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University of Strathclyde Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

Development Concepts for the Integrated Design of Marine Renewable Energy and Aquaculture Platform By Afolaranmi Ajibola Amodu

This research thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Subsea Engineering from the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow August 2011

Copyright statement This thesis is the result of the author's original research. It has been composed by the author and has not been previously submitted for examination, which has led to the award of a degree. The copyright of this thesis belongs to the author under the terms of the United Kingdom Copyright Acts as qualified by University of Strathclyde Regulation 3.50. Due acknowledgement must always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this thesis.'

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Date:

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Abstract

This research report introduces renewable energy and aquaculture farming and shows the integrated design of wind turbines, their means of installation, challenges surrounding their development and ways of overcoming this challenges. It also involves development into offshore aquaculture, its technical challenges and different means of eradicating problems experienced with both industries by moving them offshore. Reasons for the selection of wind energy instead of other alternative sources were highlighted as well as salmon farming rather than other types of fish farming.

The main objective of this report shows ways or possible reasons for combining the development of both challenging and extremely rewarding sectors. The developments of this sectors offshore provides alternatives to the numerous setbacks encountered in their respective sectors individually onshore and though their progress might be stunted developing individually, the combination of both sectors might just be the edge needed to make both sectors investment viable and commercially achievable. Reasons for combining both sectors have been specifically highlighted. Mathematical modelling for the mooring line static and dynamic analysis that can be used for the combination of both the wind turbine and the fish cages was also developed.

The report also highlights areas that need further study for future development as well as indicating other stakeholders required for consideration during the research process to ensure the success of such a project. Finally decommissioning methods were briefly mentioned.

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Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to the greatness of God Almighty and to my late mother (Olatoun Opeoluwa) my last thoughts of you are words of inspiration. I miss and love you mum.

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Acknowledgement

I wish to offer my sincere gratitude to my supervisors, Professor A. Incecik (Head of Department) and Dr A. H. Day (Reader/Director of laboratories) who have supported me throughout my thesis with their patience and knowledge whilst allowing me the room to work in my own way. I attribute the level of my Masters degree to their encouragement. I also want to thank my father Abimbola Amodu, you have been a friend, a father and a mother. The support you gave me has aided me thus far and the wisdom you shared has guided me greatly, so thanks dad.

I also want to thank the entire staff of Strathclyde university and my colleagues, the experience of meeting you, spending time together and living in a foreign home is an experience I will cherish forever. Our sojourn together has inspired me to continue even when the odds seemed impossible. To my siblings you have been a force to rely upon and even though your presence was not felt physically, your prayers were felt always and I thank you.

Finally I would like to thank all those who have contributed to the achievement of my goals in anyway and to my best friend kemy, you have made a year seem like a month and the thought of disappointing you has inspired me to excel. Thank you all.

Table of Contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................................. iii Dedication......................................................................................................................................................... iv Acknowledgement .......................................................................................................................................... v Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................................... vi List of Figures.................................................................................................................................................. ix List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................................... x List of Symbols Abbreviations and Nomenclature .......................................................................... xi

Chapter One ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Introduction to Renewable Energy ................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Wind Farms and Offshore Technology........................................................................................... 4 1.2.1 Offshore Wind Power......................................................................................................... 5 1.3 Aquaculture ............................................................................................................................................... 6 1.3.1 Salmon Farming ................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Review on Marine Energy and Aquaculture Development.................................................... 9

Chapter Two ................................................................................................................................................... 11 2.1 Project objectives .................................................................................................................................. 11 2.2 Solution Methodology ......................................................................................................................... 11 2.3 Background behind Wind Energy selection............................................................................... 11 2.3.1 Wind vs. Solar...................................................................................................................... 12 2.3.2 Wind vs. Biomass ............................................................................................................... 12 2.3.3 Wind vs. Hydropower ...................................................................................................... 12 2.3.4 Wind vs. Geothermal ........................................................................................................ 13 2.3.5 Summary ............................................................................................................................... 13 2.4 Background behind Salmon selection .......................................................................................... 13

Chapter Three ................................................................................................................................................ 15 3.1 Wind Energy Harnessing (Turbine design) ............................................................................... 15 3.2 Design specifications ........................................................................................................................... 15 3.2.1 Temperature........................................................................................................................ 16 3.2.2 Aerodynamics ..................................................................................................................... 16 3.2.3 Power control...................................................................................................................... 16

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3.2.4 Turbine size ......................................................................................................................... 17 3.2.5 Generator .............................................................................................................................. 17 3.2.6 Blade design ......................................................................................................................... 18 3.2.7 Blade count........................................................................................................................... 19 3.2.8 Blade Materials and Design Considerations ........................................................... 20 3.2.9 Tower ..................................................................................................................................... 21 3.2.10 Foundations ...................................................................................................................... 22 3.3 Floating Wind Turbine Concepts .................................................................................................... 22

Chapter Four................................................................................................................................................... 27 4.1 Aquaculture Cage systems (offshore)........................................................................................... 27 4.2 General approaches to offshore cage design ............................................................................. 27 4.3 Floating Cages......................................................................................................................................... 29 4.3.1 Floating flexible cages...................................................................................................... 29 4.3.2 Floating rigid cages ........................................................................................................... 30 4.4 Semi-submersible cages ..................................................................................................................... 31 4.4.1 Semi submersible flexible cages .............................................................................. 32 4.4.2 Semi submersible rigid cages .................................................................................... 34 4.5 Submersible rigid cages ..................................................................................................................... 35

Chapter Five.................................................................................................................................................... 37 5.1 Introduction to Mooring Lines ........................................................................................................ 37 5.2 Design Calculations/Mathematical Modelling of Mooring Lines (Static Analysis) .... 37 5.3 Dynamic Analysis of mooring lines ............................................................................................... 41 5.4 Mooring line response ........................................................................................................................ 44

Chapter Six ...................................................................................................................................................... 46 6.1 Reasons and Advantages of Combining both Aquaculture and Offshore (Wind Energy) ............................................................................................................................................................. 46 6.2 Problems associated with wind turbines .................................................................................... 51 6.3 Wind Energy Challenges .................................................................................................................... 52 6.4 Problems associated with Offshore Aquaculture .................................................................... 55

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Chapter Seven ................................................................................................................................................ 56 7.1 Discussions and Conclusions............................................................................................................ 56 7.2 Future Recommendations ................................................................................................................. 57

References and Bibliography................................................................................................................... 58

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List of Figures

Figure 1: Wind Primary Energy Production (Courtesy of Good transportation journal) ......................................................................................................................... 2 Figure 2: "GWEC, Global Wind Report Annual Market Update (Courtesy of GWEC)......................................................................................................................... 3 Figure 3: "GWEC, Global Wind Energy Outlook" (Courtesy of GWEC) .................. 3 Figure 4: Worldwide installed capacity 19972020 [MW], developments and prognosis. (Courtesy of WWEA) ................................................................................. 5 Figure 5: Aerial view of Lillgrund Wind Farm, Sweden (Courtesy of Mariusz Padziora)..................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 6: Salmon farm in the archipelago of Finland. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) .................................................................................................................... 8 Figure 7: Floating Wind Turbine Concepts (Courtesy of Institute for Wind Energy) .................................................................................................................................... 23 Figure 8: Floating Cage Nets (Courtesy of aquaculture.com) ................................... 29 Figure 9: Open Ocean Aquaculture or Offshore Aquaculture (Courtesy of care2.com) .................................................................................................................................... 30 Figure 10: Graphic image of Subsea Aquaculture Cage (Courtesy Cage Aquaculture) .................................................................................................................................... 33 Figure 11: Composure of Farmocean Facilities (Courtesy of www.farmocean.se) ... 33 Figure 12: A photo-illustration composite image of an Aquapod fish-farming cage. (Courtesy of www.Nationalgeographic.com). ........................................................... 34 Figure 13: Inelastic Hanging Cable............................................................................ 38 Figure 14: Expression of Mass spring constants for Analysis ................................... 42 Figure 15: 3D preview of MpOP, Wind farm and Fish farm. (Courtesy of Nuno Santana) ...................................................................................................................... 50 Figure 16: Offshore Wind Platforms (Courtesy of www.renewablepowernews.com) .................................................................................................................................... 51

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List of Tables

Table 1: Design Challenge Trade-offs for Stability Criteria ...................................... 25 Table 2: Offshore cage types...................................................................................... 28 Table 3: Advantages and Disadvantages of Floating Flexible Cages. ....................... 29 Table 4: Advantages and disadvantages of Floating Rigid Cages. ............................ 31 Table 5: Advantages and disadvantages of Semi-submersible flexible Cages. ......... 32 Table 6: Advantages and disadvantages of Semi-submersible Rigid Cages.............. 35 Table 7: Advantages and disadvantages of Submersible Rigid Cages. ..................... 36

