classification of Title Activity Start Date West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Manatee Aerial Monitoring Monitoring Document the Impacts of Oil Intrusion on Keystone Sentinels in Mobile Bay Waters Research

Anticipated Date

End Environmental Theme Funding Source Organization

6/8/10 Ongoing

Coastal and nearshore habitats, Dispersants, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals NRDA

Dauphin Island Sea Lab

7/15/10

12/31/10 Unknown Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

NGI, BP-GRI

Dauphin Island Sea Lab

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Manatee Habitat and Research, Food Supply Monitoring

6/1/10 Ongoing

Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries Dauphin Island Sea Lab

Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Manatee Distribution in AL and MS Restoration

5/1/10 Ongoing

Coastal and nearshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on

Alabama Division of Dauphin Island Sea Wildlife and Lab Freshwater

76 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

life stages of aquatic Fisheries animals, Restoration Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals USF Coastal and nearshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs NSF- RAPID Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Ecosystem and NOAA-NERRS, community structure MSU, UGA

USF: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Research, Assessment Monitoring
Piping plover (Charadrius melodus)

6/23/10 Ongoing

University of South Florida

RAPID: Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Impacts on migratory shorebirds and carryover effects Research

10/1/10

9/30/11

Tulane University

Baseline Assessment of bird populations in Mississippi coastal Research, marshes Monitoring

3/1/10

Ongoing

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve / Mississippi State University

Cape Sable seaside sparrow* (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 77 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Baseline Assessment of bird populations in Mississippi coastal Research, marshes Monitoring


Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)

3/1/10

Ongoing

Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Ecosystem and NOAA-NERRS, community structure MSU, UGA Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration NOAA, BP Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals USF

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve / Mississippi State University

Oiled sea rehabilitation

turtle Restoration 6/21/10 Ongoing

North Carolina State University

USF: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Research, Assessment Monitoring
Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)

6/23/10

Ongoing

University of South Florida

78 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

USF: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Research, Assessment Monitoring
Kemps Ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)

6/23/10

Ongoing

Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals USF Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals USF Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration NOAA, BP Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem USF

University of South Florida

USF: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Research, Assessment Monitoring

6/23/10

Ongoing

University of South Florida

Oiled sea rehabilitation USF: Horizon

turtle Restoration 6/21/10 Ongoing

North Carolina State University University of South Florida

Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Deepwater Research, Oil Spill Monitoring

6/23/10

Ongoing

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 79 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Impact Ecosystem Assessment

and

Oiled sea rehabilitation

turtle Restoration 6/21/10 Ongoing

health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration NOAA, BP Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Coastal and nearshore habitats, Offshore habitats, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals USF Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration NOAA, BP

North Carolina State University

Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)

USF: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosystem Research, Assessment Monitoring

6/23/10

Ongoing

University of South Florida

Oiled sea rehabilitation

turtle Restoration 6/21/10 Ongoing

North Carolina State University

80 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

RAPID: Modeling of Short-Term and LongTerm Marine Mammal Population Trends in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring Research, Cues Monitoring

9/1/10

8/31/11

Offshore habitats, ecosystem and community structure NSF- RAPID

University of Louisiana at Lafayette

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 81 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I
COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

82 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity FOCAL: Fisherie s Oceanog raphy of Coastal Alabama Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source ADCNRMRD Organizatio n Dauphin Island Sea Lab/Univ. So. AL PI Name Phone Email Abstract Frank Hernand ez, Monty Graham, Sean Powers 2518612141X 2416 fherna ndez@ disl.or g, mgrah am@d isl.org, spowe rs@dis l.org Since October 2004, the Fisheries Oceanography of Coastal Alabama (FOCAL) program has conducted monthly ichthyoplankton & zooplankton surveys off the coast of Alabama, and has maintained continuous physical oceanography observations (e.g., temperature, salinity, current velocity) from a permanent offshore mooring. Depth-discrete ichthyoplankton samples and neuston samples have been collected along a cross-shelf transect from coastal waters to a station located approximately 55 km offshore. The long-term survey conducted by the FOCAL program provides extensive biological and physical baseline information crucial to ascertaining impacts on fisheries resources due to the Deep Horizon oil spill. Since the Deep Horizon oil spill, we have increased our sampling frequency to bi-weekly and have added additional survey components relevant to examining oil spill effects.

Deepwat Research, er Monitoring Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Manatee Habitat and Food Supply

6/1/10 Ongoing

Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Alabama Dauphin Division Island Sea of Lab Wildlife and Freshwat er Fisheries

Ruth H. 251Carmicha 861el 2141X 7555

rcarmi chael @disl. org

Data on conditions at known key manatee habitat sites in Alabama water (CTD, sediment and water column organic composition, and isotope ratios in available foods for manatees). Directly assessing presence of oil in water and on food resources (PAHs in water and sediments), plus other changes in habitat and food resource composition. A portion of the work is funded.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 83 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Manatee Distribu tion in AL and MS Biodegr adation of the Deepwat er Horizon oil in Florida marsh ecosyste ms and explorat ion of novel passive remedia tion strategie s Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Restoration 5/1/10 Ongoing Coastal Ecosystem Alabama and Division community of structure, Wildlife Impact on life and stages of Freshwat aquatic er animals, Fisheries Restoration Monitoring, Research, Restoration Ongoing Ongoing 2.00 Coastal Oil spill BP-FIO modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Restoration Organizatio n Dauphin Island Sea Lab PI Name Phone Email Abstract Ruth H. 251Carmicha 861el 2141X 7555 rcarmi chael Compiling current and baseline data on distribution, @disl. movement patterns, and population structure of org manatees in AL and MS relative to oil movements. Data include sightings, baseline aerial surveys for manatees in AL (~3 year dataset, plus historical data), and tracking of 2 tagged manatees, which are migrating. There are plans to capture and tag 2 additional manatees later this summer. All 4 animals will be tracked during the fall migration out of the northern Gulf. A portion of the work is funded. azimm er@ufl .edu

University of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences

Andrew Zimmer man, Brian Silliman

3523920070

84 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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Title of Activity Impacts of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill on Estuarin e Bottleno se Dolphin populati ons in the West Florida Panhand le Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, Ongoing Ongoing 1.00 Coastal Research Environment Funding Organizatio al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem BP-FIO University of health and Central indicators, Florida Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs PI Name Phone Email Abstract Graham A.J. Worthy 407 823 4701 gwort hy@m ail.ucf. edu This project will assess population size and genetic discreteness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) communities in the oil-impacted western Florida panhandle, collect critical baseline information to ultimately determine pre-spill feeding habits of bottlenose dolphins in those areas and ultimately to examine the relationship between feeding habits and the potential impacts of oil/dispersants. As apex predators, bottlenose dolphins serve as key sentinel species for monitoring ocean and human health. Their roles in oceanic and coastal ecosystems emphasize their relevance for monitoring the potential impacts of oil and oil dispersants on these fragile systems over both the short term and long term. We have assembled a collaborative team consisting of faculty, graduate students, and undergraduate students from the University of Central Florida, researchers from Mote Marine Laboratory, and biologists from the Apalachicola Field Laboratory, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute working in conjunction with scientists from the National Marine Fisheries Service and National Ocean Service. We propose to initiate a comprehensive assessment of the current status of bottlenose dolphin communities in Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound and Choctawhatchee Bay and to begin to assess the immediate impact of oil and dispersants on their distribution, habitat use, and feeding habits. Ultimately these baseline data and samples will be critical in the long-term assessment of their health and survival. Specifically we will conduct photographic identification (photo-ID) determinations of population size and distribution as well as direct assessments of genetic relatedness and feeding ecology. In addition, putative prey species will be collected from these same bay systems. Skin/blubber samples collected using biopsy sampling of freeswimming dolphins will allow us to combine standard toxicological and enzyme marker assays of blubber, with genetic analysis, stable isotope analysis of skin (to assess feeding ecology and habitat utilization), and fatty acid signature analysis of blubber (feeding ecology) to better understand oil exposure both from direct contact as well as through their food chain. We are also uniquely positioned to respond to both live and dead stranded cetaceans through our involvement with the local marine mammal stranding program. This latter access will allow for full biological sampling and assessment of cause of death or health problems. Pre- and post-spill knowledge of the spatial and temporal scales of the movements of these animals, population structure, specific habitat utilization and

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 85 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location The Research Ongoing Ongoing 2.00 Coastal Deepwat er Horizon oil spill: Assessin g impacts on a critical habitat, oyster reefs and associat ed species in Florida Gulf estuarie s Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem BP-FIO Florida Ed health and Atlantic Proffitt indicators, University Ecosystem and community structure Phone Email Abstract 772 242 2207 cproffi Oysters (especially the eastern oyster, Crassostrea t@fau. virginica) are an abundant natural resource of edu considerable economic, ecological and social importance throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Major oyster reef habitats include reef flats (intertidal and shallow subtidal), fringing marsh reef, dispersed reef clusters, and mangrove prop root oyster communities. Although much research has shown that oyster reefs provide invaluable biogenic habitats for numerous invertebrate and finfish species throughout the entire range of C. virginica (Canada through Brazil), most sites in the Gulf of Mexico lack detailed quantitative data regarding oyster population demographics, critical oyster attributes (abundance, reproduction, levels of stress-related physiological and mutation markers, etc.) and the biodiverse communities associated with oysters in this region. Without immediate efforts to obtain these baseline data on C. virginica along the Florida Gulf coast, it will be impossible to adequately assess the impacts, required restoration and eventual recovery from discharges of the Deepwater Horizon spill. Our goals are to: 1) assess pre-spill conditions in oyster habitats from the Panhandle through extreme South Florida (Ten Thousand Islands and/or Keys) and collect data on a simple tissue indicator of oil extent, 2) catalogue survival and growth in areas where different degrees of oil-related impacts occur, and compare these among sites using tissue PAH concentration as a covariate, 3) determine pre-spill levels of genetic diversity and patterns of spatial genetic relatedness among locations on the Gulf coast (and between mangrove and reef flat habitats in southern areas), and monitor how oil exposure affects these population parameters (4) examine the inherent PAHs in key reef organisms in impacted and distant (unimpacted) areas on Florida Gulf sites; and (5) describe the results in a GIS format of overlays for future use by those who will be involved in long term monitoring. Because baseline C. virginica population data is paramount to assessing

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n the magnitude of any oil-related impacts, funding for a Quick Start approach is essential to achieving these objectives.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 87 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Effects of a Major Oil Spill on Nektoni c Assembl ages of Salt Marshes and Adjacent SAV Habitats in Florida and Alabama Toxicity of Deepwat er Horizon Oil and Dispersa nts on Floridas Calcifyin g Reef Biota The Impact of Crude Oil and the Dispersa nt Corexit* on Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n Research Ongoing Ongoing 2.00 Coastal Ecosystem BP-FIO FIT Richard health and Aronson indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Phone Email Abstract (321) rarons 674- on@fit 7982 .edu

The goal of this project is to assess the short-term impacts of the spill on marshes and SAV habitats, with a view to long-term monitoring of trajectories toward recoveryor not. Research Ongoing Ongoing 2.00 Coastal Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Dispersants BP-FIO USF Pam M. Hallock

To test both toxicity and sublethaleffects of crude oil and dispersants on organisms that are amenable to experimental manipulation and are representative of calcifying members of reef and hard-bottom communities of Florida FAU Susan Laramor e

Research

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem BP-FIO health and indicators, Dispersants, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

88 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Three Key Gulf of Mexico Inverteb rate Species Impacts from MC252 Oil on Ecologic ally and Commer cially Importa nt Plankto n of the Gulf of Mexico Baseline and Oil Spill Impacte d Marine Sponge Microbia l Commu nities and Gene Expressi on Analysis with Metagen omics Classification Start of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Research

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem BP-FIO health and indicators, Dispersants, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

FGCU, FAMU Darren Rumbold

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators

BP-FIO

NSU, FIU, HBOI-FAU, NSU

Jose Lopez

The central aim of this proposal is to use 2-3 sentinel sponge species and their associated microbiota along with advanced molecular and genomic tools to assess the impact of oil contamination on Western Florida shelf reefs.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 89 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Assessin g the impact of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill on coastal waters of the Florida Panhand le: water sedimen ts and fish Acute Effects of Oil on Norther n Gulf of Mexico Reefs and Reef Commu nities Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n Research Ongoing Ongoing 1.00 Coastal Ecosystem BP-FIO FAMU, UWF Charles health and Jagoe indicators, oil spill modeling & tracking

Research, Monitoring

10/1/1 10/1/11 0

1.00 Coastal

Penetrat Research, ion, Monitoring accumul ation and degradat ion of BP DWH oil in Florida

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem BP-FIO and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals, Trophic dynamics and food webs Oil spill BP-FIO modeling and tracking,Dispe rsants, Ecosystem health and indicators

UWF, FAMU, William NMFS Patterso n

FSU, Eckerd

Markus Huettel

90 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date sandy beaches Effects of the BP Oil Spill on diatoms, nannopl ankton, and related protists at the base of the food chain in the NE Gulf of Mexico Uncoupl ing of autotrop hy and heterotr ophy effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on microbia l food webs Monitori ng of the Coastal Pelagic Fish Research, Monitoring End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Ongoing Ongoing

1.00 Coastal

Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants, Toxicology

BP-FIO

FSU, MSU

Sherwoo d Wise

* To assess the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and BP dispersants on the base of the food chain, particularly on skeletal-bearing diatoms and calcareous nannoplankton. * To extend previous baseline studies of the protistin taxa in question from the coastal bays and estuaries to the continental slope and along the Florida Panhandle Research Ongoing Ongoing 1.00 Coastal Ecosystem BP-FIO and community structure, Dispersants, Trophic dynamics and food webs UWF, FAMU Wade Jeffrey

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology,

BP-FIO

NSU, UNF

David Kerstette r

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 91 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Complex for Assessin g DWHRelated Trophic Changes and Contami nant Exposur e Effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on Epipelag ic and Large Coastal Sharks and Teleosts of the Gulf of Mexico Molecul ar diagnose s of coral exposed to oil and dispersa nt: a holobion Classification Start of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n Dispersants, Trophic dynamics and food webs

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Toxicology

BP-FIO

MML, UNF, Robert FIT, USM, Heuter NOAA/NMFS

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal

Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants, Toxicology

BP-FIO

FAU, Mote FFWRI

Sara Edge

Diagnostic tool development and integrated assessment of potential oil & dispersant impacts on Floridas reef building corals

92 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location t approac h to investig ate potentia l effects on corals Integrati Monitoring Ongoing Ongoing 2.00 Coastal ve biodiver sity assessm ent of coralsponge commun ities of W. Florida Shelf: establish ing a baseline for a sensitive ecosyste m Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n

Ecosystem and community structure, Restoration

BP-FIO

UF, FSU, SMS, Gustav NSU Paulay

I. Assess biodiversity and community structure II. Create integrative taxonomic resource III. Establish monitoring, conduct baseline assessment

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 93 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Tracing Research 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal the intrusio n of the GOM2010 oil spill on coastal food webs with natural abundan ce radiocar bon (14C) Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source BP-FIO; Florida Sea Grant Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Florida State Dr. Jeff Unkno jchant The radioisotopic form of carbon, 14C, with a half-life University Chanton wn on@fs of 5730 yrs, has proven to be a useful tool for u.edu investigating sources, residence time and transformations of inorganic and organic carbon pools in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The circumstances surrounding the Deepwater Horizon oil spill provide a unique opportunity to use this tracer to investigate the effects of the spill on coastal ecosystems and fisheries in Florida. We propose to build on a currently supported Florida Seagrant project as well as several prior and ongoing sampling efforts at FSUCML to trace the fate of the oil, its derivatives, and associated dispersants on coastal ecosystems in the panhandle region. The baseline sampling that has already been conducted and the lag time prior to oil reaching this region will allow us to characterize the 14C signature of coastal food webs prior to, during, and after oil impact as well as across a spatial gradient in impact severity, thus allowing us to effectively trace its effects through the food web. Louisiana Qianxin (225)5 comlin State Lin, 78@lsu.e University Irving A. 8889, du, Mendelss (225)5 imend ohn 78el@lsu 6425 .edu The primary goal of this research is to determine the impact of the DWH oil on coastal wetland habitats in the northern Gulf of Mexico and their associated ecological functions. We shall also identify those processes and mechanisms that control these responses and determine the fate of the spilled oil. Short- and intermediate-term effects of the oil on vegetative structure and function, biogeochemical processes, oil chemistry, as well as vegetative resilience will be investigated.

Fate and Research Effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on the Ecologic al Structur e and Function of Coastal Wetland Ecosyste ms

8/27/1 8/26/11 0

1.00 Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure

BP-LSU

94 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Recover y and remedia tion of emulsifi ed oil in contami nated marshes : biostimu lation and natural recovery Effects of PAHs from the Deepwat er Horizon Event on the trophic organiza tion of resident oyster reef commun ities in coastal Louisian a: baseline data for assessin g chronic and cascadin Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, Ongoing Ongoing Coastal Restoration Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem BP-LSU Louisiana Pardue, health and State John indicators, University Restoration

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

Coastal

Ecosystem BP-LSU and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs

Louisiana State University

La Peyre, Megan

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 95 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date g impacts End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Effects Research of Inhaled Florida Red Tide Breveto xins (oil contami nants are added as an addl mission of the grant) Samplin Research, g of Monitoring fishes (adults, juvenile s, larvae) ichthyop lankton, zooplan kton and water quality in the MobileTensaw Delta

7/15/0 6/30/11 0

11.00 Coastal

Human health, DHHS, UNCW Toxicology NIH, CDC, Center for FL-DOH Marine Science

Daniel Baden

7/8/10 Ongoing

Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

EPA, ADCNR, Mississip piAlabama Sea Grant Consorti um, Alabama Agricultu ral Experime nt Station

Auburn University, Dept. of Fisheries

baden @unc This consortium of investigators from 7 research and w.edu health organizations has spent 11 years examining the effects of inhaled Florida red tide brevetoxins on Sarasota Florida beaches. This NIH Program Project incorporates meteorology, oceanography, aerosol particulate chemistry and physics, water chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, in vivo and in vitro pharmacology, public health, and clinical sciences. This program piggy-backs oil component analysis as part of its mission, the oil components and red tide lipids possessing similar oil/water partitioning characteristics, and potential human exposure. Eleven years of collaboration provides for synergistic expertise related to ocean aerosols. Dennis 334- devrid DeVries, 844- r@aub Russell 9322, urn.ed Wright 334- u, 844- wrighr 9311 2@au burn.e du During 2002-2009 we sampled 6-8 sites once per month in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta in coastal Alabama for fishes (including age-and-growth, diets, movement), plankton, and water quality. These data demonstrate the tremendous variation (seasonal, annual, spatial) in the biota in these ecosystems, and provide a baseline data set for comparison with postoil spill collections.

910 962 2408

96 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Deepwat Research 5/1/10 4/30/11 1.00 Coastal er Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Oyster Resourc es Pre-spill assessm ent of seagrass along Florida's Gulf Coast Assessin g oil spill impacts on juvenile fishes, crabs, and shrimp at the Chandel eur Islands: a compari son to baseline data. Research 6/1/10 8/31/10 0.25 Coastal Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source Florida Sea Grant Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Bill Pine Unkno billpin This project will quantify oyster reef population Florida wn e@ufl. metrics (density, population size structure, and edu viability) across environmental gradients in the Big Bend area that may be impacted by contamination from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. It will result in a monitoring framework and baseline data for use in assessing post-oil spill impacts to oyster reef communities in Big Bend or for use in development of reference sites for comparing impacted to Gulf Coast reference locations. Florida University of Dr. Tom Unkno frazer Sea Grant Florida Frazer wn @ufl.e du This project will document the health of seagrasses at relevant stations with metrics characterizing assemblage, composition, production, stress, and competition. This survey will establish a baseline for comparison should oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster reach Florida's Gulf coast. Louisian University of Dr. 504- mocon a Sea New Orleans Martin 280- nel@u Grant O'Connell 4032 no.edu

Ecosystem and community structure

Research, Monitoring, Restoration

5/1/10 12/31/1 0

0.58 Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Seafood safety, Trophic dynamics and food webs

Our objectives for this proposal are: 1. to collect beach seine, trawl, and gillnet data at our historical baseline sampling sites at the Chandeleur Islands and the Biloxi Marshes such that we can accurately assess any impacts of the oil spill on local juvenile fishes, crabs, and shrimp; 2. to recollect our 52 PIT tagged lemon sharks prior to the brunt of the oil spill's impact on the habitats; and 3. to establish a 'post oil spill' collection and assessment protocol such that we can begin efforts involving analyzing the long-term impacts of the oil spill on aquatic organisms.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 97 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Changes in Coastal Food Webs Caused by the Deepwat er Horizon Crude Oil Spill: Respons es by and Effects on Oysters and Other Primary Consum ers Effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on Growth and Mortalit y of Farfante penaeus aztecus (Blue crab) and Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research 5/1/10 5/15/11 1.04 Coastal Ecosystem Louisian health and a Sea indicators, Grant Trophic dynamics and food webs Organizatio n LSU Dept. of Geology and Geophysics PI Name Phone Email Abstract Dr. 225Laurie C. 578Anderso 2153 n glande @lsu.e du

Objectives of the project are to assess the pathways and rates at which hydrocarbons from the spill are incorporated into the local marine food web. We will examine three primary consumers, the suspensionfeeding commercial oyster, Crassostrea virginica, deposit-feeding clams of the family Tellinidae, and the omnivorous grazing gastropod Littoraria irrorata. We are focusing on mollusks because of the importance of the oyster fishery in the region, and also because environmental perturbations of many scales (including hydrocarbon spills) are recorded in the accretionary growth of their shells. In this way, we will trace the secondary impacts (not related to fouling by direct contact) of hydrocarbons as these organic compounds move through trophic levels of the coastal ecosystem. Research, Monitoring 5/1/10 6/30/11 1.17 Coastal Ecosystem Louisian LSU Dept. of Dr. Kim health and a Sea Oceanograph de indicators, Grant y and Coastal Mutsert Seafood safety, Sciences Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals 2255785317 kdemu t1@ls u.edu Assess the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the growth rate and mortality of Farfantepenaeus aztecus and Callinectes sapidus. Farfantepenaeus aztecus (brown shrimp) and Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) will be sampled monthly in salt marshes and open bays in coastal Louisiana using a Before-AfterControl-Impact design with samples Paired in time (BACIP design). An impacted estuary, presumable Breton Sound pending the landfall of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, will be sampled once a month with a bag seine at selected sites within the estuary at marsh edges and with an otter trawl in the open water of the upper Sound.

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Callinect es sapidus (Brown Shrimp) in an Affected Louisian a Estuary End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Microbia Research, l Species Monitoring and Commu nity Structur e as Indicato rs of Oil Spill Recover y and Restorat ion

5/1/10 4/30/11

1.00 Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration

Louisian LSU Dept of Dr. Ralph 225a Sea Environment Portier 578Grant al Sciences 4287

The Research Toxicity of Dispersa nt Corexit

6/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Dispersants, Louisian LSU Toxicology, a Sea AgCenter Impact on life Grant stages of aquatic animals

Julie 225Anderso 578n 0771

rporti 1) Determine the quantitative relationship of the e@lsu. proportion of Acinetobacter sp, a native bacterial edu species in the microbial community structure upon the insurgence of crude oil, and during the remediation and recovery time period in laboratory microcosms. 2) Develop a panel of DNA primer sets for the simultaneous qPCR (Quantitative Real-Time PCR) analyses of diverse microbial species in environmental water specimens in order to evaluate the level of contamination and the degree of recovery and/or restoration of the local aquatic environment. 3) Establish quantitative indicators in the microbial populations for the level of recovery and restoration of contaminated salt marsh sites in the field. Using the results of the laboratory studies in the above objectives 1) and 2) as a guide, the population dynamics of Acinetobacter and/or other marker microbes in the community structure following an oil release and at six month intervals during recovery will be demonstrated. An additional corollary to this research effort may also involve dispersant effects on the community paradigm. jander son@a Standard static LC50 96-hr trials with 4 concentrations gcente of Corexit 9500 and a control will be run with blue r.lsu.e crab juveniles. Sub-lethal 24 hr and 48 hr dosing du experiments will be done with juveniles to look at long-term sublethal affects of dispersant exposure.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 99 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity 9500 on Blue Crab Juvenile s under Gulf of Mexico Conditio ns Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Blue Crab Recruit ment Classification Start of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Research, Monitoring

5/1/10 12/31/1 0

0.58 Coastal

Acute Research respons es of oyster populati ons to the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill across coastal Louisian a: examini ng hydroca rbon

5/1/10 1/31/11

0.75 Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Seafood safety, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Seafood safety

Louisian Tulane a Sea University Grant

Dr. 504Caroline 865Taylor 5172

Louisian Louisiana a Sea State Grant University

La Peyre, Megan

caz@t ulane. The objective of this project is to estimate the effects of edu the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the recruitment of Callinectes sapidus, blue crab, into Gulf of Mexico (GOM) estuaries. To do this, we will use a particletracking model to simulate blue crab larval dispersal from March 1st-June 30th, 2010 in the GOM both with and without the oil spill kill-zone. These simulations will provide us estimates of total GOM-wide reduction in blue crab recruitment due to the oil spill, and will also enable us to identify specific areas in the GOM where recruitment will be most drastically decreased. jlapeyr e@agc tr.lsu.e du

To assess the impacts of crude oil on oyster populations by comparing the health and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons concentration of oysters sampled pre-spill, within the first 2 weeks of the oil spill reaching the oysters and after 2 months of oil exposure in three Louisiana estuaries

100 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity bioaccumul ation and oyster health Rapid assessm ent of the impact of the Deep Horizon oil spill on Louisian a oyster reefs Classification Start of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Research, Monitoring

5/1/10 12/31/1 1

0.58 Coastal

Ecosystem Louisian Louisiana health and a Sea State indicators, Grant University Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Brown, K.

kmbro We will develop a rapid assessment index of oil spill wn@ls effects on adult oyster condition, reproduction, u.edu survival and growth, and the diversity and abundance of the commensal community that is so important to fish production. We will place out vexar bags filled with oysters at sites heavily and lightly impacted by the spill, retrieve them after 2 months, and record oyster survival, weight change, condition index, and the commensal community. We will also place out clay tiles to record oyster spat recruitment at the same sites. This will enable a rapid, low cost way to assess the health of oyster reefs exposed to hydrocarbon pollution from the Deep Horizon spill. Should longer term funding be available, we will ground truth our estimates by sampling plots in nearby oyster reefs for effects on oyster cover and biomass, and conduct further studies on effects on oyster settlement and recruitment. We will also compare our data to LDWF pre-spill sampling of oyster reefs/leases on nearby areas.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 101 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Evaluati on of Potentia l Impacts of Oil Spill from the Accident of the BP Deepwat er Horizon Rig on the Vegetati on of Louisian a Coastal Wetland s Saltmars h habitat samplin g to delineat e potentia l oil impacts from BP Deepwat er Horizon spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 5/1/10 1/31/11 0.75 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source Louisian a Sea Grant Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Lin, Q. State University This project will evaluate the potential impacts of the oil spill from the accident of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig on the vegetation of coastal wetlands after the spilled oil comes ashore by using various quick plantbioassay techniques. Specifically we shall answer the following questions: (1) What are the adverse effects of the spilled oil on different dominant marsh plant species which could be potentially impacted? (2) How do impacts of different degrees of the oil contacting the vegetation affect the dominant marsh plants? (3) How effective are quick plant-bioassays in assessing the short-term impacts of the oil and in predicting the related long-term impacts of the oil spill in coastal marshes? and (4) How can guidelines for the use of quick plant-bioassays in assessing the impacts of oil in contaminated wetlands be based on results of the proposed research? University of Patrick Southern Biber Mississippi Unkno Unkno wn wn Oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill has been coming ashore along the Mississippi Sound since early June 2010, with a larger incidence of oil arriving around the time tropical systems (e.g. Hurricane Alex) are active in the Gulf. To date no comprehensive maps of the amount of oil that has washed ashore have been made publicly available, so the potential concentration of hydrocarbons present in sediments or bioavailable in plants and animals is unknown. We plan to investigate the hydrocarbon concentration present in these 3 habitat fractions, and create a synoptic map of our results for the Mississippi mainland coastline.