List of Symbols Abbreviations and Nomenclature

Abbreviations DNV EU FAO GWEC HAWTS ICZM IMTA Det Norske Veritas European Union Food and Agriculture Organisation Global Wind Energy Council Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Integrated Coastal Zone Management Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture

JONSWAP - Joint North Sea Wave Analysis Project NGOs O&M OWECS TLP UDN WFD WWEA Non-Governmental Organisations Operation and Maintenance Offshore wind Energy Conversion Systems Tension Leg Platform Ulcerative Dermal Necrosis Water Framework Directive World Wind Energy Association

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Nomenclature CO2 - Carbon Dioxide CO Hs UTz H L mgCarbon Monoxide Mean Significant Wave Height Wind Speed Period Horizontal Component of Cable Tension Length Mass Acceleration due to gravity

X1, X2 - Displacements K1, K2, K3 Spring Constants

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Chapter One

1.1 Introduction to Renewable Energy Renewable energy is power that comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables mainly small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables (1). These figures are expected to increase significantly to a combined total of about 30% in the next 10 years. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development (2). Some of the factors acting as incentives for the rapid development of this sector despite the large cost of infrastructure are Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil as well as increasing government support, incentives and commercialisation (3). The major uses of renewables are power generation, heating and transport fuels (4). Renewable energy provides 19 percent of total power generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas. Solar heating in form of hot water makes an important contribution in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70 percent of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 5060 million households in China. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Transport fuels such as biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion litters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an

estimated 68 billion litters of gasoline, equal to about 5 percent of world gasoline production (4).

Figure 1: Wind Primary Energy Production (Courtesy of Good transportation journal) In figure 1 above, it can be observed that increased production is observed in Wind, solar, geothermal and coal production with these trends its no surprise the world has cast a searchlight on renewables and alternative means of power generation. This text will therefore be focussing on wind energy. The sun unevenly heats the earth, such that the poles receive less energy from the sun than the equator. Along with this, dry land heats up (and cools down) more quickly than the seas do. The differential heating drives a global atmospheric convection system reaching from the earth's surface to the stratosphere that acts as a virtual ceiling. Most of the energy stored in these wind movements can be found at high altitudes where continuous wind speeds of over 160 km/h (99 mph) occur. Eventually, the wind energy is converted through friction into diffuse heat throughout the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity (5).

Figure 2: "GWEC, Global Wind Report Annual Market Update (Courtesy of GWEC)

Figure 3: "GWEC, Global Wind Energy Outlook" (Courtesy of GWEC)

Large-scale wind farms are connected to the electric power transmission network while smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations and the utility companies increasingly buy back surplus electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy, as an alternative to fossil fuels, is plentiful,

renewable, widely distributed, clean, and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation. The construction of wind farms is not universally welcomed because of their visual impact, but any effects on the environment from wind power are generally less problematic than those of any other power source (5). Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.53 MW have become the most common for commercial use. The power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically (7). Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites (8)(9). Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of approximately 90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy (10)(11).

1.2 Wind Farms and Offshore Technology A wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used for production of electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between the turbines may be used for agricultural or other purposes. A wind farm may also be located offshore. In 2010, more than half of all new wind power was added outside of the traditional markets in Europe and North America. This was largely from new construction in China, which accounted for nearly half the new wind installations (16.5 GW) (12). Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) figures

show that 2007 recorded an increase of installed capacity of 20 GW, taking the total installed wind energy capacity to 94 GW, up from 74 GW in 2006. Despite constraints facing supply chains for wind turbines, the annual market for wind continued to increase at an estimated rate of 37%, following 32% growth in 2006. In terms of economic value, the wind energy sector has become one of the important players in the energy markets, with the total value of new generating equipment installed in 2007 reaching 25 billion, or US$36 billion (13).

Figure 4: Worldwide installed capacity 1997 2020 [MW], developments and prognosis. (Courtesy of WWEA)

1.2.1 Offshore Wind Power Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. Better wind speeds are available offshore compared to on land, so offshore wind powers contribution in terms of electricity supplied is higher. As of October 2010, 3.16 GW of offshore wind power capacity was operational, mainly in Northern Europe. According to BTM Consult, more than 16 GW of additional capacity will be installed before the end of 2014 and the UK and Germany will become the two leading markets. Offshore wind power capacity is

expected to reach a total of 75 GW worldwide by 2020, with significant contributions from China and the US (14).

Figure 5: Aerial view of Lillgrund Wind Farm, Sweden (Courtesy of Mariusz Padziora)

1.3 Aquaculture Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish (15). Aquaculture produces one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans (16). Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Emphasis will be on fish farming for the purpose of this report and particularly the aquatic salmon fish farming. Global wild fisheries are in decline, with valuable habitat such as estuaries in critical condition (17). The aquaculture or farming of piscivorous fish, like salmon, does not help the problem because they need to eat products from other fish, such as fish meal

and fish oil. Studies have shown that salmon farming has major negative impacts on wild salmon, as well as the forage fish that need to be caught to feed them (18)(19). Fish that are higher on the food chain are less efficient sources of food energy. Apart from fish and shrimp, some aquaculture undertakings, such as seaweed and filterfeeding bivalve molluscs like oysters, clams, mussels and scallops, are relatively benign and even environmentally restorative (20). Filter-feeders filter pollutants as well as nutrients from the water, improving water quality (21). Seaweeds extract nutrients such as inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus directly from the water (22), and filter-feeding molluscs can extract nutrients as they feed on particulates, such as phytoplankton and detritus (23). Farmed salmon can be contrasted with wild salmon captured using commercial fishing techniques (24).

1.3.1 Salmon Farming Salmon, along with carp, are the two most important fish groups in aquaculture. In 2007, the aquaculture of salmon and salmon trout was worth US$10.7 billion. The most commonly farmed salmon is the Atlantic salmon. Other commonly farmed fish groups include tilapia, catfish, sea bass, bream and trout. Salmon are usually farmed in 2 stages and in some places maybe more. First, the salmon are hatched from eggs and raised on land in freshwater tanks. When they are 12 to 18 months old, the smolt (juvenile salmon) are transferred to floating sea cages or net pens anchored in sheltered bays or fjords along a coast. This farming in a marine environment is known as mariculture. There they are fed pelleted feed for another 12 to 24 months, when they are harvested (25).

Figure 6: Salmon farm in the archipelago of Finland. (Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons) Salmon aquaculture production grew over ten-fold during the 25 years from 1982 to 2007. Leading producers of farmed salmon are Norway with 33 percent, Chile with 31 percent, and other European producers with 19 percent (26). There is currently much controversy about the ecological and health impacts of intensive salmon aquaculture. The population of wild salmon declined markedly in recent decades, especially North Atlantic populations which spawn in the waters of western Europe and eastern Canada, and wild salmon in the Snake and Columbia River system in north-western United States. The decline is attributed to the following factors: Sea lice - transfer of parasites from open-net cage salmon farming, especially sea lice, has reduced numbers. It is reported that wild salmon on the west coast of Canada are being driven to extinction by sea lice from nearby salmon farms. Overfishing in general has reduced populations, especially commercial netting in the Faroes and Greenland Warming in ocean and river water can delay spawning and accelerate the transition to smolting.

Ulcerative dermal necrosis (UDN) infections of the 1970s and 1980s severely affected adult salmon in freshwater rivers. Habitat - the loss of suitable freshwater habitat, especially degradation of stream pools and reduction of suitable material for the excavation of redds has caused a reduction in spawning.

Other environmental factors such as light intensity, water flow, or change in temperature dramatically affect salmon during their migration season.

1.4 Review on Marine Energy and Aquaculture Development Previously Hydroelectric has been the dominant source of marine energy however with new and existing offshore engineering technologies, wave, wind and tidal energy are now been produced with a significant contribution to the power generation grid hence justifying the huge capital investments required. These cutting edge technologies can be implemented into the design of a platform for both aquaculture farming and wave energy generation. During the course of my review, I realised that considerable research has been done in the area of marine renewables and aquaculture farming with both industries looking for innovative ways to advance significantly however little or no research has been done in the combination of these two viable and potentially lifesaving and renewable industries. The combination of these two ideas may be the much-needed incentive to open the gate of capital investments required for both renewable energy sustainment and protection of aquatic life in the form of wild salmon while also producing adequate food supply. Aquaculture can be done in various ways 2 of which are mariculture aquaculture or integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. Mariculture is the term used for the cultivation of marine organisms in seawater, usually in sheltered coastal waters. In particular, the farming of marine fish is an example of mariculture while Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA) is a practice in which the by-products from one species are recycled to become inputs i.e. fertilizers, food for another. "Integrated" in IMTA refers to the more intensive cultivation of the different species in proximity of each other, connected by nutrient and energy transfer through water while the Multi-

Trophic" refers to the incorporation of species from different trophic or nutritional levels in the same system. Some of the issues of this is that the process can be more environmentally damaging than exploiting wild fisheries on a local area basis but has considerably less impact on the global environment on a per kg of production basis. Local concerns include waste handling, side effects of antibiotics, competition between farmed and wild animals, and using other fish to feed more marketable carnivorous fish. However, research and commercial feed improvements during the 1990s & 2000s have lessened many of these.

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Chapter Two

2.1 Project objectives This project will focus mainly on design of marine renewables (Wind energy), its design and how it can be significantly harnessed in combination with an Aquaculture system (Salmon farming) to produce energy and food supply. Previously Hydroelectric has been the dominant source of marine energy however with new and existing offshore engineering technologies, wind energy is now been produced with a significant contribution to the power generation grid hence justifying the huge capital investments required. These cutting edge technologies can be implemented into the design of a platform for both aquaculture farming and wave energy generation.

2.2 Solution Methodology This will be done by assessing the technical, economical and environmental feasibility of constructing, installing, operating, servicing, maintaining and decommissioning of the integrated platforms proposed and also by discussing the drawbacks of both industries individually and ways of eradicating them with a possible combination of both industries.

2.3 Background behind Wind Energy selection A renewable energy source is defined as any energy source that comes from natural resources that can be continually renewed, leaving no worry of running out. A lot of countries today are gradually adopting renewable energy as the threat of global warming worsens. With renewable energy, there is no danger of releasing harmful chemicals to the atmosphere since nearly all of them do not have harmful waste products during energy conversion. There are currently 5 popular kinds of renewable energy sources for power generation: wind, solar, biomass, hydropower and geothermal energy. Among these 5, wind power has been the one thats growing the fastest. There are various reasons

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why wind power is the renewable energy resource that many countries are developing. Lets compare wind energy with each of the other four energy sources to see the big picture:

2.3.1 Wind vs. Solar There is one basic reason why wind and solar are the two most popular renewable energy resources wind and sunlight can be found nearly everywhere. There are two catches why wind power is much better though. First, sunlight can only be gathered half of the time. Second, sunlight cant be gathered during bad weather conditions. This makes location selection hard when dealing with solar energy.

2.3.2 Wind vs. Biomass Biomass is a renewable energy taken from recently alive plants. The conversion process of biomass to electricity has air emissions though, some of which can influence global warming like CO (carbon monoxide) and CO2 (carbon dioxide). The main advantage wind power has over biomass is that it doesnt emit harmful gases during conversion. Another con of biomass is that it sometimes takes more energy to harvest biomass crops than it ever produces after. Wind turbines on the other hand pay off the energy spent in its construction after only 3-5 months of energy generation.

2.3.3 Wind vs. Hydropower Hydropower generates electricity through the use of falling waters gravitational force. Its the most widely used renewable energy resource for good reasons. It doesnt produce any direct waste like carbon dioxide and dams have a variety of uses besides electricity generation, such as flood control. The problem with hydropower is that building dams can damage the surrounding aquatic ecosystem and can permanently alter some species behavior. Also, siltation can occur which can permanently damage the dam and leave it nonoperational. Other

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than that though, it really depends on a countrys natural resources if whether a hydro power plant or wind farm would be more beneficial.

2.3.4 Wind vs. Geothermal Geothermal energy is heat energy stored in the Earth. Its a great source of energy since its renewable and cost-effective. It also does not create any pollution in production, so it helps slow down climate change. The cost of building a geothermal power plant is also distinctively lesser than building oil, nuclear and coal power plants. Wind power is still preferable over geothermal energy though, since costs of drilling are extremely high whilst scouting for a good location would take a lot of time. Also, sites have a tendency of suddenly running out of steam, leaving the plant nonoperational. Wind, on the other hand, is always present as long as the sun shines and is more effective in the long run.

2.3.5 Summary Currently, wind power is the fastest-growing renewable energy resource. Its also very cheap, and may steadily replace gas as the cheapest energy resource per unit KWh. Choosing between wind power and other renewable energy resources isnt really about which is good and which is bad, but is more of a choice between whats good and whats best.

2.4 Background behind Salmon selection Experts develop practical recommendations for decision-makers, scientists and producers for a sustainable development of Mediterranean aquaculture. Human demand for fish is growing steadily. With fisheries decreasing worldwide, aquaculture is becoming an important socio-economic alternative and a source of proteins and healthy oils. According to FAO, aquaculture production is already reaching almost 50% of the total fish production for human consumption, including marine and freshwater species. Some even say that the future of fish production lies with aquaculture.

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Aquaculture practices are quickly developing. But they raise many concerns too. The impact of aquaculture facilities and infrastructure may affect the local fauna and flora negatively, including threatened species. The effluents from aquaculture farms containing undesired chemicals (e.g. from antifouling products) and therapeutants might distress the local ecosystem. Farm escaped organisms can also have an impact. The use of exotic species in aquaculture is even more important, as they bring some risks such as the introduction of associated forms of life that come together with them (e.g. algae or microorganisms) or new pathogen agents that can spread out to a new environment. The source of food for cultivated fish, which normally consists of fish meal and fish oil, is another question to consider, as these primary products are made from small pelagic fishes whose origin might not be sustainable and even increase the already exaggerated pressure on existing fisheries. In their natal streams, Atlantic salmon are considered a prized recreational fish, pursued by avid fly anglers during its annual runs. At one time, the species supported an important commercial fishery and a supplemental food fishery. However, the wild Atlantic salmon fishery is commercially dead after extensive habitat damage and overfishing, wild fish make up only 0.5% of the Atlantic salmon available in world fish markets Atlantic salmon is, by far, the species most often chosen for farming. It is easy to handle, it grows well in sea cages, commands a high market value and it adapts well to being farmed away from its native habitats.

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Chapter Three

3.1 Wind Energy Harnessing (Turbine design) The selection of a wind turbine suitable for an offshore floating system raises some basic design issues. It is reasonable to assume that to justify all the balance of plant costs beyond the direct costs of the wind turbine support structures themselves, large units must be used. Evidently a minimum tower height and associated machine size will also be dictated by wave heights and hydrostatic stability considerations. Rather than simple marinisation of land-based versions, the turbine should be specifically designed to exploit the benefits of offshore locations some of which are: Higher wind speeds No Noise Pollution - Wind Turbines emit a slight whirring noise, which has led to problems with people living nearby. Some farmers have also complained that the livestock like sheep get affected by the moving of the Wind Blades. Offshore Wind Farms are located far off the coast cause no such noise problems for humans or wildlife No Injuries to Birds Older Wind Farms on Land frequently cause deaths and injuries to birds though newer wind turbines dont cause too much problems. Offshore Wind Farms do away with this problem entirely as they are located in the Ocean where birds dont fly frequently if at all. No loss in scenery though near shore offshore wind farms have come into controversy because of this, the Cape Wind Project is attracting a lot of protests.

3.2 Design specifications The design specification for a wind-turbine will contain a power curve and guaranteed availability. With the data from the wind resource assessment it is possible to calculate commercial viability. The typical operating temperature range is -20 to 40 C (-4 to 104 F). In areas with extreme climate (like North sea) specific cold and hot weather versions are required. Wind turbines can be designed and validated according to IEC 61400 standards. Special considerations have to be given

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to the following for an effective design i.e. temperature, aerodynamics, power control, turbine size, generator, blade design, tower, foundation etc.

3.2.1 Temperature Utility-scale wind turbine generators have minimum temperature operating limits which apply in areas that experience temperatures below 20 C. Wind turbines must be protected from ice accumulation, which can make anemometer readings inaccurate and which can cause high structure loads and damage. Some turbine manufacturers offer low-temperature packages at a few percent extra cost, which include internal heaters, different lubricants, and different alloys for structural elements. If the low-temperature interval is combined with a low-wind condition, the wind turbine will require an external supply of power, equivalent to a few percent of its rated power, for internal heating. For example, the St. Leon, Manitoba project has a total rating of 99 MW and is estimated to need up to 3 MW (around 3% of capacity) of station service power a few days a year for temperatures down to 30 C. This factor affects the economics of wind turbine operation in cold climates.

3.2.2 Aerodynamics The aerodynamics of a horizontal-axis wind turbine is not straightforward. The airflow at the blades is not the same as the airflow far away from the turbine. The very nature of the way in which energy is extracted from the air also causes air to be deflected by the turbine. In addition the aerodynamics of a wind turbine at the rotor surface exhibit phenomena that are rarely seen in other aerodynamic fields.