Monitoring

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Oil spill NGI modeling and tracking, Trophic dynamics and food webs

102 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Fate and Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Coastal Transpo 0 0 rt of Oil and Dispersa nts in Norther n Gulf of Mexico Estuarie s Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio PI Name Phone n Department Dr. James 662of Civil and Martin 325Environment 7194 al Engineering Email Abstract jmarti n@cee .mssta te.edu With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Research (RAPID), scientists at the Florida State University will study the transport and biodegradation of Deepwater Horizon crude oil in Gulf beach sands. The study will place emphasis on the sediment clogging caused by oil filtration and ensuing changes to the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities. Although the process of oil contamination of beaches has been investigated in great detail, little is known about the effect of crude oil on beach filtration and the effect of oil-related reduction of beach pore water flows on oil transport and microbial degradation within the sandy sediment. This filtration process, caused by wave set up and tidal water level changes, constitutes an effective pumping mechanism that can drive low-viscosity crude oil and detergent-oil mixtures deep into beach sediments. Oil transport into deeper, anoxic layers may decrease oil degradation rates, thereby extending the period of toxin release to nearshore waters. Goals of the project are to assess 1) how much and how deep oil is filtered into the beach, 2) how oil alters the beach filtration rate and thereby sediment oxygenation, 4) how oil contamination changes structure and function of the sand microbial community and 5) which factors regulate oil degradation by microbial communities in marine sands. To quantify these processes, sets of sediment cores will be taken at time intervals along a short transect from the supralittoral to the sublittoral zone at a sandy beach in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The sediment will be analyzed for oil content (amount, composition and distribution), sediment characteristics (permeability, porosity, grain size spectrum, oxygen penetration), and the microbial community (composition and activity). Oil will be characterized using a GC-MS. Changes in microbial community composition and activity will be assessed using a combination of culture-based and cultivationindependent molecular techniques. The results will quantify the uptake of oil and detergent-oil mixtures into Gulf sand beaches, the effect of these substances on sediment physical and biogeochemical properties, the response of the sedimentary microbial community, and oil degradation rates. Broader Impacts: The sandy beaches of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico are of high ecological and economical value as they are biotope, foraging and breeding area of a large number species, and present a main tourist attraction. Tourism is Florida?s largest sector of the state economy with about 60 million visitors every year and a $57 billion impact. The pollution of the beaches by

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 103 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Integrat Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Coastal ed 0 0 Assessm ent of Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Dispersants, Restoration Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Northern William (662) mcana Objectives of this effort are to : 1. provide early Gulf Institute McAnally 325- lly@ng predictions of oil fate based on representative 2809 i.mssta hurricane scenarios to aid pre-planning; 2. predict the te.edu physical distribution, dispersion and dilution of contaminants under the action of currents and storms in coastal estuaries; 3. determine environmental effects of the oil/dispersant system on shallow water habitats, wetlands, and beach sediments.; 4. improve understanding of biological degradation of the oil/dispersant systems and subsequent interaction with the marine and coastal ecosystems; 5. provide a Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning toolkit for displaying results useful in recovery management. Ecosystem NGI, BP- Department Gary N. 662- gervin The Deepwater Horizon Incident has impacted coastal health and GRI of Biological Ervin 325- @biol habitats including beaches, barrier islands, shallow indicators Science and 1203 ogy.ms water habitats (seagrass beds and other submersed Geosystems state.e vegetation), and coastal marshes and estuaries. Research du Although the obvious negative effects of oil and Institute dispersant contamination in coastal habitats has been broadcast worldwide, the more subtle effects of these chemicals cascade throughout coastal ecosystems, and unfortunately, little is known regarding those complex, ecosystem-level impacts To address this unpredictable risk to coastal ecosystems we initially plan to assess early responses of intertidal habitats to oil/dispersant contamination and assess the interaction between oil/dispersant system and soil/sediment microbial assemblages Oil spill NGI, BP- Center for Gordon Unkno gskelt The oil and other contaminants from the Deepwater modeling and GRI Defense Skelton wn on@c- Horizon spill have a fundamental impact on the lesstracking, Integrated did.co visible portions of the delicate chemical and biological Dispersants Data m ecosystem of the Gulf of Mexico. Biological and chemical impacts are critical elements that need to be addressed at the micro level. This project will construct, validate, and deploy, within selected Mississippi and Alabama Gulf and coastal waters, a pair of Adaptive, Mobile Robotic Sampler Platforms for In-Water Capture and Return of Oil Spill Chemical, Microbial and Particulate Matter. Funding Source NGI, BPGRI

Impact Research of the Deepwat er Horizon Incident on Natural Systems

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Data Research Samplin g and Modelin g of Contami nant Dispersa nt

8/1/10 7/30/11

1.00 Coastal

104 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Monitori ng of Natural Resourc es in the Pontcha rtrain Basin Followin g the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Processe s, Habitats, and Fisherie s Impacts of the Deep Horizon Oil Spill on Ecosyste m Structur e and Function in Alabama 's Marine Waters Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, 8/1/10 12/31/1 0.33 Coastal Research 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Dispersants, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Pontchartrai Denise Unkno djreed n Institute Reed wn @uno. for edu Environment al Sciences The monitoring work builds on existing monitoring programs addressing important ecosystem processes and functions by identifying oil related changes and status of the oiling. The proposal addresses the dynamics of the estuaries and transport processes influencing the distribution of oil through the coastal ecosystem, and changes to the coastal environment related to the spill mitigation measures. Process surveys include measurements of flows and particulate transport along bay-Gulf gradients, and bathymetric and shoreline surveys of areas where dredging and placement of sand has occurred. Water samples, together with tissue samples, vegetation and sediment, will be analyzed for oil and residue. John Unkno jvalent Valentine wn ine@d isl.org

Research

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0.46 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- Dauphin modeling and GRI Island Sea tracking, Lab Dispersants, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Now that oil is fully inundating Alabama's coastal waters, we propose seven tasks that will evaluate the initial (acute) impacts of this unprecedented environmental catastrophe on the same ecologically and economically important components of our coastal ecosystem that were sampled before oiling occurred. Efforts will be focused on documenting oil impacts, assuming they exist, on planktonic organisms, economically and ecologically important adult fishes, trophic pathways, key biogeochemical processes driven by microbial communities, finfish and shellfish nursery habitats, and representative federally listed species in our area.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 105 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Impact of Crude Oil on Coastal and Ocean Environ ments of the West Florida Shelf and Big Ben Region from the Shorelin e to the Contine ntal Shelf Edge Assessin g Possible Impacts of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on Summer Plankto n Assembl ages of the Inner Contine ntal Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Florida State Eric P. Unkno echass University Chassign wn ignet et @coap s.fsu.e du

The project developed by Florida State University in response to this spill represents an integrated, rapidresponse study of the impact of oil on coastal and ocean marine ecosystems of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this proposal are to improve the modeling physical parameters that influence the distribution and persistence of oil; to examine the effects of oil deposition on biogeochemistry and the direct and indirect consequences to coastal habitats and marine food webs that support fishery production; and to determine the ecological considerations needed to inform rapid bioremediation. Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0 0.54 Coastal Unknown NGI, BP- University of Harriet GRI Southern Perry, Mississippi Bruce Comyns Unkno Harrie wn t.Perry @usm. edu, Bruce. Comyn s@us The goal is to investigate possible impacts to the m.edu species composition and abundance of fish and invertebrate larvae collected during summer on the inner continental shelf of the north-central Gulf resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event. Objectives include the following: 1) compare the species composition and abundance of fish larvae collected at the two SEAMAP stations with a historical database of summer ichthyoplankton collections taken at the same locations during the past 10 years, and 2) determine distribution and abundance of fish and selected invertebrate decapods larvae in transect samples from oblique and surface plankton tows.

106 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Shelf in the Northcentral Gulf of Mexico End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Investig Research ation of Juvenile Fishes Associat ed with Pelagic Sargassu m Habitat in the North Central Gulf of Mexico Monitori Monitoring, ng and Research Assessm ent of Potentia l Impacts of Oil Contami nation on Coastal and

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Ecosystem NGI, BP- University of and GRI Southern community Mississippi structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Bruce Unkno Bruce. Comyns, wn Comyn Eric s@us Due to the importance of pelagic Sargassum as critical Hoffmay m.edu, nursery habitat for an abundance of juvenile fishes, the er, Jim Eric.H proposed study will provide a timely assessment of Franks offmay impacts to the Sargassum juvenile fish community er@us relative to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The m.edu objectives of the study are to describe and compare the juvenile fish community (species composition, sizes, and abundance) associated with oil impacted and non-oil-impacted Sargassum habitat. Also, to determine the relationships between species richness and abundance of juvenile fishes identified in Sargassum collections and the quantities of Sargassum taken in collections. Ecosystem NGI, BP- University of Stephan Unkno stepha The potential incorporation of PAH-related health and GRI Southern Howden, wn n.how carcinogens into local fisheries and shellfish is also a indicators, Mississippi Scott den@ major cause of concern. This project involves Seafood safety, Milroy usm.e monitoring the impacts of PAH-contamination within Dispersants du, ecologically and commercially important species. This scott. assessment will not only serve to define the extent of milroy ecosystem impairment as a result of the DWH spill, but @usm. such information will also be used to inform resource edu managers and provide data to initialize specialized oil spill-food chain interaction models capable of forecasting production, mortality, and the bioaccumulation of PAH-toxins among end-members within the larger marine food web.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 107 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Marine Ecosyste ms in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Monitori Research ng the Impacts of Disperse d Oil Exposur e on Ecologic ally and Economi cally Importa nt Species in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Using molecul ar Biomark ers

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants

NGI, BP- University of R.J. Unkno Joe.Gri GRI Southern Griffitt, wn ffitt@u Mississippi Robin sm.ed Overstre u, et Robin. Overst reet@ usm.e du

Our research plan will examine the hypothesis that dispersed oil exposure will lead to altered biomarker expression states in exposed organisms indicative of exposure to hydrocarbons released from the Deepwater Horizon site. We will survey field populations for effects of crude and dispersed oil contamination using a suite of well known and validated molecular, functional, and histopathological biomarkers. Exposures will also be performed under controlled laboratory settings to assess effects on larval development and reproduction.

108 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Coastal Observa tion Platform s in Support of Characte rization of Oil Extent and Transpo rt Salt Marsh Habitat Samplin g to Delineat e Potentia l Oil Impacts from BP Deepwat er Horizon Spill Quantify ing the Effects of Oil on the Microbia l Commu nity Structur e and Processe Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Coastal 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Stephan Unkno stepha Southern Howden wn n.how Mississippi den@ usm.e The NOAA Office of Response and Restoration is using du the data from our stations in developing their oil spill trajectory forecasts. Additional funding will be sought to keep glider and buoy operations running in the northern Gulf. The primary objective of this effort will be to provide a near real time and historical characterization of surface currents in the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf region west of the Mississippi Birdfoot delta, and relate these observations to various forces including wind, buoyancy, tides and mesoscale circulation features. Ecosystem NGI, BP- University of Patrick Unkno Patric and GRI Southern Biber, wn k.Bibe community Mississippi Wei Wu, r@us structure Mark m.edu, Peterson Wei.W u@us m.edu, The primary objective of this effort is to examine Mark. sediments, plant tissues, and fish fauna in five Peters watersheds along the Mississippi coastline for the on@us presence of oil contamination and potentially m.edu detrimental effects on salt marsh ecosystems. Five watersheds will be sampled to determine the possible contamination by oil. The watersheds are Grand Bay NERR, Lower Pascagoula River, Davis Bayou at GCRL, Jourdan River, and Lower Pearl River. Oil spill NGI, BP- Dauphin Alice Unkno aortm modeling and GRI Island Sea Ortmann wn ann@ We will determine the extent to which the intrusion of tracking Lab disl.or oil into our coastal waters has impacted pelagic g microbial community structure and the processes they carry out by sampling at stations. Extensive before oiling comparative data bases exist for these locations. Microbial DNA samples collected from surface waters before oil exposure, along with DNA samples collected during this early oiling phase, will be analyzed to determine if the composition and relative abundances of microbes in the coastal water column has been changed by the oil. Funding Source NGI, BPGRI

Research

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal

Research

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 109 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date s in Alabama Coastal Waters End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Nutrient Research Dynamic s and Primary Producti vity in the Breton Sound Estuary as Impacte d by the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Impact Research of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on Vibrios in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- Louisiana modeling and GRI State tracking, University Restoration

Susan Welsh

Unkno swelsh wn @lsu.e du This project will measure nutrient dynamics and primary productivity in Breton Sound Estuary as impacted by the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We will map the distribution of various ecological parameters along a transect run in upper Breton Sound estuary approximately each two weeks from late August to early December 2010 using a flow through system. Spatial and temporal patterns of nutrients, especially nitrate, will be used to determine the capacity of the Breton Sound estuary to process nutrient inputs from the Caernarvon diversion.

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- Louisiana modeling and GRI State tracking, University Impact on life stages of aquatic animals, Restoration

Susan Welsh

Unkno swelsh wn @lsu.e This project is to determine the impact of the du Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the abundance and virulence of Vibrio in the Gulf. The proposed work is to 1) measure the concentrations of total and pathogenic V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus in water, bottom sediment, and oysters in Breton Sound and Barataria Bay, 2) measure environmental parameters, in particular salinity, temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll, and 3) compare the concentrations of total and pathogenic V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus before and after the oil spill.

110 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Evaluate the Extent to Which Sedimen tary Biogeoc hemical Cycles and Specifica lly the Nitrogen Cycle have been Changed by Inundati on of Coastal Waters by Oil Plankto n Monitori ng of the Baratari a and Breton Sound Transect s Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio n Dauphin Island Sea Lab PI Name Phone Email Abstract Behzad Unkno bmort Mortazav wn azavi i @disl. org

Research

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- Louisiana modeling and GRI State tracking, University Restoration

Susan Welsh

With a decline in the depth of the oxic layer into the sediments, organic matter degradation increases via anaerobic respiration. This ultimately leads to an increase in hydrogen sulfide concentrations which inhibit nitrification. To evaluate the extent to which the nitrogen cycle in Mobile Bay marsh sediments may be altered by oiling, we will compare potential rates of nitrification and denitrification at control and contaminated sites in the summer and fall. We will also measure the composition of PAH in the sediments with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry following a modified dichloromethane methanol extraction. Unkno swelsh We will continue to collect samples at six stations wn @lsu.e along each transect to assess the abundance and du community composition of phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The samples will be replicate whole water samples from one to two feet below the surface at each station. A digital, semi-automated analysis technique will be used to create a permanent digital record of the samples and to allow for rapid analysis of the samples in the short time period of this proposed work.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 111 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Evaluate the Potentia l for Along estuary Transpo rt of Oil derived substanc es in Surface and Subsurfa ce Waters of the Ship Channel of the Mobile Bay Estuary Docume nt the Impacts of Oil Intrusio n on Economi cally and Ecologic ally Importa nt Fishes in Alabama 's Nearsho re and Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Dauphin Kyeong Unkno kpark Island Sea Park wn @disl. Lab org

We propose to conduct replicated field surveys along the Mobile Bay ship channel at multiple locations. Velocities will be measured using a vessel-mounted ADP. We will use CTD castings made at 15 stations to measure temperature, salinity, CDOM fluorescence, dissolved oxygen, etc. The main issues to be addressed include: 1) to what extent does along-channel circulation and scalar transport vary spatially and temporally in the channel; 2) does freshwater discharge enhance or retard the landward intrusion of near surface water containing light materials and near bottom water with heavy materials; and 3) what is the relationship between stratification and along channel transport. Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0 0.46 Coastal Ecosystem and community structure NGI, BP- Dauphin GRI Island Sea Lab Sean Powers Unkno spowe wn rs@dis l.org We will conduct both longline sampling and benthic trawling at historically occupied stations in the nearshore and inshore waters of coastal Alabama. Post inundation catch data will be compared with existing data, collected by DISL scientists, to quantify the immediate impacts of uncontrolled releases of oil on the abundance and species composition of adult fishes. Tissues will be extracted from different species of demersal fishes for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur stable isotope analysis. Comparisons of this data will be made with samples collected for another NGI project which supported the collection of demersal fishes before the inundation of oil.

112 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Coastal Waters End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

NIUST Research Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill MultiTask Researc h Proposal Docume Research nt the Impacts of Oil Intrusio n on Keyston e Sentinel s in Mobile Bay Waters

7/2/10 12/31/1 0

0.50 Coastal

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- University of Raymond Unkno ray@o modeling and GRI Mississippi Highsmit wn lemiss. tracking, h edu This project involves modifying the Station Service Ecosystem Device to become a versatile platform for detecting, and monitoring and mapping oil plumes in the marine community environment. The SSD will be modified to work to full structure, spill depths and to easily support additional Restoration instruments that will make the SSD a multi-function sampling platform capable of reaching the depths needed to map and monitor subsurface oil plumes. Ecosystem NGI, BP- Dauphin Ruth Unkno rcarmi In Mobile Bay, the health of two important species, the and GRI Island Sea Carmicha wn chael American oyster and the endangered West Indian community Lab el @disl. Manatee, are at risk of contamination by oil. To structure, org quantify the effects of oil-derived substances and Hypoxia reported oil spill-induced hypoxia on oysters, we will add the quantification of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and stress-targeted proteins on ongoing oyster studies at two reef sites. To measure oil spill impacts on manatees, we will monitor the movement of two to four tagged manatees throughout local waters. PAH and contaminant testing of water and sediment samples in the ship channel and other travel corridors will also be performed.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 113 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Physics, Oil, and Fish: Modelin g the Effects of Pulsed River Diversio n on Oil Transpo rt and Fish Distribu tion Oil Spill Effects on Ecosyste m Respirat ion for Two Louisian a Estuarie s NIUST Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill MultiTask Researc h Proposal Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal Impact on life NGI, BP0 0 stages of GRI aquatic animals, Restoration Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Susan Unkno swelsh State Welsh wn @lsu.e University du

This project will model the effects of pulsed river diversion on oil transport and fish distribution. Our project combines hydrodynamics (physics), water quality, and individual-based fish models into a single integrated physics to fish model, and examine how changes in salinity, temperature, and water quality resulting from diversions affect several key fish species. Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0 0.46 Coastal Oil spill NGI, BP- Louisiana modeling and GRI State tracking, University Impact on life stages of aquatic animals, Restoration Susan Welsh Unkno swelsh wn @lsu.e du

We will conduct respiration studies to determine if oil inputs are depressing ecosystem P:R and lowering of estuarine oxygen levels towards hypoxic conditions. Changes in oxygen and particulate organic matter are monitored in these bottle experiments to assess metabolic activity and respiration. Related new studies will focus on trying to understand the broader breakdown of oil during respiration by the whole ecosystem.

Research

7/2/10 12/31/1 0

0.50 Coastal

Oil spill NGI, BP- University of Raymond Unkno ray@o modeling and GRI Mississippi Highsmit wn lemiss. To improve understanding of the processes governing tracking, h edu the fate of oil droplets in the deep plumes, including Ecosystem the advection and mixing of materials, we will map the and size and three-dimensional distribution of oil droplets community and hydrates throughout the water column using a structure, quantitative camera system augmented by sensors for Restoration methane, CDOM and PAH levels. Also, we will collect and study sediment samples near the wellhead and surrounding sites such as MC118.

114 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Baratari Research 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal a 0 0 Estuary Water Quality Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Susan Unkno swelsh This project will assess if oil significantly affects water State Welsh wn @lsu.e quality by measuring dissolved nutrients, University du phytoplankton and oil in monthly samples from Barataria and Lake Pontchartrain estuaries and comparing the data to the 10 year long term record. Analyses of all samples will include phytoplankton pigments, nutrients, salinity, suspended sediments, inorganic carbon, and many others. Subsample for algal pigments and identification will be given to LUMCON to analyze. The metabolic footprint of the microbial community will be analyzed using a commercially available 96 well plates embedded with 32 different substrates. Oil spill NGI, BP- Dauphin Ken Heck Unkno kheck modeling and GRI Island Sea wn @disl. tracking Lab org Funding Source NGI, BPGRI

Docume Research nt the Impacts of Oil Intrusio n on the Health of Critical Nursery Habitats and Habitat Utilizati on Patterns of the Young of Economi cally Importa nt Fishes

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal

The pre-oil spill impact data collected on seagrass composition and biomass, as well as associated mobile macroinvertebrates and juvenile fishes, provide a baseline to compare the impacts of current inundation of oil on the health and function of critical vegetated nursery habitats in coastal Alabama. These data will be combined with additional data from intertidal marshes adjacent to seagrass meadows that have been sampled as part of another project. With this data set, we will be able to document any oil impacts by using methods identically used in pre-oiling collections in the areas that have subsequently received oil.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 115 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location NIUST Research 7/2/10 12/31/1 0.50 Coastal Deepwat 0 er Horizon Oil Spill MultiTask Researc h Proposal Evaluate Research the Impacts of Oil, Methane and Dispersa nt on Pelagic Food Web Structur e and Organic Matter Cycling Along the Alabama Coast 7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0 0.46 Coastal Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem and community structure, Restoration Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Raymond Unkno ray@o Now faced with an unprecedented anthropogenic Mississippi Highsmit wn lemiss. disaster, the ability of seagrass beds to survive and h edu perform their ecological functions is in question. We propose to characterize the impact of oil spill contamination on the physiological responses and overall health of seagrass systems in the northern GOM, integrating a combination of molecular biomarker, genetic and chemical biomarker analyses. We will identify the current seagrass physiological status and level of PAH contaminants at sites in the northern GOM, and assess initial responses to oil contamination. Oil spill NGI, BP- Dauphin Monty Unkno mgrah modeling and GRI Island Sea Graham wn am@d tracking, Lab isl.org Dispersants, Trophic dynamics and food webs We would like to determine the extent to which hydrocarbon additions have altered the pelagic component of the food web in the north central Gulf of Mexico by using bi-weekly sampling cruises using the Dauphin Island Sea Labs 12m RV E.O. Wilson at different stations from Alabama's coast. Sampling will focus on quantifying the chemical properties of the seawater along with heterotrophic and autotrophic microbial populations and activities in oiled and unaffected locations. These results will be compared with historical baselines to evaluate the extent that pelagic food web interactions have been altered by the oil spill. Funding Source NGI, BPGRI

116 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Interacti ve Effects of Petroleu m Contami nation and Hurrican es on High Biodiver sity Coastal Transiti ons Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/03 Ongoing Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NICCR, CREST, UROP Organizatio PI Name n Louisiana Dr. Bill State Platt University Phone Email Abstract 2255786586 btplat Storm surges pushing water containing oil into coastal @lsu.e transitions, landscapes that extend from marine to du terrestrial habitats along coastlines, potentially can move ocean water far inland along low-lying shorelines, thus potentially can affect high biodiversity coastal ecosystems such as low-lying wetland savannas and prairies, seepages with carnivorous plants, and even upland maritime forests and pine savannas along the coast. a network of existing study sites, situated along the northern Gulf coast. At selected sites with intact transitions, we have installed transects that span a 1-2m change in elevation from coastal marine inshore submerged sea grasses and waters' edge salt marshes to high biodiversity upland terrestrial pine savannas. We have installed a series of replicated plots at 10 cm changes in elevation; local environments and vegetation have been measured in these plots. These plots have produced vital data on substrates, physical characteristics of the environment, and biodiversity of vegetation over a period of time (up to 8 years) during which effects of major disturbances (sea level rise, hurricanes [Ivan, Katrina], fire suppression) have been studied. All habitats at all elevations along transects have been influenced by one or more storm surges during hurricanes, and habitats are intermediate elevations have been stressed by sea level rise. We now plan to study the effects and responses to contamination by oil, most likely to result when hurricanes cross the Gulf of Mexico. kwillet t@ole miss.e Our goal is to quantitate water and sediment du associated PAHs from 10 sites between Gulfport and Mobile that we have been monitoring since Hurricane Katrina. In addition, we will use collected water samples in a Fundulus embryo bioassay. Endpoints to be measured that will reflect PAH exposure include developmental defects (e.g. cardiac toxicity) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.