3.2.3 Power control A wind turbine is designed to produce a maximum of power at wide spectrum of wind speeds. All wind turbines are designed for a maximum wind speed, called the survival speed, above which they do not survive. The survival speed of commercial wind turbines is in the range of 40 m/s (144 km/h, 89 MPH) to 72 m/s (259 km/h,

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161 MPH). The most common survival speed is 60 m/s (216 km/h, 134 MPH). The wind turbines have three modes of operation: Below rated wind speed operation Around rated wind speed operation (usually at nameplate capacity) Above rated wind speed operation

If the rated wind speed is exceeded the power has to be limited. There are various ways to achieve this, some of which are stall, pitch control, yawing, electrical breaking, mechanical breaking etc.

3.2.4 Turbine size For a given survivable wind speed, the mass of a turbine is approximately proportional to the cube of its blade-length. Wind power intercepted by the turbine is proportional to the square of its blade-length. The maximum blade-length of a turbine is limited by both the strength and stiffness of its material. Labour and maintenance costs increase only gradually with increasing turbine size, so to minimize costs, wind farm turbines are basically limited by the strength of materials, and siting requirements. Typical modern wind turbines have diameters of 40 to 90 metres (130 to 300 ft) and are rated between 500 kW and 2 MW. As of 2010 the most powerful turbine is rated at 7 MW.

3.2.5 Generator For large, commercial size horizontal-axis wind turbines, the generator is mounted in a nacelle at the top of a tower, behind the hub of the turbine rotor. Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. Usually the rotational speed of the wind turbine is slower than the equivalent rotation speed of the electrical network - typical rotation speeds for a wind generators are 5-20 rpm while a directly connected machine will have an electrical speed between 750-3600 rpm. Therefore, a gearbox is inserted

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between the rotor hub and the generator. This also reduces the generator cost and weight. Commercial size generators have a rotor carrying a field winding so that a rotating magnetic field is produced inside a set of windings called the stator. While the rotating field winding consumes a fraction of a percent of the generator output, adjustment of the field current allows good control over the generator output voltage. Older style wind generators rotate at a constant speed, to match power line frequency, which allowed the use of less costly induction generators. Newer wind turbines often turn at whatever speed generates electricity most efficiently. This can be solved using multiple technologies such as doubly fed induction generators or full-effect converters where the variable frequency current produced is converted to DC and then back to AC, matching the line frequency and voltage. Although such alternatives require costly equipment and cause power loss, the turbine can capture a significantly larger fraction of the wind energy. In some cases, especially when turbines are sited offshore, the DC energy will be transmitted from the turbine to a central (onshore) inverter for connection to the grid.

3.2.6 Blade design The ratio between the speed of the blade tips and the speed of the wind is called tip speed ratio. High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed/wind speed ratios of 6 to 7. Modern wind turbines are designed to spin at varying speeds (a consequence of their generator design as explained above. Use of aluminium and composite materials in their blades has contributed to low rotational inertia, which means that newer wind turbines can accelerate quickly if the winds pick up, keeping the tip speed ratio more nearly constant. Operating closer to their optimal tip speed ratio during energetic gusts of wind allows wind turbines to improve energy capture from sudden gusts that are typical in urban settings. In contrast, older style wind turbines were designed with heavier steel blades, which have higher inertia, and rotated at speeds governed by the AC frequency of the power lines. The high inertia buffered the changes in rotation speed and thus made power output more stable. The speed and torque at which a wind turbine rotates must be controlled for several reasons: To optimize the aerodynamic efficiency of the rotor in light winds.

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To keep the generator within its speed and torque limits. To keep the rotor and hub within their centrifugal force limits. (The centrifugal force from the spinning rotors increases as the square of the rotation speed, which makes this structure sensitive to overspeed).

To keep the rotor and tower within their strength limits. (The power of the wind increases as the cube of the wind speed, turbines have to be built to survive much higher wind loads (such as gusts of wind) than those from which they can practically generate power. Since the blades generate more torsional and vertical forces (putting far greater stress on the tower and nacelle due to the tendency of the rotor to precess and nutate) when they are producing torque, most wind turbines have ways of reducing torque in high winds).

To enable maintenance. (Since it is dangerous to have people working on a wind turbine while it is active, it is sometimes necessary to bring a turbine to a full stop).

To reduce noise. As a rule of thumb, the noise from a wind turbine increases with the fifth power of the relative wind speed (as seen from the moving tip of the blades). In noise-sensitive environments, the tip speed can be limited to approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s).

3.2.7 Blade count The determination of the number of blades involves design considerations of aerodynamic efficiency, component costs, system reliability, and aesthetics. Noise emissions are affected by the location of the blades upwind or downwind of the tower and the speed of the rotor. Given that the noise emissions from the blades' trailing edges and tips vary by the 5th power of blade speed, a small increase in tip speed can make a large difference. Aerodynamic efficiency increases with number of blades but with diminishing return. Increasing the number of blades from one to two yields a six percent increase in aerodynamic efficiency, whereas increasing the blade count from two to three yields only an additional three percent in efficiency. Further

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increasing the blade count yields minimal improvements in aerodynamic efficiency and sacrifices too much in blade stiffness as the blades become thinner. Component costs that are affected by blade count are primarily for materials and manufacturing of the turbine rotor and drive train. Generally, the fewer the number of blades, the lower the material and manufacturing costs will be. In addition, the fewer the number of blades, the higher the rotational speed can be. This is because of blade stiffness requirements to avoid interference with the tower limit on how thin the blades can be manufactured, but only for upwind machines; deflection of blades in a downwind machine results in increased tower clearance. Fewer blades with higher rotational speeds reduce peak torques in the drive train, resulting in lower gearbox and generator costs. System reliability is affected by blade count primarily through the dynamic loading of the rotor into the drive train and tower systems. While aligning the wind turbine to changes in wind direction (yawing), each blade experiences a cyclic load at its root end depending on blade position. This is true of one, two, three blades or more. However, these cyclic loads when combined together at the drive train shaft are symmetrically balanced for three blades, yielding smoother operation during turbine yaw. Turbines with one or two blades can use a pivoting teetered hub to also nearly eliminate the cyclic loads into the drive shaft and system during yawing. Finally, aesthetics can be considered a factor in that some people find that the threebladed rotor is more pleasing to look at than a one- or two-bladed rotor.

3.2.8 Blade Materials and Design Considerations New generation wind turbine designs are pushing power generation from the single megawatt range to upwards of 10 megawatts. The common trends of these larger capacity designs are bigger wind turbine blades. Covering a larger area effectively increases the tip-speed ratio of a turbine at a given wind speed, thus increasing the energy extraction capability of a turbine system. Current production wind turbine blades are manufactured as large as 100 meters in diameter with prototypes in the range of 110 to 120 meters. New materials and manufacturing methods provide the

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opportunity to improve wind turbine efficiency by allowing for larger, stronger blades. One of the most important goals when designing larger blade systems is to keep blade weight under control. Since blade mass scales as the cube of the turbine radius, loading due to gravity becomes a constraining design factor for systems with larger blades. Epoxy-based composites are of greatest interest to wind turbine manufacturers because they deliver a key combination of environmental, production, and cost advantages over other resin systems. Epoxies also improve wind turbine blade composite manufacture by allowing for shorter cure cycles, increased durability, and improved surface finish. Carbon fiber-reinforced load-bearing spars have recently been identified as a cost-effective means for reducing weight and increasing stiffness. The use of carbon fibers in 60 meter turbine blades is estimated to result in a 38% reduction in total blade mass and a 14% decrease in cost as compared to a 100% fiberglass design. Smaller blades can be made from light metals such as aluminium. Wood and canvas sails were originally used on early windmills due to their low price, availability, and ease of manufacture. These materials, however, require frequent maintenance during their lifetime. Also, wood/canvas constructions have design constraints that limit the airfoil shape to that of a flat plate, which has a relatively high ratio of drag (low aerodynamic efficiency) force captured when compared to solid airfoil designs. Construction of solid airfoil designs is possible only through use of inflexible materials such as metals or composites.

3.2.9 Tower Typically, 2 types of towers exist i.e.. Floating towers and land-based towers. Wind velocities increase at higher altitudes due to surface aerodynamic drag (by land or water surfaces) and the viscosity of the air. The variation in velocity with altitude, called wind shear, is most dramatic near the surface. Typically, in daytime the variation follows the wind profile power law, which predicts that wind speed rises proportionally to the seventh root of altitude. Doubling the altitude of a turbine, then, increases the expected wind speeds by 10% and the expected power by 34%. To avoid buckling, doubling the tower height generally requires doubling the diameter

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of the tower as well, increasing the amount of material by a factor of at least four. At nighttime, or when the atmosphere becomes stable, wind speed close to the ground usually subsides whereas at turbine hub altitude it does not decrease that much or may even increase. As a result the wind speed is higher and a turbine will produce more power than expected from the 1/7 power law, doubling the altitude may increase wind speed by 20% to 60%. For HAWTs, tower heights approximately two to three times the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components.

3.2.10 Foundations Wind turbines, by their nature, are very tall slender structures,[12] this can cause a number of issues when the structural design of the foundations are considered. The foundations for a conventional engineering structure are designed mainly to transfer the vertical load (dead weight) to the ground, this generally allows for a comparatively unsophisticated arrangement to be used. However in the case of wind turbines, due to the high wind and environmental loads experienced there is a significant horizontal dynamic load that needs to be appropriately restrained. This loading regime causes large moment loads to be applied to the foundations of a wind turbine. As a result, considerable attention needs to be given when designing the footings to ensure that the turbines are sufficiently restrained to operate efficiently. In the current DNV guidelines for the design of wind turbines the angular deflection of the foundations are limited to 0.5, DNV guidelines regarding earthquakes suggest that horizontal loads are larger than vertical loads for offshore wind turbines, while guidelines for tsunamis only suggest designing for maximum sea waves.

3.3 Floating Wind Turbine Concepts In view of the dynamic nature of the float structure, it is recommended that extreme and fatigue analyses should generally be based on the spectral approach, using the

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JONSWAP wave spectrum. As a result of this a correlation formula for wind speed with mean significant wave height, and mean wave period with wave height given as

should be used as a design condition throughout the operating range. Harnessing much of the vast offshore wind resource potential requires the installation of wind turbines in deeper water. Numerous floating support-platform configurations are possible for use with offshore wind turbines. Current proposals based on the variety of mooring systems, tanks and ballast options used on platforms by the offshore oil and gas industry may be classified in terms of how they achieve basic static stability in the platforms pitch and roll. The three primary concepts are the tension leg platform (TLP), spar buoy and barge respectively, as shown in Figure 6 below. These platforms provide stability primarily through the mooring system combined with excess buoyancy in the platform: either a deep draft combined with ballast or a shallow draft combined with water plane area. Hybrid concepts that use features from more than one class, such as semi-submersibles, are also a possibility.

Figure 7: Floating Wind Turbine Concepts (Courtesy of Institute for Wind Energy)

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In the case of floating structures, the offshore wind industry faces many new design challenges. Because the offshore oil and gas industries have demonstrated the longterm survivability of offshore floating structures, the technical feasibility of developing offshore floating wind turbines is not in question. However, developing cost-effective offshore floating wind turbine designs that are capable of penetrating the competitive energy marketplace will require considerable thought and analysis. Simply adapting offshore oil and gas technology directly to the offshore wind industry is not economically feasible. The feasible design should trade-off the pros and cons of each of these approaches in an attempt to reach the lowest cost system design. Table 1 gives a list of proposed design challenge parameters that would impact the performance and cost of a floating wind turbine system.

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Table 1: Design Challenge Trade-offs for Stability Criteria


Floating Platform Technical Challenges Platform stability considerations Buoyancy Platform Design Challenges (Barge) + + + + _ + + _ _ Mooring Line (TLP) + + + _ + _ _ + + + + + _ + _ + Ballast (Spar) _ _ +

Design Tools and Methods Buoyancy Tank cost/complexity Mooring Line system cost/complexity Anchors cost/complexity Load Out Cost/Complexity (Potential) Onsite Installation Simplicity (Potential) Decommissioning & Maintainability Corrosion Resistance Depth Independence Sensitivity to Bottom Condition Minimum Footprint Wave Sensitivity Impact of Stability Class on Turbine Design Turbine Weight Tower Top Motion Controls Complexity Maximum Healing Angle Key: + Blank = Relative advantage = Relative disadvantage = Neutral advantage

+ _ _ _

_ + + +

_ _ _ _

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Each design challenge is evaluated for the three methods of achieving stability using a simple method of plus (+) and minus () symbols. The plus and minus symbols indicate ease with which each challenge might be overcome for each class. Turbine design is impacted by the choice of platform. Therefore, it must be included in the table of challenge trade-offs. The TLP is likely to provide the most stable platform and thus have the least impact on the turbine dynamics. A ballast-

dominated design such as a buoy is likely to be heavier and therefore more expensive to build. The barge is likely to be subject to higher wave loading, which will increase the systems response (motions) to waves. Therefore, a turbine design that is tolerant of larger tower motions is needed. Turbines can be designed to tolerate larger motions but likely at a high cost.

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Chapter Four

4.1 Aquaculture Cage systems (offshore) A range of cage systems is now potentially available for offshore mariculture in the Mediterranean, though not all of these may prove to be effective in the intended environmental conditions and production regimes. Development of offshore cages has run approximately in parallel with that of inshore cages. Such designs have originated from a variety of sources, including dedicated research teams, existing cage manufacturers, net manufacturers, naval architects, ship builders, and offshore oil hose manufacturers. Not many have involved specific inputs from fish farmers, and as a result the cage types on offer are generally expensive and may suffer from deficiencies of one kind or another when it comes to holding and managing fish stocks.

4.2 General approaches to offshore cage design While considering inshore cage development, the variety of cage designs has arisen out of attempts to deal with a number of (at times conflicting) design objectives trying to solve or eliminate the problems below in existing designs. Providing a reasonably stable cage shape, to avoid stressing the stock, and to provide a stable working environment. Providing adequate water exchange to satisfy metabolic requirements of stock and remove wastes from the cage area. Absorbing or deflecting environmental forces, to maintain the structural soundness of the system. Providing an efficient working environment, for routine husbandry, and where equipment and materials (harvested fish, feed, tanks and bins, etc.) can be handled if necessary. Maintaining position, to provide a secure location, free from navigation hazards, etc. Keeping capital and operating costs as low as possible

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A cage system behaves dynamically forces affecting the cage frame are transferred to the net, to other cage frames and to the mooring system, and the corresponding motion is also transferred. This will affect both the durability of the system, and the acceptability of the system to the stock. Cage elements tend to be designed either as flexible or as rigid structures: cage systems are usually a combination of these. Physically, two major design levels must be considered: (i) The normal, routine and recurrent forces and their effects, typically involving routine wear, fatigue, etc. and (ii) The unusual, peak or shock forces or loads and their effects, typically breaking loads, etc. Though a range of classifications can be considered, the variety of offshore systems currently on offer can most simply be categorized according to the nature of the structure used to support the holding net, as shown below (Table 2). This divides the designs into three major operational categories floating, semisubmersible and submersible, and two mechanical types, flexible and rigid. Table 2: Offshore cage types Structure Type Floating flexible Examples Dunlop, Bridgestone, Ocean Spar Net Pen, Plastic circle types (Corelsa,

Aqualine, etc.) Aquasystem Floating rigid Semi-submersible flexible Semi-submersible rigid Submersible rigid Pisbarca, Cruive Refa Farmocean, Ocean Spar Sea Station Sadco, Trident, Marine Industries, Sea Trek

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4.3 Floating Cages 4.3.1 Floating flexible cages These types utilize rubber hoses originally designed for transferring oil between oil tankers and onshore terminals. The primary commercial systems are those produced by Bridgestone and Dunlop. Table 3: Advantages and Disadvantages of Floating Flexible Cages.
Advantages Highly resilient to wave forces with long service life (>10 years); relatively good impact resistance Disadvantages Stanchions may cause problems twisting, turning

Effective and proven net hanging system Variety of configurations possible Relatively cheap at higher volumes Most widely used commercial offshore system

Relatively expensive at lower volumes Limited walkway access Top net and feed systems difficult to place Large service vessels necessary

Figure 8: Floating Cage Nets (Courtesy of aquaculture.com)

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The cage collar is essentially utilized to maintain the shape of the net, and is not designed for working operations, which are all carried out from rafts or boats. The most important feature of the cage is the interface between the collar and the net, as this is where most of the stress is transferred between the two

4.3.2 Floating rigid cages Floating rigid cages take a quite different design route from that used for floating flexible cages. Rather than attempting to be wave compliant, these aim to be robust enough structurally to withstand wave action, and are generally of large, massive structure, normally of steel construction, with varying degrees of ballasting, sometimes with mass concrete. In addition, most types also attempt to build in a variety of features to facilitate management of the fish, such as feeding systems, harvest cranes, fuel stores and power generation, staff quarters, etc. Some systems are also self-propelling. As a result they are typically the most expensive type of offshore system, although this extra cost has to be weighed up against the additional facilities that would also have to be provided for a floating flexible system.

Figure 9: Open Ocean Aquaculture or Offshore Aquacul ture (Courtesy of care2.com)

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Table 4: Advantages and disadvantages of Floating Rigid Cages.