Water Research, and Monitoring sedimen t toxicity assessm ent after Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill

6/1/10 Ongoing

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAA health and indicators, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

University of Kristie Mississippi Willett

6629156691

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 117 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity GIS Decision Making Framew ork to Assist the Coordin ation of Researc h Activitie s in Multiple Levels of Coastal Ecosyste m Modellin g oil spill impacts on West Florida Shelf fisheries Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research 7/1/10 Ongoing Coastal Oil spill NOAA modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants, Restoration Organizatio n Geosystems research Institute Mississippi State University PI Name Phone Email Abstract Dr. 662 Rodrigo 325Nobrega 0821 sal@gr i.mssta To facilitate the coordination among the research te.edu areas in the Natural Systems task area, the Geosystems Research Institute - Mississippi State University is going to develop a pilot version of an interactive tool to geographically support decision making based on the hierarchical multi-scale research undertaken by the NGI/Natural Systems team. This GIS-based framework will be designed for collaborative involvement, scenario evaluation and comparative analysis. Given the objective of NGI Phase-I quick response, this project will serve as a pilot study and may be expanded to other NGI/MSU teams in the near future. The core-solution will be capable to couple to existing applications, such as the NOAA's Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) and integrate other factors such as socioeconomic research results and data collection. ddie@ rsmas. A spatially explicit simulation model has been miami. developed representing the interaction between five edu commercially important snapper-grouper species (red grouper, gag grouper, red snapper, vermilion snapper, and mutton snapper) and the fishing fleets (vertical line and longline) that catch them. The model was designed to generate spatially-explicit simulated catch data for the main five species of the snapper-grouper complex of the Florida West coast shelf. It contains sub-models for fleet and fish dynamics, including movement of both fish and vessels. The model will be used to evaluate effects of spatially explicit spatial fishing closures and recruitment failures.

Research

6/1/08 5/31/11

3.00 Coastal

Ecosystem NOAA health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

University of David J Miami Die

305 421 4607

118 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Rapid Collabor ative Proposal : Spatially -explicit, Highresoluti on Mapping and Modelin g to Quantify Hypoxia and Oil Effects on the Living Resourc es of the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Mississi ppi Diamon dback Terrapin Nesting Beach Surveys Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Ecosystem NOAAand CSCOR community structure, Toxicology, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animal, Hypoxia Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Oregon Sea Stephen 541- stephe Grant Brandt 737- n.bran 3396 dt@or egonst ate.ed u

Research, Monitoring

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

NOAAECSC, NOAANERRS

Environment Christina 228al Mohrma 475Cooperative n 7047 Science Center

Our 7-day cruise in the northern Gulf of Mexico adds to 5 years of late summer baseline data including highresolution mapping of hydrography, oxygen, plankton and fish. Our domain of interest encompasses the hypoxic zone west of the Mississippi Delta as well as east of the Mississippi adjacent to oil transport from the spill. Our metrics of species diversity and abundance, biomass size spectrum, fish diets, fish growth rate potential and ecosystem models will be extremely useful to assess possible effects of the oil spill on living resources in this region. Broader mapping of the affected area is also planned. Unkno Natural, sandy beaches within the Grand Bay National wn Estuarine Research Reserve (Grand Battures and Point aux Chenes) were surveyed for diamondback terrapin nesting activity. Diamondback terrapins are a small turtle endemic to coastal salt marshes; terrapins construct their nests on sandy beaches, above the high tide line. Depredated nests were used as a proxy as intact nests are cryptic and difficult to identify. Nest locations were recorded using GPS and nest sites were characterized, describing percent cover of vegetation surrounding the nest site. Eggshells were counted and removed from the beach to prevent re-counting of nests on subsequent surveys.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 119 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Submerg ed Aquatic Vegetati on (SAV) biomass samplin g Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 4/29/1 Ongoing Coastal Monitoring 0 Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NOAANERRS Organizatio n Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve PI Name Phone Email Abstract Jay 228McIllwai 475n 7047 Unkno Twenty biomass samples were taken from five wn seagrass beds across the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, located in southeast Jackson County, Mississippi. At each site, a 7.62 cm core was taken to check for the presence of seagrass. Samples were washed in situ and taken to the laboratory for analysis. In the lab, above and below ground biomass portions of the sample were separated and quantified. Shoots and leaves were counted and recorded. Samples were weighed (wet weight), dried for ~24 hours and re-weighed (dry weight). Unkno Five seagrass beds (Middle Bay; Grand Bay, AL; Grand wn Bay, MS; Jose Bay; and Point aux Chenes Bay) within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve are sampled along 4-5 transects per site. Each transect is approximately 200 meters in length. Using a 0.5 meter quadrat, five points along each transect are sampled for percent cover (Braun-Blanquet cover scale) of bare substrate, SAV, shell, and macroalgae. Seagrass is identified to species, longest blade and longest reproductive shoot (if present) are measured, and epiphytic growth is estimated. Water depth and water quality data are also recorded. Unkno wn Samples were collected within and adjacent to the Grand Bay NERR. Intertidal sediment samples were collected by extracting a sample of sediment using a typical garden shovel. A sub-sample was then collected with a nitrile-gloved hand and handled following USEPA guidelines for mussels requiring oil chemistry source finger printing analysis (in brief: wrapped in aluminum and double-bagged in plastic zip top bags). Benthic samples were collected using a Ponar grab and preserved as above. Additional benthic samples were collected for community characterization and preserved in 10% formalin. Samples were subsequently transferred to 70% ethanol, identified to lowest taxa, and enumerated.

Submerg Research, ed Monitoring Aquatic Vegetati on (SAV) surveys: distribut ion and composi tion Baseline Monitoring assessm ent of sedimen t and benthic commun ities within the Grand Bay National Estuarin e Researc

4/11/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure

NOAANERRS

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Will 228Underwo 475od 7047

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAAhealth and NERRS indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Gretchen 228Grammer 4757047

120 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date h Reserve End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Water Research, quality Monitoring assessm ent: longterm monitori ng and event based samplin g Fish Research, commun Monitoring ities of nearsho re habitats within the Grand Bay National Estuarin e Researc

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Oil spill NOAAmodeling and NERRS tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Christine 228Walters 4757047

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAAhealth and NERRS indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Gretchen 228Grammer 4757047

Unkno Four water quality monitoring stations (and one wn weather station) are located throughout the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, and are actively maintained as part of the NERRS System-wide Monitoring Program (SWMP). YSI data sondes record a variety of abiotic parameters (e.g. salinity, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen) every 15 minutes; data are telemetered to the internet near-real time. In addition, monthly samples are collected throughout the Reserve for nutrient analyses. In response to the Deepwater Horizon spill, a variety of additional grab samples have been collected for MS DEQ and other agencies for PAH analysis, hydrocarbon monitoring, etc. Unkno wn Fish were collected and preserved as part of an ongoing characterization of nearshore fish communities within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, initiated in 2005. Fish were collected at 14 sties based on five habitat types (depositional salt marsh edge, erosional edge, sandy beach, shell midden, and seagrass) using a 20 foot bag seine (1/8 inch ACE mesh) pulled for approximately 50 meters at each site. Fish were preserved, identified, measured (mmSL), and deposited at the Mississippi Museum of Natural Sciences. Additional fishes were collected using a 16 foot otter trawl (1/8 inch ACE interior mesh) in deeper-water locations.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 121 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date h Reserve End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Baseline Research, Assessm Monitoring ent of estuarin e macroin vertebra tes within the Grand Bay National Estuarin e Researc h Reserve Baseline Monitoring assessm ent of plankton occurrin g within seagrass beds of the

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAAhealth and NERRS indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Gretchen 228Grammer 4757047

Unkno wn

Oyster, blue crab, shrimp, fiddler crab, and periwinkle snails were collected throughout the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GBNERR) located in southeast Jackson County, Mississippi. All samples were collected following USEPA guidelines outlined for mussels requiring oil chemistry source fingerprinting analysis. In brief, samples were collected using nitrile-gloved hands, placed in aluminum foil and then double-bagged in plastic storage bags, and frozen. Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve Gretchen 228Grammer 4757047 Unkno wn Plankton samples were collected from two seagrass beds (Middle Bay and Jose Bay) within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, southeast Jackson County, Mississippi. Plankton samples were collected using a 330 mesh net, 2 feet in diameter and towed for five minutes. Samples were fixed in the field in 10% formalin and transferred to 70% ethanol after three days.

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAAhealth and NERRS indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and

122 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Grand Bay National Estuarin e Researc h Reserve Shorelin e surveys and photom onitorin g within the Grand Bay National Estuarin e Researc h Reserve Baseline Assessm ent of bird populati ons in Mississi ppi coastal marshes Classification Start of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Monitoring

4/29/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Oil spill NOAAmodeling and NERRS tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure NOAANERRS, MSU, UGA

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

Will 228Underwo 475od 7047

Unkno wn Survey transects were created at the Grand Battures, Point aux Chenes, and Bangs Island within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GBNERR), Mississippi. PVC poles were spaced 200 meters across the shorelines; from these sites, sectors will be created for staff and other personnel to survey for plant and wildlife damage. Photographs were taken at each pole (upbeach, down beach, toward land, substrate) and georeferenced. Additionally, photographs and percent cover estimates were taken at 31 emergent marsh sites throughout the GBNERR. Marsh edge type, percent cover of floral species within a 50 meter radius, and GPS location were recorded. Unkno Secretive marsh birds and marsh passerines were wn surveyed along pre-determined routes within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GBNERR) and Pascagoula River marshes in Jackson County, Mississippi. During 13 minute point counts, call-playback surveys were utilized to illicit responses from territorial, breeding birds. All individuals and distances were counted and recorded. Shorebirds were surveyed at the Grand Battures (GBNERR). Birds were observed with a HD 80mm Swarovski spotting scope with 20x-60x zoom. All birds were identified to species and counted.

Research, Monitoring

3/1/10 Ongoing

Coastal

Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve / Mississippi State University

Mark 228Woodrey 4757047

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 123 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Satellite Monitoring 4/21/1 Ongoing Coastal monitori 0 ng of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Restoration Dispersants, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Organizatio PI Name Source n NOAAROFFS Mitchell OAR, Roffer ROFFS Phone Email Abstract 3217235759 roffers @bells outh.n et At ROFFS we have been mapping the distribution and movements of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill from satellites since the explosion. Basically we are using a host of U.S. (NOAA and NASA) and European (ESA) satellites with a variety of spectral (infrared, near infra-red, visible, RGB, synthetic aperture radar, and altimeters) and spatial resolutions (300 meter to 1 KM) to see the oil. We use a plethora of techniques to remove or reduce the effect of clouds and satellite angle, as well as, to manipulate the satellite data. Sequential image analysis allows us to visualize the motion. craig_ Intermittent personnel support (veterinarians, harms veterinary technicians) to on site sea turtle @ncsu rehabilitation facilities engaged in cleaning and .edu treating oiled sea turtles. Assisting with collection of forensic samples and clinically-applied data. cgreen @agce nter.ls u.edu

Oiled Restoration sea turtle rehabilit ation Acute Research toxicity of the anionic surfacta nt dioctyl sodium sulfosuc cinate to eggs, larvae, and juvenile Gulf killifish at varying salinitie s

6/21/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

NOAA, BP

North Carolina State University Louisiana State University AgCenter

Craig Harms

2522226339

5/1/10 12/31/1 0

0.67 Coastal

NOAA, Louisian a Sea Grant

Christop 225her C. 765Green 2848

The overall goal of this project is to investigate the acute toxicity of a primary oil dispersant component to eggs, larvae, and juvenile Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) across a range of environmentally relevant salinities. Specifically this work seeks to determine the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DSS) to eggs, 15-d posthatch (dph) larvae, and juvenile (0.5 g) Gulf killifish. Due to the ability of DSS to alter absorption rates and membrane permeability we believe that it might demonstrate increasing toxicity as salinity ranges from freshwater to full strength seawater.

124 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Characte rizing the flow of carbon through the microbia l loop in Alabama waters The effects of species diversity , consum er pressure , and bioreme diation on salt marsh recovery from oil Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, 7/15/1 12/31/1 0.46 Coastal Research 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NOAA, NGI Organizatio PI Name n University of Alice South Ortmann Alabama & DISL Phone Email Abstract 2518612141 aortm ann@ disl.or g The objectives of the project are to document changes in the relative rates of grazing and viral lysis on prokaryotes (non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic) and other phytoplankton groups from the center of Mobile Bay to the 35 m depth. This project will continue experiments that were begun in July 2009, with an aim to understanding if the previously observed patterns are altered due to oil exposure. Models will be built using pre- and post-exposure data to predict changes in carbon cycling in the microbial loop.

Monitoring, Research

10/1/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Ecosystem NOAA, and NGI community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs

Florida State University Coastal and Marine Laboratory

Randall Hughes, David Kimbro

850 697 4093, 850 697 4092

rhugh es@bi o.fsu.e du, dkimb ro@bi o.fsu.e du

We will examine the independent and interactive effects of plant species diversity, consumer presence, and bioremediation (nutrient addition) on the recovery of salt marsh systems from oil / hydrocarbon exposure. Specifically, we will (1) quantify relationships between plant species diversity, community structure, and response to oil exposure in natural salt marshes ranging from St. Joe Bay to Cedar Key, FL, and (2) experimentally test the relative importance of plant species diversity, consumer presence, and bioremediation via nutrient additions on the recovery of salt marshes across this same geographic region.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 125 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Effects Research 1/1/04 12/31/1 Coastal of the 2 Deep Water Horizon oil spill on the nursery role of coastal marshes in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Deepwat Monitoring er Horizon Oil Spill Manatee Aerial Monitori ng 6/8/10 Ongoing Coastal Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NOAA, NGI, ADCNR Organizatio PI Name n Dauphin Just Island Sea Cebrian Lab Phone Email Abstract

Dispersants, NRDA Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Dauphin Island Sea Lab

251- jcebria We intend to evaluate the impact that the Deep Water 861- n@disl Horizon oil spill will have on the abundance, diversity 2141X .org and productivity of marine invertebrates and 7568 vertebrates that inhabit coastal marshes in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Our focus is on recreationally and economically important species of shellfish (e.g., brown shrimp, blue crab) and finfish (e.g., red drum, spotted sea trout, grey snapper) that recruit or live permanently on marsh edges and adjacent seagrass beds. Over the past few years, we have been quantifying the abundance, diversity and productivity of invertebrates and juvenile fish in a number of marsh locations expanding the states of Mississippi and Alabama. Thus, our pre-spill robust data set provides us with an opportunity to document the effects of the spill on this important ecosystem service provided by marshlands. Ruth H. 251- rcarmi Carmicha 861- chael Manatee emergency response and direct monitoring: el 2141X @disl. To conduct aerial surveys for manatees for the 7555 org duration of the spill. Weekly surveys are ongoing. This work is an NRDA collaboration with Sea to Shore Alliance in Florida and part of a coastwide survey effort that includes LA, MS, AL, and FL. Aerial surveys are funded, but emergency response is not funded.

126 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Collabor Research 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Coastal ative Researc h: RAPID: The Effects of Oil Contami nation from the Deep Horizon Disaster on the Composi tion of Dissolve d Organic Matter in Louisian a Coastal Marshes Environment Funding Organizatio al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem NSF Georgia health and Institute of indicators Technology PI Name Phone Email Abstract E. Michael Perdue 4048943942 mperd ue@ea s.gatec h.edu The catastrophic failure of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 well (DWH MC252) in the Gulf of Mexico has led to the release of massive quantities of light south Louisiana crude oil, which consists of alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins, and a relatively high proportion of asphaltenes. This RAPID proposal is motivated by the urgent need to obtain several large samples of chemically representative dissolved organic matter (DOM) from both pristine and recently contaminated coastal marsh ecosystems. It is anticipated that these chemical fingerprints of contamination from the oil spill will be transient, disappearing gradually into the natural background chemistry of DOM, and hence the working hypothesis of this proposal. Working Hypothesis: The chemical characteristics of DOM will be abruptly (and probably temporarily) perturbed both by direct effects of oil and its degradation products and by indirect effects of decomposition of dead biomass, thus making DOM a convenient proxy which integrates all of the effects of the DWH MC252 oil spill on the biogeochemical cycling of organic matter in marshes of coastal Louisiana.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 127 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source RAPID: Research 6/1/10 6/1/11 1.00 Coastal Restoration NSF Emerge ncy Field Investig ation of OilBeach Interacti on along the Alabama and Florida Beaches Followin g the BP Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Ping 813- pwang At least ten study sites spanning the northern Florida South Florida Wang 974- @usf.e and Alabama coast will be investigated before and 9170 du after the oil landfall. A pre-landfall study is designed to provide general systematic baseline data. The study sites after oil landfall will be revised based on the locations and intensity of the contact. Real-time monitoring and forecast by NOAA will be used to plan the post-landfall study. Generally, three locations will be selected at each study site, including a heavily developed section, an un-developed section, and an overwash-prone section. Systematic data collection including time-series beach-profile surveys, surface sediment sampling, and shallow coring will be conducted. We believe the proposed study will provide a valuable and unique data set for the understanding and predicting of oil-sand mixing in a beach environment. The anticipated direct results and findings of the proposed study include: 1) patterns of crossshore distribution of the oil-sand mixing; 2) factors controlling the oil and sand mixing in various parts of a beach environment; 3) regional characteristics of the oil-sand mixing on beaches by comparing the findings at various study sites; and 4) an improved set of criteria for assessing oil contamination in a sandy beach environment. Florida Jim 303- jim.fou International Fourqure 348- rqurea The purpose of this RAPID projectis to conduct: (1) University an 4084 n@fiu. pre-impact sampling of hydrocarbon concentrations edu and food web structure at sites that may be directly impacted by the oil spill, and (2) repeated sampling of a full suite of environmental parameters in the event that the spill reaches the spatial domain of the Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research project. We will test the hypotheses that 1) oil spills shorten food chain length in coastal ecosystems, and 2) food web structure will be differentially effected in seagrass beds, where the primary producers are relatively insensitive to hydrocarbon pollution, compared to mangrove forests where the primary producers are killed by oil.

RAPID Research respons e to measuri ng the ecologic al effects of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill on the Florida Coastal

8/1/10 7/31/11

1.00 Coastal

Ecosystem NSF health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs

128 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Everglad es End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Near Research shore circulati on and oil tracking

5/10/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal

Oil spill NSF modeling and tracking

University of Rick North Luettich Carolina at Chapel Hill

2527266841 x137

rick_lu ettich @unc. edu

We are expanding the well-developed ADCIRC modeling capability for high resolution circulation and storm surge to include potential oil trajectories in the nearshore. This complements most existing modeling in the Gulf that is better suited to deeper waters. Specifically we are (i) interfacing ADCIRC model velocity fields (including tides and wave driven currents) with an unstructured grid particle tracking code to represent oil spill movement, (ii) evaluating model results against available field data with the goal of improving model parameterizations and physics, (iii) providing cyber-enhancements to allow integrated, scalable tracking and real time graphics output, (iv) modeling potential oil transport associated with hurricanes.

Assessm Research, ent of Monitoring the impacts of the Deep Horizon oil spill on Bluecrab , Callinect es

7/1/10 6/30/11

1.00 Coastal

Ecosystem NSFand RAPID community structure, Dispersants, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

University of Richard Southern Fulford Mississippi

(601) Richar 266- d.Fulfo This project involves monitoring and toxicological 4119 rd@us experiments to assess the impact of crude oil and m.edu dispersant in the water column on growth, survival, and behavior of blue crab zoea and megalopae. Monitoring consists of daily measurements of megalopal settlement rate at seven sites along the Mississippi coast from June to September. Laboratory experiments will be used to estimate lethal tolerance of both zoea and megalopae to crude oil and dispersant, as well as effects of chronic sub-lethal exposure on molecular stress response, molting rate, and swimming behavior.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 129 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date sapidus, spawnin g and recruitm ent in the northce ntral Gulf of Mexico. End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

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Title of Activity Oil spill transpor t modelin g in shelf, estuary, and intracoa stal regions Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Ohio State Kubatko, (614) kubatk The main goal of this research is to further develop, University Ethan 292- o.3@o apply, and analyze a computational tool that can be 3805 su.edu used to examine the transport tendencies along the U.S. East Coast including Florida, Georgia, and both Carolinas as they relate to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The central piece of this computational tool will be the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) hydrodynamic model. ADCIRC is a finite element model for solving time?dependent, free surface circulation and transport problems in two? and three?dimensions. Existing finite element meshes of the region will be further developed to provide an unprecedented level of resolution and physical detail, including detailed coverage of coastal rivers and lagoons, tidal creeks, the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, and tidally flooded marshes. The ability to accurately simulate the tidal dynamics of this region, as well as hurricane storm surge, will be coupled with recent and ongoing development of the transport capabilities of the ADCIRC model using discontinuous Galerkin methods. The integration and further development of these three key components, i.e., the high-resolution finite element meshes, the ability to accurately simulate tidal and storm surge dynamics, and robust, massconserving transport algorithms, will provide a powerful computational tool that will be used to simulate the transport tendencies of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill along the U.S. East Coast. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill began on April 20, 2010 as a result of an oil well blowout that caused an explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform located forty miles southeast off the Louisiana coast. A major and immediate concern related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the possibility of the oil slick reaching the Loop Current ? a warm ocean current that enters the Gulf of Mexico flowing northward through the Yucatan Strait and that exits flowing east through the Florida Straits continuing northward along the east coast of Florida as the Gulf Stream. Oil entering the Loop Current would eventually be transported far afield to the Atlantic Ocean where the presence of large-scale eddies that separate from the western edge of the Gulf Stream have the potential to carry oil toward the GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 131 U.S. East Coast. There is additional concern regarding BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL the transport of oil that may occur during the upcoming Atlantic Hurricane Season, which has been forecasted by NOAA to be an ?active to extremely active? hurricane season. The transport of oil towards the U.S. East Coast ? by means of reaching the Loop Current or from the onset of a hurricane ? would Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID

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Title of Activity RAPID Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Insights into salt marsh food webs from the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Steven (713) spenni Intellectual Merit: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill Houston Pennings 743- ngs@u was an unexpected event that represents a major 9222 h.edu disturbance to coastal systems. Our understanding of how oil affects coastal wetland communities is incomplete. In particular, we know little about how oil affects the arthropod food web, about dose-response relationships between oil exposure and community response, and about long-term recovery from exposure. Moreover, the spatial extent, severity and persistence of this novel disturbance will provide new insights into how coastal wetlands function. Pennings' laboratory is well poised to examine how this novel disturbance will affect coastal wetland communities. His group has set up and sampled an experiment in 2009 at 22 coastal wetland sites ranging along the Gulf Coast from Texas to Florida and the Atlantic Coast from Florida to Maine. This RAPID project will resample the same sites and plots in 2010 and future years to determine how the coastal food web is affected and recovers. The PIs will test the hypotheses that: a) oil exposure will reveal that herbivorous insects and snails have strong negative effects on salt marsh plants; b) oil exposure will reveal the importance of 'transient' members of the arthropod food web; c) oil exposure will interact with fertilizer and wrack treatments to affect the arthropod food web. Because of its spatial extent and persistent effects, the oil spill represents a novel disturbance to coastal wetlands. Evaluating community responses to this disturbance will provide new insights into how the food web functions, leading to a deeper understanding of this critical system. Broader impacts: Salt marshes provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. New scientific insights provided by this project will help predict the future condition of coastal wetlands, which are threatened by a combination of sea level rise, eutrophication, and other stressors such as oil spills, including this largest spill in U.S. history. Public interest in the health of coastal ecosystems is intense, and has already led to interviews of Pennings by journalists following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. ON THE EFFECTS OF THE The results of this RAPID project will be of considerable media interest. In addition, the project will train two graduate students and one undergraduate in ecosystems science.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Monitoring 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Coastal A Survey 0 of Tabanid and Ceratop ogonid Populati ons along Coastal Louisian a to Establis h Baseline Data for Measuri ng the Impact of the BP Oil Spill on Tidal Marsh Commu nities Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Foil, Lane (225) lfoil@ This project will survey the insects that belong to the State 578- agcent families Tabanidae (horse flies, etc.) and University 8231 er.lsu. Ceratopogonidae (biting midges) that use Louisiana Agricultural edu tidal marshes. The larvae of both families of flies prey Center upon invertebrates in tidal marshes, and adult reproduction is dependent upon the vertebrate hosts that reside above the larval habitats. Therefore, these flies will serve as excellent bioindicators for wetland health. The impact and recovery related to oil contamination will be evaluated via comparative analyses of data on population size, species diversity, and genetic diversity of flies collected in tidal marsh areas that are contaminated as well as sites that are not contaminated. The studies will show which areas have been affected by the spill, and identify areas needing mitigation and rehabilitation. The oil spill is likely to impact communities that border the Gulf and potentially even the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, surveillance of these insects could be an important element used in future rapid assessment efforts. Collaboration with scientists from other coastal states will be established to foster development of future assessment efforts. Both graduate and undergraduate students would be involved and benefit from participation in these studies, which should provide a new role for entomology in coastal studies.

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Title of Activity Collabor ative Researc h: RAPID: The Effects of Oil Contami nation from the Deep Horizon Disaster on the Composi tion of Dissolve d Organic Matter in Louisian a Coastal Marshes Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Cook, (225) rlcook The Environmental Chemical Sciences (ECS) program State Robert 578- @lsu.e of the Division of Chemistry will support the University & 2760 du collaborative RAPID research project of Prof. Thomas Agricultural Bianchi of Texas A & M University, Prof. Robert Cook of and Louisiana State University and Prof. Michael Perdue of Mechanical Georgia Institute of Technology. The collaborative College team will investigate the impact of oil contamination from the Deep Horizon Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico on the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Louisiana coastal marshes. The study aims to prove that changes in the component signature of DOM collected from the Louisiana coastal marshes will be indicative of the impact of the Deep Horizon oil spill on geochemical processes in the Louisiana marshes. The team of investigators will utilize boats from the Louisiana Marine Universities Consortium (LUMCON), located in Terrebonne, LA to collect water samples from marshes along Terrebonne Bay. The samples will be filtered to collect the DOM from the water samples. Advanced analytical methods will be used to analyze the DOM content. The study is crucial to elucidate the impact of the Deep Horizon oil spill on the ecosystems along the Louisiana coast. Better understanding of this impact is imperative to development of strategies to restore the marshes to their condition prior to the Deep Horizon oil spill disaster.