Advantages Stable working platform for all husbandry and management operations. Disadvantages Large and heavy structures require good port facilities and/or expensive towing to install Relatively high capital cost. Steel structures require protection or maintenance. Potential for integral feeding and harvesting systems; may be used to service other cages Ship mortgages may be available May be susceptible to structural failure in extreme conditions Large mass may require heavier mooring systems Potentially improved operator safety and efficiency Relatively high capital cost; steel structures require protection/maintenance Potentially cost effective, especially in larger sizes Construction and repair facilities may be developed from conventional shipyard Limited commercial track record

4.4 Semi-submersible cages This group of cage designs can be characterized by their ability to be submerged for periods of time below the higher energy regimes of surface waters. As such they offer the potential advantages of being lighter and simpler structures, as if submerged appropriately during poor sea conditions, they would incur far less exposure and hence physical stress. The reduced movement could also potentially reduce possible damage to stocks, or motion stress. The overall consequence could be simpler, safer and less expensive production systems. However, the deployment of these systems in two modes, surface and sub-surface, and the need to control these effectively and at the right times, adds potential complexity and risk. As with floating systems, there are two structural classes, flexible and rigid, with similar design consequences.

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4.4.1 Semi submersible flexible cages The Refa cage (Fig. 1) is a tension leg design in which a positive circular plastic positive buoyancy-supporting frame, held below instead of above the net pen, is held in place by vertical mooring ropes. Mooring ropes stem from concrete blocks on the seabed, which rise to the buoyancy ring, above which the net is kept in suspension by subsurface buoys. An upper conical section gives access from the surface via a traditional plastic cage collar. The cage is available in a variety of sizes up to 10,000m3. The design is simple and there are no metal structural components. The upper cone can be removed and the cage raised for harvesting and net changing, etc., utilizing a full size plastic collar brought temporarily to the site. In storms or strong currents, the cage responds automatically, the net being pulled under the water and thus escaping the worst effects. Table 5 summarizes comparative features (see also Lisac, this volume). Table 5: Advantages and disadvantages of Semi-submersible flexible Cages. Advantages Simple design automatic response Disadvantages Feeding should ideally be done

subsurface, requiring separate feeding systems, due to limited area on surface Relatively cost effective Moorings typically concrete blocks, more difficult to install than conventional anchor Small bottom area occupied by moorings Combines features of conventional

operation with storm protection Volume reduction no greater than 25% in currents/storms

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Figure 10: Graphic image of Subsea Aquaculture Cage (Courtesy Cage Aquaculture)

Figure 11: Composure of Farmocean Facilities (Courtesy of www.farmocean.se)

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Figure 12: A photo-illustration composite image of an Aquapod fish farming cage. (Courtesy of www. Nationalgeographic.com).

4.4.2 Semi submersible rigid cages These systems are designed with rigid framework elements providing only limited movement or volume change in response to external loads. Normally with steel frame structures, these contain adjustable buoyancy elements to raise or lower the system. With a more rigid structure it may also possible to add service facilities such as feeders, potentially developing self-contained systems. Primary examples of these cage types include the Farmocean cage. The design is arranged so that the feeder and gangway in the upper part of the system remains above the surface at all times, but that the largest part of the cage's volume is submerged, and exposed surfaces in the upper water column are minimized. The steel umbrella frame can be deballasted by compressed air to bring the main structure, the lower pontoon ring, and the lower net to the surface, for cleaning, maintenance and stock handling. A walkway is mounted over the main pontoon ring to allow for easier access. Sacrificial anodes are attached to lower and upper legs to minimize corrosion. Feeding is computer controlled and temperature linked, and allows for several days feeding if access is denied due to bad weather. A wave sensor can shut off the system if conditions become too bad.

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Table 6: Advantages and disadvantages of Semi-submersible Rigid Cages. Advantages Disadvantages

Now tried and tested over 12 years in a High capital cost variety of situations and in conditions Proven long service life Integrated feeding system Stable holding volume Poor access for harvesting Difficult to change/clean nets Limited surface area when submerged for surface feeding Good stock performance Complex steel structure; needs corrosion protection, regular maintenance severe

4.5 Submersible rigid cages For true oceanic farming of fish, where wave heights may be considerable, it is may be proposed that the only way to avoid the worst effects of severe surface conditions is by using fully submersible cages, whose normal operating conditions would be at a suitable depth below the more hazardous upper water column. The presence of ice in winter has also led developments in this direction. As required, the systems could be raised to the surface for necessary management functions. These systems could either be unattended by surface units, accessed only when needed, or attached by various systems to conventional vessels.

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Table 7: Advantages and disadvantages of Submersible Rigid Cages. Advantages Disadvantages

Submersible designs avoid surface debris Lack of visibility in normal state and ice, and passing vessels Minimal visual impact Methods of maintenance and servicing of cages whilst submerged are still in development Avoids fully the effects of storms Costs relatively high

Structural strength does not need to be as Relatively complex to operate great as a surface structure

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Chapter Five

5.1 Introduction to Mooring Lines For offshore floating structures, which are exposed to environmental conditions, station keeping above a fixed point is an important requirement. To resist the resulting external forces these structures are, in the majority of cases, anchored to the sea bottom. It will be clear that a proper design of the anchoring system is of great importance. Inaccuracies in the design of the system and in the estimation of line tensions can have serious consequences. In analysing forces and tensions in anchor lines, static and dynamic part can be discerned. The static part covers the calculation based upon the classic catenary theory, a method that is generally applied in the design of systems capable to balance the external forces. This procedure yields reliable results. Also field tests have indicated that the results of such static calculations conform very well to the measurements, which implies that cable dynamics have a negligible contribution to the total forces. The approximation of anchor line forces based on statics is generally valid for lines attached to structures, whose motions come close to the static case. To meet this condition it is essential for the structure to have large natural periods of motion and small amplitude responses in the frequency range of wave components. For certain structures, however, the behaviour in waves is much different. Owing to small natural periods the relatively high frequencies of the wave components cause large amplitudes of motion.

5.2 Design Calculations/Mathematical Modelling of Mooring Lines (Static Analysis) For the Mooring lines, this will consist of line (chain or wire) anchors at the lower ends and floating bodies at the upper ends. Often the line is de-coupled from the dynamics of anchors and floating bodies and is considered alone. The response to excitation at the upper end at the wave frequency enables prediction of motion and stresses along the line as well as conditions for resonance.

37

Stress levels are very important in selecting the type and size of mooring components to be used. Resonance as well as large displacements can cause severe peak stresses. Catenary equations govern the components of a mooring line such as length, y

0 (l, 0) x T(s)

T(s)

Figure 13: Inelastic Hanging Cable Consider the figure above The vertical and horizontal equilibrium of an isolated element of the cable requires that, { }

{ The second equation is integrated

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Where H is the horizontal component of the cable tension. The horizontal component is constant along the cable length as no other horizontal loading is acting. The first equation above can be rewritten as follows { }

The geometric constrain becomes

Hence we have

Let

, we have

Integrating both sides we have the following

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{ Further integration gives { }

Where c1 and c2 are constants to be determined from the boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are Y = 0 when x = 0 Y = 0 when x = l From the boundary conditions, we have

{ The solution is therefore { } { { }

}}

In the above expression, H is still unknown. To find H, we need to know the cable length between the two points. It is intuitively easy to understand that H must be related to the cable length, i.e. taut or slack cables and this presents an important question to solve for the wind turbine and aquaculture design. The length of the cable along the line is given by

40

}}

}}

At the right end (x = l), s = L (L is the length of the cable between the two end points), hence { }

H (horizontal component of tension) is obtained from solving the above equation. L > l if the mooring line is inelastic as assumed above. The equation above can be solved either graphically or analytically. The above analysis can also be extended to a situation where the two end points are not level and the equation forms the basis of some quasi-static offshore mooring line analysis, however this requires taking into account the following factors: Steady current loading on mooring lines and wave loading in the dynamic analysis. Mooring lines are not necessarily uniform from the top to the bottom end. Stretching of the mooring line as it is elastic. Mid-water buoys are employed in some configurations. Seabed friction.

5.3 Dynamic Analysis of mooring lines The mooring line is represented by a set of discrete masses connected to each other by massless springs. The hydrodynamic forces are only applied at the mass nodes.

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As a result a set of second order differential equations will be derived which are then integrated in time domain using a variety of numerical methods. To explain the essence of this derivation (lumped mass spring method), let us consider a vertically tensioned mooring line. Let us also assume that the mooring line has a mass distribution of m, axial stiffness EA, length L. This can be considered as a model TLP mooring lines (which is the major assumption this report is making for the wind turbine design)

A sinwt

L1 m1 L2

X1

m2
X2 L3

Seabed

Figure 14: Expression of Mass spring constants for Analysis The masses m1 and m2, and spring constants k1, k2 and k3, are therefore given by { }

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Let x1 and x2 represent the displacements of m1 and m2, and we assume that at the top end of the mooring line a forced vertical motion a sinwt is applied. Hence the second order differential equations of motion for x1 and x2, i.e. { { } }

In the above modelling, linearised fluid drag forces are assumed and mooring line internal structural damping is ignored. Having modelled the problem, the system natural frequencies are ascertained and this is done by studying the non damping and external excitation problem defined by the equations below { { } }

The characteristic equation for the natural frequency is then shown as

| | [ ]

]| |

which gives two positive real roots W1 and W2:

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5.4 Mooring line response For the long-term steady state response, we can assume the following solutions

It is reasonable to assume the above solution forms, as after the transient motions the system will move at the excitation frequency and there will be phase angles due to the presence of damping. In the above equations, A1, A2, and can be found by substituting the solution

expressions into the governing equations. Further, we can calculate the maximum mooring line tension that is one of the key design parameters. The solution in detail is shown thus:

Substituting the above into the equation of motions,

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{ {

} }

The following equations are then obtained

i.e. { { { { } } } } and . These

There are four unknowns in this set of equations i.e. A1, A2,

unknowns cannot be solved analytically hence numerical solutions are obtained. Also the maximum dynamic tension in the mooring line can be found out by calculating the maximum extension of L1, L2 and L3.

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Note that in reality mooring lines are seldom straight, drag forces are non-linear and the solution procedure requires digital computations.

Chapter Six

6.1 Reasons and Advantages of Combining both Aquaculture and Offshore (Wind Energy) In the case of offshore wind farming and open ocean aquaculture, approaching new activities jointly holds the potential for future cost-benefits, e.g. through the combination and joint use of existing structures under the viewpoint of What need has the marine aquaculture? or what can the wind farm operators offer? Here, a programme of alliances for multifunctional cooperation can be suggested. Potentials of such alliances and how close cooperation could be implemented are multifaceted for our case study. The following options are proposed as likely reasons: A. Maintenance of wind turbines and aquaculture facilities. B. Training and capacitation. C. Technological multi-use of fixed structures,. D. Environmental impact assessments. E. Maritime traffic. F. Transport and supply and G. Economic cooperation.

A. Maintenance of wind turbines and aquaculture facilities

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Existing fishing vessels could be made available as servicing craft for wind turbines. Additionally, the harvest of mussels and seaweed by operation vessels of the wind farm operators, which are specifically designed to fulfil both purposes, could be a multi-use approach. B. Training and capacitation In order to take advantage of the existing pool of local knowledge on the environmental conditions of the North Sea, local fishermen, who are well familiar with the natural offshore conditions and thus require less training, could be employed. Next to the maintenance of the local knowledge, local economy and alternative livelihood is promoted. Due to the continuing decline in commercial fisheries in the long-term perspective, the training of local personnel holds the future potential for the establishment of their own aquaculture enterprises. By their involvement and capacitation from the very early stage, spatial conflicts between the fisher associations and the wind farms could be minimised. C. Technological multi-use of fixed structures The technological development for detached aquaculture offshore structures is far from being satisfactorily solved. The underwater constructions of wind turbines thus offer themselves as a cost-effective, alternative solution to fix cages, long lines or offshore-rings and to provide some storage for the maintenance of aquaculture facilities. This prevents the loss of expensive culture material caused by strong currents, heavy weather and shifting of anchor stones. Fig. 3 suggests some potential multifunctional constructions. D. Environmental impact assessments and ecological aspect By German and EU law, environmental impact assessments are a mandatory process, which have to be carried out for every activity and construction (This research is based on North sea as study area). Due to the sharing of the same construction and area, time and money are saved for both users and thus attracts potential investors. The prevention of fisheries within the farm areas and the effect of artificial reef build up by the pylons of the wind turbines and the moorings of the aquaculture. There is

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also the possibility of potential multifunctional use of the fixed underwater structures of offshore wind turbines for the maintenance of aquaculture facilities. Alternative solutions include oyster cages and mussel collectors attached to long lines in the inner section of the wind farm or offshore-rings (collar systems) attached directly to the pylon. The latter system can be submersed in case of wind turbine set-up. Systems render the preservation of existing spawning and breeding grounds. Hence, productivity and diversity of the ecosystem could increase. E. Maritime traffic Traffic rules are required in order to provide safe access to each of the wind turbines (planned amount ranging from 80500 turbines per farm area) in a respective wind farm. If these turbines are used in a multifunctional manner by combination with offshore aquaculture facilities, traffic rules need to be reconsidered in that respect, that access is provided to the aquaculture facility as well as to each turbine. Thus, security is given to the wind generators in the form of keeping out of the vicinity of the turbine area and of the aquaculture systems and thus minimising the risk of destroying floating structures by running over them. A possible solution could be, that clear working spaces are defined (e.g. separation zones), including access patterns for aquaculture areas with a regular alternation of parallel one-way waterways. Furthermore, boats could be designed with low draught in order to move well over aquaculture structures, if shuttle services between several turbines are necessary. In Fig. 14, possible traffic routings are shown. F. Transport and supply Centralising the supply and maintenance operations holds a high amount of costeffectiveness, as sharing reduces ship time to and from the installations. In addition, boat constructions could be developed in such a way, that the ship simultaneously can support the technical maintenance of the wind farms as well as the harvest of the aquaculture production. This would provide a powerful incentive for alliances. G. Economic cooperation

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Offshore aquaculture constructions, such as longlines, rings or lantern nets, will have to be much larger than their counterparts in nearshore areas to compensate for the sizeable additional costs of larger moorings, the connection to the pylons of the windmills and the greater distance from the mainland, and thus to enable economical sound operations. Additionally, modern offshore farming systems require expensive infrastructure and services normally not needed in fairly protected nearshore habitats. It seems reasonable to defray parts of the extra costs through sharing such infrastructure with potential users of other resources in the marine environment. Offshore wind farms require also frequent servicing and control and thus, the opportunity exists to join forces and gain cost effectiveness. In the case study, the main incentive for synergy is due to the agreement on economic cooperation, as financial aspects are highly relevant to such new technologies, where the revenue is yet unclear. Especially for the emerging branch of offshore aquaculture the availability of financial capital is a major problem. The uncertainty of short-term revenues hampers the interest for investors to support aquaculture. Banks and financial institutions typically demand that crop ownership should be well defined and that all permits should be obtained in advance. Furthermore, they typically require a track record of profits and significant prior experience in the field. Both of these are in short supply; especially the emerging offshore aquaculture does not fulfil these demands. A major political alliance incentive for the Federal and State conservation as well as commerce authorities to support such a multifunctional use pertains the limitation of the ever-increasing consumption of spatial resources. Next to providing more unutilised areas for marine reserves, future development of other commerce areas so far not foreseen are still possible. The need for sufficient regulation and integration also arises now because of the EU Water Framework Directive. In light of open ocean aquaculture within this Directive, one of the above-mentioned integrative measures has the potential to simultaneously affect and protect aquaculture and fishery even beyond coastal waters and, therefore, requires careful attention in research and development to properly identify the true interests and potentials of the

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aquatic food production sector. The aim to integrate all water uses, functions, and values into a common policy framework will require studies that identify criteria related to environmental needs, water for health and human consumption, water for economic uses, transport, leisure and water as a social good. In fact, many of the integrative processes can methodologically addressed through the application of appropriate ICZM (Integrated Coastal Zone Management) tools, which are presently under development. It is worth mentioning that the WFD considers under integration not only ecological and water quality aspects but also a wide range of measures such as pricing and financial instruments in a common management approach for achieving the environmental objectives of the Directive.

Figure 15: 3D preview of MpOP, Wind farm and Fish farm. (Courtesy of Nuno Santana)

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Figure 16: Offshore Wind Platforms (Courtesy of www.renewablepowernews.com) 6.2 Problems associated with wind turbines Wind turbines components are subjected to various problems. Some method used for reducing failure of wind turbine components has been reviewed in this research paper. The specific failure mechanism depends on material or structural defect, damage induced during manufacture and assembly and on conditions during storage and field use. A multi-layered metallic coating on fatigue cracks nucleation and found that the multiplayer coating is responsible for retarding fatigue crack initiation and failure. Offshore wind farm development using floating support structures, being relatively insensitive to water depth and seabed conditions, enables installation in plentiful numbers without the planning and space constraints found onshore. They can be further coupled to offshore sites with higher wind energy potential and turbine design with higher tip speed to increase the overall efficiency and economy. However, the overall wind farm must be considered and integrated as a system to achieve the best overall economy.