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Title of Activity Collabor ative Researc h: RAPID: The Effects of Oil Contami nation from the Deep Horizon Disaster on the Composi tion of Dissolve d Organic Matter in Louisian a Coastal Marshes Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n Texas A&M Research Foundation, GA Tech Research Corporation GA Institute of Technology PI Name Phone Email Abstract Thomas (979) tbianc The Environmental Chemical Sciences (ECS) program Bianchi, 845- hi@ta of the Division of Chemistry will support the Michael 8600 mu.ed collaborative RAPID research project of Prof. Thomas E. Perdue u, Bianchi of Texas A & M University, Prof. Robert Cook of micha Louisiana State University and Prof. Michael Perdue of el.perd Georgia Institute of Technology. The collaborative ue@ea team will investigate the impact of oil contamination s.gatec from the Deep Horizon Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico h.edu on the composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the Louisiana coastal marshes. The study aims to prove that changes in the component signature of DOM collected from the Louisiana coastal marshes will be indicative of the impact of the Deep Horizon oil spill on geochemical processes in the Louisiana marshes. The team of investigators will utilize boats from the Louisiana Marine Universities Consortium (LUMCON), located in Terrebonne, LA to collect water samples from marshes along Terrebonne Bay. The samples will be filtered to collect the DOM from the water samples. Advanced analytical methods will be used to analyze the DOM content. The study is crucial to elucidate the impact of the Deep Horizon oil spill on the ecosystems along the Louisiana coast. Better understanding of this impact is imperative to development of strategies to restore the marshes to their condition prior to the Deep Horizon oil spill disaster.

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Title of Activity PFI (RAPID): A Rapid Respons e Proposal for Mitigati ng the Depositi on of Oil on Gulf Shores via Oil Antidepositi on Strategie s Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research, 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Restoration NSFRestoration RAPID Organizatio n University of Southern Mississippi PI Name Phone Email Abstract Robert Lochhea d (601) Robert Deepwater Horizon oil spill is now threatening the 266- .Lochh Gulf Coastline and the wildlife and economies that 4119 ead@u depend upon this region. Mitigation of the effects of sm.ed the oil on the land and wildlife could be achieved if the u deposition of the oil onto these substrates could be prevented. In this context, deposition of oil onto substrates is routinely achieved in laundry by the use of polymeric soil anti-redeposition agents. This RAPID project seeks to investigate the propensity of these agents to mitigate the effects of oil deposition on the Gulf Coast. The project will identify effective oil antideposition aids that are nontoxic, biodegradable and available commercially in amount large enough to mitigate the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the Gulf Coastline. These agents are polymers that essentially sterically-stabilize the oil droplets and prevent close approach at which attractive London dispersion forces would operate. However, the Gulf is much larger than a laundry load, the oil in the Gulf is overwhelming the system, and the water is seawater rather than freshwater. These are significant unknown variables. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile exploring the use of oil anti-deposition agents for their possible effect in mitigating this disaster. The most commonly used soil anti-redeposition agents are cellulose ethers, which are available inexpensively in large commercial quantities. Carboxymethylcellulose ethers are listed on the EPA subinventory. These are not likely to accumulate in the food chain due to their water solubility and high molecular weight (bioconcentration potential is low). They are nontoxic to fish and aquatic organisms on an acute basis. They are expected to slowly biodegrade in the aquatic environment. These compounds are already released into the environment in vast quantities as a consequence of their widespread use in laundry detergents. There are also Marine proteins that are byproducts of fisheries that will be investigated in the proposed research, for their ability to prevent oil from sticking to coastal substrates. The search for antideposition aids normally would be expected to require years of intensive effort. However, as a consequence of THE the high throughput laboratory and concomitant skill sets that has been built under the aegis of the Partnerships for Innovation program (PFI Award 0917730), the Principal Investigator has considerable knowledge of the science of consumer goods, such as laundry detergents, and he will lead the high throughput screening effort with state-of the art robotic liquid handlers and micro-channel

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Coastal Collabor 0 ative Researc h: Genetic Impact of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Release Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n Louisiana State University & Agricultural and Mechanical College; University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine&Atm ospheric Sci; Texas State University San Marcos PI Name Phone Email Abstract Whitehea (225) andre This RAPID proposal brings together a collaboration d, 578- ww@l among Universities in states affected by the Deepwater Andrew; 2760 su.edu Horizon (DH) oil release. With the millions of gallons Crawford ; of oil released, the use of dispersants and the , Douglas; dcrawf likelihood of movement of the subsurface oil "bloom" Walter, ord@r into bays and estuaries, an unprecedented Ronald smas. anthropogenic impact on human and natural miami. populations may result. This study will define the edu; physiological and evolutionary impact of the DH oil rwalte release using the fish Fundulus grandis, a natural r@txst inhabitant of estuaries along the Gulf of Mexico. By ate.ed applying cutting edge technologies, the genetic effects u of man's impact on this environment will be described and, thus, provide the baseline data to document the effect of oil pollution on genetic diversity and effectiveness of remediation in limiting negative biodiversity consequences of the spill. These data will inform society about the short and long-term impacts of the DH oil spill, which has not been possible prior to the recent innovation in genomic techniques. The application of genomic technology provides insights into the genes affected by DH oil and whether cleanup efforts effectively minimize loss of genetic diversity. Thus, this research should provide the evidence of the effectiveness of BP cleanup efforts. Additionally, by measuring the impact of DH oil on fish genomics, additional information will be gathered regarding the genes that matter for human health. Simply put, by measuring the genes in fish that survive exposure to DH oil, genes that may also be important for human health will be identified.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Manipul ating plant and microbia l resource environ ment to optimize oil degradat ion in coastal marshes Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Restoration NSFRestoration RAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Villanova Langley, (610) jonath In light of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of University Jonathan 519- an.lan Mexico, the National Science Foundation (NSF) 6000 gley@ highlighted the Rapid Response Research (RAPID) villano mechanism (Dear Colleague Letter NSF 10-060) as va.edu quick-response research on natural or anthropogenic disasters and similar unanticipated events. In this RAPID project, the PIs will study the role of salt marsh plants and nitrogen inputs in the decomposition of simple vs. recalcitrant forms of carbon in association with the Deepwater Horizon oil-spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Recent studies have demonstrated that, contrary to expectations, nitrogen (N) inputs will not stimulate decomposition of recalcitrant carbon stored in salt marsh peat soil, and they may actually reduce it. However, the same is not true for sugars and other more simple forms of carbon. Given the potential input of a significant amount of complex hydrocarbons from the oil-spill into coastal salt marsh habitat in the Gulf, it will be important to be able to predict the effects of plants and of N inputs on rates of oil hydrocarbon decomposition and ecosystem function in these fragile habitats. Given the urgent situation facing Gulf area wetlands and the capacity to increase marsh exposure to nutrient-rich waters, results of this study could be critical for exploring oil spill mitigation options expeditiously. If nitrogen amendments to coastal wetlands increase the processing of crude oil, such management techniques may be implemented more rapidly and with greater precision. To disseminate findings among scientists and managers, the PIs will organize a workshop at the Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS) annual meeting, as well as make data available on the SWS website. Further, the PIs will involve undergraduate researchers and students in the greenhouse study at Villanova University through research funds and an existing Global Change Ecology course.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Evolutio nary Effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on Coastal Louisian a Iris Populati ons Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring, Restoration Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name n University of Michael Georgia Arnold Research Foundation Inc Phone Email Abstract 621630 GRAD UATE STUDI ES arnold @plan tbio.ug a.edu The Gulf of Mexico oil leak has the potential to cause lasting harm to the plant populations along the Gulf coastline. To better understand those effects, and to discover the genetic bases for stress responses, this project will produce a detailed, genetic map of Louisiana Irises and their hybrids. The work will incorporate sampling of previously identified coastal populations from Florida, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana and populations north of the Gulf in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya watersheds. In addtion, the project will use previously constructed hybrid populations that will be transplanted into contaminated and uncontaminated sites. Using previously identified genetic markers, the project will then identify possible genes that are involved in stress responses. This project has the potential to contribute to plant restoration projects that will be necessary following the cleanup of this ecological catastrophe. In addition, it will provide training for a postdoctoral scholar.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Effects of oiling and hydrolo gic remedia tion on baldcypr ess swamp elevatio n and ecosyste m processe s in the context of the BP Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Restoration NSFMonitoring, RAPID Restoration Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Roberts, (504) brober This is a Rapid Response Research (RAPID) proposal Universities Brian 851- ts@lu to study the effects of oiling as a catastrophic Marine 2800 mcon. disturbance on coastal elevation, as related to the Corsortium edu biotic contributions of peat material. In response to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil-spill, the PIs will test the hypotheses that i) oiling, or hydrologic remediation designed to prevent oiling, will cause reductions in above- and below-ground production and peat accumulation, increases in soil respiration and decomposition rates, and ultimately result in net losses in elevation of baldcypress swamps, and ii) that the resilience of these habitats, with regard to these ecosystem processes, will be lower in oiled swamps than in undisturbed areas. The investigators will make use of historically-relevant data on above- and belowground production, tree growth, decomposition, and regeneration from previous long-term studies in coastal baldcypress swamps in Jean Lafitte National Park and other sites. Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from the wetlands will be measured, in anticipation that decomposition and other biogeochemical processes may shift in response to the disturbance. These sites were targeted for longterm studies because they are sensitive to changes in elevation as a result of high rates of sea level rise experienced throughout the region. These data will permit an assessment of both the direct and indirect impacts of oil spills and the proactive efforts made to reduce oiling on ecosystem processes in coastal freshwater swamp ecosystems that are found along the entire Gulf and Southeast Atlantic coasts. The research will provide managers and the public with information on the effects of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill and its hydrologic remediation on coastal wetland elevation, and will be disseminated via peer reviewed journal articles and briefs written for the public. An undergraduate student will be trained as part of the research.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Quantify ing the Impact of the BP Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill on the Health and Producti vity of Louisian a Salt Marshes Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Coastal Monitoring, 0 Restoration Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Restoration Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Mississippi Mishra, (662) dmish Assessment of marsh health is essential to the State Deepak 325- ra@gri evaluation of the short-term impact of the BP University 7404 .mssta Deepwater Horizon spill and for the prioritization of te.edu future restoration actions. This study will allow the identification of hotspots of marsh degradation by evaluating marsh biophysical characteristics including distribution of chlorophyll content, green leaf area, and green marsh canopy cover. These characteristics are the primary indicators of photosynthetic capacity and physiological status of marsh vegetation. NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images will be used to retrieve and map these characteristics across the coastal Louisiana salt marshes before and after the spill. Pre and post spill weekly composite maps of salt marsh biophysical characteristics for the entire Louisiana coast will be generated showing the extent of damage and recovery. By examining the satellite images, the overall health and productivity of coastal salt marsh can be inferred and the ecological impact of the oil and oil/dispersant on health and productivity of these sensitive ecosystem can be effectively analyzed. The maps and tools produced by this study will be helpful to coastal managers across Louisiana as they evaluate and prioritize the massive marsh restoration effort that is going to take place because of the spill. For the first time, tangible map products will be generated that can quantitatively assess the effect of the restoration activities and speed of marsh ecosystem recovery. The proposal also directly addresses the Gulf of Mexico Alliance's (GOMA) long term goal to enhance monitoring for the conservation and restoration of coastal wetlands throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 7/15/1 6/30/11 0.96 Coastal Rapid 0 Evolutio nary Respons e of Coastal Copepod s to the Gulf Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) toxicology, impacts to life stages of aquatic animals, ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Carol Lee (608) carolle This study will examine the physiological and Wisconsin262- e@wis evolutionary responses to the Gulf of Mexico oil leak of Madison 3822 c.edu a small crustacean, the copepod Eurytemora affinis. This species is a dominant member of coastal ecosystems, especially those in the Gulf of Mexico. This project will address the following questions: (1) How quickly and to what extent can organisms evolve in response to the toxic effects of crude oil? (2) Which traits evolve in response to crude oil exposure? (3) Do different populations (independently-derived selected lines, and populations from different locations in the field) respond in a similar manner? (4) Is there a cost to adaptation to the toxic effects of crude oil? It will accomplish these goals by conducting a laboratory selection and comparing those reponses to evolutionary changes in Gulf populations. Understanding evolutionary responses is essential for determining the long-term survival and recovery of the impacted populations, given the acute toxicity of crude oil. Beyond the copepods, the results of this study will provide critical information for understanding responses in other gulf species. The project will also result in the training of two graduate students.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Selectio n in Action: Will the Gulf of Mexico oil leak increase the frequenc y of mottled black fish? Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/1/10 7/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Old Horth, (757) lhorth The Gulf of Mexico oil leak offers an unprecedented Dominion Lisa 683- @odu. opportunity to study rapid evolution in a well-studied University 4293 edu system: the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia Research holbrooki). This species has a rare, black form that Foundation persists at about 1% in nature. Oil contamination is likely to change the background coloration of its habitat and the conspicuousness to predators of the silver form, potentially favoring the black form. The goal of this work is to sample Florida populations before the oil hits them, and just after, so as to assess black and silver fish frequencies as the habitat changes. This work will be followed by additional surveys of long-term changes. The results of this study may be profound for scientists, college students and the general public as this may be an example of selection in action that parallels the rise in frequency of the peppered moth during the Industrial Revolution. Few opportunities arise for the public to see natural selection occurring on a grand scale at a rapid pace such as is predicted under these extenuating circumstances. In addition, a graduate student will be trained in the course of this study. Terrenew Bourne, (315) tbourn LLC Thomas 521- e@ter : This project will (1) reduce contact of living 2498 renew. organisms with oil in the littoral region by binding the com oil to OilMaster, (2) hasten the breakdown of oil in the area by microbial activity encouraged by OilMaster and (3) provide a tool for easier removal of oil from open water, such as that just off beaches and just outside reed beds. It is anticipated that the results of this project will provide a powerful new tool for fighting and ameliorating marine oil disasters. Success in this project will also create a use for an agricultural waste product, bovine manure. Terrenew plans to set up a manure processing operation at a large dairy farm near the Gulf of Mexico. This will create jobs and help to alleviate the Gulf disaster, and will also provide a useful resource for alleviating the environmental effects of future oil spills.

SBIR Restoration Phase I Rapid :ALLEVI ATING THE WORST EFFECT S OF THE GULF OIL SPILL IN LITTOR AL WETLA NDS

8/15/1 7/31/11 0

0.96 Coastal

Restoration

NSFRAPID

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Collabor ative Researc h: Nematos tella as an Estuarin e Indicato r Species for Assessin g Molecul ar and Physiolo gical Impacts of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill. Environment al Theme (s) Dispersants, Environmenta l health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food web, Hypoxia Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Woods Hole Oceanograph ic Institution PI Name Phone Email Abstract

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Jenny, (205) mjjenn As a result of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, millions Matthew; 348- y@as. of gallons of oil have leaked into the Gulf of Mexico and Tarrant, 5152 ua.edu much of that oil has and will continue to wash up along Ann ; the Gulf Coast of the United States. In an attempt to atarra minimize the amount of oil to reach the coast, an nt@w unprecedented of amount of dispersant has been used hoi.ed both on surface oil and at the source of the leak. The u impact of this unprecedented use of dispersant on the marine environment, food webs and the bioavailability of oil remains to be investigated. Furthermore, the microbial degradation of oil and dispersed oil in the marine environment or estuarine marshes can produce very low oxygen levels (hypoxia) that will further stress marine and estuarine invertebrates. Unfortunately, very little information is available on the impact of oil or dispersed oil and additional abiotic stressors (hypoxia) on the physiology of marine and estuarine invertebrates. Nematostella vectensis is a sea anemone (an organism related to reef-building corals) found in salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coast of the United States. This project will use Nematostella as a model to address the urgent need to understand the physiological responses of estuarine invertebrates to oil exposure, combined exposure of oil and dispersant and possible synergism between oil exposure and hypoxia (low oxygen). First, Nematostella will be collected from Gulf Coast populations. Contaminant load, energetic stores and reproductive status will be quantified. Molecular techniques will be used to determine which genes are affected ("turned on" or "turned off") in anemones from oil-exposed sites. Second, laboratory experiments will be conducted to determine the effects of oil exposure and combined exposure to oil and dispersant under normal oxygen (normoxic) and hypoxic conditions. Brine shrimp will be reared in the presence of a range of concentrations of oil, dispersant, and oil with dispersant. These shrimp will be fed to Nematostella under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Effects of exposure will be characterized by assessing changes in gene expression, lipid analysis, histological examination and biochemical assays. The results of EFFECTS OF THE these experiments will provide insight into the different molecular and cellular processes that are used to protect the organism from combinations of stressors that are associated with the oil spill and exposure to oil or dispersed oil. This project will also enable development of biomarkers that can be used to assess responses of organisms collected in the field. Broader Impacts: This project will provide insight into

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Plant Species Effects on Rapid Stabiliza tion of Nitrogen in Soil Organic Matter of Mangrov e Ecosyste ms at Risk from the BP Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Lewis, (813) davidl This is a Rapid Research Response grant in relation to South Florida David 974- ewis@ the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Nitrogen (N) is 5465 usf.ed an essential element for life. Because it is scarce in a u biologically usable form, organisms are sensitive to increases in N availability. Human activities have increased the cycling of N in the biosphere, galvanizing interest in the ability of ecosystems to retain N. Nitrogen is effectively stored by the decaying remnants of vegetation, animals, and microorganisms collectively known as soil organic matter, or SOM. The research described here investigates whether SOM can immobilize N quickly - within minutes to weeks - after N is first introduced to the soil. This research will test the hypotheses (1) that SOM quickly immobilizes N in the stable fraction, which is the subset of SOM that takes years to decompose, and (2) whether immobilization happens at different rates in different forests, which have different kinds of SOM. This research is conducted in intertidal, mangrove forests along the coast of west-central Florida near Tampa Bay, which are at risk for exposure to oil deposition from the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In each forest, investigators will collect soil cores that are 15 cm deep, and inject N as a bio-available form into the cores. After a measured reaction time (hours to weeks), the amount of N incorporated into the stable SOM will be determined. This will allow scientists to calculate the rate at which N gets immobilized in stable SOM. One goal of this project is to determine whether N immobilization in stable SOM differs among forests, so the characteristics of each forest will be described in two ways: with ground surveys and with remote sensing from satellites. The ground surveys will be conducted following standard procedures of the U.S. Forest Service: identifying the species of each tree, measuring several dimensions of tree size (height, girth, canopy cover), identifying trees that have died or newly germinated, and analyzing the chemistry of leaf tissues. The remote sensing will use multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. Spectral signatures, which are the combinations of reflected and absorbed light across the light spectrum, will reveal tree size and the amount and chemistry of foliage. The hypotheses of this project will be supported if scientists discover that GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 145 N is, indeed, quickly immobilized in stable SOM, and BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL that the rate of N immobilization differs among forests because of difference in the forest characteristics. As oil moves beyond the northern Gulf, it may put Florida Peninsula's western coastline at risk. Oil can affect the functioning of these mangrove ecosystems and alter the interaction between N and SOM in several ways. Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Restoration Funding Source NSFRAPID

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Coastal Effects of PAH Exposur e on Aquatic Plant Commu nity Structur e, Producti vity, and Resilien ce as a Result of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Major, (251) kmajo The Mobile-Tensaw Delta in Alabama represents a South Kelly 460- r@uso sensitive, integrated ecosystem where terrestrial, Alabama 6111 uthal.e freshwater, and coastal communities converge to du create a transition zone, characterized by high productivity and biological diversity, making it ecologically, economically, and recreationally important to the Gulf region. This project investigates the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure on native aquatic plant communities in this biodiversity hotspot. The investigators have 9 years of data on plant community structure in hand, and they will use these data in a Before-After-Control-Impact design to determine how plant productivity and survivorship are influenced by the anticipated gradient of exposure to PAHs; differences in early successional patterns and community resilience across this gradient; and the presence of thresholds in exposure beyond which plant communities fail to recover. The resulting data will be used to predict how large-scale anthropogenic insults and natural environmental variation affect aquatic plant communities over varying spatial and temporal scales. The results of this project will provide fundamental insight into the broader impacts of environmental degradation and habitat loss, serving as the foundation for later work concerning both basic and applied aspects of the plant community response, and the underlying mechanisms of resilience and susceptibility to stress. Over the course of this oneyear project, one graduate and one undergraduate student will receive training in plant taxonomy, physiology, community ecology, and the application of multivariate statistics. Finally, data generated from this research will be an important contribution to plant community conservation and land management.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 10/1/1 9/30/11 1.00 Coastal Deepwat 0 er Horizon oil spill: Impacts on migrator y shorebir ds and carryover effects Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Tulane Taylor, (504) caz@t The aim of this project is to assess both the direct University Caroline 865- ulane. impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on 4000 edu migrating shorebirds as well as the carry-over effects of the spill on distant ecosystems where these birds breed during summer months. Carry-over effects on breeding success resulting from the degradation of winter habitat have been documented in several avian species and are important not only to shorebird populations but also to the entire ecosystems in which the shorebirds breed. The investigators will compare oil-exposed versus unaffected control sites with respect to the toxicological status of individual birds, contamination levels in the environment, food availability, survival, correlates of subsequent breeding success, and other indicators of fitness for four small wintering shorebirds. The outcome will be to determine how individual toxicological status and environmental status contribute to variation in measures of fitness and correlates of breeding success. This work will provide a foundation for the development of population models and further studies aimed at documenting the effects of the oil spill on the distant, Arctic ecosystems where these birds breed. This work will highlight the importance of Gulf of Mexico habitats as wintering grounds for migrating shorebirds, providing baseline information for the conservation of threatened coastal habitats and bird species and demonstrating the multiple ways in which a major environment disaster can affect ecosystems on a global scale. Part of this project will be to develop a novel assay for measuring oil ingestion using fecal samples of birds. This project will provide training for one PhD student, four undergraduates and one postdoctoral researcher. Citizen scientists will be engaged to help re-sight banded birds.

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Title of Activity Geohisto rical Baseline s of Osyter Reef Health: A Paleoeco logical Respons e to the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 2/15/1 1/31/12 0.96 Coastal Monitoring 1 Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email n Paleontologic Dietl, (607) gpd3 al Research Gregory 273- @corn Institute 6623 ell.edu Abstract The near- and long-term ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico are only just beginning to be assessed. This project uses a relatively simple method? comparison of the rankorder abundance of molluscan living and timeaveraged death assemblages ?to establish an ecological baseline of oyster reef health. This approach has the advantage of providing a census of oyster reef communities in areas where conventional livecollected samples resulting from long-term monitoring efforts are sparse or unavailable. Such baseline information will allow us to move beyond the recognition of the immediate ecological changes resulting from the oil spill, by providing a unique perspective on the composition of pre-impact oyster reefs. This kind of information is not available from ?snapshot? baselines, such as those collected by many governmental and non-governmental agencies in response to the oil spill. This information provides much needed context for setting restoration goals. It also highlights the key role that geohistorical data have to play in conservation efforts. The results of this study provide critical baseline data needed to assess the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the ecology and structure of oyster reefs in the Gulf region. This study also serves as a foundation for future policy amendments and ensures our post oil spill conservation efforts more fully align with an ecosystem-based management approach that integrates and implements increased knowledge to improve management and policy decisions. While many existing conservation and management processes include aspects of a baseline assessment, most contingency efforts focus solely on a limited range of remedial management efforts. Missing from this picture is a more proactive process for more comprehensive recognition of human effects on marine ecosystems. For future ecosystem remediation efforts to be effective, a more holistic approach that incorporates and explicitly evaluates the historical diversity and abundance of our marine ecosystems will be required. This project provides a valuable example of such an approach. Results from this project will be widely disseminated both to the academic community and general public. In particular, two outreach projects will make the results accessible to broad audiences both locally and nationally. These projects build on recent outreach initiatives of the Paleontological Research Institution (PRI), which were a response to public requests for information on the

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Macond Research 6/15/1 6/14/11 1.00 Coastal o oil 0 spill effects on the relations hip between bioturba tion rates, infaunal abundan ce and oil distribut ions and degradat ion. Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name n University of Kevin Southern Yeager Mississippi Phone Email Abstract 2286887098 kevin. yeager @usm. edu A range of petroleum concentrations from the Macondo oil spill threaten mud flats, salt marshes and mangroves as a function of time and location. These exposures will result in a range of disruptions to natural physical and biogeochemical processes. Oiling can cause selective and even mass mortality of infauna, reducing physical mixing of the sediment by suppression of the major bioturbators. Suppression of biotic services can cause immediate changes, resulting in long-term, ecosystem-scale adjustments. Interestingly, however, reduced bioturbation may limit the amount of oil mixed into the sediment, leaving more on the surface where it can more rapidly degrade aerobically.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Quantify Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Coastal ing the 0 potentia l impacts of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill on selected carbon services of salt marshes along the norther n gulf coast using hierarch ical bayesian modelin g Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Wei Wu (601) wei.w The proposed project will study spatial patterns in Southern 266- u@us photosynthesis of salt marsh plants which have been Mississippi 4119 m.edu and will potentially be impacted by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill along the northern Gulf Coast. The goal is to test the scientific hypothesis: Salt marshes under higher stresses will be less resilient to oil spill disturbance. A stochastic modeling approach (Hierarchical Bayesian models) will be applied to address the research question. Its ability to quantify uncertainties and reduce uncertainties by assimilating new data makes it powerful approach.; Factors at multiple spatial scales can influence photosynthesis in marsh habitats, from the species and conditions of individual plants, to the microsite variation in nonliving and living resources, to the broader landscapescale effects of tidal ranges, river inputs and oil spills. This project will study spatial patterns in photosynthesis of salt marsh plants which have been and will potentially be impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill along the northern Gulf Coast. The investigators will test the hypothesis that salt marshes under higher stresses will be less resilient to oil spill disturbance. A stochastic modeling approach (Hierarchical Bayesian models) will be applied to address the research question. Its ability to quantify uncertainties and reduce uncertainties by assimilating new data makes it powerful approach. The investigators will develop a scalable and transferrable methodology that can be used in river-dominated salt marsh ecosystems around the nation. It will advance the understanding of disturbance effects on ecosystem dynamics, and can be used to guide future research and management efforts in assessing long-term impacts and recovery of marshes impacted by oil spills. In addition, the project is expected to facilitate more informed wetland restoration plans at the impacted areas on the Gulf coast. This project will provide enriching and supportive educational experiences for two graduate students who will learn the basic techniques necessary to obtain and manage

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n field based environmental data, and updated modeling techniques.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Rates Research 6/15/1 5/31/11 0.96 Coastal Restoration NSFAnd 0 RAPID Mechani sms Controlli ng The Microbia l Degrada tion Of Crude Oil From The MC252 Spill In Gulf Of Mexico Beach Sands Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Florida State Markus 850- mhuet University Huettel 645- tel@fs The proposed project addresses the transport and 1394 u.edu biodegradation of Deepwater Horizon crude oil in Gulf beach sands with emphasis on the sediment clogging caused by oil filtration and ensuing changes to the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities. Waves and sediment transport can drive low-viscosity crude oil and detergent-oil mixtures deep into beach sediments. Oil transport into deeper, anoxic layers may decrease oil degradation rates, thereby extending the period of toxin release to nearshore waters. Goals of the project are to assess 1) how much and how deep oil is filtered into the beach, 2) how oil alters the beach filtration rate and thereby sediment oxygenation, 4) how oil contamination changes structure and function of the sand microbial community and 5) which factors regulate oil degradation by microbial communities in marine sands.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Effect of Oil Spill on Organic Carbon Partition ing and Transfor mation in the Water Column in the Norther n Gulf Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Coastal Monitoring Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Laodong (601) Laodo With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Southern Guo 266- ng.Guo Research (RAPID), researchers at the University of Mississippi 4119 @usm. Southern Mississippi will examine the Deepwater edu Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico -- an oil spill of national significance -- to study the fate, transport and transformation of crude oil components and their interactions with marine organic matter from baseline to maximum impact in a complete time series. Their working hypothesis is that the crude oil components are isotopically light (in terms of carbon13) and distinct in optical properties (UV-vis and fluorescence emission-excitation matrices [EEM]) from natural marine organic matter, thus allowing the use of stable isotopes and fluorescence techniques for quantitative understanding of their fate, transport, and transformations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. They will collect seawater samples at a station in the Mississippi Bight in the northern Gulf of Mexico from base line conditions to maximum impact. EEM fluorescence, stable isotopes, and flow field-flow fractionation techniques will be employed. Measurements will include dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and particulate organic carbon (POC) and their stable carbon isotopic composition (C-13), optical properties, including UVvis absorbance, adsorption coefficient, spectral slope, and EEMs, composition and size spectrum of DOM, chlorophyll-a, and other common environmental parameters, such as salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients. Results of this study are expected to provide new insights into how organic matter from oil spills interacts with marine organic matter affecting the ocean carbon budget, biogeochemical processes, and marine ecosystems as a whole. Broader Impacts Combined with planned and ongoing research in response to this unprecedented oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico, this research will contribute to the understanding of the fate, transport and transformation of spilled oils and their interactions with natural marine organic matter in the water column in the coastal environment. The investigators will collaborate with other funded projects for data sharing. The project will support one graduate student, who will gain valuable experience in GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 153 rapid response research as well as in interacting with BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL other research teams in the Gulf Coast region. Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, oil spill modeling & tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID Research 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Coastal Deepwat er Horizon oil spill: Impacts on Blue Crab populati on dynamic s and connecti vity. Environment al Theme (s) Environmenta l health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Tulane Caroline (504) caz@t Intellectual Merit: Blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) University Taylor 865- ulane. are an ecologically and economically important species 4000 edu in the Gulf of Mexico. In Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina, blue crabs have suffered from unexplained population crashes in recent years, purportedly due to increase fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Despite the importance of this species and the propensity for their stocks to crash, a realistic and predictive population model is still lacking for blue crabs. This RAPID project will use a metapopulation approach to understand and predict the population dynamics of blue crabs. Blue crabs spend their initial, larval, life-stages in the ocean then recruit to estuaries for their juvenile and adult stages. In the metapopulation model to be used, local dynamics in a patch (estuary) will be described and parameterized using fisheries data, remotely-sensed habitat quality estimates, and results from field experiments estimating cannibalism rates. The PIs will estimate connectivity (dispersal of larvae between estuaries) of the population with a particle tracking approach using a fine-scale, spatially-explicit ocean circulation model. When the Deepwater Horizon oil rig exploded on April 20, 2010, and began discharging several million gallons of oil into the Gulf, blue crabs were just beginning their spawning season. In this RAPID, the PIs propose to investigate the impacts of the oil and chemical dispersants on the larval stages, and ultimately on population dynamics, of blue crabs by sampling planktonic larvae at three ocean locations that vary in distance from the oil source. Results will estimate both lethal and sub-lethal effects of oil and dispersants on larvae. They will incorporate the extent and concentration of oil and dispersants into the particle-tracking model and use it to predict the effects of the oil spill on dispersal and recruitment for the entire Gulf of Mexico. To validate model results, the PIs will sample recruitment to estuaries over a wide stretch of the coastline, including areas unaffected, lightly affected and heavily affected by the spill. They will incorporate results into the metapopulation model to explore the long-term effects of the spill on the Gulf ON THE EFFECTS OF THE of Mexico blue crab population and its fishery. Broader Impacts: The PIs intend that results from this RAPID project will be used to inform fisheries policy so as to prevent collapses of blue crab fishery in the Gulf, especially in light of the recent oil spill. Dispersal information is lacking from current blue crab fishery assessments and may prove especially important now in helping to decide how to not

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID Research 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Coastal on Gulf Oil Spill: Phytopla nkton and environ mental stressor s as determi nants of Vibrio ecology Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Crystal (225) cnjohn This NSF RAPID project will investigate the impact of State Johnson 578- son@l the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico University & 2760 su.edu on the microbial, plankton and oyster systems of the Agricultural region. The scientists will focus on investigating and changes to the abundance and virulence of Vibrio Mechanical bacteria in response to stress associated with College exposure to the oil and/or indirect effects associated with biological interactions within biological communities impacted by the oil. The research team will evaluate whether there will be an increase in the abundance of Vibrio and prevalence of Type III Secretion System 2 (TTSS2) in the location of the oil spill. TTSS2 on Vibrio is carried on a pathogenic island (PAI) that includes numerous genes. Since some of these genes are necessary for environmental adaptation, and this PAI is mobile and transferable among Vibrio, the team hypothesizes there will be an increase in the abundance of Vibrio carrying genes associated with type III secretion systems. Bulk bacterial communities and plankton composition will also be evaluated in size-fractionated water column samples across salinity and oil gradients to understand how these communities will be affected by the oil spill and how these changes will affect Vibrio abundance. The team will quantify if there is an increase in concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in oysters and whether this increase will affect Vibrio abundance in oysters. Additionally, the team will study excretions from phytoplankton species that may be able to inhibit growth of Vibrio. Broader Impacts of this proposal include participation of one postdoctoral researcher and one PhD student. The results from this study will be useful for understanding the environmental consequences of future similar disasters.

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Title of Activity RAPID Deep water Horizon Oil spill: Trophic organiza tion of sandy beach ecosyste ms across gradient s of develop ment and oiling Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Coastal Ecosystem NSFMonitoring and RAPID community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Susan (813) sbell@ Sandy beaches, one of the most abundant coastal South Florida Bell 974- cas.usf ecosystems, contain unique biodiversity, represent 5465 .edu ecotonal habitats and are driven by distinctive ecological processes that provide critical ecosystem services. Food webs on sandy beaches may display a high level of trophic coupling at the beach-ocean interface where consumers take advantage of the high productivity generated in coastal waters, subsidizing the shore and providing facultative, seasonal or even perennial opportunities for alternative resource use. However, many beach ecosystems are trapped in a 'coastal squeeze' between urbanization and rising sea levels. These systems are also under threat from oil extraction, as is the case for beaches in Florida and possibly the SE USA as a result of the ongoing and extensive Deepwater Horizon spill. Therefore, trophic organization of these important coastal areas may be disrupted by selected human activities. The main objectives of this RAPID project are to: (1) document the abundance of critical beach consumers, and (2) describe the trophic structure across sandy beach habitats with an emphasis on the macrobenthic fauna and in the context of potential changes resulting from acute beach oiling and/or chronic anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. development). The general sampling design calls for a series of beaches to be sampled both pre- and post oiling. The sandy beaches sampled will also span different levels of pre-spill anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., human population density, quantity of fixed structures, levels of habitat fragmentation). Characterization of the naturally occurring heavy stable isotopes of carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) will be conducted on the major benthic organisms and their food sources to 1) unravel food web structure; 2) detail the contribution of various food sources to consumer diets using 'mixing models'; and 3) evaluate variability of trophic position of major consumers, diet shifts, and subsidy integration across beaches with varying levels of development. The PIs also expect that ecosystem- level impacts of oiling as revealed via the food web may be detected with this approach. Broader Impacts: A post-doctoral associate will be ON THE EFFECTS OF THE trained and mentored in this RAPID project. One graduate student will be trained in field techniques and stable isotope analyses. Students conducting undergraduate research will receive training in compiling data on human usage of beaches and characterizing beach characteristics. A video documenting sampling activities and beach features will be assembled as an educational tool and will be

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Title of Activity Analysis of Samples Collecte d to Measure Effects of Stressor s on Coastal Wetland s Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/10 Ongoing Coastal Restoration Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source NSFRAPID, BP-GRI, BP-LSU Organizatio n Louisiana State University PI Name Phone Email Abstract R. 225 Eugene 57864 Turner, 54 Linda HooperBui, Laurie Anderso n euturn e@lsu. edu, LHoop er@ag center. lsu.ed u, glande @lsu.e du

We address scientific questions about community change resulting from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent remediation efforts. We are examining standing stocks, growth, and elemental flow in dominant plants, microbes, common meiofaunal and macro-invertebrate consumers, and soil to test hypotheses about how salt-marsh ecosystems function under different stressors. Field efforts were supported by a NSF Rapid Grant with the explicit understanding that additional monies will be sought to complete analyses. This proposal supports these analyses.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Deepwat Research 8/16/1 Ongoing Coastal er 0 Horizon oil exposur e effects on marsh fishes in at-risk habitats: Integrat ed laborato ry and field studies Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NSFRAPID, BP-LSU Organizatio n Louisiana State University PI Name Phone Email Abstract Andrew 225Whitehea 578d 8210 andre Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) are important ww@l members of the coastal marsh ecological community su.edu and are economically-important bait fishes. We have launched a project intended to characterize oil spill impacts on the coastal marsh by integrating genomic and physiological indicators of response to oil exposure in situ and under controlled exposure conditions in adults and in sensitive early-life stage killifish. Our goals are to identify integrated genomic, developmental, immunological, and physiological responses of marsh fishes to crude oil contamination. As we complete these goals, we will define the associated mechanisms of sensitivity to oil exposure during the time-course of ecological recovery. Aim 1: Characterize the time-course of oil exposure effects in situ. We are using genome-scale measures of gene expression, physiological measures of organ function, and cellular expression of contaminant-specific proteins on killifish caught directly from at-risk marshes. These analyses will act as sensitive biological indicators of oil exposure and toxic effects in fish, and provide indices of acclimation or potential recovery in oil-exposed fish populations. Aim 2: Test for oil exposure effects on sensitive early life stages. We are exposing killifish embryos (derived from un-exposed adults) to field-collected waters to test for developmental effects of oil-contaminated water exposure that are expected to be predictive of longterm population-level impacts. Aim 3: Integrate the data from Aims 1 and 2 with in situ and remote sensing measures of exposure at relevant field sites. We are using analytical chemistry to characterize the chemical content of weathered oil contaminating field sites, and remote sensing data to approximate the onset and duration of exposure at field sites.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Mississi Monitoring 1/1/93 Ongoing Coastal ppi Coastal Sport Fish Studies Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Restoration Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract Source n USFWS, USM/GCRL Read 228- read.h MS-DMR Hendon 872- endon 4202 @usm. edu Monthly gill net samples of adult finfish are collected at ten station along the Mississippi coastline (8 bay/bayou stations and 2 barrier island stations. Total number and total weight are recorded for all species, and selected species are retained for laboratory analyses including individual length and weight, age estimates and reproductive state. USGS USGS Dr. Beth (337) middle The overall idea of the study is that oiling will affect National A 237- tonb@ coastal processes related to the maintenance of Wetlands Middleto 8688 usgs.g elevations in baldcypress swamps (i.e., production and Research n ov decomposition). While studies related to the effects of Center oiling on baldcypress swamps are very limited, response of freshwater species can range from catastrophic to positive. The hypotheses to be tested are that deeper penetration of oil in the peat will cause the overall reduction of 1) above- and below-ground production, 2) peat accumulation, if decomposition rates exceed the production of detritus, and, 3) elevation. We will also test the hypothesis is that the resilience of these baldcypress swamps with regard to these ecosystem processes depends on the magnitude of the disturbance (depth of oil penetration). We plan to begin monitoring the rates of CO2 emissions from the wetlands, because we anticipate that decomposition rates may shift in response to the disturbance by oiling. The long-term prospect of any further deterioration of damaged baldcypress swamps could debilitate efforts to maintain elevations by preserving coastal wetlands across the declining Gulf Coast. Thus, our research represents an opportunity to capture any shifts in key processes related to this potentially devastating oil spill.

Baseline Research elevatio n and function of Gulf Coast baldcypr ess swamps

6/1/05 Ongoing

Coastal

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Title of Activity Quantify ing the effects of crude oil on the base of the food web by analyzin g the evolutio n of phytopla nkton populati on pre and post Deepwat er Horizon oil spill event. Coast Watch: Remote sensing and verificati on samplin g of oil spill impact on Florida Coast Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 5/1/10 5/31/11 1.08 Coastal Monitoring Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem Louisiana Warny, S. swarn health and State y@lsu. indicators, University edu Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs

Funds are requested to undertake an in-depth analysis of the species diversity and abundance in dinoflagellate population to quantify and assess the short term impacts of the crude oil on this organicwalled algal population. Because dinoflagellates are one of the two major components of the phytoplankton communities, monitoring the health of their population is crucial to assess the stability of the food chain. Monitoring Ongoing Ongoing 1.00 Coastal, Offshore Oil spill BP-FIO modeling and tracking FSU, UWF Ian McDonal d

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Title of Activity Assessin g the Concent ration and the Molecul ar and Isotropi c Composi tion of Deepsea Submerg ed Oils in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Resolvin g chemical properti es and extent of crude oil and dispersa nt distribut ion in the Deep Horizon Oil Spill Baseline for Impact Assessm ent of Zooplan kton and Imaging Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 5/1/10 5/1/11 1.00 Coastal, Monitoring Offshore Environment Funding Organizatio al Theme (s) Source n Oil spill BP-FIO USF modeling and tracking PI Name Phone Email Abstract David Hollande r

Research, Monitoring

9/1/10

9/1/12

2.00 Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill BP-FIO modeling and tracking, Dispersants

UM

Rod Zika

Research, Monitoring

Ongoing Ongoing

2.00 Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill BP-FIO modeling and tracking, Dispersants, Toxicity

University of Kendra South Florida Daly

7275531041

kdaly @mari ne.usf. edu

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 161 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Oil Droplet Detectio n on the West Florida Shelf Modelin Research 4/26/1 Ongoing Coastal, g 0 Offshore Surface Oil Trajecto ries Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n

Oil spill BP-GRI modeling and tracking

COAPS-FSU

Steve Morey

8506440345

morey @coap s.fsu.e du

We have been producing model forecasts of surface oil trajectories daily using the Gulf of Mexico 1/25 degree HYCOM surface currents and forecast wind products (deepwaterhorizon.fsu.edu). Concurrently, we are using SAR-derived imagery to develop objective metrics for evaluating model performance. These metrics are being used to quantify the impacts of changes in model forumations and parameterizations to improve the models.

Effects Research of oil on moveme nts and recruitm ent of fish

5/1/08 Ongoing

Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Seafood safety, Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

NASA, NOAANMFS, ROFFS

ROFFS

Mitchell Roffer

3217235759

roffers @bells outh.n et

We are studying the recruitment processes affecting the adult fish and ichthyoplankton in the Gulf of Mexico in relation to ocean conditions and oil.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Impact Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Coastal, of DH Oil 0 0 Offshore Spill on the Louisian a Coastal Environ ments Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Dispersants, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Louisiana Susan Unkno swelsh The goal of this proposal is to continue the Louisiana State Welsh wn @lsu.e State University research projects funded by the University du Northern Gulf Institute that focus on the coastal environments of Louisiana. The proposed project will take into consideration the presence and impact of oil from the Deepwater Horizon incident. For those areas not yet affected by oil, baseline data specific to the impending impact of the oil will be collected. For Regions that have already been impacted the effect of oil on the ecosystem will be investigated. There are seven components to the proposal. Oil spill NGI, BP- University of Steven E. Unkno Steven modeling and GRI Southern Lohrenz wn .Lohre tracking, Mississippi nz@us Human health, m.edu Dispersants, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Hypoxia The Gulf of Mexico region is important to the U.S. from cultural, economic, natural resource, and recreational standpoints. An integrated and comprehensive strategy is proposed to 1) characterize the distribution and transport of the oil in coastal waters on the northern Gulf of Mexico, 2) characterize the chemical form and evolution of oil and dispersant and potential contribution to coastal hypoxia, 3) assess the impacts of oil and dispersant on the coastal and offshore habitat, food webs, and living marine resources and 4) assess the impacts of the oil spill on public health and welfare. Funding Source NGI, BPGRI

A Research Compre hensive Assessm ent of Oil Distribu tion, Transpo rt, Fate, and Impacts on Ecosyste ms and the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Release

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Coastal, Offshore

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Title of Activity Respons es of Benthic Commu nities and Sedimen tary Dynamic s to Hydroca rbon Exposur e in Neritic and Bathyal Ecosyste ms Impacts of the Deep Horizon Oil Spill on Ecosyste m Structur e and Function in Alabama 's Marine Waters Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Coastal, 0 0 Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Oil spill modeling and tracking, Hypoxia Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Kevin Unkno Kevin. Southern Yeager wn Yeager Mississippi @usm. edu

The overall objectives of this task include the following: 1) determine if oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill has reached the sea floor at any depth below the intertidal zone, from shelf to bathyal depths, 2) determine if hypoxia has been exacerbated, extended to other regions or has been reduced in oil affected areas, 3) describe and compare the meio-and macro benthic communities associated with oil impacted and non-oil-impacted in near shore and deep water benthic habitats, and 4) examine abundance and hydrocarbon contamination of tissue in the deep-sea red crab at selected sites. John Unkno jvalent Valentine wn ine@d isl.org Now that oil is inundating Alabama's coastal waters, we propose seven tasks that will evaluate the initial impacts of this unprecedented environmental catastrophe on the same ecologically and economically important components of our coastal ecosystem that were sampled before oiling occurred. Efforts will be focused on documenting oil impacts, assuming they exist, on planktonic organisms, economically and ecologically important adult fishes, trophic pathways, key biogeochemical processes driven by microbial communities, finfish and shellfish nursery habitats, and representative federally listed species in our area.

Research

7/15/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.46 Coastal, Offshore

Ecosystem NGI, BP- Dauphin and GRI Island Sea community Lab structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

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Title of Activity Examini ng the biologic al uptake of highly carcinog enic polycycli c aromatic hydroca rbon Benzo(a )pyrene - from Crude Oil Polluted Environ ments in the Gulf of Mexico Monitori ng and Assessin g Implicati ons of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Potentia l Impacts of the Loop Current Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research Ongoing Ongoing Coastal, Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio n Louisiana State University PI Name Phone Email Abstract Sibel Bargu Ates Unkno sbargu wn @lsu.e du

Research, Monitoring

6/30/1 7/18/10 0

0.01 Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill NOAA modeling and tracking, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

NOAA/OAR/ Gustavo AOML Goni

We will evaluate how pH affects the phytoplankton species community structure during and after the Deep Water Horizon incident in Barataria Bay and Breton Sound. Microscopic examinations of surface water samples will be conducted to study changes in phytoplankton composition. The uptake and biomagnification of hydrocarbon Benzo[a]pyrene will be examined for specific species of phytoplankton that are predicted to dominate the community, as well as zooplankton and potentially for higher trophic levels. Unkno Gustav NOAA/AOML is currently serving a suite of products wn o.Goni derived from satellite observations for the response @noaa effort. While these multiple remotely-sensed .gov observations and products aid scientists in the assessment of surface and near-surface conditions in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits, managers and scientists need profile data collected through the full water column to gain a better understanding of how potential petroleum contaminants are spreading throughout the basin (at all depths). A comprehensive assessment of the interactions between the major oceanographic features associated with the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits (Loop Current, Loop Current Eddy, Florida Current, frontal eddies, etc.) and these contaminants is needed to determine potential risks for downstream areas. These data are also needed for validation and improvement of 3D

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 165 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date on Downstr eam Marine Ecosyste ms in the Gulf of Mexico and Florida Straits End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n circulation models for the region.

NRDA Research, Tier 1 Monitoring Study of Deepwat er Commu nities

7/21/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal, Offshore

RAPID: Research Evaluati on of the nearterm impact of the Deepwat er Horizon blowout to the South

7/15/1 7/14/11 0

1.00 Coastal, Offshore

Ecosystem NRDA health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Oil spill NSF modeling and tracking, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

NOAA/OAR/ Felipe OER Arzayus

Unkno Felipe. wn Arzay us@no aa.gov This is a cruise on the NOAA ship Nancy Foster to sample and assess deepwater coral, reef, and chemosynthetic communities for the Natural Resources Damage Assessment process. It will increase baseline data and document injury on these communities through photo-surveys and tissue sampling. University of Claire B. 305- cparis Miami Paris 421- @rsm This project aims at assessing the impact of the oil 4219 as.mia entrained in the Loop Current to South Florida. A mi.edu multi-scale numerical framework, the Connectivity Modeling System (CMS) is used to nest the highest resolution Ocean Predictions Systems available yet for the region (1-4km HYCOM products) to simulate (1) the formation of surface slicks and subsurface oil plumes and their pathways to the Loop Current, and (2) the effect of hurricanes on the redistribution of the oil. We will generate statistical estimates of the nearand mid-term impacts of the oil-mixture to the coastal and pelagic environment.

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Florida coast End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

Mass Research Spectral Characte rization of WaterSoluble Oil and Dispersa nts From the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill

6/15/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill NSF modeling and tracking, Dispersants

WHOI

Elizabeth 508Kujawins 289ki 3493

ekuja winski @who i.edu During expulsion from the primary leak, transport and weathering, water-soluble components of the crude oil are slowly dissolving into the seawater. The composition and reactivity of these components are poorly constrained but affect the impact of this spill on marine life and ecosystem dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico. We will use ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry to assess the water-soluble component of the crude oil and dispersants along temporal and spatial gradients near the active spill. Our results can be integrated with other chemical and biological data to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the weathering of this oil spill.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 167 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: In-situ tracking of oil in seawate r and the aging process using spectral fluoresc ence Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 7/15/1 6/30/11 0.96 Coastal, Monitoring 0 Offshore Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone al Theme (s) Source n Oil spill NSF WET Labs Dr. Corey 541modeling and Inc. koch 929tracking, 5650 Dispersants ext. 53 Email Abstract corey @wetl abs.co m

Formati Research, on, Monitoring Persiste nce and Mobility of Oil Emulsio ns after Major Spills at Sea

7/1/10 6/30/11

1.00 Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill NSF modeling and tracking, Dispersants

Florida Berrin International Tansel University

WET Labs has developed prototype in-situ instrumentation capable of measuring spectral fluorescence (the excitation emission fluorometer (XMF) and the spectral fluorescence sensor (SAFire)) will be provided to researchers in the Gulf for in-situ studies. Excitation emission matrices provide a fingerprinting technique that can distinguish between different types of crude oil, crude mixed with dispersant, breakdown products, biological metabolites, and other natural dissolved organic material (CDOM).To augment understanding of in-situ optical measurements made in the Gulf, field and synthetic crude oil samples and their breakdown products will be analyzed in a controlled laboratory setting using an advanced bench-top spectrofluorometer. Insights gained from field and lab studies will be synthesized to better understand the fate of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill and to develop crude oil specific sensors. (305)3 tansel Immediate short term research effort focus on 48 b@fiu. integrated analysis of data from satellite images of 2928 edu surface slick size and patterns, weather conditions (i.e., wind, temperature), and marine conditions (wave height from NOAA Bouy data). The research objectives are: 1. Investigate emulsification rates and patterns of large oils spills at sea (immediate short term); 2. Characterize persistence profile and mobility of emulsified oil at sea (short and long term); 3. Determine critical emulsion formation and transport characteristics based on field observations in South Florida marine and coastal waters and data in the Gulf coastal areas and marine environment.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Photode Research 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Coastal, gradatio Offshore n of Dispersa nts Used in Gulf Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) Dispersants, Restoration Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name n University of Karl Colorado at Linden Boulder Phone Email Abstract 3034924798 karl.li nden @colo rado.e du NSF RAPID grant: Study the photochemical fate of the dispersants used in the spill clean-up effort. Objectives: (1) develop an analytical method to follow the decay of the dispersant (COREXIT) (2) Investigate the sunlight driven degradation of COREXIT in laboratory grade water and synthetic ocean waters. (3) Obtain environmental samples and study the sunlight decay in the presence of the background water matrix and oil from the spill. (4) Model and estimate the half life of identifiable chemicals in the dispersant, based on sunlight fluences experienced in the Gulf. Abstract PI: Karl Linden Proposal Number: 1043818 Institution: University of Colorado at Boulder Title: Photochemical Fate of Oil Dispersants Used in the Gulf Oil Spill Clean-up This research is in response to events subsequent to an explosion on the British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon Oil Rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana. One strategy that BP is taking to stem the flow of oil toward the shoreline is the use of dispersants. Dispersants are designed to break up large globules of oil into smaller droplets that would be more amenable to biodegradation. However, the use of dispersants is being carried out in larger quantities than ever before and being injected deep underwater at the source of the oil leak. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is extremely concerned about the toxicity of the dispersant being used and issued a directive to BP ?to identify and use a less toxic and more effective dispersant from the list of EPA authorized dispersants?. This proposal was submitted to the RAPID program to provide quick response research relating to this anthropogenic disaster. The research to be performed under this RAPID proposal is to study the photochemical fate of the dispersants used in the spill clean-up effort to determine the extent to which sunlight driven processes can degrade the chemicals used. The environmental fate of the surfactants and hydrocarbons being spread into the ocean are relatively unknown. The objectives of this study are to (1) develop an analytical method to follow the decay of the dispersant (COREXIT) in the laboratory using a mass spectral fingerprint analysis; (2) Investigate the sunlight driven degradation of COREXIT in laboratory grade water and synthetic ocean waters; (3) Obtain environmental samples of water containing the dispersant and study the sunlight decay in the presence of the background water matrix and oil from the spill; and (4) Model and estimate the half life of identifiable chemicals in the dispersant, based on sunlight fluences experienced in the Gulf on the water