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6.3 Wind Energy Challenges Wind power must compete with conventional generation sources on a cost basis. Depending on how energetic a wind site is, the wind farm may or may not be cost competitive. Even though the cost of wind power has decreased dramatically in the past 10 years, the technology requires a higher initial investment than fossil-fuelled generators. Good wind sites are often located in remote locations, far from cities where the electricity is needed. Transmission lines must be built to bring the electricity from the wind farm to the city. Although wind power plants have relatively little impact on the environment compared to other conventional power plants, there is some concern over the noise produced by the rotor blades, aesthetic (visual) impacts, and sometimes birds have been killed by flying into the rotors. Most of these problems have been resolved or greatly reduced through technological development or by properly siting wind plants. Design Tools and Methods: The complexity of the task to develop accurate

modelling tools will increase with the degree of flexibility and coupling of the turbine and platform. This results usually in greater responses and motions to wave and wind loading. Predicting wave loads and dynamics for a stable platform such as the TLP will require new analytical tools but is likely to be less difficult than for platforms that are more subject to wave loading. Platforms, such as the barge, that have a large part of their structure near the free surface will have larger pitch, roll, and heave forces. A barge is likely to violate simple Morisons Equations assumption, which will be more complex to model and validate. Spar concepts will have smaller tower top motions relative to the barge but may still be subject to nonlinear wave forces requiring more advanced tools. Additional offshore loads arise from impact of floating debris and ice and from marine growth build-up on the substructure. The analysis of offshore wind turbines must also account for the dynamic coupling between the translational (surge, sway, and heave) and rotational (roll, pitch, and yaw) platform motions and turbine motions, as well as the dynamic characterization of mooring lines for compliant floating systems. Buoyancy Tank Cost/Complexity: All platform types require a system to provide buoyancy. A barge is likely to be the lowest cost per unit of displacement because

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the simple shape will employ equally simple fabrication techniques that are well established. However, since the barge depends primarily on water plane area, it would likely be a heavy structure. The spar-buoy is likely to be a simple rolled steel fabrication but more displacement is needed to counter the added weight of the ballast, resulting in an overall high material cost for the system. The TLP tank is likely to have the lowest displacement requirements and the lowest cost, but more complexity is required in the tank structure to support the loads from the mooring lines. Mooring Line System Cost/Complexity: The cost of the mooring lines is highly dependent on water depth. A barge and spar-buoy are likely to have catenary mooring lines that are attached to drag embedded anchors. In such a system the cost of the lines and chain will be driven by long lengths needed to minimize vertical loading on the anchors. A TLP will have short lines since they extend vertically, but they must carry a much higher load to assure constant tension between the anchors and buoyancy tank. Anchor Cost/Complexity: Drag embedded horizontally loaded anchors associated with a barge or buoy would have lower material cost and complexity than high capacity vertical load anchors. Catenary moorings are loaded horizontally and are not subjected to the full loads experienced by the platform. TLPs require vertical or taut leg mooring systems employing high capacity anchors that must offset the buoyancy forces acting on the tank plus a reserve to prevent the lines from going slack under severe conditions. This is the primary design challenge for concepts relying on mooring lines for stability. Onsite Installation Simplicity: The cost of onsite construction is driven by the charter fees of special purpose craft and cost of crew which is all multiplied by the complexity of the assembly process and weather tolerance of the assembly process. A heavy lift of a nacelle to mate with a moving platform could prove difficult and expensive. For this reason at sea assembly must be minimized. The best situation is likely to be a self-contained anchor deployment system on a stable barge. It might be economical to assemble a spar-buoy system with turbine in place and tow it out deballasted with the turbine leaning over and resting on the tug. This would minimize

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draft in port and allow tank ballast to be added at sea for final vertical orientation. This strategy would eliminate some of the large vessel equipment. Similarly, a hydrodynamically stable TLP could be designed to float-out with an unballasted gravity anchor, which can be deployed on site without special equipment. Decommissioning and Maintainability: Platforms that are stable with a low draft can be towed into port for long-term maintenance or decommissioning. The ease at which this can be accomplished will lower maintenance cost during critical overhaul cycles. Systems that are more difficult to un-tether and float back to shore, such as the TLP or a spar-buoy, may be more costly for large maintenance operations. Another aspect is the relative burden of maintenance required for the platform itself. Simple systems may require less maintenance. Finally, accessibility has been Platforms that

demonstrated to be a key factor in sustaining high availability.

facilitate access during poor weather will lower the overall system cost by increasing energy capture and lowering O&M. Corrosion and Ice Resistance: Platforms that have much of their structure near the free surface will be subject to higher corrosion and ice flow loading. This is a disadvantage for substructures, such as the barge,

that depend on water plane area to achieve stability. This problem can be addressed by using non-corrosive materials such as concrete, corrosion resistant coatings, and cathodic protection, however, addressing this issue will add cost to the system. Water Depth Independence: The ability to install a single platform design over a broad range of depths increases the number of sites suitable for that design. Each platform type has a minimum depth that it can operate in. Platforms that depend on water plane area can operate in shallow or deep-water sites. TLPs and spars require depths of at least 50-m for a 5-MW turbine. A shallow draft self-stable platform can also be towed out of a shallow port to either deep or shallow water sites. A barge meets these characteristics while TLPs and spar-buoys are likely to require greater channel depths during floatout and deployment. In deeper waters the costs are driven more by anchor line lengths which impact barges and buoys more than TLPs. Minimum Footprint: Environmental impact is likely to affect cost. Large spread mooring systems impact more bottom area, reducing the space between turbines and

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increasing the obstacles that may impact other uses of the sea. This issue may be critical for project permitted in environmentally sensitive regions. Wave Sensitivity: Extreme waves are the design drivers for most offshore structures. Some platforms might be more tolerant of higher sea states. A platform that is tolerant of high sea states during extreme weather conditions can be placed at a broader range of sites. Generally, submerged platforms can more easily avoid

extreme waves relative to platforms at the surface.

6.4 Problems associated with Offshore Aquaculture The most important concerns focused on environmental issues and the technology developments needed to support an offshore industry. Safety concerns relating to personnel and navigational aspects are considered of crucial importance, although environmental issues were considered a challenge, it was believed that moving offshore would mitigate many of the environmental concerns associated with aquaculture. The ethical issue of sustainability of feed sources for aquaculture species is also a major concern for many investors, particularly NGOs. Other environmental concerns are enrichment/nutrient loading in production locations and bio-security issues such as escapees and fish health. Development of suitable boats to access and service offshore locations also pose a huge setback from a farm management and self-monitoring perspective and extensive research has to be undertaken to solve this problems.

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Chapter Seven

7.1 Discussions and Conclusions Based on practical experience, and on surveys of current systems, it can be concluded that none of the offshore cage designs currently on the market, including the Farmocean and Dunlop systems, are fully effective in meeting target objectives. Only a small number of systems have actually reached the stage of adequate proof of performance. Of these, the only extensively proven system capable of limited autonomous operation, the Farmocean, is expensive in terms of initial investment, though further research suggest that it may be competitive over longer periods of amortization. Research also suggests that semi-submersed and submersible cages may be more financially viable than floating systems, the overall performance of most of the systems has yet to be established. At present, most operations therefore tend to focus around the use of rubber hose or Farmocean cages for offshore conditions, while in most severe conditions, even these relatively well tried systems may require modification. This is consistent with the practical conclusion that the installation and operation of any of the current systems must be adapted to the local

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circumstances and resources of each farm business, requiring continuous innovation and development by the operators and managers. However, the current generation of semi-submersible or submersible designs, using new materials and systematically designed, may if scaled up and tested in practical conditions offer improved and competitive opportunities. An important aspect of future wind turbine development is the requirement to adapt existing onshore designs to cope with harsh maritime environments. As indicated in the previous sections, reductions in the lifetime O&M costs of OWECS will require the following to be addressed: Development of appropriate maintenance strategies for scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, reflecting the constraints on OWECS in terms of access, improvement of access methods for unscheduled and scheduled maintenance, development of access methods which are less sensitive to wind/wave conditions, reduce time required for offshore working Designs for reduced maintenance will also involve modifications such as reduction in overall number of components and simplicity of design, modular design approach which facilitates the interchange of faulty modules, use of high reliability integrated components, re-siting of electrical units into an environmentally controlled section of the turbine, implementation of offshore corrosion protection technology and development of effective conditioning monitoring and remote control systems

It is for these reasons I believe innovative solutions for both aquaculture and offshore wind renewable energy is a very viable idea and the technology required to achieve these advancements is within grasp.

7.2 Future Recommendations It is expected that more research needs to be carried out in the area of offshore cage designs with a larger contribution from industry stakeholders such as the fish farmers. Though offshore oil and gas technology has considerably advanced, it cant be relied upon solely for the development aquaculture.

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Abandoned pipelines can also be investigated for the possibility of running cables onshore from offshore facilities, this would greatly reduce the cost of maintenance as well as save decommissioning cost to the original companies that laid the pipes. This also ensures reliability and constant supply of power from the wind turbines. Finally more ways of reducing cost need to be researched such as locations suitable for both aquaculture and renewables, efficient equipment cost and qualified manpower to carryout this jobs.

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