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 169 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Monitoring 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Coastal, Enhance 0 Offshore ment of Fishnet2 for Disaster Impact Assessm ent Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email n Tulane Bart, (504) hank University Henry 865- @mus 4000 eum.tu lane.e du Abstract In response to the Deep Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Tulane University is awarded a RAPID grant to expand and enhance the Fishnet2 network of fish collection databases (http://www.fishnet2.net). They will expand and enhance the network to facilitate rapid searches and extraction of archived data on Gulf of Mexico fishes. The oil spill has the potential to have far-reaching, long-term impacts on species, communities and food webs in both offshore and nearshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico. It occurred at a time when many oceanic species are spawning in areas of the Gulf of Mexico affected by the spill, including critically endangered species such as the bluefin tuna, which spawns in the gulf from April to June. The bluefin tuna is just one of the thousands of marine fishes and other organisms whose larvae are currently being exposed to oil-derived toxins in the Gulf of Mexico. The ability of scientists to assess the impacts of the spill on the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem depends critically on the availability of baseline data on the composition and structure of biotic communities in the region under natural conditions. Natural history museums contain a wealth of data on marine resources spanning decades to hundreds of years. In most instances, the sampling was conducted by national marine natural resource agencies, which regularly census various components of the marine biota and routinely engage members of the scientific community in this endeavor. As a result of the scientific engagement, specimens from the cruises have made their way to various museums to be identified, studied and archived. The enhanced portal will serve as a research resource for assessing impacts of the current oil spill and other such environmental disasters in the future. It will also serve as a model for enhancing data networks for other groups of organisms. The specific enhancements planned for this project include a new mapping interface, the ability to conduct online spatial queries and searches based on gear-type and user-defined depth zone. The new map interface will be based on OpenLayers and will support Open Street Maps, Google and Bing. The Fishnet2 portal already supports downloading results as .KML files for visualization of point occurrences using Google Earth and/or ArcGIS. With the proposed enhancements, a user could draw polygons on the search interface map or upload a .KML file describing a search area (e.g., the projected spill impact area) and use this as a spatial filter for extracting data from Fishnet2.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Ectopar asites and endopar asites of fishes as bioindic ators of acute and chronic environ mental perturba tion after the 2010 Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 8/15/1 10/31/1 1.21 Coastal, Monitoring 0 1 Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure, Environmenta l health and indicators Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Auburn Bullard, (334) sab00 Parasites of fishes are a large portion of marine University Stephen 844- 19@a biodiversity, easily outnumbering fish species, but so 4438 uburn. far have received little attention as bioindicators edu (biosensors) of anthropogenic pollution in the Gulf of Mexico. Changes to this ecologically diverse community of fish parasites, including those living on the surface of fishes (ectoparasites) and those living within fishes (endoparasites), are known to be associated with marine pollution and indicate negative alterations to the marine food web and also to water quality of coastal and offshore fish habitats. This research will help document the immediate and extended environmental "ripple effects" associated with the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill in the northcentral Gulf of Mexico as well as inform about the use of parasites as bioindicators of oil pollution on a regional scale. Partnerships with federal (Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NOAA, NMFS), state (Florida Marine Research Institute, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission), and university (Auburn University, Middle Tennessee State University, and University of Southern Mississippi) scientists and fisheries biologists have been established for this regional study. The project complements other NSFRAPID projects that aim to monitor the effects of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico basin.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 171 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 9/15/1 8/31/11 0.96 Coastal, Influenc 0 Offshore e of Environ mental Crude Oil Exposur e on Genetic Mechani sms of Fish Develop ment Environment al Theme (s) Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name n East Carolina Ed University Stellwag, Xiaoping Pan, Anthony Overton, Baohong Zhang Phone Email Abstract 2523286302 stellw age@e cu.edu, panx@ ecu.ed u, overto na@ec u.edu, zhang b@ecu .edu The focus of this RAPID project is to develop a model to understand the effects of marine environmental crude oil exposure on the molecular mechanisms affecting vertebrate embryonic development. We are employing a powerful, well established vertebrate developmental model organism, Danio rerio (zebrafish), and comparing its response to Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure relative to an environmental reference species, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden). By comparing the response of a natural fish population to a laboratory model, we will be able to validate the model while obtaining valuable information about the molecular response of natural fish populations to environmental crude oil exposure. Molecular changes in developmental gene expression will be studied by combined state-of-the-art RNA SEQ deep sequencing and bioinformatics-based gene network approaches. Our results will provide important new information about the effects of crude oil exposure on global gene expression during vertebrate embryogenesis.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Impacts of the Deepwat er Horizon crude oil spill on the diversity of macroal gae and macrocr ustacean s inhabiti ng deepwat er hard banks in the NW, NE and SE Gulf of Mexico Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, 8/16/1 8/15/11 1.00 Coastal, Research 0 Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Human health, Seafood safety, Ecosystem and community structure, Dispersants, Toxicology, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Biology Department PI Name Phone Email Abstract Suzanne Frederic q, Darryl Felder 3374821291, 3374826753 slf920 9@lou isiana. edu, dlf451 7@lou isiana. edu The depths at which the subsurface oil plumes resulting from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill have been observed are within the depth range of our focal taxa inhabiting offshore hard banks in the NW Gulf of Mexico. We currently have an exceptional taxonomic database of the offshore macroalgae and macrocrustaceans dredged principally from 45-90 m depth (in addition to deep-sea benthic invertebrates dredged with a skimmer in hundreds of meters depth) in the oil spill-impacted areas and throughout the Gulf. These collections provide a baseline for understanding of diverse algal and faunal assemblages now at risk off the coast of Louisiana and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Our awarded NSF RAPID grant offers a first step in resampling and analysis of these remarkable assemblages. The proposed studies facilitate critical assessment of pre- and post-oil spill impacts on diversity, vitality, and distribution of the target benthic organisms by launching two 5-day ship-based sampling expeditions centered on previously studied banks in the NW, NE and SE Gulf of Mexico. Upon resampling of earlier sites, it is hypothesized that results of the RAPID inventory will reflect which taxa are sensitive to oil pollution, and (by virtue of organism health) reflect their potential to subsequently recover. Marine algae, being plants, are the principal producers of oxygen in the marine ecosystem, and the blocking of sunlight by the oil coupled with the presumed bioaccumulation of dispersants in their thalli may cause them to die-off affecting the entire food chain and resulting in the expansion of an already existing 'dead zone' throughout the entire Gulf of Mexico. By contrast, macrocrustacean assemblages of deep banks represent consumers at varied tropic levels that may be directly impacted by food-chain disruption (for adults and planktonic larvae), interference of oil in respiration and complex behaviors, and direct impacts on physiological processes. Post-spill changes in diversity, population structure, reproductive capacity are hypothesized, and are measurable when compared to our large dataset from pre-spill sampling. Detection and quantification of these effects will reflect potential impacts of the oil spill in sensitive deep bank environments, most of which are not otherwise being monitored or sampled. Subsequent to the two planned cruises laid out in our RAPID proposal, we plan to 'resubmit' an extensive 4-year NSF BS&I proposal, more comprehensively retracing our earlier routes and more thoroughly and repetitively recollecting in a broader range of our earlier sites, excepting, so far,

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 173 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 8/15/1 8/14/11 1.00 Coastal, Taxono 0 Offshore mic and metagen etic test of species distribut ions for marine meiofau na in the Gulf of Mexico Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n University of New Hampshire PI Name Phone Email Abstract Holly Bik, 603W. Kelley 862Thomas 1247, 6038622470 h.bik@ unh.ed u, kelley. thoma s@unh .edu Meiofaunal communities comprise the vast majority of the eukaryotic biodiversity in benthic marine habitats and perform key ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and sediment stability. We currently lack any knowledge of biogeographic patterns or community structure in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), precluding any informed mitigation and remediation of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Knowledge-based action will require that we immediately address three key questions: 1) How unique are the communities in the GOM?, 2) How structured are the communities within the GOM?, and 3) What has been the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on these communities? Addressing these fundamental questions will allow us to better evaluate the effect of the anthropogenic disturbance on the benthic meiofaunal communities. To address these questions, we will apply metagenetic (454 sequencing) and traditional taxonomic methods of analysis that assay diversity of virtually all eukaryotic organisms from critical samples collected prior to the spill and selected from diverse habitats (intertidal to deep-sea sediments) in the GOM.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 7/1/10 5/31/11 0.92 Coastal, Deepwat Offshore er Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Metal, Nutrient , and Organic Matter Distribu tions in the Water Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract Source n NSFAlan 228- alan.sh This study is aimed at understanding the effect of the RAPID Shiller 688- iller@ ongoing Deepwater Horizon oil spill on chemical 1178 usm.e distributions in the affected area. Because of the du ongoing nature of the oil spill as well as the uncertainty of it course (i.e., it could stop at any time or continue indefinitely), sampling this event now is critical. Metals, nutrients, and organic matter all play important roles in the geochemical processes affecting the biota. The oil spill region is an important fishery and thus understanding how the spill is affecting chemical distributions is a vital aspect of understanding its impact on the food chain. With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Research (RAPID), investigators at the University of Southern Mississippi will examine how and to what extent metal and nutrient distributions are affected by the oil spill. This includes both direct effects (e.g., Ni is enriched in crude oil) as well as indirect effects wherein the spill could affect some other factor or process that they affects metals and nutrients (e.g., via oxygen depletion). They will conduct surveys in the affected area using both boats available to the university as well as ships of opportunity. They will also analyze samples collected in the past week in the oil spill area. The principal investigator's laboratory already has pre-spill baseline data for much of the affected area. Thus, thus they have a context for understanding and interpreting the data that will be gathered. Broader Impacts Little is known about the impact of oil spills on trace element distributions. Thus, a broader impact of this work lies in helping understand some of the impacts of a serious oil spill which is contaminating an important fishery. The investigators will also involve a student in this work. Because of the wide interest in the impact of the oil spill, the results will not only be disseminated in the reviewed literature, but the findings are also likely to picked up by the popular media.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 175 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Monitoring 6/15/1 5/31/11 0.96 Coastal, Glider 0 Offshore Observa tions in the Gulf of Mexico in Respons e to the Oil Spill Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Daniel (858) drudni Intellectual Merit: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in CaliforniaRudnick 534- ck@uc the Gulf of Mexico requires a rapid response by the San Diego 1293 sd.edu oceanographic community to measure subsurface oil Scripps Inst and where it is going. The proposal is to deploy a Spray of glider equipped with a CTD, CDOM fluorometer, and Oceanograph ADP in an effort to observe subsurface oil and general y oceanographic conditions. The combination of CDOM fluorometer measurements and acoustic backscatter intensity will be used to sense oil in water. Work will be in collaboration with Breck Owens of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, who will take an important role in glider piloting. The glider will be deployed from Cocodrie, Louisiana aboard the vessel Acadiana during the first week of June. The glider will be sent south of the spill site, and away from surface slicks, with the goal of observing the offshore extent of subsurface oil. The data will be widely disseminated in real time for the purpose of establishing oceanic conditions and initializing predictive models. Broader Impacts: As the oil spill is of extreme societal importance, this work proposed here has potentially huge broader impacts. Public interest in the oil spill is extremely high, with intense media coverage. A successful demonstration of the observation of subsurface oil will influence the response to oil spills for years. The collaboration of ocean scientists to address this problem of national scope may prove to be a model for the future. The data generated by gliders may lead to improved prediction of ocean currents in the region, which is essential for knowing how the oil will disperse. This use of gliders is an excellent example of their utility as a tool for rapid response.

176 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID: Impact of Nutrient Limitati on on Microbia l Degrada tion of Deepwat er Horizon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/15/1 5/31/11 0.96 Coastal, Restoration 0 Offshore Environment al Theme (s) ecosystem and community structure, restoration Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n Woods Hole Oceanograph ic Institution PI Name Phone Email Abstract

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE

Benjamin (508) bvanm Natural microbial degradation plays an important role Van 289- ooy@ in the remediation of crude oil released to the marine Mooy 2462 whoi.e environment. One important characteristic of the du Deepwater Horizon oil release that could limit microbial degradation rates is that the oil is surfacing in waters that are highly depleted in available nutrients; microbes need these nutrients in order to grow and degrade oil. Although there have been comparatively few studies on N and P limitation of oil degradation since the 1980s, in the intervening time there have been major advances in our ability to assess the identity, activity and nutrient-limitation status of microbes in seawater; most of the early work centered on simply tracking the disappearance of oil over time, but now we have the ability to monitor the behavior of the microbial community in parallel. With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Research (RAPID), a team of microbial biogeochemists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution will examine how microbial heterotrophy, nutrients, and petroleum compounds in the oil spill interact. They posit that the obvious potential for nutrient limitation to impact the degradation of oil from the Deepwater Horizon release warrants an immediate, targeted assessment of this issue in the Gulf of Mexico using up-to-date microbial and molecular methods. The study will achieve three objectives: 1) assess the degree to which microbes in the Gulf of Mexico are stressed by the unavailability of nutrients both inside and outside of areas contaminated by Deepwater Horizon oil; 2) examine the relationship between nutrient stress and the microbial degradation rate of Deepwater Horizon oil; 3) specifically determine whether oil degradation rates are stimulated by lecithin, a plant-derived, non-toxic, hydrophobic N- and P-containing organic nutrient. Broader impacts The Deepwater Horizon oil release is an event of historic significance that has the potential to severely negatively impact the environmental quality and economic competitiveness of our nation. The primary benefit of the proposed work will be to reveal potential biogeochemical barriers to microbial oil degradation that might be overcome through novel remediation efforts. In addition, by conducting measurements collected by the lead investigator in GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 177 2002, the project will have the secondary benefit of BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL identifying perturbations in the phosphorous field that will be propagated throughout the food web, including Gulf of Mexico fisheries.

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Analyses Research 7/1/10 6/30/12 2.00 Coastal, of Offshore nearsho re and offshore microbia l commun ity composi tion and structur e Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem NSF, BP Louisiana Gary M. health and State King indicators, University Ecosystem and community structure Phone Email Abstract 225 578 1901 gking me@g mail.c om We are analyzing bacterioplankton community composition and structure in the water column of coastal bays (e.g., Terrebonne, Barataria) and offshore at stations throughout the spill area, with sample depths from 2m - 1700m. Genomic DNA is extracted from water column samples collected on 0.2 m filters, and subjected to PCR using 16S rRNA primers for region 515-806, modified for high throughput pyrosequencing. The primers amplify both Bacteria and Archaea domains. Offshore samples represent material collected by Dr. T. Hollibaugh (UGA) in March, 2010 prior to the spill. Inshore samples have been collected in collaboration with Drs. A. Kolker, T. Bianchi and R. Cook in July and September, 2010. Results from these studies will provide pre- and postspill data from which changes in composition can be assessed. Approximately 600K reads have been generated thus far. Additional efforts will focus on analyses of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation. Pruett Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, several outbreaks @cvm. of infectious diseases were reported among fish msstat populations. In this project, the status of the immune e.edu system in fish obtained from regions of the Gulf of Mexico exposed to oil and/or dispersants and regions not affected will be compared using both morphological and functional assessment of cells of the immune system. Recent exposure or bioaccumulation of petroleum components will be assessed by measuring the induction of hydrocarbon metabolizing enzymes in the liver. Additional studies to determine dose sensitivity will be performed using fish from the Gulf housed in a laboratory setting. State of the art instrumentation (a FACSAria III flow cytometer and cell sorter) will be used in this project).

Immuno Monitoring logical Assessm ent of Fish from the Gulf of Mexico: Effects of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill

Ongoing Ongoing

Coastal, Offshore

Toxicology, NSF, College of Impact on life MSU, NGI Veterinary stages of Medicine, aquatic Mississippi animals State University and Northern Gulf Institute

Stephen 662Pruett, 325Lora 1130 PetrieHanson, Jan Chamber s, Peter Allen, Larry Hanson, Mark Lawrenc e

178 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Effects on Near Shore Organic Matter and Species Coastal Wetland Researc h and Monitori ng Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 Ongoing Coastal, Monitoring Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Hypoxia Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source Shelby Center for Fisheries Manage ment Organizatio n Dauphin Island Sea Lab PI Name Phone Email Abstract Ruth H. 251Carmicha 861el 2141X 7555 rcarmi chael @disl. Collecting and assimilating current year with past two org years of data on water column, sediment, and species composition along a salinity gradient from the MobileTensaw Delta to waters just offshore of the mouth of Mobile Bay; including C and N composition, stable isotope ratios, and species type. These data will indicate how near shore organic matter and species, which feed offshore fisheries, are affected by oil spill related contaminants and hypoxia. ken.du Dr. Dunton is a wetland ecologist. He has continuously nton@ collected data on seagrass condition, water quality, mail.ut and sediment characteristics at a site on the Padre exas.e Island National Seashore in the Laguna Madre for du more than 20 years. He has monitored marsh vegetation and food-web structure at several sites in the Nueces Estuary continuously for nearly 15 years. In the Gulf of Mexico, he has helped lead the effort in Texas to implement a state-wide monitoring program for conservation of Texas seagrasses. He maintains a huge database that includes extensive surveys of seagrass beds and their physiological condition along much of the Texas coast. kdaly Researchers from the College of Marine Science/USF, @mari the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, ne.usf. and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute edu will assess the impact of oil on Florida marine ecosystems by comparing non-impacted west Florida shelf and impacted north Florida shelf sites. A suite of optical and acoustic sensors will be used to detect subsurface oil. Surface tar balls and hydrocarbon concentrations in the water column and sediments will be investigated in relation to the abundance, distribution, species composition, and condition of benthic, microbial, phytoplankton, and zooplankton communities. Marine mammals and turtles also will be surveyed. In addition, drifters will be released to document currents and water column hydrocarbon measurements will help validate OCG model subsurface oil trajectory projections.

Monitoring

6/1/89 Ongoing

Coastal, Offshore

USACE

UT Marine Science Institute

Ken Dunton

3617496744

USF: Research, Deepwat Monitoring er Horizon Oil Spill Impact and Ecosyste m Assessm ent

6/23/1 Ongoing 0

Coastal, Offshore

Oil spill USF modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Toxicology, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

University of Kendra South Florida Daly

7275531041

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 179 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Early Warning 4-D Remote Sensing System to Assess Synoptic Threats to Coastal Ecosyste ms of Florida and of Adjacent States and Nations Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, 9/1/10 8/31/12 2.00 Coastal, Research Offshore Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source USF, BP, ROFFS Organizatio n University of South Florida College of Marine Science PI Name Phone Email Abstract Frank MullerKarger 7275533335 carib @mari ne.usf. edu The oil that entered the environment from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill posed a threat to coastal and pelagic ecosystems of the Gulf of Mexico. Repeated and frequent mapping of surface and subsurface oil plumes over this large region was accomplished using satellite imagery of various types, and additional monitoring with these technologies is required to assess conditions in the region after the well was capped. A retrospective analysis is required to better define what happened to the oil and to improve future monitoring, forecasting and mitigation efforts. This two-year Collaborative Project 'Early Warning 4-D Remote Sensing System to Assess Synoptic Threats to Coastal Ecosystems of Florida and of Adjacent States and Nations' organizes experts from the region to conduct research to determine the distribution and extent of oil and dispersants. The approach builds on the team's infrastructure, long history of time series research of the oceanography of the Gulf, and strong multidisciplinary academic education programs to also contribute to baseline studies and contribute to an integrated observing system. The project combines satellite and airborne observations collected by the remote sensing team with habitat and contaminant measurements from ships and other platforms to characterize oil and dispersant distribution and their environmental impacts. The team will use extensive connections in the fisheries, oil and other industries, and establish robust collaborative linkages with other biogeochemical, ecological, and modeling efforts to combine observations and minimize uncertainties in the identification and characterization of surface and subsurface oil. Three-dimensional synoptic assessments will be developed by combining real-time satellite images (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, AVHRR visible and infrared, and synthetic aperture radar), detailed maps of coastal habitats impacted by the contaminants derived using airborne hyperspectral imagers, large-scale maps of the subsurface circulation obtained from sensors launched from NOAA hurricane hunter aircraft crossing the Gulf, and meticulous shipboard observations of oil presence and composition collected by other teams. The synoptic assessments will help target coastal areas for the high spatial resolution digital imaging and mapping to be conducted using the airborne cameras immediately prior and after oil contamination. Our ongoing historical satellite time series (1993-present) studies provide a context for assessing change.

180 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Assessin Monitoring 10/1/1 11/30/1 2.00 Offshore g the 0 2 impacts of oil exposur e on deep sea ecosyste ms of the Gulf of Mexico using sharks and scaveng ers as integrati ve models Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem BP-FIO Florida Michael health and International Heithaus indicators, University, Ecosystem School of and Environment community and Society structure, Toxicology, Trophic dynamics and food webs Phone Email Abstract 9544995708 heitha The deep sea ecosystems of the Gulf of Mexico are us@fiu likely to be negatively impacted by the Deepwater .edu Horizon spill due to the volume of oil released and use of dispersants at depth. Because of the difficulty in assessing these ecosystems, determining the impacts of the spill is difficult. However, by assessing the physiology, community structure, and trophic dynamics of a group of sentinel species it will be possible to establish ecosystem baselines, assess exposure to oil and its impacts. We will use upper trophic level predators (sharks) and benthic scavengers (crabs, giant isopods) as indicator species of ecosystem effects of the spill. We will use samples previously collected by the PIs within the Gulf of Mexico and sampling at two locations offshore of Florida's coast that differ in the current, and likely future, exposure to oil to assess the impacts of the spill. During four cruises (two per site, 12 months apart) we will 1) assess exposure of deep sea sharks and scavengers to oil, 2) abundance, population structure, and community structure of sharks, and 3) trophic structure of the ecosystem.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 181 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Assessm ent of deepwat er fish assembl ages associat ed with DeSoto Canyon and continen tal slope waters in the eastern Gulf of Mexico Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Monitoring, 12/1/1 12/1/11 1.00 Offshore Research 0 Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem BP-FIO Florida State R. Dean health and University Grubbs indicators, Coastal and Ecosystem Marine Lab and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Phone Email Abstract 8506972067 dgrub bs@bi o.fsu.e du The Gulf of Mexico has a long history of oceanographic and biological exploration, yet the larger deepwater fishes of this region are poorly documented and taxonomy of many fish groups remains unresolved. We will use fishery-independent surveys to explore the deepwater assemblages of large demersal elasmobranchs and teleosts associated with DeSoto Canyon and the adjacent continental slope and examine exposure of fishes to oil-based pollutants. Deep-water species and habitats were likely among the first affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, yet little is known about resident assemblages. We seek to answer three general questions. What are the spatial and depth-mediated differences in the faunal assemblages of large demersal fishes associated with DeSoto Canyon and the continental slope? Is there evidence that these fishes have been exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)? If so, are there spatial differences in detected exposure and does this correlate with differences in fish health? mbenfi An in situ, self-contained, high-resolution zooplankton e@Lsu imaging system ( ZOOVIS-Deep) is being constructed .edu to quantify the distribution and abundance of mesozooplankton to depths of 2000m. The system is battery-operated and stores images from a 4 megapixel digital camera on an internal hard drive. A structured red light shadowgraph illumination system permits a high depth of field with a large image volume while permitting resolution of 5 microns. An integrated CTD allows the depth of each image to be recorded.

Docume Monitoring nting impacts of the subsea plume using Gulf SERPEN T ROV surveys Biologic Research al Impacts of Oil and Dispersa nt on Fish Fauna of

9/1/10 8/31/11

1.00 Offshore

Ecosystem BP-GRI; and BP-LSU community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

LSU School of Mark 225 the Coast and Benfield 578Environment 6372

Ongoing Ongoing

Offshore

Dispersants, Toxicology

BP-LSU

Louisiana State University

Batlz, Donald; Chesney, Edward

182 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Deep Waters: Assessin g Impacts of the Deepwat er Horizon Event Reef Monitoring 10/1/0 Ongoing Offshore Fish 4 Commu nity Structur e and Dynamic s at Artificial Reef Sites off Pensacol a, FL Oil Research contami nation as a driver of archaeal abundan ce and diversity in the Gulf of Mexico 6/10/1 9/30/10 0 0.25 Offshore Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n

Ecosystem FL-FWC health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Restoration Florida Sea Grant

University of Will 850West Florida Patterso 857n 6123

wpatte rson@ uwf.ed u

We have examined reef fish community structure and population dynamics at 27 artificial reef sites located 25-35 km off the coast of Pensacola, FL since fall 2004. Sites are of three designs and are in water depths of 27-41 m. Sites will serve as an index of multi-year variability in reef fish community and recruitment dynamics to assess potential effects of oil on the shelf. University of Eric Florida Triplett Unkno ewt@ wn ufl.edu

This project will assess halophilic archaeal abundance and diversity from the coastline to the center of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Lab experiments will test the ability af archaea assoicated with the spill to degrade petroleum.

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 183 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Microbia l Respons e to Macond o Oil and Dispersa nt Chemica l Effects Associat ed with Leaking Macond o Well Oil in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Mapping and Detectio n of subsurface oil and dispersa nts on the Gordon Gunter Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research 6/16/1 12/31/1 0.54 Offshore 0 0 Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Dispersants, Toxicology Funding Source NGI, BPGRI Organizatio n University of Southern Mississipp PI Name Phone Email Abstract D.J. Grimes, Kevin Dillon

Research

6/16/1 12/31/1 0 0

0.54 Offshore

Ecosystem health and indicators

Monitoring

5/27/1 0

6/4/10

0.00 Offshore

Unknown

Unkno jay.gri wn mes@ The objectives of the study are: 1) examine bacterial usm.e interactions and molecular responses to oil and du, dispersant, 2) quantify bacterial growth and Kevin. respiration rates in oil/dispersant affected and Dillon unaffected surface waters, and 3) characterize the @usm. biogeochemical state of surface waters in affected and edu unaffected areas. NGI, BP- University of Alan Unkno alan.sh GRI Southern Shiller, wn iller@ For this task, we will examine both direct and indirect Mississippi Laodong usm.e chemical effects associated with oil leaking from the Guo du, damaged Macondo well. By direct effects, we refer to laodon the distribution and transformation of the crude oil g.guo itself as well as associated components such as the @usm. trace metals nickel and vanadium, which are known to edu be enriched in crude oil (e.g. Speight, 1991). By indirect effects, we mean the changes in chemical distributions resulting from the effect of the oil on critical geochemical processes such as inhibition of the air-sea of oxygen by surface slicks. NOAA No value No value Unkno Unkno provided provided wn wn NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter and R/V Weatherbird II. The specific focus of the project was to survey the area within 20 nm of the Deepwater Horizon site looking for oil in the water column. Project used EK-60 sonar to map subsurface layers in a pattern that radiated from known areas where sub-surface oil existed. Additionally, water samples were taken, and drifters and XBTs were deployed near the Deepwater Horizon site.

184 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Rapid Gulf Survey on the Walton Smith Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/6/10 6/11/10 0.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract al Theme (s) Source n Oil spill NOAA NOAA/OAR/ Michelle Unkno Michel This project took advantage of the R/V Walton Smith modeling and AOML Wood wn le.Woo transit from Gulf Port, MS to Miami to complete a rapid tracking d@no survey of the onshore edge of the Loop Current to aa.gov detect and evaluate possible near surface oil in the tiger-tail, Loop Current and appraches to the Dry Tortugas and the Florida Keys. The cruise collected interdisciplinary observations through a survey in the frontal zone of the Florida Current and Loop Current and within large cyclonic frontal eddy centered near 27N and 85.5W. Ecosystem NOAA NOAA/NOS/ Jeff 843/7 jeff.hyl A survey was conducted August 12-22 aboard the health and NCCOS Hyland 62and@ NOAA Ship Nancy Foster at 50 offshore stations from indicators, Center for 8652 noaa.g the Mississippi Delta to Tampa, Florida, to assess Ecosystem Coastal ov impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and other and Environment potential stressors throughout Gulf of Mexico shelf community al Health and waters. Samples were collected for multiple types of structure, Biomolecular analyses including benthic communities, sediment Toxicology Research toxicity, and levels of oil and other contaminants in sediments, water, and fish tissues. Basic water and sediment quality characteristics (e.g., pH, DO, nutrients, chlorophyll, turbidity, sediment grain size and TOC) were also measured. Potential oil-spill impacts are assessed by comparing biological conditions between oiled sites and non-oiled sites of similar habitat type. Use of a probabilistic sampling design also supports statistical estimates of the spatial extent of degraded versus non-degraded conditions (e.g. percentage of oil-impacted area), which will form a baseline to quantify long-term trends.

Deepwat Research, er Monitoring Horizon Oil Spill: Offshore Survey of Benthos and Overlyin g Waters

8/12/1 Ongoing 0

Offshore

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 185 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Examina Research 5/1/09 Ongoing Offshore tion of Reef Fish Ecology on the Northwe st Florida Shelf Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NOAANMFS, FL-FWRI Organizatio PI Name n University of Will West Florida Patterso n Phone Email Abstract 8508576123 wpatte rson@ This study involves examining aspects of the ecology uwf.ed of red snapper and other reef fishes across the shelf in u the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Video sampling with ROV is conducted to examine reef fish community and size structure at natural and artificial reef sites across the shelf. Fish are then sampled with hook and line to collect otolith, stomach, and muscle tissue samples. Otoliths are processed to examine size at age and age at recruitment to various habitats. Stomach samples are analyzed to estimate species-specific diet and muscle tissue samples are analyzed for d13C, d15N, and d34S to examine trophic position and source(s) of carbon.

186 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Potentia Research 7/25/1 8/31/11 1.08 Offshore l for 0 crude oil pollutan ts to concentr ate in shelfedge habitat engineer ed by fishery species Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, Dispersants Funding Source NOAANMFS, NGI Organizatio n Florida State University Coastal and Marine Laboratory PI Name Phone Email Abstract

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE

Christop 850.69 koenig Red grouper (Epinephelus morio) act as ecological her 7.4120 @bio.f engineers to enhance and maintain biologicallyKoenig, su.edu, diverse communities across the continental shelf to Markus mhuet the shelf edge (Coleman and Koenig 2010, Coleman et Huettel, tel@fs al. 2010). On the NEGOM shelf edge, they construct in Felicia u.edu, carbonate sands cone-shaped excavations (pits, 6 m Coleman colem across, 2 m deep), the areal density of which in an@bi Steamboat Lumps Marine Reserve is about 250 per o.fsu.e km2 (Scanlon et al. 2005)(Figure 3) and the biological du diversity of which is significantly greater than that in the surrounding environment. Pits are used as refugia by planktivorous fishes that forage in the upper water column and deposit feces in and around the pits thereby coupling pelagic and benthic environment through trophic energy transfer; by sessile invertebrates as settlement sites; and by several other fishery species as nursery habitat. Thus, the grouper provides an important keystone role . This species also is highly productive and important in an economic sense because it supports roughly two-thirds of the entire grouper catch in the United States (Schirripa et al. 1999). Because of these dual roles, we are moved to investigate the impact of oil on these unique features. The pits act as natural sediment traps, and we suspect that they also accumulate crude oil particles that settle out from the water column or are transported by currents along the sea bed. The carbonate sand is sufficiently porous to act as a sponge, soaking up crude oil droplets that result from dispersant application. This enrichment, exacerbated by grouper digging activity, could change the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the sand. For instance, by binding sand particles, the oil changes the size distribution of the sediment and the permeability of the sediment to water flow and O2 distribution, thereby decreasing aerobic degradation rates of embedded oil. If bottom water flows are reduced in the protected environment of the pit, then toxic substances released during oil degradation could accumulate at higher concentrations in the pit compared to those in the surrounding environment. This could have a negative community-level effect by driving down diversity and abundance as toxic compounds accumulate. There may be direct population-level physiological impacts on red GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 187 grouper, who come in direct contact with polluted BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL sediment while transporting sediment from the center of the pit, the presumed zone of greatest contamination, to the pit edge, where they forcibly expel sediment through their mouth and gill chambers (Coleman et al. 2010). Gills are the site of maximum uptake of lipophilic compounds (Randall et al. 1998),

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Florida Shelf Edge Explorat ion (FLoSEE ): Rapid Respons e to the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Largescale Impacts of Dissolve d Oil and Methane from the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Preimpact assessm ent of oil spill on deep water and mesoph otic coral reefs Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source Research 7/9/10 8/7/10 0.08 Offshore Ecosystem NOAAhealth and OAR indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs Organizatio PI Name n Cooperative Shirley Institute for Pomponi Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology Phone Email Abstract 7722422449 spomp oni@h boi.fau .edu Three months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, and before extensive oil impacts reach shelf-edge reefs in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, NOAA's Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) is conducting a rapid response, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional expedition to assess the impacts of the DWH oil spill on Florida's mesophotic and deepwater ecosystems. CIOERT's expertise, tools, and technologies will address critical research needs associated with the DWH oil spill and potential impacts on the health of diverse ecosystems off Florida's Gulf and Atlantic coasts.

Research, Monitoring

5/1/10 Ongoing

Offshore

Oil spill NOAAmodeling and OAR tracking

NOAA/GFDL Robert Unkno Robert Hallberg wn .Hallbe rg@no aa.gov

Research

7/9/10

8/7/10

0.08 Offshore

Ecosystem and community structure

NOAAOAR

No value provided

This project uses an eddy-resolving ocean model to predict potential long term effects of dissolved oil on the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Stream. No value Unkno Unkno Three months after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil provided wn wn spill, and before extensive oil impacts reach shelf-edge reefs in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, NOAA's Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research and Technology (CIOERT) is conducting a rapid response, multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional expedition to assess the impacts of the DWH oil spill on Florida's mesophotic and deepwater ecosystems. CIOERT's expertise, tools, and technologies will address critical research needs associated with the DWH oil spill and potential impacts on the health of diverse ecosystems off Florida's Gulf and Atlantic coasts. Learn more at expedition web site -cioert.org/flosee.

188 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity Characte rization of subsurfa ce oil on the Gordon Gunter Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 5/26/1 6/4/10 0.01 Offshore Monitoring 0 Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Source n NOAANOAA/OAR Michelle Unkno OAR, Wood wn NOAANMFS Email Abstract Michel le.Woo d@no aa.gov

This research cruise sought to characterize the vertical and horizontal characteristics of subsurface oil near the oil wellhead and within the loop current. Water samples, fluorescence measurements, plankton samples, XBT and CTD deployments, and acoustical sampling were undertaken. Project in conjunction with NOAA, EPA, USCG, WHOI, UNH, USF, MBARI, and LSU. NSF Colorado School of Mines Amadeu 303K. Sum 2733873 asum @min es.edu The focus of this proposed project is to obtain experimental data needed in strategies currently contemplated to prevent gas hydrate formation at the oil/gas leaking from the Deepwater Horizon well system, as well as other future deepwater oil developments. The effect of thermodynamic inhibitors being considered, such as methanol and monoethylene glycol on hydrate formation conditions and rates in the presence of water-in-oil emulsion + brine systems will be measured using a high pressure differential calorimeter and a stirred high pressure autoclave cell. These measurements will provide new and critical information to establishing the effectiveness of these widely used control strategies for hydrate formation in deepwater oil developments.

RAPID: Research Gas Hydrate Formati on and Inhibitio n at the Conditio ns Encount ered in the Gulf of Mexico Oil Leak from the Deepwat er Horizon Well RAPID: Research Collabor ative Researc h: Deepwat er

7/15/1 7/14/11 0

1.00 Offshore

7/1/10 6/30/11

1.00 Offshore

Ecosystem health and indicators, Ecosystem and community structure

NSF

MSI, Univ. California Santa Barbara

Passow, Uta

805 893 2363

passo w@life sci.ucs b.edu No value provided

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date Horizon Oil Spill, Marine Snow and Sedimen tation End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n

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Title of Activity RAPID: Collabor ative Proposal : Acute respons e of benthic hardbott om commun ities to oil exposur e in the deep Gulf of Mexico Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio n Temple University; Pennsylvania State Univ University Park; Haverford College; Woods Hole Oceanograph ic Institution PI Name Phone Email Abstract Cordes, Erik; Fisher, Charles; White, Helen; Shank, Timothy (215) ecorde Over the past 20 years of work in the deep Gulf of 204- s@tem Mexico we have assembled a large database on over 40 8691 ple.ed sites with chemosynthetic communities and 14 natural u; sites with extensive cold-water coral development. As cfisher a result of the ongoing oil leak at the Deep Water @psu. Horizon rig, some of these sites are very likely to be edu; exposed to high concentrations of hydrocarbons and hwhite dispersant. Visitation, imaging, and sampling in the @have very near future at a subset of these sites will provide rford.e timely information on any acute impacts on benthic du; fauna, as well as provide ground-truthing of data tshank suggesting that the oil/dispersant mixture is spreading @who along density gradients at depth. We propose to i.edu revisit sites where we have ongoing studies, including pre-exposure tissue and live coral samples, and wellmarked and navigated mosaics of coral and coral/tubeworm communities. A site in MMS lease block VK 826 and another in MC 751 are identified as high-priority sites with extant mosaics, excellent preexisting macrofauna sample sets, and are currently monitored with time series sediment traps. A third high-priority site is in MMS lease Block MC 294, within 7 miles of the leak site. This site harbors a typical seep community of mussels and tubeworms. Numerous others could be visited if ongoing plume modeling and ground-truthing work suggests other important areas or depths in the Gulf of Mexico for study. At each site visited, we will conduct high resolution imaging of the hard ground megafaunal communities for comparisons to similar imagery collected last year and make a series of macrofauna collections for a suite of analyses. These analyses will include analysis of hydrocarbon load (tissue PAHs), Comet assays to assess DNA damage, analysis of phospholipids fatty acid biomarkers from bacteria in coral mucous, and also experiments with living Lophelia pertusa for growth studies under laboratory conditions. Broader Impacts For the first time in US history, we are dealing with a massive leakage and spread of oil and trial dispersants (potentially much more toxic to life than the oil itself), which have been directly injected at over 1500m into the deep sea. The scale of this disaster dwarfs any previous oil spills and how plumes of these substances will travel in the deep sea and what their effects on the 191 benthos will be is still almost completely unknown. As a result, there is a critical need to assess the impact on deep-sea megafauna communities and communicate those results as soon as possible.

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Title of Activity RAPID: The Microbia l Respons e to the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email n University of Andreas (919) teske North Teske 966- @emai Carolina at 3411 l.unc.e Chapel Hill du Abstract Intellectual merit: This RAPID project will conduct a time series of microbiological and geochemical assessments of the consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill offshore the Louisiana coast. The PIs are building on a large database of pre-spill baseline microbiology and biogeochemistry at a microbial observatory (Mississippi Canyon 118) near the Deepwater Horizon site they have occupied since 2005. They are applying molecular, gene-based analyses of the microbial community structure and function in surface water and underlying sediments; in situ water column dissolved oxygen and light hydrocarbon measurements using advanced sensor technologies (Seaguard system) for deep water plume tracking; and a biogeochemical survey of the sediments and water in the immediate vicinity of and at increasing distance from the oil spill, and on different time scales during follow-up cruises. 16S rRNA and functional gene sequencing of total microbial DNA and RNA from contaminated and clean water and sediments will monitor how the oil-affected microbial community changes in composition and activity. High-throughput pyrosequencing of PCRamplified rRNA fragments will increase the coverage by approx. three orders of magnitude, and allow for the detection of minority microbial populations that go unnoticed in conventional clone libraries. Special attention will be paid to the enrichment of oildegrading bacteria in natural samples and in timeseries experiments conducted in the lab, to monitor their growth with group-specific PCR, to monitor geochemical changes concomitant with the establishment and enrichment of a hydrocarbondegrading microbial community, and to identify potential carbon incorporation pathways with stable isotope probing of nucleic acids. Summarizing, this RAPID project focuses on molecular and microbiological assessments of hydrocarbon impact, across the spatial and time scales of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as determined by diagnostic water column oxygen and light hydrocarbon measurements. The water column microbiological and dissolved gas data will be linked to potential impacts on the bacterial activity in bottom sediments through measurements of geochemical indicators of sedimentary anaerobic microbial activity, and porewater analyses of DIC, CH4 and low-molecular weight organic acids, the principal products of hydrocarbon degradation. The PIs are coordinating their research with Mandy Joye at the University of Georgia. Broader Impacts: The results

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Offshore Collabor 0 ative Researc h: Multisca le plume modelin g of the Deepwat er Horizon oil-well blowout for environ mental impact assessm ent and mitigati on Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n GA Tech Stoesser, (404) thorst The subsurface plume from the Deepwater Horizon Research Thorsten 894- en@ce (DH) accidental oil-well blowout is a complex, layered Corporation 4819 .gatec system of intrusions containing oil, dissolved GA Institute h.edu hydrocarbons, and injected dispersants that will have of far-reaching environmental consequences; however, Technology no modeling tools are currently producing highlyresolved predictions of the plume structure and evolution. The goal of this Rapid Response Research Proposal (RAPID) is to develop a three-dimensional, multiscale hydrodynamic model for the DH blowout plume that combines the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling approach with the method of large-eddy simulation (LES). The resulting model platform will be validated to field and laboratory data, will respect the relevant chemistry and thermodynamics of the released oil and natural gas, and will be forced by the measured ambient conditions surrounding the spill. Such a simulation tool is urgently needed to guide field observations, predict the onshore migration and loop-current capture of the spilled oil, assess the effectiveness and potential environment impact of dispersants injected at the source, and to understand the response to this event already measured in the vertical migration of plankton and fish. The validated modeling platform will be developed through complementary laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and analysis of field data. The laboratory experiments will evaluate the effects of currents as the flow through the plume and pull oil and dissolved constituents into the wake of the plume. The numerical methods will utilize a very large eddy simulation (VLES) to resolve the dominant plume structures in the near field of the blowout plume and will nest this model in a far-field model based on the unsteady RANS approach. Field data from acoustic Doppler current profilers will provide model forcing and validation data and will also be analyzed to understand the role of subsurface plume dynamics on the vertical migration of plankton and fish as also recorded in the ADCP data. Early analysis of this data shows a very rapid shut-down of the diurnal vertical migration pattern at nearby stations shortly after the start of the spill. This is the first documented environmental response to the blowout, and it remains GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 193 unknown whether this is due to mortality, avoidance, BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL light penetration changes or other processes. The subsurface plume model developed here will provide detailed predictions of the subsurface plume structure necessary to analyze this environmental response. Intellectual Merit: The primary intellectual merit of the project will be an understanding of the critical physical Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID

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Title of Activity RAPID Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Impact of subsurface oil plumes on mesopel agic microne kton Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Joseph (813) jtorres Intellectual merit. The recent discovery of subsurface South Florida Torres 974- @mari oil plumes in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at 5465 ne.usf. mesopelagic (200-1000 m) depths brings the threat of edu oil exposure to a critical link in the open ocean trophic pyramid: the pelagic deep-sea community. Petroleum hydrocarbons have been identified at depths of 400 and 1000 m in the northern GOM. Extensive use of dispersants and a very deep well-head raise the likelihood of a substantial interaction between the mesopelagic community and petroleum hydrocarbons originating at the Deepwater Horizon well site. Until now, the deep pelagic ecosystem has remained largely free of oil-derived pollution and its inhabitants are likely to be very sensitive to it. The mesopelagic micronekton/macrozooplankton assemblage of the GOM is both highly diverse and vertically mobile. The great majority of the fish and crustacean species reside at depths below 600 m during the day, performing a migration into the upper 250 m at night. Thus, chances of mid-water species encountering subsurface oil plumes are extraordinarily high. Briefly put, if the plumes are present, a large fraction of the mid-water community will be migrating through them. This research project will: (1) obtain data on present-day micronekton species composition, distribution, and abundance in the upper 1000 m of the water column using ships of opportunity, and compare those data with those acquired in previous decades; (2) evaluate the degree to which the community has already been exposed to subsurface oil plumes using GCMS analysis of hydrocarbon fractions in organismal tissues, and comparing those results with previously collected specimens maintained at -80o; (3) evaluate the variability in sources of carbon and nitrogen supporting mesopelagic biomass and determine the trophic position of present day and previously collected specimens using d13C and d15N of muscle tissue. The data collected in this project will provide a stable isotope baseline allowing for evaluation of present and future subsurface oil impact. Broader impacts. Broader impacts include training a postdoctoral fellow in shipboard sampling, the biology ON THE EFFECTS OF THE of mesopelagic fauna, and basic geochemical methodologies and data interpretation. The PIs have established regular interactions with TV and newspaper reporters have been on the forefront of the shipboard sampling and geochemical analyses that first described the subsurface plumes emanating from the oil spill. Interaction with print and visual media will continue throughout the study as the oil spill

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID- Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Offshore Collabor 0 ative Researc h: The Microbia l Respons e to the Gulf Oil Spill: Linking Metabol omes and Metagen omes Environment al Theme (s) ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Suflita, (405) jsuflita This project will evaluate the impact and evolution of Oklahoma Joseph 325- @ou.e microbial communities impacted by the ongoing Norman 4757 du Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The Campus project involves a collaborative team that brings together strengths in all the requisite areas. Dr. Pam Morris is a highly qualified marine microbiologist and Dr. Joe Suflita is an expert in the microbiology of hydrocarbon-impacted microbial communities. This is a timely and cutting edge application of the latest types of analyses that will combine microbial metabolomic and metagenomic approaches to provide meaningful answers regarding the response of the microbe communities in question. The work will take advantage of on-going sampling efforts on-site and have already organized the appropriate arrangements to have the samples collected in a manner conducive to the proposed microbial work. To do this, the PIs are working closely with two national/federal laboratories on this effort: Dr. Terry Hazen (US DOE Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and Dr. Richard Coffin (Naval Research Laboratory). This will allow sampling of both contaminated in-plume and coastal sediment samples, as well as uncontaminated control samples. Thus, the project will bring to bear very high-tech approaches in a manner that will have direct ecological relevance. Broader Impacts: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is now considered the largest offshore spill in U.S. history. This project will generate important information on the impacts of the spill on specific natural microbial systems. As such, it is an unfortunate, yet useful, experimental opportunity to develop solid scientific understanding of such events. The project should help provide the knowledge required for fact-centered policy decisions regarding exploration and drilling enterprise. This is a new collaboration between investigators from two EPSCoR states (South Carolina & Oklahoma), and brings together their complementary expertise. The PIs each have long histories of training and education at all levels. Though the short timeline precludes some of the normally anticipated activities, the PIs will endeavor to find research opportunities, especially for undergraduates, to participate in the research. Clearly, such a research experience could prove both exciting EFFECTS OF THE 195 and influential.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Offshore Oil Spills 0 and (evoluti onary) Changes in Intestina l Microbi ota of Fish Environment al Theme (s) ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Southern Tietzel, (504) itietzel The hypothesis to be tested is that the Deepwater University Illya 286- @suno Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico will, by New Orleans 5314 .edu increasing the presence of oil-associated microbes in the marine environment, induce changes in the normal community of microbes (the microbiome) of fish and other marine organisms. For example, this exposure may result in new symbiotic host-microbe relationships between fish and bacteria. This research project has two aims: (1) To examine the bacteria of the digestive tract of fish from areas exposed to the Gulf oil spill for the presence of oil-associated microbes. A comparison with microbes from fish that have not been exposed to the oil spill will determine if exposure has led to a changed microbial community in oil-exposed fish. (2) To determine if genes related to the metabolic processing of oil (and which occur normally in oil-associated microbes) have been transferred into the normal intestinal bacteria of fish as a consequence of exposure to the Gulf oil spill. Broader Impacts This project will introduce undergraduate students from minorities traditionally underrepresented in science to biological research, and engage them with a project that is relevant to a problem currently facing society. This research project will also be integrated with lectures and laboratory instruction. Students will be recruited to conduct undergraduate research at all levels of the investigation, from field work to molecular biology to web-based bioinformatics. Students will participate in the analysis of results, and the presentation of their work in posters and talks at scientific conferences, as well as in scientific manuscripts. This project will involve collaboration with the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium. Results will also be made publically available through the office of Satellite Telecommunications Network Interface/Distance Learning at SUNO and the investigator's website www.sunocas.com/tietzel.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Modelin g of ShortTerm and LongTerm Marine Mammal Populati on Trends in the Vicinity of the Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill Using Passive Acoustic Monitori ng Cues Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Ackleh, (337) ackleh This is a RAPID proposal to assess the immediate Louisiana at Azmy 482- @louis impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on near-by Lafayette 6203 iana.e resident populations of endangered whale species du (sperm whales and beaked whales) and prediction of the long-term effects of the disaster on their population dynamics using statistical and mathematical modeling. The project includes three components: 1) an acoustic experiment in the vicinity of the incident to collect population estimates data and comparison to similar collected data from previous years; 2) the development of statistical models to quantitatively estimate the population of marine mammals before and after the incident in the vicinity of the disaster; 3) the development of a mathematical model to describe the dynamics of the whale population that will be used to evaluate the long term impact of the spill on whale populations. This project is one of a kind to assess the adverse impact of the BP oil-spill on the marine ecosystem in general, and marine mammal populations of specific species in particular, in and around the oil-impacted area of the Gulf of Mexico. Acoustic data will be collected near the sites where marine mammal phonations were collected by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center in 2001, 2002, 2007 and are as close as 9 miles from the BP oilspill incident site. Therefore, the newly collected data will be unique as we will be able to compare them to the previous data, which will provide base-line estimates of the marine mammal population density. Successful project implementation will provide not only environmental impact assessment of a large-scale oil spill on several species of marine mammals (including endangered sperm whales), but also the foundation for development of a new systematic methodology of population estimation and dynamics based on acoustic cues; this is in contrast with the traditional methodology which is based on visual observations. The collected data, which will be useful for ecologists in the future, and the theoretical research associated with the project will shed light on the debate concerning how the Gulf of Mexico has been affected by the oil-spill. This can help the policy makers in the future. This project will not only assess the impact of the BP oil-spill on marine species in the GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 197 impacted area, but also can work as a paradigm in the BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL future for similar manmade or natural disasters. The proposed research, with a strong theoretical component, will complement other existing and ongoing research on the BP oil-spill. Furthermore, articipating graduate students will receive valuable interdisciplinary training ranging from data analysis to Environment al Theme (s) ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID

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Title of Activity RAPID: Assessin g the impact of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill on the West Florida Shelf and Slope Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 9/1/10 8/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) dispersants, ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID; BP-FIO Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Flower, (813) bflowe This is a RAPID response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil South Florida Benjamin 974- r@sea Spill. The PIs will assess the impact of Deepwater 5465 s.mari Horizon oil and dispersants on sediments and benthic ne.usf. communities of the West Florida Shelf and Slope. In edu particular, assessing sub-surface oil and dispersants will gauge the effects on benthic habitat critical to nearby fisheries and marine protected areas. They will acquire a MC-800 multicorer system to sample the sediments along three depth transects, one where subsurface oil is suspected and two transects where the areas are not yet affected by the spill. Samples will be collected on an 8-day cruise aboard R/V Wetherbird II. Core samples will be dated by radioisotopes and chemically analyzed for oil and dispersants. Broader impacts: Assessing the impact of the oil spill from Deepwater Horizon and the subsequent use of dispersants on the West Florida slope and shelf is an important component of the regions disaster assessment program. The study will also provide a pre-impact baseline for future monitoring. A graduate student will be involved in outreach at the 9th grade level by conducting handson exercises to assess the impacts of oil spill. Results will also be used in marine science courses.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Multisca Research 8/15/1 7/31/11 0.96 Offshore le plume 0 modelin g of the Deepwat er Horizon oil-well blowout for environ mental impact assessm ent and mitigati on Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Ecosystem health and indicators, Dispersants, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name n Texas A&M Scott A. University Socolofsk y Phone Email Abstract 979 845 4517 socolo fs@ta mu.ed u The goal of this project is to develop a threedimensional, multiscale hydrodynamic model for the Deepwater Horizon blowout plume that combines the Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) modeling approach with the method of large-eddy simulation (LES). The resulting model platform will be validated to field and laboratory data, will respect the relevant chemistry and thermodynamics of the released oil and natural gas, and will be forced by the measured ambient conditions surrounding the spill. The research methods include laboratory modeling to provide needed validation data, analysis of current data from the field, and development of new numerical modeling tools. Such a simulation tool is urgently needed to guide field observations, predict the onshore migration and loop-current capture of the spilled oil, assess the effectiveness and potential environment impact of dispersants injected at the source, and to understand the response to this event already measured in the vertical migration of plankton and fish.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source RAPID Research 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Offshore dispersants NSFDeepwat RAPID er Horizon Oil Spill: Collabor ative Researc h: Marine Snow and Sedimen tation Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Vernon (601) Verno We propose to investigate the dynamics of marine Southern Asper 266- n.Aspe snow formed in the oil spill area in the Gulf of Mexico. Mississippi 4119 r@us We will monitor the distribution of this marine snow m.edu in the water column using a marine snow camera and characterize these aggregates in terms of composition, density, sinking velocity, fragility etc. Additionally we will experimentally investigate their formation and potential fates. Using drifting sediment traps we will measure sedimentation rates of organic carbon and organic and inorganic particles and compare the composition of sinking material with that of marine snow. The overall goal of this research is to understand the role of oil and dispersant in the occurrence of the large amounts of marine snow like particles in the water and to assess their role and fate in the ecosystem and in biochemical cycling. We suggest that the marine snow at the oil spill side has formed due to the presence of oil and dispersant and its characteristics differ significantly from those of natural marine snow. We suggest that oil or oil derivatives aide in the formation of these marine snow-like particles and that oil contributes a significant fraction to this marine snow. As a consequence we expect this snow to be more physically sturdy, less microbial labile and less dense than most natural marine aggregates, leading to an accumulation of this material in the water column on timescales of weeks to months. Observations made 2 weeks ago by V. Asper and A. Diercks suggest that indeed these particles are sturdier than natural marine snow. Also the comet shaped oil-snow appears to be oriented differently than natural marine snow with the 'larger end pointing upward rather than downward, indicating very different sinking dynamics.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source RAPID Research 7/1/10 6/30/11 1.00 Offshore dispersants NSFDeepwat RAPID er Horizon Oil Spill: Collabor ative Researc h: Marine Snow and Sedimen tation Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Uta D (805) passo We propose to investigate the dynamics of marine CaliforniaPassow 893- w@life snow formed in the oil spill area in the Gulf of Mexico. Santa 4188 sci.ucs We will monitor the distribution of this marine snow Barbara b.edu in the water column using a marine snow camera and characterize these aggregates in terms of composition, density, sinking velocity, fragility etc. Additionally we will experimentally investigate their formation and potential fates. Using drifting sediment traps we will measure sedimentation rates of organic carbon and organic and inorganic particles and compare the composition of sinking material with that of marine snow. The overall goal of this research is to understand the role of oil and dispersant in the occurrence of the large amounts of marine snow like particles in the water and to assess their role and fate in the ecosystem and in biochemical cycling. We suggest that the marine snow at the oil spill side has formed due to the presence of oil and dispersant and its characteristics differ significantly from those of natural marine snow. We suggest that oil or oil derivatives aide in the formation of these marine snow-like particles and that oil contributes a significant fraction to this marine snow. As a consequence we expect this snow to be more physically sturdy, less microbial labile and less dense than most natural marine aggregates, leading to an accumulation of this material in the water column on timescales of weeks to months. Observations made 2 weeks ago by V. Asper and A. Diercks suggest that indeed these particles are sturdier than natural marine snow. Also the comet shaped oil-snow appears to be oriented differently than natural marine snow with the 'larger end pointing upward rather than downward, indicating very different sinking dynamics. The accident at the BP oil well in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 resulted in an oil spill of unprecedented magnitude and consequences. Preliminary data collected in the beginning of May at the site of the accident show very high concentrations of marine snow in the water, especially in close proximity to the oil/ dispersants. The goal of this project is to evaluate the role these large marine snow-like particles play in the ecosystem during the following weeks to months. Neither the formation mechanisms nor the aggregate GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 201 composition are known. These investigators will BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL monitor the distribution of marine snow, characterize these particles and measure sedimentation rates to try to understand the role of snow formation and sedimentation in the ecosystem response.

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date RAPID Research Unkno Deepwat wn er Horizon Oil Spill: Collabor ative Researc h: Marine Snow and Sedimen tation End Date Duration Research Environment (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Unknow Offshore Ecosystem n and community structure Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract Source n NSFMSI, UCSB Uta Unkno passo RAPID Passow wn w@life sci.ucs Data collected in the beginning of May at the site of the b.edu spill show very high concentrations of marine snow in the water, especially in close proximity to the oil/ dispersants. In August and September marine snow concentration in the water and sedimentation of particles was measured to evaluate the role these large marine snow-like particles play in the ecosystem. One trap was deployed to measured sedimentation rates during the next 12 months. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the untypical marine snow observed 3 weeks after the accident.

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Title of Activity RAPID: Assessin g the impact of chemical disperse nts on the microbia l biodegra dation of oil immedia tely followin ga massive spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/12 2.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking, Dispersants Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of David (805) valenti The massive release of oil from the Deepwater Horizon CaliforniaValentine 893- ne@ge incident has led to an unprecedented use of oil Santa 4188 ol.ucsb dispersants, which include a mix of surfactant Barbara .edu compounds designed to dissolve oil and prevent slick formation. Previous research has shown mixed effects of surfactants on biodegradation and little is known about their effects on the ability of microbial communities to degrade the many hydrocarbon compounds found in crude oil. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria differ in their substrate preferences, as well as in their response to surfactants, which will play an important role in determining the rate and extent of biodegradation. With funding from this Grant for rapid Response Research (RAPID), researchers at the University of California at Santa Barbara will use a combination of chemical and biological tools to track changes in the composition of the oil, changes in the microbial community, and the amount of surfactant present, in order to determine the impact of these dispersants on biodegradation. Oil quantification and composition will be determined by gas chromatography, including the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Microbial community changes will be determined by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and functional genes for hydrocarbon oxidation, and specific members of the community will be quantified with quantitative real time PCR. Surfactants will be identified and quantified with LC-MS or other techniques. Initial sampling will be shore based, with deep water and sediment sampling planned as conditions allow. The opportunity to sample in the early stages of response to this spill will provide important baseline information and enable longer term studies on the fate of oil and dispersants in the Gulf of Mexico. Broader impacts of this proposal include the involvement of an undergraduate researcher and a postdoctoral researcher, as well as collaboration with the popular news media to educate members of the public on the effects of dispersants and the fate of oil from this spill.

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Title of Activity RAPID: The effect of methane laden oil on climate and dissolve d oxygen: using the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill as an analog for clathrate decomp osition and seeping methane Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Texas A&M John (979) jkessle The large fossil methane (CH4) discharged from the Research Kessler 845- r@oce destroyed Deepwater Horizon rig in the Gulf of Mexico Foundation 8600 an.tam (between 2-100 106 moles of CH4 per day) provides u.edu a unique opportunity to determine the impact of methane on dissolved oxygen concentrations and assess its burden on the atmosphere. Without considering ebullition effects, preliminary calculations indicate that a 10% reduction of dissolved oxygen can be achieved in the low oxygen zones of the Gulf of Mexico in 4 - 190 days at the estimated methane fluxes. With funding from this NSF Rapid Response Research (RAPID) award, researchers from Texas A&M University in collaboration with a scientist from Yale University, will analyze water column samples for methane concentrations and stable isotopes, as well as measure the air-sea flux of methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide and del13C-CO2. In addition, dissolved oxygen measurements, methane oxidation rates, and the effect of microbial community structure on methane, oil, and oxygen concentrations will be assessed. Results will be used to test the following hypotheses: (1) Significant and quantifiable amounts of methane released rapidly from naturally decomposing oceanic clathrate hydrates will be both dissolved in the water column and emitted to the atmosphere, and (2) The oxidation and ebullition of methane in the water column will significantly contribute to the low oxygen zones in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Even though geochemical data has shown significant clathrate decomposition in the past, little, if any, information is available of whether methane released during these events entered the atmosphere or was retained in the ocean. This deepwater anthropogenic spill of oil and methane into the Gulf of Mexico can be used as an analog for a natural rapidly decomposing clathrate hydrate and provide much needed information on the fate of methane released during these past events. The broader impacts of this proposal include the involvement of two graduates and one undergraduate

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Title of Classification Start Activity of Activity Date End Date Duration Research Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract (yrs) Location al Theme (s) Source n student, as well as yield insights into the impact of the massive fossil methane released to the Gulf of Mexico by the Deepwater Horizon rig.

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID Collabor ative Researc h: Impact of the New Horizon Oil Spill on Ecosyste m Metaboli sm and Gas Exchang e in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Region Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, hypoxia Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email n Michigan Nathanie (517) ostro State l Ostrom 355- mn@ University 5040 msu.e du Abstract On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling rig, located 41 km off the coast of Louisiana, experienced a blowout and explosion that resulted in 11 deaths, the sinking of the drilling rig, and uncontrolled discharge from the well at an estimated rate of 5-25 thousand barrels of crude oil each day. Owing to the challenge of containing discharge at a depth of 1,500 m it is anticipated that the well will continue to flow for many weeks and exceed the Exxon Valdez as the most severe oil disaster in U.S. history. The oil spill is likely to encompass the extensive area that develops hypoxia on an annual basis in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOMEX). The development and extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been of concern for many years owing to, for example, its detrimental impact on fisheries (Rabalais et al., 2007; Turner et al., 2007). With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Research (RAPID), scientists at Michigan State University and the University of Texas at Austin will participate in an upcoming research cruise of the RV Pelican from May 21-27, 2010, that will be sampling at stations that already are or are very likely to be impacted by the oil spill. Indeed projections by NOAA for the distribution of oil from the spill are in close proximity to all of the proposed research stations. The research team contends that the oil spill will exacerbate the development of hypoxia in the NGOMEX by altering rates of primary production, respiration and gas exchange. Consequently, they will test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The oil spill will enhance hypoxia in the NGOMEX by (1) reducing primary production, (2) enhancing respiration and (3) reducing gas exchange. Hypothesis 2: The gas exchange rate will be a function of the abundance, composition and origin of surfactants in the surface water layer. The layer of oil across the sea surface is expected to reduce penetration of light for photosynthesis thereby reducing rates of primary production. Respiration is likely to be enhanced by the increased availability of the oil; particularly as the microbial community metabolizes this carbon source. Rates of gas exchange between the ocean surface and atmosphere are very sensitive to the presence of surface organic films. The team will approach these hypothesis by determining depth profiles of the triple isotopic composition of dissolved O2 and ratios of N2:Ar and O2:Ar that collectively yield rates of primary production, respiration and gas exchange. They will further determine the abundance,

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID Research 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Respons es of Benthic Commu nities and Sedimen tary Dynamic s to Hydroca rbon Exposur e in Coastal Ecosyste ms of the norther n Gulf of Mexico Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, ecosystem and community structure Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Kevin (601) kevin. Southern Yeager 266- yeager This is a RAPID award to respond to the Deep Horizon Mississippi 4119 @usm. oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The work involves the edu time series collection of samples to examine the changes, from baseline conditions to maximum exposure, to the oil leaking out of the deepwater well head to a variety of coastal sites along the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Sampling sites include the intertidal zone at Belle Fontaine Point in eastern Mississippi and the New Harbor Islands in Louisiana. Samples and analytical work will determine hydrocarbon transformations and changes due to biogeochemical processes, changes in bioturbation rates, and changes in the assemblages of benthic macro- and meiofauna over time. Implications of these variables for physical and sedimentary processes and for macrofauna will be assessed. Broader impacts of the work will have immediate implications for understanding the impacts of the oil spill on coastal ecosystems and provide data to examine the time scale of ecosystem crash and recovery. The work will have potential for mitigating the long term effects of the oil spill on coastal systems. The work will also train students and provide public outreach activities that will be carried out in collaboration with the Northern Gulf Institution and with NOAA.

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID Collabor ative Researc h: Impact of the New Horizon Oil Spill on Ecosyste m Metaboli sm and Gas Exchang e in the Norther n Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Region Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators, hypoxia Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Zhanfei (512) zhanfe On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon offshore Texas at Liu 471- i.liu@ drilling rig, located 41 km off the coast of Louisiana, Austin 6424 mail.ut experienced a blowout and explosion that resulted in exas.e 11 deaths, the sinking of the drilling rig, and du uncontrolled discharge from the well at an estimated rate of 5-25 thousand barrels of crude oil each day. Owing to the challenge of containing discharge at a depth of 1,500 m it is anticipated that the well will continue to flow for many weeks and exceed the Exxon Valdez as the most severe oil disaster in U.S. history. The oil spill is likely to encompass the extensive area that develops hypoxia on an annual basis in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOMEX). The development and extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been of concern for many years owing to, for example, its detrimental impact on fisheries (Rabalais et al., 2007; Turner et al., 2007). With funding through this Grant for Rapid Response Research (RAPID), scientists at Michigan State University and the University of Texas at Austin will participate in an upcoming research cruise of the RV Pelican from May 21-27, 2010, that will be sampling at stations that already are or are very likely to be impacted by the oil spill. Indeed projections by NOAA for the distribution of oil from the spill are in close proximity to all of the proposed research stations. The research team contends that the oil spill will exacerbate the development of hypoxia in the NGOMEX by altering rates of primary production, respiration and gas exchange. Consequently, they will test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The oil spill will enhance hypoxia in the NGOMEX by (1) reducing primary production, (2) enhancing respiration and (3) reducing gas exchange. Hypothesis 2: The gas exchange rate will be a function of the abundance, composition and origin of surfactants in the surface water layer. The layer of oil across the sea surface is expected to reduce penetration of light for photosynthesis thereby reducing rates of primary production. Respiration is likely to be enhanced by the increased availability of the oil; particularly as the microbial community metabolizes this carbon source. ON THE EFFECTS OF THE Rates of gas exchange between the ocean surface and atmosphere are very sensitive to the presence of surface organic films. The team will approach these hypothesis by determining depth profiles of the triple isotopic composition of dissolved O2 and ratios of N2:Ar and O2:Ar that collectively yield rates of primary production, respiration and gas exchange. They will further determine the abundance,

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Title of Activity RAPID: Resolvin g higher trophiclevel change within the norther n Gulf of Mexico ecosyste m as a consequ ence of the Deepwat er Horizon oil spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n Marine William (251) mgrah On April 22, 2010, the semi-submersible drill platform Environment Graham 861- am@d Deepwater Horizon sank in nearly 1,200 m of water in al Sciences 2141 isl.org the northern Gulf of Mexico. After several attempts to Consortium close a failed blowout preventer valve, it became clear that tremendous amount of oil was being released each day. Pre-approval of undisclosed chemical dispersants was made based on knowledge of the dispersant application over limited areas and for limited time at the sea surface. An unprecedented volume of dispersant has been applied both at the surface and through direct injection into the wellhead leak at 1,200 m depth. The result is the release of large, but unquantified concentrations of organic carbon available for microbial degradation. To date, there is no plan for understanding functional ecosystem baseline shifts as a consequence of this magnitude of application of dispersants or the resulting redistribution of oil or released compounds within the water column. Scientists posed the questions: Do these baseline shifts in resource (heterotrophic microbes versus autotrophic phytoplankton) permeate through the classical food web or remain largely within the microbial web? If material enters the classical food web, does it favor fish or gelatinous zooplankton? It is vital to understand in this in both the short- and long-term because secondary producers represent the major link between primary production and higher trophic levels (e.g., piscivorous fish) by which energy (and contaminants) are incorporated into grazer food webs. Dr. Monty Graham will work with colleagues on a project aimed to characterizing ecosystem-level changes to the pelagic system of the northern Gulf of Mexico. This effort will specifically contribute a temporal component to a separately funded spatial component. The group will employ a trophic assessment using both gut contents and Carbon/Nitrogen stable isotope ratios of pelagic filterfeeding invertebrates (jellyfish) and vertebrates (planktivorous fish). These will be compared to SI and gut content information collected over the previous two years in the spill-impacted area east and west of the Mississippi River. Broader impacts The Dauphin Island Sea Lab is uniquely organized to provide educational experiences from kindergarten GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 209 (Discovery Hall Programs) through Ph.D. (University BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL Programs). This RAPID will provide an immediate educational benefit to an existing Ph.D. student, Ms. Isabella D'Ambra (University of South Alabama, Marine Sciences Dept.) who is currently working on the trophic structure of nearshore pelagic communities using stable isotopes of carbon and Environment al Theme (s) dispersants, ecosystem and community structure, trophic dynamics and food web Funding Source NSFRAPID

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location RAPID: Monitoring 6/15/1 5/31/11 0.96 Offshore 3-D 0 Model Forecast of the Vertical and Horizont al Distribu tions of the Oil Plumes Arising From the DeepWa ter Horizon Spill Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Source NSFRAPID Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n North Ruoying (919) rhe@n Since the explosion of the Deep Water Horizon Oil Carolina He 515- csu.ed Drilling Rig on April 20, 2010, a large amount of oil has State 2444 u spilled in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), posing University unprecedented threat to the gulf coasts, as well as the southeast coast of United States. While satellite remote sensing, aircraft flights, and surfaces drifters are providing valuable information on the oil surface trajectories since the accident, little is known about how the spill is distributed below the surface. In this project, the investigator hereby will implement an advection, diffusion and reaction tracer model for Emulsified Oil created by the use of dispersants and couple it within our exiting South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico (SABGOM) circulation nowcast/forecast system to track the vertical and horizontal distribution of the oil plumes. This coupled oil-circulation model will be run throughout the entire hurricane season (June 1 ? November 30) to provide 24/7 prediction of three-dimensional oil trajectory in the GOM and southeast Atlantic coastal ocean. Specific questions to be addressed in this project include: 1) How is the spill distributed at depths, and to what extent they have been transported by the Sub-surface currents? 2) How does the strong mixing associated with tropical storms traversing the Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic Bight bring subsurface oil up to the surface? 3) How do the storm surges transport the newly surfaced oil up on the beach? Given there is still no consensus on the total amount of oil spilled from the wellhead, the investigator will also perform model sensitivity experiments with various amount estimates of oil spill. Existing satellite and aircraft observations will be used to validate the simulated oil spill surface features, including expansion directions and total areas. Broader Impacts: The resulting three-dimensional oil tracer fields (from different oil spill amount scenarios) will be used to calculate the oil residence time at different depths of the ocean, thereby offering critical information for continued restoration effort. As a part of deliverable of this project, the predictions of circulation and threedimensional oil trajectories will be made available ON THE EFFECTS OF THE through a public website. Research findings will be published in peer reviewed journals.

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID: Trophic interacti ons in floating Sargassu m commun ities of the Gulf of Mexico: potentia l consequ ences of habitat degradat ion. Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/15/1 5/31/11 0.96 Offshore Monitoring 0 Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Sean (251) spowe Intellectual Merit: While an extensive literature exist South Powers 460- rs@dis of the acute affects of oil spills on marine communities Alabama 6111 l.org in nearshore habitats, little is known about the potential responses of pelagic communities to such acute disturbances. One of the key habitats of the coastal and open oceans that will be affected by the ongoing Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill is floating Sargassum mats Sargassum natans and S. fluitans). The Gulf of Mexico region represents the second most productive Sargassum system in the world. The pelagic brown algae represent an oasis of structure in the open ocean that supports a large and diverse assemblage of marine fish and invertebrates. The loss and degradation of structurally complex brown algae (Fucus) in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill was responsible for a myriad of direct and indirect impacts on the foodweb, many of which persisted for years. This RAPID project has four components designed to evaluate trophic interactions within this habitat at risk: 1) areal distribution of Sargassum in the north-central Gulf of Mexico; 2) ship-based neuston, ROV aand pelagic longline surveys of the larval, juvenile and adult fish communities; 3) stable isotope analyses (C and N) of the food web and (4) mesocosm experiments to examine the role of Sargassum in modulating predator-prey interactions. The Sargassum ecosystem is going to be significantly impacted and the need to increase our mechanistic understanding of the role Sargassum plays is important. Further, some systematic way to assess the potential consequences of changes in the distribution of the habitat will be a critical element of assessing the ecological response of the Gulf of Mexico to this disaster. Broader Impacts: Episodic disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill provide an opportunity to train young scientists to be responsive and adaptive in their research careers as well as fulfill a critical service to the nation during assessment, mitigation and restoration activities. Marine education activities will be strengthened by exposing undergraduate and graduate students to the role of science in evaluating ecosystem resistance and resilience to disturbances. The project will directly involve graduate students and undergraduate interns, GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 211 many of whom represent historically BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL underrepresented groups. This RAPID project will also be highlighted in the education and outreach activities of Dauphin Island Sea Lab's Discovery Hall Program, which has an outstanding K-Gray program that educates over 5,000 students through its year long program, a public aquarium and the NSF sponsored Environment al Theme (s) Trophic dynamics and food webs Funding Source NSFRAPID

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Activity RAPID Deepwat er Horizon Oil Spill: Deep pelagic and benthic impacts of the oil spill Classification Start End Date Duration Research of Activity Date (yrs) Location Research, 6/1/10 5/31/11 1.00 Offshore Monitoring Environment al Theme (s) Ecosystem health and indicators Funding Source NSFRAPID, NOAA Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract n University of Samanth (706) mjoye Sediment microbial mediated processes are capable of Georgia a Joye 542- @uga. oxidizing oil and methane in the environment. The PI's Research 5939 edu will examine the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Foundation Spill (hereafter BP spill) on microbially mediated Inc processes in the deep waters and sediments in the vicinity of the spill site. This is an unprecedented oil spill and it is essential to obtain a clear understanding of its impacts on microbial processes in the waters and sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. The work will complement several funded or planned geochemical and microbiological sampling programs focused on the oil spill response. They will evaluate rates of water column methane oxidation and sediment sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at multiple sites around the spill site. Additional experiments will quantify the impact of nutrients, oxygen and substrate concentrations on these important microbially mediated processes. Broader Impacts: This work will clarify the response of microbial processes in deep waters and sediments to the Deepwater Horizon spill. The project will support a post doctoral associate (female, Hispanic) and an undergraduate student (female, African American). The proposed work is leveraged by NOAA funding which will permit us to expand the number of study sites and number of sampling cruises. A web site will be developed to highlight our work and convey our results to the others in the scientific community as well as to the public.

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Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Lophelia Research 9/30/0 Ongoing Offshore II: 8 Continui ng Ecologic al Researc h on DeepSea Corals and Deep Reef Habitats in the Gulf of Mexico. Effects Research of remedia tion on oil spill bioaccu mulatio n, dispositi on, toxicity and gene expressi on in developi ng fish Ongoing Ongoing Environment Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone al Theme (s) Source n Ecosystem USGS Univ. of NC at Dr. Steve 910health and Wilmington W. Ross 395indicators, 3905 Ecosystem and community structure, Trophic dynamics and food webs, Impact on life stages of aquatic animals Email Abstract rosss The approach for this project is a combination of: 1) @unc focused studies and in situ experiments at some sites, w.edu and 2) limited exploration and description of additional sites throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Topical research areas include: 1) physical oceanography, 2) trophodynamics, 3) genetics, 4) microbiology, 5) benthic ecology (vertebrate and invertebrate), and 6) geochemistry (paleoecology). The scientific goal of this effort is to better understand the ecology, biology, distribution, and derivation of deep-sea corals and their associated fauna. An additional goal is to develop and synthesize information on deep corals/hardgrounds, and compare community composition, fauna/habitat linkages, genetic structures and energetics across latitudes, habitat types, depth zones, and regions. The data from these studies, supplemented with previous deep coral data, will allow for a regional synthesis at the end of these studies. Studies are being adjusted to include assessment of impacts from the recent DWH oil spill. Kleino w@vet med.ls u.edu

Toxicology, BP-LSU Impact on life stages of aquatic animals

Louisiana State University

Kevin 225Kleinow, 578Arthur 9757 Penn

This project is working to model bioaccumulation and developmental toxicity to oil remediation approaches in fishes.

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APPENDIX I. COMPREHENSIVE INVENTORY OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Title of Classification Start End Date Duration Research Activity of Activity Date (yrs) Location Loop Monitoring 5/7/10 6/25/10 0.13 Current System P-3 Observa tions Environment al Theme (s) Oil spill modeling and tracking Funding Organizatio PI Name Phone Email Abstract Source n NOAANOAA/AOML Frank Unkno Frank. This project supports the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill OAR Marks wn Marks by providing subsurface Temperature, Salinity, and @noaa Velocity profiles in the Gulf region to initialize and .gov validate ocean circulation models used to predict the surface and subsurface oil movement. The project is a collaboration between NOAA/AOML and University of Miami/RSMAS/CIMAS. Data are made available through the AOML ftp site.

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APPENDIX J
CRITICAL HABITAT: FLORIDA MANATEE

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APPENDIX K
CRITICAL HABITAT: GREEN SEA TURTLE

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218 OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

APPENDIX L
CRITICAL HABITAT: HAWKSBILL SEA TURTLE

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 219 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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APPENDIX M
CRITICAL HABITAT: SMALLTOOTH SAWFISH

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 221 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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APPENDIX N
CRITICAL HABITAT: GULF STURGEON

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APPENDIX O
CRITICAL HABITAT: ELKHORN AND STAGHORN CORALS

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 225 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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APPENDIX P
CRITICAL HABITAT: PIPING PLOVER

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 227 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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APPENDIX Q
CRITICAL HABITAT: WHOOPING CRANE

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APPENDIX R
CUMULATIVE ANIMAL OBSERVATIONS

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Cumulative Sea Turtle Observations Through October 19th 2010 Source: NOAA

Cumulative Marine Mammals Strandings Through October 19th 2010 Source: NOAA

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Deepwater Horizon MC252 Documented Marine Mammals Through October 18th 2010 Source: NOAA

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APPENDIX S
BIRD IMPACT DATA

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http://www.fws.gov/home/dhoilspill/pdfs/Bird%20Data%20Individual%2012142 010.pdf

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APPENDIX T
HABITAT RANGE: SPERM WHALE

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APPENDIX U
HABITAT RANGE: LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLE

OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH IN THE GULF OF MEXICO ON THE EFFECTS OF THE 241 BPS DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

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APPENDIX V
HABITAT RANGE: ATLANTIC TUNA

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APPENDIX W
HABITAT RANGE: WARSAW GROUPER

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